Gene Summary

Gene:MTA1; metastasis associated 1
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that was identified in a screen for genes expressed in metastatic cells, specifically, mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines. Expression of this gene has been correlated with the metastatic potential of at least two types of carcinomas although it is also expressed in many normal tissues. The role it plays in metastasis is unclear. It was initially thought to be the 70kD component of a nucleosome remodeling deacetylase complex, NuRD, but it is more likely that this component is a different but very similar protein. These two proteins are so closely related, though, that they share the same types of domains. These domains include two DNA binding domains, a dimerization domain, and a domain commonly found in proteins that methylate DNA. The profile and activity of this gene product suggest that it is involved in regulating transcription and that this may be accomplished by chromatin remodeling. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:metastasis-associated protein MTA1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (11)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Survival Rate
  • p53 Protein
  • Chromosome 14
  • Mta1
  • Cell Movement
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • beta Catenin
  • Transfection
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Y-Box-Binding Protein 1
  • Young Adult
  • bcl-X Protein
  • Mi-2 Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase Complex
  • Sequence Homology
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Wnt1 Protein
  • Trans-Activators
  • Sumoylation
  • Sex Factors
  • Transcription
  • Tamoxifen
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Breast Cancer
  • Histone Deacetylases
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • siRNA
  • gamma-Synuclein
  • Tumor Burden
  • Repressor Proteins
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MTA1 (cancer-related)

Ma L, Yao Z, Deng W, et al.
The Many Faces of MTA3 Protein in Normal Development and Cancers.
Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2016; 17(8):726-734 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a family of chromatin remodeling proteins, metastasis-associated proteins (MTAs) have shown to be the master regulators in both physiological and pathological contexts. Although MTA3 is the latest being identified in MTA family, it has started to draw as much attention as the other family members. MTA3 is expressed in various tissues and is associated with different physiological functions. In cancerous context, both MTA1 and MTA2 are generally considered as oncogenes because they are capable of enhancing metastasis. However, MTA3 appears to play more complicated roles in cancers depending on the contexts. As a tumor suppressor, MTA3 usually down-regulates Snail, the master regulator of epithelium-mesenchymal transition, and subsequently represses cancer cell invasion and migration. Additionally, MTA3 may function by enhancing cancer cell differentiation without affecting proliferation in certain cancers. On the other hand, MTA3 might function in oncogene - related properties similarly as MTA1 and MTA2. In this review, we summarize our current understanding about MTA3 in normal development, cancers as well as other human diseases by comparing the similarities and differences between MTA3 and the other members of the MTA family.

Pan Y, Jiao G, Wang C, et al.
MicroRNA-421 inhibits breast cancer metastasis by targeting metastasis associated 1.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 83:1398-1406 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dysregulation of microRNAs is involved in the initiation and progression of several human cancers, including breast cancer, as strong evidence of miRNAs acting as oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes has been found. This study was performed to investigate the biological functions of microRNA-421 (miR-421) in breast cancer and the underlying mechanisms. The expression level of miR-421 was detected in 50 pairs of surgical specimens and human breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that miR-421 is downregulated in breast cancer tissues and metastatic cell lines. In addition, the decrease in miR-421 levels was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, recurrence/metastasis, or pTNM stage. Functions of miR-421 in cell migration and invasion were assessed through its silencing and overexpression. The results showed that miR-421 knockdown promotes invasion and metastasis in MCF-7 cells and its overexpression suppresses invasion and metastasis in MDA-MB-231 cells. The specific target genes of miR-421 were predicted by TargetScan algorithm and determined by dual luciferase reporter assay, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, and western blot analysis. miR-421 could suppress luciferase activity of the reporter containing 3'-untranslated region of metastasis associated 1 (MTA1), a potent oncogene. miR-421 overexpression or knockdown had no effect on the mRNA expression of MTA1, but it could modulate MTA1 protein level. Furthermore, MTA1 knockdown receded the effect of miR-421 inhibitor on invasion and metastasis of MCF-7 cells, and its overexpression receded the effect of miR-421 on invasion and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that miR-421 suppresses breast cancer metastasis by directly inhibiting MTA1 expression. The present study provides a new insight into the tumour suppressor roles of miR-421 and suggests that miR-421/MTA1 pathway is a putative therapeutic target in breast cancer.

Chen YS, Li SP, Xiao H, et al.
Metastasis-associated gene 1 expression in human medulloblastoma and its association with invasion and metastasis in medulloblastoma Daoy cell lines.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aims to investigate the expression of metastasis-associated gene 1 (MTA1) in human medulloblastoma, and its significance in the invasion and metastasis in a medulloblastoma cell line. Positive expression rate of MTA1 protein in medulloblastoma and adjacent normal tissues collected from 29 medulloblastoma patients was detected by immunohistochemistry assay in vivo. In in vitro experiments, Daoy cells were transfected with MTA1-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA, MTA1-siRNA group), niRNA (MTA1-niRNA group), and plasmid vectors (control group). Transfection efficiency was evaluated by PT-PCR and western blot; cell adhesion, migration, and invasion capacity was assessed by adhesion assays, scratch assays, and transwell chamber invasion assays, respectively. Results indicated that the positive expression rate of MTA1 protein in the medulloblastoma tissues was higher as compared with that of the adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.05). In addition, mRNA and protein expression of MTA1 in the MTA1-siRNA group was lower than that in the control and MTA1- niRNA groups (P < 0.05). Adhesion, migration, and invasion capacity of Daoy cells in the MTA1-siRNA group was inhibited as compared with the control and MTA1-niRNA groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, MTA1 expression was increased in medulloblastoma cells, while MTA1 knockdown in medulloblastoma cells inhibited MTA1 expression. In addition, MTA1 knockdown inhibited the adhesion, migration, and invasive capabilities of medulloblastoma cells. It is possible that MTA1 can serve as a biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for medulloblastoma.

Tunçer S, Tunçay Çağatay S, Keşküş AG, et al.
Interplay between 15-lipoxygenase-1 and metastasis-associated antigen 1 in the metastatic potential of colorectal cancer.
Cell Prolif. 2016; 49(4):448-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Metastasis-associated antigen 1 (MTA1) is implicated in metastasis while 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) reduces cell motility, when re-expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to understand any potential interplay between MTA1 and 15-LOX-1 in CRC metastasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: ALOX15 and MTA1 expression in tumour and normal samples were analysed from TCGA RNA-seq data, microarray data sets and a human CRC cDNA array. Western blots, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), luciferase assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) were carried out in HT-29 and LoVo cells re-expressing 15-LOX-1 to determine NF- κB activity at the MTA1 promoter. Functional assays in cells ectopically expressing either 15-LOX-1, MTA-1 or both, were carried out to determine adhesion and cell motility.
RESULTS: Significantly higher expression of MTA1 was observed in tumours compared to normal tissues; MTA1 overexpression resulted in reduced adhesion in CRC cell lines. Re-expression of 15-LOX-1 in the CRC cell lines reduced expression of endogenous MTA1, corroborated by negative correlation between the two genes in two independent human CRC microarray data sets, with greater significance in specific subsets of patients. DNA binding and transcriptional activity of NF-κB at the MTA1 promoter was significantly lower in cells re-expressing 15-LOX-1. Functionally, the same cells had reduced motility, which was rescued when they overexpressed MTA1, and further corroborated by expressions of E-cadherin and vimentin.
CONCLUSIONS: Expression of MTA1 and 15-LOX-1 negatively correlated in specific subsets of CRC. Mechanistically, this is at least in part through reduced recruitment of NF-κB to the MTA1 promoter.

Su C, Fan M, Lu L, Li P
Effects of silencing MTA1 gene by RNA interference on invasion and metastasis of endometrial carcinoma.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2016; 37(1):59-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed at the silence effect of MAT1 gene and proteins in Ishikawa cell of human endometrial carcinoma cell line through RNAi mediated by siRNA and also discussed the effect of MTA1 gene silence on the invasion and metastasis of endometrial carcinoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: According to the principle of designing siRNA sequence, siRNA aiming at MTA1 gene (MTA1-siRNA) and siRNA used for negative control (Control-siRNA) were designed and synthesized and Ishikawa cell was transfected by transfection reagents. RT-PCR method as well as western blot was used, respectively, to detect the MTA1 mRNA and protein expression of stably transfected cells. Transwell method and scarification experiment were adopted to detect the invasion and metastasis of Ishikawa cells.
RESULTS: The expression results of MTA1 on the levels of mRNA and protein showed that the expression level in transfected MTA1-siRNA group was obviously lower than that in non-transfected group and transfected control-siRNA group (p <0.05), while there was no significant difference between non-transfected group and transfected control-siRNA group (p > 0.05). Effective interference on the expression of MTA1 gene remarkably lowered the invasion and metastasis of endometrial carcinoma Ishikawa cells.
CONCLUSION: RNAi aiming at MTA1 can effectively inhibit the expression of MTA1 in endometrial carcinoma Ishikawa cells and the effective silence of MTA1 can weaken the invasion and metastasis of Ishikawa cells, which provides a new strategy for gene therapy of endometrial carcinoma and an experimental basis for inhibiting the invasion and metastasis of endometrial carcinoma.

Yang H, Xu L, Qian H, et al.
Correlation between insulin‑like growth factor binding protein 3 and metastasis‑associated gene 1 protein in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(5):4143-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between insulin‑like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP‑3) and metastasis‑associated gene 1 (MTA1) protein, and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Patients with ESCC who underwent surgical resection were enrolled in the current study, ESCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues (control) were obtained from 197 patients. The protein expression levels of IGFBP‑3 and MTA1 were detected using immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that the expression of IGFBP‑3 in ESCC tissues was significantly lower than in the adjacent normal tissues (27.4 vs. 40.6%; P<0.05), and was negatively correlated with smoking status, degree of tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). The expression of MTA1 protein in ESCC tissues was significantly higher than that of the adjacent tissues (42.1 vs. 11.2%; P<0.05), and was positively correlated with the tumor size, extent of tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). No association was identified between the protein expression levels of IGFBP‑3 and MTA1. The protein expression levels of IGFBP‑3 and MTA1 were not independent risk factors for ESCC prognosis; however, the degree of tumor invasion (P=0.02) and rate of lymph node metastasis (P=0.027) were. IGFBP‑3 inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of ESCC; however, MTA1 promotes the proliferation and metastasis of ESCC. There is no interaction between IGFBP‑3 and MTA1 in ESCC, and they are not independent risk factors for ESCC prognosis.

Zhao M, Wei C, Yang X, et al.
The milk-derived hexapeptide PGPIPN inhibits the invasion and migration of human ovarian cancer cells by regulating the expression of MTA1 and NM23H1 genes.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(4):1721-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Some bioactive peptides derived from natural resources or synthesized by rational design have been proved to have very good anticancer effect. We studied the inhibition of PGPIPN, a hexapeptide derived from bovine β-casein, on the invasion and metastasis of human ovarian cancer cells in vitro and its molecular mechanism. The human ovarian cancer cells studied include the cell line SKOV3 as well as the primary ovarian cancer cells from ovarian tumor tissues of 37 patients at initial debulking surgery, diagnosed as serous ovarian adenocarcinoma. We showed that PGPIPN inhibited the invasion of ovarian cancer cells with Transwell chamber assay, the migration of ovarian cancer cells with cell scratch assay and colony formation of ovarian cancer cells. The expression (mRNAs and proteins) of genes relevant to invasion and metastasis, MTA1, and NM23H1 were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blotting. PGPIPN repressed the expression of MTA1, and promoted NM23H1. The effects of PGPIPN were dose-dependent. Thus, our study suggests that PGPIPN is a potential therapeutic agent for adjuvant therapy of human malignant ovarian tumors.

Mao M, Chen J, Li X, Wu Z
siRNA-TMEM98 inhibits the invasion and migration of lung cancer cells.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(12):15661-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most common human malignancies, which threatens people's life heavily. Recently, TMEM98 is supposed to be of great value for the discoveries of anti-tumor drugs. We attempt to explore the biological role of TMEM98 in the human lung carcinoma. Clinical lung cancer tissue and normal tissue were collected, and the mRNA expression of TMEM98 in cancer tissue was significantly higher than that in normal tissue. By real-time-PCR and Western blot analysis of TMEM98 expression, human A549 and H460 cells were determined to carry out further investigations. By CCK8, it is found that siRNA-TMEM98 treatment effectively suppressed the proliferation of A549 and H460 cells. In addition, the invasion and migration of A549 and H460 cells were also inhibited by siRNA-TMEM98. We then studied the invasion and migration related proteins level by Western blot. From our result, the protein expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, RhoC and MTA1 were all regulated dramatically in siRNA-TMEM98 groups compared with the control and mock group. To conclude, our results indicated that siRNA-TMEM98 inhibited the invasion and migration of lung cancer cells, which can be considered as a novel target for NSCLC treatment.

Zeng H, Zhang JM, Du Y, et al.
Crosstalk between ATF4 and MTA1/HDAC1 promotes osteosarcoma progression.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(6):7329-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The stress response gene activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is involved in metastatic behavior and cellular protection. Here we show that ATF4 is upregulated in osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines and patient clinical samples as compared to matched non-tumor tissue. Overexpression of ATF4 in OS cells promoted cell proliferation, migration and lung metastasis. Furthermore, the expression of ATF4 was markedly reduced in metastasis associated protein (MTA1) or histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) knockdown OS cells, but MTA1 overexpression increased the stability and activity of ATF4 protein via ATF4 deacetylation by HDAC1. ATF4 in turn enhanced the expression of MTA1 and HDAC1 at the transcription level, suggesting a positive feedback loop between ATF4 and MTA1/HDAC1. Clinically, the level of ATF4 was positively correlated with that of MTA1 in OS. Mice injected with ATF4-overexpressing cells exhibited a higher rate of tumor growth, and the average weight of these tumors was ~90% greater than the controls. Taken together, these data establish a direct correlation between ATF4-induced OS progression and MTA1/HDAC1-associated metastasis, and support the potential therapeutic value of targeting ATF4 in the treatment of OS.

Zhou N, Wang H, Liu H, et al.
MTA1-upregulated EpCAM is associated with metastatic behaviors and poor prognosis in lung cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:157 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Overexpression of Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) in various cancer cells promotes tumor invasion and migration and predicts cancer patients' poor prognosis. The pilot RNA-Seq data from our laboratory indicated that Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) was statistically reduced in MTA1-silencing cells. EpCAM has been recognized as more than a mere cell adhesion molecule and recent findings have revealed its causal role in mediating migratory and invasive capacity. Thus, this study was aimed to explore whether MTA1 was able to upregulate EpCAM expression and, consequently, modulate its effects on invasion and migration of the lung cancer cells as well as patients' prognosis.
METHODS: We checked the EpCAM expression by overexpressing or silencing MTA1 in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, these lung cancer cells with stably overexpressed or silenced MTA1 were transfected with siEpCAM or EpCAM-expressing plasmids and then subjected to western blot, invasion and migration assays. In addition, patients (n = 118) with early-stage lung cancer were enrolled in this study to confirm the correlations between MTA1 and EpCAM and pathoclinical parameters by using immunohistochemistry (IHC). All statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 20.0 statistical software.
RESULTS: MTA1 upregulated EpCAM expression in lung cancer cell lines, and EpCAM overexpression rescued the inhibitory effects by silencing MTA1 on cell invasion and migration in vitro. What's more, both MTA1 and EpCAM, correlated to each other, were overexpressed in lung cancer tissues and significantly correlated with their clinical stages, tumor diameters, lymph node metastasis. Multivariate analysis indicated that local advancement (p = 0.03), MTA1 overexpression (p = 0.001) and EpCAM overexpression (p = 0.045) of the lung cancer tissues remained significant in predicting unfavorable overall survival.
CONCLUSIONS: We revealed a new molecular mechanism of MTA1-mediated invasion and metastasis in lung cancer through downstream target EpCAM, and interfering with EpCAM function may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of MTA1-overexpressing lung carcinoma.

Xu C, Hua F, Chen Y, et al.
MTA1 promotes metastasis of MPM via suppression of E-cadherin.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:151 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis-associated gene 1(MTA1) has been identified as an oncogene in many tumors, and aberrant MTA1 expression has been linked to carcinogenesis and metastasis. We aim to investigate the mechanism of MTA1 and metastasis in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM).
METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining were employed to detect MTA1 and E-cadherin expression in MPM tissues and corresponding adjacent tissues. Stable clone with knock-down of MTA1 was generated with shRNA via lentivirus technology in MPM cell lines. Wound-healing assay, transwell assay and PCR array were carried out for detecting invasion and migration of MPM cells. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to validate the effect of MTA1 on E-cadherin.
RESULTS: MTA1 expression is up-regulated in MPM and shown a negative correlation with E-cadherin expression. MTA1 could enhance the invasion and migration of MPM cells via suppressing the expression of E-cadherin. MTA1 overexpression is associated with pathology, metastasis and survival rate of MPM patients.
CONCLUSIONS: MTA1 plays an important role in Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to promote metastasis via suppressing E-cadherin expression, resulting in a poor prognosis in MPM. MTA1 is a novel biomarker and indicative of a poor prognosis in MPM patients.

Li J, Ye L, Sun PH, et al.
MTA1 Is Up-regulated in Colorectal Cancer and Is Inversely Correlated with Lymphatic Metastasis.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2015 Nov-Dec; 12(6):339-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) plays an important role in tumourigenesis and progression of certain cancer types. In the current study, we analyzed the relationship between MTA1 expression and disease progression of colorectal cancer (CRC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: CRC tissues (n=93) and adjacent normal colorectal tissues (n=70) were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. MTA1 knockdown was established in RKO and HT115 cells using MTA1 siRNA.
RESULTS: The expression of MTA1 was significantly increased in CRC tissues compared to paired normal colorectal tissues, but decreased expression of MTA1 was correlated with poor prognosis (higher lymph node involvement stage, TNM stage, local invasion and recurrence) that was associated with increased expression of VEGFC and -D and the receptor VEGFR3.
CONCLUSION: MTA1 is up-regulated in CRC. MTA1 expression is inversely associated with lymphatic metastases and the expression of VEGFC, VEGFD and VEGFR3.

Deng L, Yang H, Tang J, et al.
Inhibition of MTA1 by ERα contributes to protection hepatocellular carcinoma from tumor proliferation and metastasis.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:128 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although expression of MTA1 inversely correlates with the nuclear localization of ERα, the effect and molecular mechanism of ERα regulation of MTA1 remain unknown.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analyses were used to measure levels of MTA1. The effect on HCC cell proliferation and invasion was assessed by EdU incorporation assays and Transwell, respectively. ShRNA and dual-luciferase assays were used to investigate the regulatory relationship between MTA1 and ERα in cell lines.
RESULTS: We found that MTA1 gene regulation by ERα may be influenced by nuclear corepressors. The MTA1 promoter has three functional ER-element half-sites that lead to decreased MTA1 transcription and expression. ERα overexpression suppressed the proliferation and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC). In addition, overexpression of MTA1 attenuated ERα-mediated suppression of the proliferation and invasion of HCC cells and tumor formation in vivo. These results suggested feedback regulation between ERα and MTA1. In summary, our results demonstrated that ERα suppressed proliferation and invasion of human HCC cells through downregulation of MTA1 transcription.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study is an improved description of the mechanisms of the suppressive effect of ERα on HCCs, adding understanding to the gender disparity of HCC progression.

Kumar A, Dhar S, Rimando AM, et al.
Epigenetic potential of resveratrol and analogs in preclinical models of prostate cancer.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2015; 1348(1):1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lifestyle, particularly diet, is a risk factor for prostate cancer. Dietary polyphenols such as resveratrol possess anticancer properties and therefore have chemopreventive and therapeutic potential. Resveratrol has pleiotropic effects, exerting its biological activity through multiple pathways and targets, including those associated with cancer. Numerous studies have demonstrated the anticancer effects of resveratrol and, to a lesser extent, its analogs, in tissue culture, while in vivo observations are limited. Here, we provide a concise summary of our results on epigenetic mechanisms of resveratrol and analogs mediated through regulation of chromatin modifier metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) and microRNAs (miRNAs), and highlight the anticancer effects of these compounds in preclinical models of prostate cancer. We suggest that the identified stilbene responsive mechanism-based biomarkers, such as MTA1 and oncogenic miRNAs, may become indicative of treatment efficacy in prostate cancer. Resveratrol analogs with better bioavailability, conferring superior pharmacological potencies and greater anticancer effects, may become stronger candidates for clinical development.

Yi H, Ye J, Yang XM, et al.
High-grade ovarian cancer secreting effective exosomes in tumor angiogenesis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(5):5062-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer, the most lethal gynecological cancer, related closely to tumor stage. High-grade ovarian cancer always results in a late diagnose and high recurrence, which reduce survival within five years. Until recently, curable therapy is still under research and anti-angiogenesis proves a promising way. Tumor-derived exosomes are essential in tumor migration and metastases such as angiogenesis is enhanced by exosomes. In our study, we have made comparison between high-grade and unlikely high-grade serous ovarian cancer cells on exosomal function of endothelial cells proliferation, migration and tube formation. Exosomes derived from high-grade ovarian cancer have a profound impact on angiogenesis with comparison to unlikely high-grade ovarian cancer. Proteomic profiles revealed some potential proteins involved in exosomal function of angiogenesis such as ATF2, MTA1, ROCK1/2 and so on. Therefore, exosomes plays an influential role in angiogenesis in ovarian serous cancer and also function more effectively in high-grade ovarian cancer cells.

Ohshiro K, Kumar R
MTA1 regulation of ERβ pathway in salivary gland carcinoma cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 464(4):1016-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although Metastatic-tumor antigen 1 (MTA1) is differentially expressed in metastatic cancer and coregulates the status and activity of nuclear receptors, its role upon estrogen receptor β (ERβ) - a potent tumor suppressor, remains poorly understood. Here we investigated whether MTA1 regulates the expression and functions of ERβ, an ER isoform predominantly expressed in salivary gland cancer cells. We found that the depletion of the endogenous MTA1 in the HSG and HSY salivary duct carcinoma cell lines enhances the expression of ERβ while MTA1 overexpression augmented the expression of ERβ in salivary duct carcinoma cells. Furthermore, MTA1 knockdown inhibited the proliferations and invasion of HSG and HSY cells. The noted ERβ downregulation by MTA1 overexpression involves the process of proteasomal degradation, as a proteasome inhibitor could block it. In addition, both MTA1 knockdown and ERβ overexpression attenuated the cell migration and inhibited the ERK1/2 signaling in the both cell lines. These findings imply that MTA1 dysregulation in a subset of salivary gland cancer might promote aggressive phenotypes by compromising the tumor suppressor activity of ERβ, and hence, MTA1-ERβ axis might serve a new therapeutic target for the salivary gland cancer.

Li DQ, Kumar R
Unravelling the Complexity and Functions of MTA Coregulators in Human Cancer.
Adv Cancer Res. 2015; 127:1-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since the initial recognition of the metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) as a metastasis-relevant gene approximately 20 years ago, our appreciation for the complex role of the MTA family of coregulatory proteins in human cancer has profoundly grown. MTA proteins consist of six family members with similar structural units and act as central signaling nodes for integrating upstream signals into regulatory chromatin-remodeling networks, leading to regulation of gene expression in cancer cells. Substantial experimental and clinical evidence demonstrates that MTA proteins, particularly MTA1, are frequently deregulated in a wide range of human cancers. The MTA family governs cell survival, the invasive and metastatic phenotypes of cancer cells, and the aggressiveness of cancer and the prognosis of patients with MTA1 overexpressing cancers. Our discussion here highlights our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms and functional roles of MTA proteins in cancer progression and expands upon the potential implications of MTA proteins in cancer biology and cancer therapeutics.

Pan Y, Wang L, Kang SG, et al.
Gd-Metallofullerenol Nanomaterial Suppresses Pancreatic Cancer Metastasis by Inhibiting the Interaction of Histone Deacetylase 1 and Metastasis-Associated Protein 1.
ACS Nano. 2015; 9(7):6826-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
The treatment of pancreatic cancer frequently fails due to local recurrence and hepatic metastasis. Our previous study found that Gd@C82(OH)22 can suppress pancreatic cancer by inhibiting MMP-2/9 expression. In this study, we further explored the epigenetic mechanism of Gd@C82(OH)22 in human pancreatic cancer metastasis. Gd@C82(OH)22 suppressed tumor metastasis through down-regulation of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), HDAC1, HIF-1α, and MMP-2/9 and up-regulation of reversion-cysteine protein with the Kazal motif (RECK). The level of acetylation was increased in the promoter region of the RECK gene after Gd@C82(OH)22 treatment. The interaction of MTA1, HDAC1, and HIF-1α was inhibited by Gd@C82(OH)22. Furthermore, large-scale molecular dynamics simulations revealed Gd@C82(OH)22 could serve as an effective HDAC inhibitor to the protein-protein association between HDAC1 and MTA1, especially through MTA1's SANT and ELM2 dimerization domains. Our findings implicate Gd@C82(OH)22 as a novel HDAC inhibitor acting to increase RECK expression by suppressing the MTA1/HDAC1 co-repressor complex. Gd@C82(OH)22 may serve as a potential HDAC1 inhibitor to suppress pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. According to computer analysis and experimental validation, Gd@C82(OH)22 activates RECK expression by inhibiting the interaction of HDAC1 and MTA1.

Avtanski DB, Nagalingam A, Kuppusamy P, et al.
Honokiol abrogates leptin-induced tumor progression by inhibiting Wnt1-MTA1-β-catenin signaling axis in a microRNA-34a dependent manner.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(18):16396-410 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Obesity greatly influences risk, progression and prognosis of breast cancer. As molecular effects of obesity are largely mediated by adipocytokine leptin, finding effective novel strategies to antagonize neoplastic effects of leptin is desirable to disrupt obesity-cancer axis. Present study is designed to test the efficacy of honokiol (HNK), a bioactive polyphenol from Magnolia grandiflora, against oncogenic actions of leptin and systematically elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Our results show that HNK significantly inhibits leptin-induced breast-cancer cell-growth, invasion, migration and leptin-induced breast-tumor-xenograft growth. Using a phospho-kinase screening array, we discover that HNK inhibits phosphorylation and activation of key molecules of leptin-signaling-network. Specifically, HNK inhibits leptin-induced Wnt1-MTA1-β-catenin signaling in vitro and in vivo. Finally, an integral role of miR-34a in HNK-mediated inhibition of Wnt1-MTA1-β-catenin axis was discovered. HNK inhibits Stat3 phosphorylation, abrogates its recruitment to miR-34a promoter and this release of repressor-Stat3 results in miR-34a activation leading to Wnt1-MTA1-β-catenin inhibition. Accordingly, HNK treatment inhibited breast tumor growth in diet-induced-obese mouse model (exhibiting high leptin levels) in a manner associated with activation of miR-34a and inhibition of MTA1-β-catenin. These data provide first in vitro and in vivo evidence for the leptin-antagonist potential of HNK revealing a crosstalk between HNK and miR34a and Wnt1-MTA1-β-catenin axis.

Si W, Huang W, Zheng Y, et al.
Dysfunction of the Reciprocal Feedback Loop between GATA3- and ZEB2-Nucleated Repression Programs Contributes to Breast Cancer Metastasis.
Cancer Cell. 2015; 27(6):822-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
How loss-of-function of GATA3 contributes to the development of breast cancer is poorly understood. Here, we report that GATA3 nucleates a transcription repression program composed of G9A and MTA3-, but not MTA1- or MTA2-, constituted NuRD complex. Genome-wide analysis of the GATA3/G9A/NuRD(MTA3) targets identified a cohort of genes including ZEB2 that are critically involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cell invasion. We demonstrate that the GATA3/G9A/NuRD(MTA3) complex inhibits the invasive potential of breast cancer cells in vitro and suppresses breast cancer metastasis in vivo. Strikingly, the expression of GATA3, G9A, and MTA3 is concurrently downregulated during breast cancer progression, leading to an elevated expression of ZEB2, which, in turn, represses the expression of G9A and MTA3 through the recruitment of G9A/NuRD(MTA1).

Zhang H, Zhu X, Li N, et al.
miR-125a-3p targets MTA1 to suppress NSCLC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2015; 47(7):496-503 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis-associated gene 1 (MTA1) is associated with cell growth, metastasis, and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Several previous reports have demonstrated that microRNAs affect gene expression through interaction between their seed region and the 3'-untranslated region of the target mRNA, resulting in post-transcriptional regulation. The aim of this study was to identify miRNAs that suppress malignancy in NSCLC cells by targeting MTA1. Two human NSCLC cell lines were analyzed for the expression of MTA1 by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting after transfection with MTA1 mimics. A luciferase reporter assay was established to test the direct connection between MTA1 and its upstream miRNAs. Cell proliferation was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine analysis, and colony formation assay. Cell migration and invasive capacity were evaluated by wound-healing assay and transwell assay. The miRNA/MTA1 axis was also probed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting in samples from eight NSCLC patients. Among the candidate miRNAs, miR-125a-3p was shown to post-transcriptionally regulate MTA1 in NSCLC cells. These data were reinforced by the luciferase reporter assay, in addition to the demonstration that MTA1 is inversely correlated with miR-125a-3p in NSCLC tissues. Furthermore, miR-125a-3p was found to inhibit NSCLC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, through the same mechanisms of down-regulated MTA1. Our report demonstrates that miR-125a-3p inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of NSCLC cells through down-regulation of MTA1, indicating the role of the miR-125a-3p/MTA1 axis in NSCLC, and may provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms underpinning the disease and potential therapeutic targets.

Jia W, Zhu J, Martin TA, et al.
Expression of metastasis-associated gene-1 is associated with bone invasion and tumor stage in human pituitary adenomas.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2015 May-Jun; 12(3):113-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis associated gene-1 (MTA1), was initially discovered in aggressive human cancer cell lines and has been subsequently associated with the invasiveness and metastatic potential of cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, we evaluated the expression levels of MTA1 in a cohort of human pituitary tumors (n=95) and examined the relationship between MTA1 expression and the pathological, clinical and aggressiveness of these tumors.
RESULTS: MTA1 was expressed at significantly higher levels in large tumors and in those with higher tumor grade. It was also observed that tumors that had invaded the suprasellar bones and tumors that destructed the sella had significantly higher levels than those without bone involvement (p<005). Although there did not appear to exist any relationship between MTA1 and cystic lesions in the tumors, endocrine-active tumors, namely those secreting prolactin, growth hormone, Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) had significantly lower MTA1 transcript levels than inactive tumors.
CONCLUSION: MTA1 is associated with the aggressive nature of pituitary tumors and may be a potential therapeutic target in this tumor type.

Siamakpour-Reihani S, Owzar K, Jiang C, et al.
Genomic profiling in locally advanced and inflammatory breast cancer and its link to DCE-MRI and overall survival.
Int J Hyperthermia. 2015; 31(4):386-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: We have previously reported that dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) perfusion patterns obtained from locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients prior to neoadjuvant therapy predicted pathologic clinical response. Genomic analyses were also independently conducted on the same patient population. This retrospective study was performed to test two hypotheses: (1) gene expression profiles are associated with DCE-MRI perfusion patterns, and (2) association between long-term overall survival data and gene expression profiles can lead to the identification of novel predictive biomarkers.
METHODS: We utilised RNA microarray and DCE-MRI data from 47 LABC patients, including 13 inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) patients. Association between gene expression profile and DCE-MRI perfusion patterns (centrifugal and centripetal) was determined by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Association between gene expression level and survival was assessed using a Cox rank score test. Additional genomic analysis of the IBC subset was conducted, with a period of follow-up of up to 11 years. Associations between gene expression and overall survival were further assessed in The Cancer Genome Atlas Data Portal.
RESULTS: Differences in gene expression profiles were seen between centrifugal and centripetal perfusion patterns in the sulphotransferase family, cytosolic, 1 A, phenol-preferring, members 1 and 2 (SULT1A1, SULT1A2), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, member 6 (PARP6), and metastasis tumour antigen1 (MTA1). In the IBC subset our analyses demonstrated that differential expression of 45 genes was associated with long-term survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Here we have demonstrated an association between DCE-MRI perfusion patterns and gene expression profiles. In addition we have reported on candidate prognostic biomarkers in IBC patients, with some of the genes being significantly associated with survival in IBC and LABC.

Sheridan CM, Grogan TR, Nguyen HG, et al.
YB-1 and MTA1 protein levels and not DNA or mRNA alterations predict for prostate cancer recurrence.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(10):7470-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Attempts to identify biomarkers to detect prostate tumorigenesis, and thus minimize prostate cancer progression and inform treatment decisions have primarily focused on alterations at the DNA and mRNA levels, ignoring alterations at the level of protein synthesis control. We have previously shown that the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, frequently deregulated in prostate cancer, specifically induces the synthesis of proteins that contribute to metastasis, most notably YB-1 and MTA1, without altering mRNA levels thereby demonstrating the importance of translation control in driving the expression of these genes in cancer.Here, we analyze genomic sequencing and mRNA expression databases, as well as protein expression employing an annotated tissue microarray generated from 332 prostate cancer patients with 15 years of clinical follow-up to determine the combined prognostic capability of YB-1 and MTA1 alterations in forecasting prostate cancer outcomes. Remarkably, protein abundance, but not genomic or transcriptional alterations of YB-1 and MTA1, is predictive of disease recurrence, exhibiting a dose-dependent effect on time to PSA recurrence, an indicator of tumor relapse. Moreover, high protein levels of YB-1 and MTA1 are associated with a 3-fold increased risk for requiring future hormone therapy or radiation therapy. Importantly, YB-1 and MTA1 protein levels significantly increase the predictive capacity of a clinical model for prostate cancer recurrence. These findings demonstrate that protein abundance of YB-1 and MTA1, irrespective of DNA or mRNA status, can predict for prostate cancer relapse and uncover a vast underappreciated repository of biomarkers regulated at the level of protein expression.

Meng QB, Kang WM, Yu JC, et al.
Overexpression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (EIF5A2) correlates with cell aggressiveness and poor survival in gastric cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0119229 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (EIF5A2) plays an important role in tumor progression and prognosis evaluation. However, little information is available about its potential role in gastric cancer. This study aimed to investigate the function of EIF5A2 in tumor progression and its potential mechanisms. EIF5A2 expression was measured in human gastric cancer cell lines, the immortalized gastric mucosal epithelial cell line (GES-1) and human gastric cancer tissues and knocked down by RNA interference or upregulated by EIF5A2 plasmid transfection. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were assessed in vitro. The downstream targets of EIF5A2 were examined by western blotting. EIF5A2 and its potential target metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) expression were examined in 160 pairs of human gastric cancer and adjacent non-tumor specimens using immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, and its correlation with clinicopathological features and survival was investigated. Knockdown of EIF5A2 or MTA1 caused an apparent suppression of HGC27 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. After knockdown of EIF5A2 in HGC27 cells, E-cadherin levels were upregulated and vimentin, cyclin D1, cyclin D3, C-MYC and MTA1 levels were downregulated. Upregulation of EIF5A2 in MKN45 cells resulted in the converse. IHC results showed a positive correlation between EIF5A2 and MTA1 expression in gastric cancers (P<0.001). Both EIF5A2 and MTA1 overexpression were correlated with pT stage (P=0.018 and P=0.042), pN stage (P=0.037 and P=0.020) and lymphovascular invasion (P=0.016 and P=0.044). EIF5A2 or MTA1 overexpression was significantly associated with poor overall survival and disease-free survival (All P<0.05). Multivariate analyses identified EIF5A2 as an independent predictor for both overall survival (P=0.012) and disease-free survival (P=0.008) in gastric cancer patients. Our findings indicate that EIF5A2 upregulation plays an important oncogenic role in gastric cancer. EIF5A2 may represent a new predictor for poor survival and is a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

Wang W, Yang ZL, Liu JQ, et al.
Overexpression of MTA1 and loss of KAI-1 and KiSS-1 expressions are associated with invasion, metastasis, and poor-prognosis of gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
Tumori. 2014 Nov-Dec; 100(6):667-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Over 90% of patients with gallbladder cancer have invasion and/or metastasis when they are diagnosed at the clinic. Such patients usually have an extremely poor prognosis. The molecular mechanism responsible for the high prevalence of invasion and metastasis remains unknown.
METHODS: We investigated the expression of two metastasis-suppression genes--KAI-1 and KiSS-1--and a metastasis-associated gene--MTA1--in 108 adenocarcinomas, 15 gallbladder polyps, 35 chronic cholecystitis tissues, and 46 peritumoral tissues using in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that positive MTA1 expression was significantly higher whereas positive expressions of KAI-1 and KiSS-1 genes were significantly lower in gallbladder adenocarcinoma than in peritumoral tissues, polyps, and chronic cholecystitis. Positive MTA1 expression was significantly lower, but positive KAI-1 and KiSS-1 expressions were significantly higher in cases with well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, smaller tumor mass, no metastasis of lymph node, and no invasion of regional tissues than in cases having poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, larger tumor mass, metastasis and invasion. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that increased expression of MTA1 and lowered expression of KAI-1 and KiSS-1 were significantly associated with decreased overall survival. Cox regression analysis showed that tumor mass, lymph node metastasis, invasion, and MTA1 expression levels negatively correlated with survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that KAI-1, KiSS-1, and MTA1 might be important biological markers involved in the carcinogenesis, metastasis, and invasion of gallbladder adenocarcinoma, but MTA1 is an independent factor of prognosis.

Kang WK, Lee JK, Oh ST, et al.
Stromal expression of miR-21 in T3-4a colorectal cancer is an independent predictor of early tumor relapse.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2015; 15:2 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is an oncogenic microRNA that regulates the expression of multiple cancer-related target genes. miR-21 has been associated with progression of some types of cancer. Metastasis-associated protein1 expression and loss of E-cadherin expression are correlated with cancer progression and metastasis in many cancer types. In advanced colorectal cancer, the clinical significance of miR-21 expression remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the impact of miR-21 expression in advanced colorectal cancer and its correlation with target proteins associated with colorectal cancer progression.
METHODS: From 2004 to 2007, 277 consecutive patients with T3-4a colorectal cancer treated with R0 surgical resection were included. Patients with neoadjuvant therapy and distant metastasis at presentation were excluded. The expression of miR-21 was investigated by in situ hybridization. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect E-cadherin and metastasis-associated protein1 expression.
RESULTS: High stromal expression of miR-21 was found in 76 of 277 (27.4%) colorectal cancer samples and was correlated with low E-cadherin expression (P = 0.019) and high metastasis-associated protein1 expression (P = 0.004). T3-4a colorectal cancer patients with high miR-21 expression had significantly shorter recurrence-free survival than those with low miR-21 expression. When analyzing colon and rectal cancer separately, high expression of miR-21 was an independent prognostic factor of unfavorable recurrence-free survival in T3-4a colon cancer patients (P = 0.038, HR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.05-5.72) but not in T3-4a rectal cancer patients. In a sub-classification analysis, high miR-21 expression was associated with shorter recurrence-free survival in the stage II cancer (P = 0.001) but not in the stage III subgroup (P = 0.267).
CONCLUSIONS: Stromal miR-21 expression is related to the expression of E-cadherin and metastasis-associated protein1 in colorectal cancer. Stage II colorectal cancer patients with high levels of miR-21 are at higher risk for tumor recurrence and should be considered for more intensive treatment.

Liu Z, Li F, Zhang B, et al.
Structural basis of plant homeodomain finger 6 (PHF6) recognition by the retinoblastoma binding protein 4 (RBBP4) component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(10):6630-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The NuRD complex is a conserved transcriptional coregulator that contains both chromatin-remodeling and histone deacetylase activities. Mutations of PHF6 are found in patients with Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or acute myeloid leukemia. Recently, PHF6 was identified to interact with the NuRD complex, and this interaction is mediated by the RBBP4 component. However, little is known about the molecular basis for the interaction. Here, we present the crystal structure of the complex of the NuRD subunit RBBP4 bound to the PHF6 peptide (residues 162-170). The PHF6 peptide binds to the top surface of the RBBP4 β-propeller. A pair of positively charged residues of the PHF6 peptide insert into the negatively charged pocket of RBBP4, which is critical for the interaction between PHF6 and RBBP4. Corresponding PHF6 mutants impair this interaction in vitro and in vivo. Structural comparison shows that the PHF6-binding pocket overlaps with FOG1 and histone H3 on RBBP4/Nurf55, but it is distinct from the pocket recognizing histone H4, Su(z)12, and MTA1. We further show that the middle disordered region (residues 145-207, containing the RBBP4-binding motif) is sufficient for the transcriptional repression mediated by PHF6 on the GAL4 reporter, and knockdown of RBBP4 diminished the PHF6-mediated repression. Our RBBP4-PHF6 complex structure provides insights into the molecular basis of PHF6-NuRD complex interaction and implicates a role for PHF6 in chromatin structure modulation and gene regulation.

Xue H, Wang H, Liu J, et al.
MTA1 downregulation inhibits malignant potential in a small cell lung cancer cell line.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(2):885-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a component of the nuclear remodeling and deacetylation complex (NuRD complex), metastasis-associated gene 1 (MTA1) has been reported to play a key role in cancer malignancy. However, whether MTA1 functions in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) malignant behavior and whether it is feasible to be used as a therapeutic target have not been evaluated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of MTA1 downregulation on SCLC malignancy. First we demonstrated the overexpression of MTA1 in SCLC specimens. After knocking down the MTA1 level by specific siRNA sequence, the biological consequences on proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis were evaluated. The results showed that MTA1 silencing had potent suppressive effects on SCLC proliferation, migration and invasion. Apoptosis but not cell cycle arrest was induced in the MTA1-silenced SCLC cells. In summary, MTA1 plays a critical role in regulating the malignant behaviors of SCLC. Depleting MTA1 level may be an effective strategy by which to suppress SCLC growth and metastasis in future biotherapeutic attempts.

Yang QY, Li JH, Wang QY, et al.
MTA1 promotes cell proliferation via DNA damage repair in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2014; 13(4):10269-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
We examined whether metastasis-associated gene 1 (MTA1) promotes cell proliferation via DNA damage repair in ovarian cancer. MTA1 was successfully down-regulated using small interfering RNA in the epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3. Cell growth was evaluated through MTT and colony formation assays. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was used to evaluate the distribution of cells in the cell cycle, and cytotoxicity assays were performed to study cell sensitivity to cisplatin. A neutral comet assay was used to measure levels of ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage in SKOV-3 cells, and Western blot analyses were carried out to examine the expression of key proteins involved in DNA damage repair pathways. MTA1 knockdown markedly inhibited cell growth and led to S phase cell cycle arrest. In addition, MTA1 depletion conferred sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin. Moreover, MTA1 depletion increased the level of ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage and caused irreparable damage, which was illustrated by a remarkable increase and persistent existence of a comet tail as well as protein expression levels of γH2AX, pRPA, and pChk1, all of which play critical roles in DNA repair. Thus, MTA1 promotes the proliferation of epithelial ovarian cancer cells by enhancing DNA repair.

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