|Gene:||ING5; inhibitor of growth family, member 5|
|Aliases: || p28ING5 |
|Summary:||The protein encoded by this gene is similar to ING1, a tumor suppressor protein that can interact with TP53, inhibit cell growth, and induce apoptosis. This protein contains a PHD-finger, which is a common motif in proteins involved in chromatin remodeling. This protein can bind TP53 and EP300/p300, a component of the histone acetyl transferase complex, suggesting its involvement in TP53-dependent regulatory pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]|
|Databases:||OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene|
|Protein:||inhibitor of growth protein 5|
|Updated:||14 December, 2014|
What does this gene/protein do?
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: ING5 (cancer-related)
Tallen G, Riabowol KKeep-ING balance: tumor suppression by epigenetic regulation.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(16):2728-42 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cancer cells accumulate genetic and epigenetic changes that alter gene expression to drive tumorigenesis. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor, cell cycle, differentiation and DNA repair genes contributes to neoplastic transformation. The ING (inhibitor of growth) proteins (ING1-ING5) have emerged as a versatile family of growth regulators, phospholipid effectors, histone mark sensors and core components of HDAC1/2 - and several HAT chromatin-modifying complexes. This review will describe the characteristic pathways by which ING family proteins differentially affect the Hallmarks of Cancer and highlight the various epigenetic mechanisms by which they regulate gene expression. Finally, we will discuss their potentials as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in epigenetic treatment strategies.Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction
Liu M, Du Y, Gao J, et al.Aberrant expression miR-196a is associated with abnormal apoptosis, invasion, and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells.
Pancreas. 2013; 42(7):1169-81 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MiR-196a levels inversely correlated with survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients. However, the functional contributions of miR-196a to pancreatic cancer remain unclear.METHODS:
Three lentiviral vectors encoding microRNA miR-196a precursor, inhibitor, and scrambled microRNA oligomer were transfected into Panc-1 cells, respectively. Then we explored the regulation of inhibitor of growth 5 (ING5) expression by miR-196a and its impact on apoptosis, invasion, and growth of pancreatic cancer cells. The lentiviral transfected Panc-1 cells were surgically implanted into the pancreas of mice. In vivo tumor growth and ING5 expression were measured.RESULTS:
Down-regulation of ING5 expression was detected in cells transfected with miR-196a precursor (P < 0.01), accompanied by less apoptosis, increased invasion, and proliferation compared with control cells (P < 0.05). Cells transfected with miR-196a inhibitor revealed an opposite trend. Smaller detectable tumors were found in only 60% of mice after implantation of Lenti.miR-196a inhibitor-transfected Panc-1 cells compared with controls (360.7 ± 303.6 mm vs 511.58 ± 365.9 mm in controls; P < 0.01).CONCLUSION:
Our results provide experimental evidence to support aberrant expression of miR-196a is associated with abnormal apoptosis, invasion, and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells.Related: Apoptosis Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer
Wang W, Zhu W, Xu XY, et al.The clinicopathological significance of REIC expression in colorectal carcinomas.
Histol Histopathol. 2012; 27(6):735-43 [PubMed
] Related Publications
REIC is down-regulated in immortalized cell lines compared with the parental normal counterparts, and could inhibit colony formation, tumor growth and induce apoptosis. Here, its expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray containing colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM), adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Colorectal carcinoma tissue and cell lines were studied for REIC expression or its secretory level by Western blot, RT-PCR or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results demonstrated that REIC was differentially expressed in Colo201, Colo205, DLD-1, HCT-15, HCT-116, HT-29, KM-12, SW480, SW620, and WiDr with its secretion concentration less than 300 pg/mL. Carcinomas showed statistically lower REIC expression than matched NNM with no difference for protein content. Immunohistochemically, REIC expression was significantly decreased from NNM, adenoma to adenocarcinoma (p<0.05). REIC expression was negatively correlated with depth of invasion, TNM staging, dedifferentiation, Capase-3 and nuclear inhibitor of growth 5 (ING5) expression (p<0.05), while not with age, sex, tumor size, lymphatic or venous invasion, or lymph node metastasis (p>0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that REIC expression was not associated with the prognosis of colorectal carcinomas (p>0.05). Cox's analysis demonstrated that lymphatic and venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, and UICC staging were independent prognostic factors for carcinoma (p<0.05). Our study indicated that down-regulated REIC expression might play an important role in colorectal adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence and subsequent progression. Aberrant REIC expression might be employed as a good marker of pathogenesis and development of colorectal carcinomas.Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer
The proteins of the Inhibitor of Growth (ING) family are involved in multiple cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and chromatin remodeling. For ING5, its actual role in growth suppression and the necessary partners are not known. In a yeast-two-hybrid approach with human bone marrow derived cDNA, we identified ING5 as well as several other proteins as interaction partners of Inhibitor of cyclin A1 (INCA1) that we previously characterized as a novel interaction partner of cyclin A1/CDK2. ING5 expression in leukemic AML blasts was severely reduced compared to normal bone marrow. In line, ING5 inhibited bone marrow colony formation upon retroviral transduction. However, Inca1(-/-) bone marrow colony formation was not suppressed by ING5. In murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells from Inca1(+/+) and Inca1(-/-) mice, overexpression of ING5 suppressed cell proliferation only in the presence of INCA1, while ING5 had no effect in Inca1(-/-) MEFs. ING5 overexpression induced a delay in S-phase progression, which required INCA1. Finally, ING5 overexpression enhanced Fas-induced apoptosis in Inca1(+/+) MEFs, while Inca1(-/-) MEFs were protected from Fas antibody-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that ING5 is a growth suppressor with suppressed expression in AML whose functions depend on its interaction with INCA1.Related: Apoptosis
Therapies that target estrogen signaling have made a very considerable contribution to reducing mortality from breast cancer. However, resistance to tamoxifen remains a major clinical problem. Here we have used a genome-wide functional profiling approach to identify multiple genes that confer resistance or sensitivity to tamoxifen. Combining whole-genome shRNA screening with massively parallel sequencing, we have profiled the impact of more than 56,670 RNA interference reagents targeting 16,487 genes on the cellular response to tamoxifen. This screen, along with subsequent validation experiments, identifies a compendium of genes whose silencing causes tamoxifen resistance (including BAP1, CLPP, GPRC5D, NAE1, NF1, NIPBL, NSD1, RAD21, RARG, SMC3, and UBA3) and also a set of genes whose silencing causes sensitivity to this endocrine agent (C10orf72, C15orf55/NUT, EDF1, ING5, KRAS, NOC3L, PPP1R15B, RRAS2, TMPRSS2, and TPM4). Multiple individual genes, including NF1, a regulator of RAS signaling, also correlate with clinical outcome after tamoxifen treatment.Related: Breast Cancer Signal Transduction
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded EBNA3C is one of the latent proteins essential for the efficient transformation of human primary B lymphocytes into continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) in vitro through manipulation of a number of major cellular pathways. Although it does not have direct DNA-binding activity, EBNA3C plays a central role in the transcriptional modulation of a wide range of both viral and cellular genes during latent infection. Recently, we showed that EBNA3C can directly bind to the tumor suppressor protein p53 and repress its functions, in part by blocking its transcriptional activity as well as facilitating its degradation through stabilization of its negative regulator, Mdm2. In this study, we further showed that EBNA3C can negatively regulate p53-mediated functions by interacting with its regulatory proteins, the inhibitor of growth family proteins ING4 and ING5, shown to be frequently deregulated in different cancers. Functional mapping revealed that both ING4 and ING5 bound to N-terminal domain residues 129 to 200 of EBNA3C, which was previously demonstrated to associate with p53 and is also essential for LCL growth. In addition, we showed that a conserved domain of either ING4 or ING5 bound to both p53 and EBNA3C in a competitive manner, suggesting a potential role for EBNA3C whereby the ING4 or -5/p53 pathway is modulated in EBV-infected cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated that EBNA3C significantly suppresses both the ING4- and ING5-mediated regulation of p53 transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. A colony formation assay as well as an apoptosis assay showed that EBNA3C nullified the negative regulatory effects on cell proliferation induced by coupled expression of p53 in the presence of either ING4 or ING5 in Saos-2 (p53(-/-)) cells. This report demonstrates a possible role for the candidate tumor suppressor ING genes in the biology of EBV-associated cancers.Related: TP53 ING4
Xing YN, Yang X, Xu XY, et al.The altered expression of ING5 protein is involved in gastric carcinogenesis and subsequent progression.
Hum Pathol. 2011; 42(1):25-35 [PubMed
] Related Publications
ING5 can interact with p53, thereby inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis. To clarify the roles of ING5 in gastric tumorigenesis and progression, its expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing gastric nonneoplastic mucosa (n = 119), dysplasia (n = 50), and carcinomas (n = 429), with its comparison with clinicopathologic parameters of the carcinomas. ING5 expression was analyzed in gastric carcinoma tissues and cell lines (MKN28, MKN45, AGS, GT-3 TKB, and KATO-III) by Western blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. ING5 protein was found to distribute to the nuclei of gastric carcinoma cells with similar messenger RNA levels. An increased expression of ING5 messenger RNA was observed in gastric carcinoma in comparison with paired mucosa (P < .05). Lower expression of nuclear ING5 was detected in gastric dysplasia and carcinoma than that in nonneoplastic mucosa (P < .05). Gastric nonneoplastic mucosa and metastatic carcinoma showed more expression of cytoplasmic ING5 than did gastric carcinoma and dysplasia (P < .05). Nuclear ING5 expression was negatively correlated with tumor size, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, and clinicopathologic staging (P < .05), whereas cytoplasmic ING5 was positively associated with depth of invasion, venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, and clinicopathologic staging (P < .05). Nuclear ING5 was more expressed in older than younger carcinoma patients (P < .05). There was a higher expression of nuclear ING5 in intestinal-type than diffuse-type carcinoma (P < .05), whereas it was the converse for cytoplasmic ING5 (P < .05). Survival analysis indicated that nuclear ING5 was closely linked to favorable prognosis of carcinoma patients (P < .05), albeit not independent. It was suggested that aberrant ING5 expression may contribute to pathogenesis, growth, and invasion of gastric carcinomas and could be considered as a promising marker to gauge aggressiveness and prognosis of gastric carcinoma.Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer
Borkosky SS, Gunduz M, Beder L, et al.Allelic loss of the ING gene family loci is a frequent event in ameloblastoma.
Oncol Res. 2010; 18(10):509-18 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Ameloblastoma is the most frequently encountered odontogenic tumor, characterized by a locally invasive behavior, frequent recurrences, and, although rare, metastatic capacity. Loss or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) allows cells to acquire neoplastic growth. The ING family proteins are tumor suppressors that physically and functionally interact with p53 to perform important roles in apoptosis, DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, and senescence. TP53 genetic alterations were reported to infrequently occur in ameloblastoma. Considering that other TSGs related to TP53 could be altered in this tumor, we focused our study on the ING family genes. We analyzed the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) status of the ING family (ING1-ING5) chromosomal loci in a group of ameloblastomas by microsatellite analysis, and correlated the ING LOH status with clinicopathological characteristics. By using specific microsatellite markers, high frequency of LOH was found at the loci of each ING gene family member (33.3-72.2%). A significant relationship was shown between LOH of D2S 140 (ING5 locus) and solid tumor type (p = 0.02). LOH of ING3MS (ING3 locus) was also high in solid type tumors, showing a near significant association. In addition, a notable tendency toward higher LOH for half of the markers was observed in recurrent cases. LOH of ING family genes appears as a common genetic alteration in solid ameloblastoma. The current study provides interesting novel information regarding the potential prognostic significance of the allelic loss of the ING gene family loci in ameloblastoma tumorigenesis.Related: ING1 ING4
Li X, Nishida T, Noguchi A, et al.Decreased nuclear expression and increased cytoplasmic expression of ING5 may be linked to tumorigenesis and progression in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010; 136(10):1573-83 [PubMed
] Related Publications
This study aimed to assess the protein level of inhibitor of growth gene 5 (ING5) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and to explore its roles in tumorigenesis and cancer progression.METHODS:
ING5 expression was assessed in 172 cases of HNSCC by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray, and in 3 oral SCC cell lines by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Expression of ING5 was compared with clinicopathological variables, TUNEL assay staining, and the expression of several tumorigenic markers. In addition, double immunofluorescence labeling was performed in order to analyze the colocalization of ING5 with p300 and p21.RESULTS:
ING5 expression was primarily observed in the nuclei, but was also occasionally found in the cytoplasm of both SCC cell lines and tissue samples of HNSCC. Nuclear expression of ING5 in HNSCC was significantly lower than that of non-cancerous epithelium, and was positively correlated with a well-differentiated status. In contrast, cytoplasmic expression of ING5 was significantly increased in HNSCC, and was inversely correlated with a well-differentiated status and nuclear ING5 expression. In addition, nuclear expression of ING5 was positively correlated with p21 and p300 expression, and with the apoptotic index. In contrast, cytoplasmic expression of ING5 was negatively correlated with the expression of p300, p21, and PCNA. Although no statistical association was found between the expression of nuclear ING5 and mutant p53 in HNSCC, patients with high expression of nuclear ING5 tended to have converse prognoses when grouped according to mutant p53 expression.CONCLUSIONS:
Our results suggest that a decrease in nuclear ING5 localization and cytoplasmic translocation are involved in tumorigenesis and tumor differentiation in HNSCC. Nuclear ING5 may modulate the transactivation of target genes, and may promote apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by interacting with the p300 and p21 proteins. ING5 may function as a tumor suppressor gene or oncogene tightly linked with p53 status, and may play an important role in the prognosis of HNSCC patients. Therefore, we propose that ING5 represents a novel potential molecular therapeutic target for HNSCC.Related: CDKN1A EP300 gene Head and Neck Cancers Head and Neck Cancers - Molecular Biology TP53
Cengiz B, Gunduz E, Gunduz M, et al.Tumor-specific mutation and downregulation of ING5 detected in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2010; 127(9):2088-94 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Our previous study showed high frequency of allelic loss at chromosome 2q37 region in oral cancer. This location contains several candidate tumor suppressor genes such as PPP1R7, ILKAP, DTYMK and ING5. We previously showed 3 members of inhibitor of growth (ING) family, ING1, ING3 and ING4 as tumor suppressor gene in head and neck cancer. As ING5 shows high homology with other members of ING genes including highly conserved carboxy-terminal plant homeodomain and nuclear localization signal, we first picked up ING5 and examined it as a possible tumor suppressor in oral cancer. For this aim, mutation and mRNA expression status of ING5 in paired normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma samples were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing. Three missense mutations located within leucine zipper like (LZL) finger and novel conserved region (NCR) domains in ING5 protein were detected, probably abrogating its normal function. We also found 5 different alternative splicing variants of ING5. Then, we examined mRNA level of ING5 by quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, which demonstrated decreased expression of ING5 mRNA in 61% of the primary tumors as compared to the matched normal samples. In conclusion, tumor-specific mutation and downregulation of ING5 mRNA suggested it as a tumor suppressor gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma.Related: Oral Cancer
Cengiz B, Gunduz M, Nagatsuka H, et al.Fine deletion mapping of chromosome 2q21-37 shows three preferentially deleted regions in oral cancer.
Oral Oncol. 2007; 43(3):241-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We analysed the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of long arm of chromosome 2 by using 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in 39 matched oral normal and cancer tissues, and defined the deletional mapping of the region with putative tumor suppressor genes. LOH was detected at least one location in 33 of 39 (85%) tumor tissues. Frequent deletions were detected at the locations of microsatellite markers, D2S2304 (35%), D2S111 (40%), D2S155 (35%), D2S1327 (29%), D2S164 (29%), D2S125 (68%) and D2S140 (32%). Three preferentially deleted regions at 2q21-24, 2q33-35 and 2q37.3 were observed. Several candidate tumor suppressor genes in these regions such as LRP1B, CASP8, CASP10, BARD1, ILKAP, PPP1R7, and ING5, are located. Further molecular analysis of each gene should be performed to clarify their roles in oral carcinogenesis.Related: Chromosome 2 Oral Cancer
Shiseki M, Nagashima M, Pedeux RM, et al.p29ING4 and p28ING5 bind to p53 and p300, and enhance p53 activity.
Cancer Res. 2003; 63(10):2373-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We identified and characterized two new ING family genes, p29ING4 and p28ING5,coding for two proteins of 249 and 240 amino acids, respectively. Both p29ING4 and p28ING5 proteins have a plant homeodomain finger motif also found in other ING proteins, and which is common in proteins involved in chromatin remodeling. p29ING4 or p28ING5 overexpression resulted in a diminished colony-forming efficiency, a decreased cell population in S phase, and the induction of apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. Both p29ING4 and p28ING5 activate the p21/waf1 promoter, and induce p21/WAF1 expression. p29ING4 and p28ING5 enhance p53 acetylation at Lys-382 residues, and physically interact with p300, a member of histone acetyl transferase complexes, and p53 in vivo. These results indicate that p29ING4 and p28ING5 may be significant modulators of p53 function.Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer TP53 ING4