Gene Summary

Gene:ING5; inhibitor of growth family member 5
Aliases: p28ING5
Summary:This gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein that inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis. This protein contains a PHD-type zinc finger. It interacts with tumor suppressor p53 and p300, a component of the histone acetyl transferase complex, suggesting a role in transcriptional regulation. Alternative splicing and the use of multiple promoters and 3' terminal exons results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:inhibitor of growth protein 5
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ING5 (cancer-related)

Bilgiç F, Gerçeker E, Boyacıoğlu SÖ, et al.
Potential role of chromatin remodeling factor genes in atrophic gastritis/gastric cancer risk.
Turk J Gastroenterol. 2018; 29(4):427-435 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), and Helicobacter pylori (HP) are the risk factors for the development of gastric cancer (GC). Chromatin remodeling is one of the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the carcinogenesis of GC. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression profiles of defined chromatin remodeling genes in gastric mucosal samples and their values as gastric carcinogenesis biomarkers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 95 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into 3 groups as: GC group (n=34), AG group (n=36), and control group (n=25). AG group was further divided into subgroups based on the presence of HP and IM in gastric mucosa. Chromatin remodeling gene expressions were analyzed using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) array in all groups. Data were evaluated using the RT-qPCR primer assay data analysis software.
RESULTS: EED, CBX3, and MTA1 were more overexpressed, whereas ARID1A, ING5, and CBX7 were more underexpressed in the AG and GC groups compared with the controls. No significant differences were observed between the AG and GC groups concerning the expression of these 6 genes, although the fold change levels of these genes in the GC group were well above than in the AG group. EED, CBX3, and MTA1 were significantly more overexpressed in HP- and IM-positive AG subgroup compared with the HP- or IM-negative AG subgroup.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our results provide an evidence of epigenetic alterations in AG. Expressions of EED, CBX3, MTA1, ARID1A, ING5, and CBX7 may be considered as promising markers to be used in GC screening for patients with AG.

Xie X, Xu X, Sun C, Yu Z
Hepatitis B virus X protein promotes proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by upregulating miR-181b by targeting ING5.
Biol Chem. 2018; 399(6):611-619 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) played a key role in the development of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Emerging evidence has demonstrated that miR-181b and the inhibitor of growth protein 5 (ING5) participated in the pathophysiological process. However, the regulatory mechanism of HBx remained unknown. The expression of miR-181b and ING5 in HCC tissues and cell lines were examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Cell viability was determined using the MTT method following HCC cell lines transfection. The interaction between miR-181b and ING5 was assessed by luciferase reporter assay. The nude mice tumor model was well established to evaluate the role and biological functions of HBx on the progression of HBV-related HCC in vivo. MiR-181b was upregulated and ING5 was downregulated in HCC tissues and cell lines. As suggested by the results from in vitro and in vivo experiments, HBx downregulates the expression of the miR-181b target gene ING5, resulting in the promotion of HCC cell proliferation. HBx accelerates proliferation activity of HCC cells by increasing miR-181b expression via targeting ING5, thereby influencing the progression of HBV-related HCC.

Ye P, Ke X, Zang X, et al.
Up-regulated MiR-27-3p promotes the G1-S phase transition by targeting inhibitor of growth family member 5 in osteosarcoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 101:219-227 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in regulating malignant progression of tumour cells by inhibiting translation or stability of messenger RNA. However, the expression pattern and regulatory mechanism of miR-27-3p in osteosarcoma remains unclear.
METHODS: We examined the expression of miR-27-3p in 5 osteosarcoma cell lines compared with that in 2 normal osteocyte cell lines. Osteosarcoma cells U-2OS and MG-63 were transduced to up-regulate or down-regulate the expression of miR-27-3p. The 3-(4, 5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide, or MTT, assay, colony formation assays, BrdUrd labelling, immunofluorescence, anchorage-independent growth ability assay and flow cytometry analysis were used to test the effect of miR-27-3p. Luciferase assays were added to verify the direct relationship between miR-27-3p and the predicted target gene inhibitor of growth family member 5 (ING5).
RESULTS: The expression of miR-27-3p was significantly increased in examined osteosarcoma cell lines compared with that in normal osteocyte cell lines. Up-regulation of miR-27-3p significantly accelerated osteosarcoma cell growth via promoting G1-S transition. In addition, the opposite result was observed in miR-27-3p-down-regulated cells. Up-regulation of ING5 significantly attenuated the miR-27-3p-induced proliferation in osteosarcoma cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggested that miR-27-3p could promote the G1-S phase transition that leads to proliferation by down-regulating the expression of ING5 in osteosarcoma.

Zhang GJ, Zhao J, Jiang ML, Zhang LC
ING5 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma through regulation of the Akt/NF-κB/MMP-9 signaling pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 496(2):387-393 [PubMed] Related Publications
The inhibitor of growth 5 (ING5) is a new candidate tumor suppressor gene (TSG) of the ING family. So far, there have been many reports about its functions related to cancer development. However, the biological roles of ING5 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that ING5 was lowly expressed in ESCC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of ING5 inhibited ESCC cell proliferation and invasion in vitro as well as suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. We also found that overexpression of ING5 significantly decreased the levels of p-AKT, NF-κB and MMP-9 in ECA109 cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that ING5 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion in ESCC through regulation of the Akt/NF-κB/MMP-9 signaling pathway. Thus, ING5 might be considered a promising target for ESCC treatment.

Gao W, Han J
Overexpression of ING5 inhibits HGF-induced proliferation, invasion and EMT in thyroid cancer cells via regulation of the c-Met/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 98:265-270 [PubMed] Related Publications
The inhibitor of growth 5 (ING5), a novel member of the ING family, is involved in diverse biological processes such as cell growth, apoptosis and DNA repair. Recently, ING5 has been reported to be associated with cancer development. However, its specific role in thyroid cancer has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we found that the expression of ING5 was significantly down-regulated in human thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. In addition, overexpression of ING5 markedly inhibited hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of thyroid cancer cells as well as suppressed the tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, our data showed that the c-Met/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was responsible for the inhibitory effect of ING5 on the thyroid cancer. Taken together, these findings provided an essential basis for the tumor-suppression role of ING5 in thyroid cancer.

Wang F, Wang AY, Chesnelong C, et al.
ING5 activity in self-renewal of glioblastoma stem cells via calcium and follicle stimulating hormone pathways.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(3):286-301 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Stem cell-like brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) cause recurrence of glioblastomas, with BTIC 'stemness' affected by epigenetic mechanisms. The ING family of epigenetic regulators (ING1-5) function by targeting histone acetyltransferase (HAT) or histone deacetylase complexes to the H3K4me3 mark to alter histone acetylation and subsequently, gene expression. Here we find that ectopic expression of ING5, the targeting subunit of HBO1, MOZ and MORF HAT complexes increases expression of the Oct4, Olig2 and Nestin stem cell markers, promotes self-renewal, prevents lineage differentiation and increases stem cell pools in BTIC populations. This activity requires the plant homeodomain region of ING5 that interacts specifically with the H3K4me3 mark. ING5 also enhances PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK activity to sustain self-renewal of BTICs over serial passage of stem cell-like spheres. ING5 exerts these effects by activating transcription of calcium channel and follicle stimulating hormone pathway genes. In silico analyses of The Cancer Genome Atlas data suggest that ING5 is a positive regulator of BTIC stemness, whose expression negatively correlates with patient prognosis, especially in the Proneural and Classical subtypes, and in tumors with low SOX2 expression. These data suggest that altering histone acetylation status and signaling pathways induced by ING5 may provide useful clinical strategies to target tumor resistance and recurrence in glioblastoma.

Cui S, Liao X, Ye C, et al.
ING5 suppresses breast cancer progression and is regulated by miR-24.
Mol Cancer. 2017; 16(1):89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The inhibitor of growth (ING) gene family of tumor suppressors is involved in multiple cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and chromatin remodeling. ING5 is a new member of the ING family whose function and regulation remain largely unknown.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were used to examine the expression levels of ING5 in breast cancer tissues. The miRNAs that potentially targeted ING5 were determined by bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay. Cell viability assay, transwell invasion and apoptosis assay were used to characterize the changes induced by overexpressing or knocking down miR-24 or ING5. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical staining for ING5 and Ki-67 were used for xenograft assays in BALB/c nude mice.
RESULTS: We showed that the ING5 protein rather than the mRNA, was significantly downregulated in breast cancer tissues. We also investigated the potential function of ING5 in breast tumorigenesis and found that ING5 suppressed the proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells and promoted their apoptosis. Furthermore, we explored the molecular mechanisms accounting for the dysregulation of ING5 in breast cancer cells and identified an oncomiR, miR-24, as a direct upstream regulator of ING5. We revealed that miR-24 had the opposite effects to those of ING5 on breast cancer cells and could accelerate xenografted tumor growth in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Our findings uncover the tumor-suppressive role of ING5 and the regulatory pathway of ING5 in breast cancer and may provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis.

Chen WT, Yang YJ, Zhang ZD, et al.
MiR-1307 promotes ovarian cancer cell chemoresistance by targeting the ING5 expression.
J Ovarian Res. 2017; 10(1):1 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the function of miR-1307 in chemoresistance and to explore its chemoresistance mechanism in ovarian cancer.
METHODS: IC50 determination was used to test the chemoresistance profling in ovarian cancer cells. QRT-PCR or western blot was used to validate the expression level of miR-1307 and candidate gene or protein. Colony formation assay and FITC-labeled enhanced Annexin V immunofluorescence were used to compare cell proliferation and apoptosis ability, respectively. The potential target gene and its biological function of miRNA-1307 were also analyzed. Bioinformatics and Luciferase Reporter Gene Assay were conducted to validate the regulation of miRNA-1307 on the ING5 expression. Xenografts assay was used to demonstrate the inhibiting effect of miR-1307 ASO and Taxol therapy against ovarian cancer in vivo.
RESULTS: MiR-1307 was over-expressed in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell line A2780/Taxol, and over-expression or loss of miR-1307 promoted or inhabited chemoresistance. And we also found that the over-expression of miR-1307 promoted proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Besides, we demonstrated that ING5 was a direct target of miR-1307 and miR-1307 down-regulated the ING5 expression in ovarian cancer cells. Additionally, we showed that ING5 inhibited cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis and inhabited chemoresistance reversely. Furthermore, the up-regulated ability of cell apoptosis and down-regulated ability of chemoresistance following the loss of miR-1307 was reversed by adding ING5 siRNA in vitro. Finally, we proved the inhibiting effect of miR-1307 ASO and Taxol therapy by increasing the ING5 expression against ovarian cancer through xenografts assay in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that miR-1307 could promote ovarian cancer chemoresistance by targeting the ING5 expression and miR-1307 might serve as a therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

Zhang R, Jin J, Shi J, Hou Y
INGs are potential drug targets for cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(2):189-197 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The inhibitor of growth (ING) family consists of ING1, ING2, ING3, ING4 and ING5, which function as the type II tumor suppressors. INGs regulate cell proliferation, senescence, apoptosis, differentiation, angiogenesis, DNA repair, metastasis, and invasion by multiple pathways. In addition, INGs increase cancer cell sensitivity for chemotherapy and radiotherapy, while clinical observations show that INGs are frequently lost in some types of cancers. The aim of the study was to summarize the recent progress regarding INGs regulating tumor progression.
METHODS: The literatures of INGs regulating tumor progression were searched and assayed.
RESULTS: The regulating signaling pathways of ING1, ING2, ING3 or ING4 on tumor progression were shown. The mechanisms of INGs on tumor suppression were also assayed.
CONCLUSIONS: This review better summarized the signaling mechanism of INGs on tumor suppression, which provides a candidate therapy strategy for cancers.

Zhao S, Yang XF, Shen DF, et al.
The down-regulated ING5 expression in lung cancer: a potential target of gene therapy.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(34):54596-54615 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ING5 can interact with p53, thereby inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis. We found that ING5 overexpression not only inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion, but also induced G2 arrest, differentiation, autophagy, apoptosis, glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in lung cancer cells. ING5 transfection up-regulated the expression of Cdc2, ATG13, ATG14, Beclin-1, LC-3B, AIF, cytochrome c, Akt1/2/3, ADFP, PFK-1 and PDPc, while down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, XIAP, survivin,β-catenin and HXK1. ING5 transfection desensitized cells to the chemotherapy of MG132, paclitaxel, and SAHA, which paralleled with apoptotic alteration. ING5 overexpression suppressed the xenograft tumor growth by inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis. ING5 expression level was significantly higher in normal tissue than that in lung cancer at both protein and mRNA levels. Nuclear ING5 expression was positively correlated with ki-67 expression and cytoplasmic ING5 expression. Cytoplasmic ING5 expression was positively associated with lymph node metastasis, and negatively with age, lymphatic invasion or CPP32 expression. ING5 expression was different in histological classification: squamous cell carcinoma > adenocarcinoma > large cell carcinoma > small cell carcinoma. Taken together, our data suggested that ING5 downregulation might involved in carcinogenesis, growth, and invasion of lung cancer and could be considered as a promising marker to gauge the aggressiveness of lung cancer. It might be employed as a potential target for gene therapy of lung cancer.

Cao Y, Chen J, Wang D, et al.
Upregulated in Hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma cells, miR-331-3p promotes proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting ING5.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(35):38093-106 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major risk factor for development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been reported that viral infection can interfere with cellular microRNA (miRNA) expression and participate in the pathogenesis of oncogenicity. Our miRNAs array data indicated that miR-331-3p expression in HCC cell lines increased, but the relationship between miR-331-3p expression and HBV activity is unclear. Here, we observed elevated expression of miR-331-3p in different HCC cell lines expressing HBV. HBV, especially HBx, promotes miR-331-3p expression by enhancing its promoter activity. Using a miRNA target prediction database miRBase, we identified ING5 to be a novel target gene of miR-331-3p. miR-331-3p could inhibit ING5 expression by directly targeting its 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). As predicted, HBV was confirmed to repress ING5 at both mRNA and protein levels by promoting miR-331-3p expression. Our result indicated that miR-331-3p expression promotes proliferation of SMMC7721 cells by inhibiting ING5. ING5 overexpression promoted cell apoptosis in HCC cell lines. We also found ING5 expression was decreased in tumor tissue of HCC patient with HBV infection compared to its expression in para-carcinoma tissues.
CONCLUSION: These results showed that miR-331-3p is upregulated by HBV and promotes proliferation of HCC cells though repression of ING5 expression. These data provide new insights for understanding the mechanisms of HBV-related HCC pathogenesis.

Li Y, Deng H, Lv L, et al.
The miR-193a-3p-regulated ING5 gene activates the DNA damage response pathway and inhibits multi-chemoresistance in bladder cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(12):10195-206 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As the major barrier to curative cancer chemotherapy, chemoresistance presents a formidable challenge to both cancer researchers and clinicians. We have previously shown that the bladder cancer (BCa) cell line 5637 is significantly more sensitive to the cytoxicity of five chemotherapeutic agents than H-bc cells. Using an RNA-seq-based omic analysis and validation at both the mRNA and protein levels, we found that the inhibitor of growth 5 (ING5) gene was upregulated in 5637 cells compared with H-bc cells, indicating that it has an inhibitory role in BCa chemoresistance. siRNA-mediated inhibition of ING5 increased the chemoresistance and inhibited the DNA damage response pathway in 5637 cells. Conversely, forced expression of EGFP-ING5 decreased the chemoresistance of and activated the DNA damage response pathway in H-bc cells. We also showed that ING5 gene expression is inhibited by miR-193a-3p and is instrumental in miR-193a-3p's role in activating BCa chemoresistance. Our results demonstrate both the role and mechanism of inhibition of BCa chemoresistance by ING5.

Gou WF, Shen DF, Yang XF, et al.
ING5 suppresses proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion, and induces autophagy and differentiation of gastric cancer cells: a good marker for carcinogenesis and subsequent progression.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(23):19552-79 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Here, we found that ING5 overexpression increased autophagy, differentiation, and decreased proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and lamellipodia formation in gastric cancer cells, while ING5 knockdown had the opposite effects. In SGC-7901 transfectants, ING5 overexpression caused G1 arrest, which was positively associated with 14-3-3 overexpression, Cdk4 and c-jun hypoexpression. The induction of Bax hypoexpression, Bcl-2, survivin, 14-3-3, PI3K, p-Akt and p70S6K overexpression by ING5 decreased apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. The hypoexpression of MMP-9, MAP1B and flotillin 2 contributed to the inhibitory effects of ING5 on migration and invasion of SGC-7901 cells. ING5 overexpression might activate both β-catenin and NF-κB pathways in SGC-7901 cells, and promote the expression of down-stream genes (c-myc, VEGF, Cyclin D1, survivin, and interleukins). Compared with the control, ING5 transfectants displayed drug resistance to triciribine, paclitaxel, cisplatin, SAHA, MG132 and parthenolide, which was positively related to their apoptotic induction and the overexpression of chemoresistance-related genes (MDR1, GRP78, GRP94, IRE, CD147, FBXW7, TOP1, TOP2, MLH1, MRP1, BRCP1 and GST-π). ING5 expression was higher in gastric cancer than matched mucosa. It was inversely associated with tumor size, dedifferentiation, lymph node metastasis and clinicopathological staging of cancer. ING5 overexpression suppressed growth, blood supply and lung metastasis of SGC-7901 cells by inhibiting proliferation, enhancing autophagy and apoptosis in xenograft models. It was suggested that ING5 expression might be employed as a good marker for gastric carcinogenesis and subsequent progression by inhibiting proliferation, growth, migration, invasion and metastasis. ING5 might induce apoptotic and chemotherapeutic resistances of gastric cancer cells by activating β-catenin, NF-κB and Akt pathways.

Zhang F, Zhang X, Meng J, et al.
ING5 inhibits cancer aggressiveness via preventing EMT and is a potential prognostic biomarker for lung cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(18):16239-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The proteins of the Inhibitor of Growth (ING) candidate tumor suppressor family are involved in multiple cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and chromatin remodeling. ING5 is the new member of the family whose actual role in tumor suppression is not known. Here we show that ING5 overexpression in lung cancer A549 cells inhibited cell proliferation and invasiveness, while ING5 knockdown in lung cancer H1299 cells promoted cell aggressiveness. ING5 overexpression also abrogated tumor growth and invasive abilities of lung cancer cells in mouse xenograft models. Further study showed that ING5 overexpression inhibited EMT indicated by increase of E-cadherin and decrease of N-cadherin, Snail and slug at mRNA and protein levels, which was accompanied with morphological changes. cDNA microarray and subsequent qRT-PCR validation revealed that ING5 significantly downregulated expression of EMT (epithelial to mesenchymal transition)-inducing genes including CEACAM6, BMP2 and CDH11. Clinical study by tissue microarray showed that nuclear ING5 negatively correlated with clinical stages and lymph node metastasis of lung cancer. Furthermore, high level of nuclear ING5 was associated with a better prognosis. Taken together, these findings uncover an important role for ING5 as a potent tumor suppressor in lung cancer growth and metastasis.

Tallen G, Riabowol K
Keep-ING balance: tumor suppression by epigenetic regulation.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(16):2728-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer cells accumulate genetic and epigenetic changes that alter gene expression to drive tumorigenesis. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor, cell cycle, differentiation and DNA repair genes contributes to neoplastic transformation. The ING (inhibitor of growth) proteins (ING1-ING5) have emerged as a versatile family of growth regulators, phospholipid effectors, histone mark sensors and core components of HDAC1/2 - and several HAT chromatin-modifying complexes. This review will describe the characteristic pathways by which ING family proteins differentially affect the Hallmarks of Cancer and highlight the various epigenetic mechanisms by which they regulate gene expression. Finally, we will discuss their potentials as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in epigenetic treatment strategies.

Liu M, Du Y, Gao J, et al.
Aberrant expression miR-196a is associated with abnormal apoptosis, invasion, and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells.
Pancreas. 2013; 42(7):1169-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: MiR-196a levels inversely correlated with survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients. However, the functional contributions of miR-196a to pancreatic cancer remain unclear.
METHODS: Three lentiviral vectors encoding microRNA miR-196a precursor, inhibitor, and scrambled microRNA oligomer were transfected into Panc-1 cells, respectively. Then we explored the regulation of inhibitor of growth 5 (ING5) expression by miR-196a and its impact on apoptosis, invasion, and growth of pancreatic cancer cells. The lentiviral transfected Panc-1 cells were surgically implanted into the pancreas of mice. In vivo tumor growth and ING5 expression were measured.
RESULTS: Down-regulation of ING5 expression was detected in cells transfected with miR-196a precursor (P < 0.01), accompanied by less apoptosis, increased invasion, and proliferation compared with control cells (P < 0.05). Cells transfected with miR-196a inhibitor revealed an opposite trend. Smaller detectable tumors were found in only 60% of mice after implantation of Lenti.miR-196a inhibitor-transfected Panc-1 cells compared with controls (360.7 ± 303.6 mm vs 511.58 ± 365.9 mm in controls; P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Our results provide experimental evidence to support aberrant expression of miR-196a is associated with abnormal apoptosis, invasion, and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells.

Wang W, Zhu W, Xu XY, et al.
The clinicopathological significance of REIC expression in colorectal carcinomas.
Histol Histopathol. 2012; 27(6):735-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
REIC is down-regulated in immortalized cell lines compared with the parental normal counterparts, and could inhibit colony formation, tumor growth and induce apoptosis. Here, its expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray containing colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM), adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Colorectal carcinoma tissue and cell lines were studied for REIC expression or its secretory level by Western blot, RT-PCR or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results demonstrated that REIC was differentially expressed in Colo201, Colo205, DLD-1, HCT-15, HCT-116, HT-29, KM-12, SW480, SW620, and WiDr with its secretion concentration less than 300 pg/mL. Carcinomas showed statistically lower REIC expression than matched NNM with no difference for protein content. Immunohistochemically, REIC expression was significantly decreased from NNM, adenoma to adenocarcinoma (p<0.05). REIC expression was negatively correlated with depth of invasion, TNM staging, dedifferentiation, Capase-3 and nuclear inhibitor of growth 5 (ING5) expression (p<0.05), while not with age, sex, tumor size, lymphatic or venous invasion, or lymph node metastasis (p>0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that REIC expression was not associated with the prognosis of colorectal carcinomas (p>0.05). Cox's analysis demonstrated that lymphatic and venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, and UICC staging were independent prognostic factors for carcinoma (p<0.05). Our study indicated that down-regulated REIC expression might play an important role in colorectal adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence and subsequent progression. Aberrant REIC expression might be employed as a good marker of pathogenesis and development of colorectal carcinomas.

Zhang F, Bäumer N, Rode M, et al.
The inhibitor of growth protein 5 (ING5) depends on INCA1 as a co-factor for its antiproliferative effects.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(7):e21505 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The proteins of the Inhibitor of Growth (ING) family are involved in multiple cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and chromatin remodeling. For ING5, its actual role in growth suppression and the necessary partners are not known. In a yeast-two-hybrid approach with human bone marrow derived cDNA, we identified ING5 as well as several other proteins as interaction partners of Inhibitor of cyclin A1 (INCA1) that we previously characterized as a novel interaction partner of cyclin A1/CDK2. ING5 expression in leukemic AML blasts was severely reduced compared to normal bone marrow. In line, ING5 inhibited bone marrow colony formation upon retroviral transduction. However, Inca1(-/-) bone marrow colony formation was not suppressed by ING5. In murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells from Inca1(+/+) and Inca1(-/-) mice, overexpression of ING5 suppressed cell proliferation only in the presence of INCA1, while ING5 had no effect in Inca1(-/-) MEFs. ING5 overexpression induced a delay in S-phase progression, which required INCA1. Finally, ING5 overexpression enhanced Fas-induced apoptosis in Inca1(+/+) MEFs, while Inca1(-/-) MEFs were protected from Fas antibody-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that ING5 is a growth suppressor with suppressed expression in AML whose functions depend on its interaction with INCA1.

Mendes-Pereira AM, Sims D, Dexter T, et al.
Genome-wide functional screen identifies a compendium of genes affecting sensitivity to tamoxifen.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(8):2730-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Therapies that target estrogen signaling have made a very considerable contribution to reducing mortality from breast cancer. However, resistance to tamoxifen remains a major clinical problem. Here we have used a genome-wide functional profiling approach to identify multiple genes that confer resistance or sensitivity to tamoxifen. Combining whole-genome shRNA screening with massively parallel sequencing, we have profiled the impact of more than 56,670 RNA interference reagents targeting 16,487 genes on the cellular response to tamoxifen. This screen, along with subsequent validation experiments, identifies a compendium of genes whose silencing causes tamoxifen resistance (including BAP1, CLPP, GPRC5D, NAE1, NF1, NIPBL, NSD1, RAD21, RARG, SMC3, and UBA3) and also a set of genes whose silencing causes sensitivity to this endocrine agent (C10orf72, C15orf55/NUT, EDF1, ING5, KRAS, NOC3L, PPP1R15B, RRAS2, TMPRSS2, and TPM4). Multiple individual genes, including NF1, a regulator of RAS signaling, also correlate with clinical outcome after tamoxifen treatment.

Xing YN, Yang X, Xu XY, et al.
The altered expression of ING5 protein is involved in gastric carcinogenesis and subsequent progression.
Hum Pathol. 2011; 42(1):25-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
ING5 can interact with p53, thereby inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis. To clarify the roles of ING5 in gastric tumorigenesis and progression, its expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing gastric nonneoplastic mucosa (n = 119), dysplasia (n = 50), and carcinomas (n = 429), with its comparison with clinicopathologic parameters of the carcinomas. ING5 expression was analyzed in gastric carcinoma tissues and cell lines (MKN28, MKN45, AGS, GT-3 TKB, and KATO-III) by Western blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. ING5 protein was found to distribute to the nuclei of gastric carcinoma cells with similar messenger RNA levels. An increased expression of ING5 messenger RNA was observed in gastric carcinoma in comparison with paired mucosa (P < .05). Lower expression of nuclear ING5 was detected in gastric dysplasia and carcinoma than that in nonneoplastic mucosa (P < .05). Gastric nonneoplastic mucosa and metastatic carcinoma showed more expression of cytoplasmic ING5 than did gastric carcinoma and dysplasia (P < .05). Nuclear ING5 expression was negatively correlated with tumor size, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, and clinicopathologic staging (P < .05), whereas cytoplasmic ING5 was positively associated with depth of invasion, venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, and clinicopathologic staging (P < .05). Nuclear ING5 was more expressed in older than younger carcinoma patients (P < .05). There was a higher expression of nuclear ING5 in intestinal-type than diffuse-type carcinoma (P < .05), whereas it was the converse for cytoplasmic ING5 (P < .05). Survival analysis indicated that nuclear ING5 was closely linked to favorable prognosis of carcinoma patients (P < .05), albeit not independent. It was suggested that aberrant ING5 expression may contribute to pathogenesis, growth, and invasion of gastric carcinomas and could be considered as a promising marker to gauge aggressiveness and prognosis of gastric carcinoma.

Borkosky SS, Gunduz M, Beder L, et al.
Allelic loss of the ING gene family loci is a frequent event in ameloblastoma.
Oncol Res. 2010; 18(10):509-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ameloblastoma is the most frequently encountered odontogenic tumor, characterized by a locally invasive behavior, frequent recurrences, and, although rare, metastatic capacity. Loss or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) allows cells to acquire neoplastic growth. The ING family proteins are tumor suppressors that physically and functionally interact with p53 to perform important roles in apoptosis, DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, and senescence. TP53 genetic alterations were reported to infrequently occur in ameloblastoma. Considering that other TSGs related to TP53 could be altered in this tumor, we focused our study on the ING family genes. We analyzed the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) status of the ING family (ING1-ING5) chromosomal loci in a group of ameloblastomas by microsatellite analysis, and correlated the ING LOH status with clinicopathological characteristics. By using specific microsatellite markers, high frequency of LOH was found at the loci of each ING gene family member (33.3-72.2%). A significant relationship was shown between LOH of D2S 140 (ING5 locus) and solid tumor type (p = 0.02). LOH of ING3MS (ING3 locus) was also high in solid type tumors, showing a near significant association. In addition, a notable tendency toward higher LOH for half of the markers was observed in recurrent cases. LOH of ING family genes appears as a common genetic alteration in solid ameloblastoma. The current study provides interesting novel information regarding the potential prognostic significance of the allelic loss of the ING gene family loci in ameloblastoma tumorigenesis.

Li X, Nishida T, Noguchi A, et al.
Decreased nuclear expression and increased cytoplasmic expression of ING5 may be linked to tumorigenesis and progression in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010; 136(10):1573-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the protein level of inhibitor of growth gene 5 (ING5) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and to explore its roles in tumorigenesis and cancer progression.
METHODS: ING5 expression was assessed in 172 cases of HNSCC by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray, and in 3 oral SCC cell lines by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Expression of ING5 was compared with clinicopathological variables, TUNEL assay staining, and the expression of several tumorigenic markers. In addition, double immunofluorescence labeling was performed in order to analyze the colocalization of ING5 with p300 and p21.
RESULTS: ING5 expression was primarily observed in the nuclei, but was also occasionally found in the cytoplasm of both SCC cell lines and tissue samples of HNSCC. Nuclear expression of ING5 in HNSCC was significantly lower than that of non-cancerous epithelium, and was positively correlated with a well-differentiated status. In contrast, cytoplasmic expression of ING5 was significantly increased in HNSCC, and was inversely correlated with a well-differentiated status and nuclear ING5 expression. In addition, nuclear expression of ING5 was positively correlated with p21 and p300 expression, and with the apoptotic index. In contrast, cytoplasmic expression of ING5 was negatively correlated with the expression of p300, p21, and PCNA. Although no statistical association was found between the expression of nuclear ING5 and mutant p53 in HNSCC, patients with high expression of nuclear ING5 tended to have converse prognoses when grouped according to mutant p53 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a decrease in nuclear ING5 localization and cytoplasmic translocation are involved in tumorigenesis and tumor differentiation in HNSCC. Nuclear ING5 may modulate the transactivation of target genes, and may promote apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by interacting with the p300 and p21 proteins. ING5 may function as a tumor suppressor gene or oncogene tightly linked with p53 status, and may play an important role in the prognosis of HNSCC patients. Therefore, we propose that ING5 represents a novel potential molecular therapeutic target for HNSCC.

Cengiz B, Gunduz E, Gunduz M, et al.
Tumor-specific mutation and downregulation of ING5 detected in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2010; 127(9):2088-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous study showed high frequency of allelic loss at chromosome 2q37 region in oral cancer. This location contains several candidate tumor suppressor genes such as PPP1R7, ILKAP, DTYMK and ING5. We previously showed 3 members of inhibitor of growth (ING) family, ING1, ING3 and ING4 as tumor suppressor gene in head and neck cancer. As ING5 shows high homology with other members of ING genes including highly conserved carboxy-terminal plant homeodomain and nuclear localization signal, we first picked up ING5 and examined it as a possible tumor suppressor in oral cancer. For this aim, mutation and mRNA expression status of ING5 in paired normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma samples were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing. Three missense mutations located within leucine zipper like (LZL) finger and novel conserved region (NCR) domains in ING5 protein were detected, probably abrogating its normal function. We also found 5 different alternative splicing variants of ING5. Then, we examined mRNA level of ING5 by quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, which demonstrated decreased expression of ING5 mRNA in 61% of the primary tumors as compared to the matched normal samples. In conclusion, tumor-specific mutation and downregulation of ING5 mRNA suggested it as a tumor suppressor gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Cengiz B, Gunduz M, Nagatsuka H, et al.
Fine deletion mapping of chromosome 2q21-37 shows three preferentially deleted regions in oral cancer.
Oral Oncol. 2007; 43(3):241-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
We analysed the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of long arm of chromosome 2 by using 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in 39 matched oral normal and cancer tissues, and defined the deletional mapping of the region with putative tumor suppressor genes. LOH was detected at least one location in 33 of 39 (85%) tumor tissues. Frequent deletions were detected at the locations of microsatellite markers, D2S2304 (35%), D2S111 (40%), D2S155 (35%), D2S1327 (29%), D2S164 (29%), D2S125 (68%) and D2S140 (32%). Three preferentially deleted regions at 2q21-24, 2q33-35 and 2q37.3 were observed. Several candidate tumor suppressor genes in these regions such as LRP1B, CASP8, CASP10, BARD1, ILKAP, PPP1R7, and ING5, are located. Further molecular analysis of each gene should be performed to clarify their roles in oral carcinogenesis.

Shiseki M, Nagashima M, Pedeux RM, et al.
p29ING4 and p28ING5 bind to p53 and p300, and enhance p53 activity.
Cancer Res. 2003; 63(10):2373-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We identified and characterized two new ING family genes, p29ING4 and p28ING5,coding for two proteins of 249 and 240 amino acids, respectively. Both p29ING4 and p28ING5 proteins have a plant homeodomain finger motif also found in other ING proteins, and which is common in proteins involved in chromatin remodeling. p29ING4 or p28ING5 overexpression resulted in a diminished colony-forming efficiency, a decreased cell population in S phase, and the induction of apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. Both p29ING4 and p28ING5 activate the p21/waf1 promoter, and induce p21/WAF1 expression. p29ING4 and p28ING5 enhance p53 acetylation at Lys-382 residues, and physically interact with p300, a member of histone acetyl transferase complexes, and p53 in vivo. These results indicate that p29ING4 and p28ING5 may be significant modulators of p53 function.

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