ING4; inhibitor of growth family, member 4 (12p13.31)

Gene Summary

Gene:ING4; inhibitor of growth family, member 4
Aliases: my036, p29ING4
Summary:This gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein that contains a PHD-finger, which is a common motif in proteins involved in chromatin remodeling. This protein can bind TP53 and EP300/p300, a component of the histone acetyl transferase complex, suggesting its involvement in the TP53-dependent regulatory pathway. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed that encode distinct proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:inhibitor of growth protein 4
Updated:14 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (20)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cell Growth Processes
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • ING4
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Cell Cycle
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Division
  • Protein Binding
  • MicroRNAs
  • Lung Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Down-Regulation
  • Genetic Therapy
  • Mutation
  • Cell Movement
  • Angiogenesis
  • Messenger RNA
  • Tumor Markers
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Melanoma
  • Transfection
  • Up-Regulation
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Chromosome 12
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Gene Expression
  • NF-kappa B
  • p300-CBP Transcription Factors
  • RHOA
  • Adenoviridae
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Disease Progression
  • Base Sequence
  • Western Blotting
Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (5)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Lung CancerING4 and Lung Cancer View Publications7
Breast CancerING4 and Breast Cancer View Publications5
Stomach CancerING4 and Stomach Cancer View Publications5
MelanomaING4 and Melanoma View Publications4
Pancreatic CancerING4 and Pancreatic Cancer View Publications3

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: ING4 (cancer-related)

Guérillon C, Bigot N, Pedeux R
The ING tumor suppressor genes: status in human tumors.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 345(1):1-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
ING genes (ING1-5) were identified has tumor suppressor genes. ING proteins are characterized as Type II TSGs since they are involved in the control of cell proliferation, apoptosis and senescence. They may also function as Type I TSGs since they are also involved in DNA replication and repair. Most studies have reported that they are frequently lost in human tumors and epigenetic mechanisms or misregulation of their transcription may be involved. Recently, studies have described that this loss may be caused by microRNA inhibition. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on ING functions, their involvement in tumor suppression and, in order to give a full assessment of the current knowledge, we review all the studies that have examined ING status in human cancers.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction ING1

Stewart DJ
Wnt signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(1):djt356 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wnt/β-catenin alterations are prominent in human malignancies. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), β-catenin and APC mutations are uncommon, but Wnt signaling is important in NSCLC cell lines, and Wnt inhibition reduces proliferation. Overexpression of Wnt-1, -2, -3, and -5a and of Wnt-pathway components Frizzled-8, Dishevelled, Porcupine, and TCF-4 is common in resected NSCLC and is associated with poor prognosis. Conversely, noncanonical Wnt-7a suppresses NSCLC development and is often downregulated. Although β-catenin is often expressed in NSCLCs, it was paradoxically associated with improved prognosis in some series, possibly because of E-cadherin interactions. Downregulation of Wnt inhibitors (eg, by hypermethylation) is common in NSCLC tumor cell lines and resected samples; may be associated with high stage, dedifferentiation, and poor prognosis; and has been reported for AXIN, sFRPs 1-5, WIF-1, Dkk-1, Dkk-3, HDPR1, RUNX3, APC, CDX2, DACT2, TMEM88, Chibby, NKD1, EMX2, ING4, and miR-487b. AXIN is also destabilized by tankyrases, and GSK3β may be inactivated through phosphorylation by EGFR. Preclinically, restoration of Wnt inhibitor function is associated with reduced Wnt signaling, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis. Wnt signaling may also augment resistance to cisplatin, docetaxel, and radiotherapy, and Wnt inhibitors may restore sensitivity. Overall, available data indicate that Wnt signaling substantially impacts NSCLC tumorigenesis, prognosis, and resistance to therapy, with loss of Wnt signaling inhibitors by promoter hypermethylation or other mechanisms appearing to be particularly important. Wnt pathway antagonists warrant exploration clinically in NSCLC. Agents blocking selected specific β-catenin interactions and approaches to increase expression of downregulated Wnt inhibitors may be of particular interest.

Related: Apoptosis Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer CTNNB1 gene

Lu J, Tang Y, Cheng Y, et al.
ING4 regulates JWA in angiogenesis and their prognostic value in melanoma patients.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 109(11):2842-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that inhibitor of growth family member 4 (ING4) inhibits melanoma angiogenesis, and JWA suppresses the metastasis of melanoma cells. As angiogenesis is essential for tumour metastasis, further investigation of the function of ING4 and JWA in melanoma angiogenesis is needed, and their prognostic value are of great interest.
METHODS: Western blot, tube-formation assays and luciferase assays were used to investigate the correlation between ING4 and JWA in melanoma angiogenesis. JWA and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) expression was determined on a tissue microarray constructed from 175 biopsies.
RESULTS: ING4 promoted JWA expression by activating JWA promoter. Furthermore, the regulation of growth and tube formation of endothelial cells by ING4 was partially JWA dependent. Also, ING4 inhibited the ILK-induced angiogenesis signalling pathway via JWA. Moreover, reduced JWA, or increased ILK, expression was closely associated with 5-year disease-specific survival of melanoma patients (P=0.001 and 0.007, respectively). There was also a positive correlation between ING4 and JWA yet a negative correlation between ING4 and ILK. Importantly, their concomitant expressions were significantly related to 5-year survival of melanoma patients (P=0.002 and 0.003, respectively).
CONCLUSION: JWA has an important role in ING4-regulated melanoma angiogenesis, and ING4/JWA/ILK are promising prognostic markers and may be used as anti-angiogenic therapeutic targets for melanoma.

Related: Melanoma Angiogenesis and Cancer Skin Cancer

Li S, Fan T, Liu H, et al.
Tumor suppressor ING4 overexpression contributes to proliferation and invasion inhibition in gastric carcinoma by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway.
Mol Biol Rep. 2013; 40(10):5723-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is growing evidence that inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) plays a pivotal role in development and progression of multiple different tumors; however, its precise function in gastric carcinoma remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated ING4 level in gastric carcinoma tissues and cells, and preliminarily elucidated the role of ING4 in the proliferation and invasion of gastric carcinoma. The results demonstrated that expressions of ING4 mRNA and protein in gastric carcinoma tissues and cells were significantly lower than those in normal tissues and cells (P < 0.05). ING4 level in gastric carcinoma cells stably expressing ING4 was markedly higher than those in untreated group and empty vector pcDNA3.1 group (P < 0.05). Elevated ING4 level resulted in the inhibition of proliferation and invasion in three of gastric carcinoma cell lines MKN-28, SGC-7901 and MKN-45. Most notably, increased ING4 level evidently evoked the down-regulation of p65, p-IκBα, MMP-9 and uPA proteins and the up-regulation of IκBα protein. Our results presented herein suggest that ING4 level elevation mediated proliferation and invasion inhibition may be tightly associated with the suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway.

Related: Signal Transduction Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Mao ZL, He SB, Sheng WH, et al.
Adenovirus-mediated ING4 expression reduces multidrug resistance of human gastric carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(5):2187-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemotherapy is the primary treatment for both resectable and advanced gastric carcinoma, yet multiple drug resistance (MDR) of gastric carcinoma remains a significant therapeutic obstacle. The development of novel strategies to reduce MDR in gastric carcinoma would yield a better outcome following chemotherapy. ING4, a member of the inhibitor of growth (ING) tumor-suppressor family, possesses antitumor and radiosensitization or chemosensitization effects in a variety of human cancers. The present study investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of action of adenovirus-mediated ING4 (AdVING4) on the reversion of human gastric carcinoma cell MDR in vitro and in vivo in nude mouse xenografts. The data showed that the expression of ING4 mRNA and protein was dramatically downregulated (or lost) in gastric carcinoma SGC7901/CDDP cells after CDDP-induced MDR phenotype and in the parental SGC7901 cells. AdVING4‑induced ING4 expression reversed MDR and induced apoptosis of SGC7901/CDDP cells in vitro and in vivo in the SGC7901/CDDP xenograft tumors. Furthermore, AdVING4 substantially downregulated the expression of MDR-related proteins P-gp and MRP1 and apoptosis‑related proteins Bcl-2 and survivin, but upregulated the expression of apoptosis-related protein Bax in the SGC7901/CDDP xenograft tissues. The reversion effects elicited by AdVING4 on gastric cancer cell MDR were closely associated with the downregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporters and activation of apoptotic pathways. Thus, these findings suggest that AdVING4 may be a feasible modulator for the MDR phenotype of gastric carcinoma cells.

Related: Apoptosis Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Moreno A, Soleto I, García-Sanz P, et al.
ING4 regulates a secretory phenotype in primary fibroblasts with dual effects on cell proliferation and tumor growth.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(15):1945-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
ING proteins have an essential role in the control of a variety of cellular functions whose deregulation is associated with tumor formation and dissemination, such as proliferation, apoptosis, senescence or invasion. Accordingly, loss of function of ING proteins is a frequent event in many types of human tumors. In this report, we have studied the function of ING4, a member of the ING family of tumor suppressors, in the context of normal, non-transformed primary fibroblasts. We show that ING4 negatively regulates cell proliferation in this cell type. The antiproliferative action of ING4 requires its ability to recognize chromatin marks, it is p53-dependent at least in part, and it is lost in an ING4 cancer-associated mutant. Gene expression analysis shows that ING4 regulates the expression and release of soluble factors of the chemokine family. The secretory phenotype regulated by ING4 in primary fibroblasts displays a selective paracrine effect on proliferation, fostering the division of tumor cells, while inhibiting division in primary fibroblasts. Consistently, ING4-expressing fibroblasts promoted tumor growth in vivo in co-injection tumorigenesis assays. Collectively, our results show that ING4 not only can regulate the proliferation of primary non-transformed human fibroblasts, but also orchestrates a secretory phenotype in these cells that promotes tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. These findings support a critical role for ING4 expression in normal cells in the non-cell-autonomous regulation of tumor growth.

Related: Cytokines

Nanding A, Tang L, Cai L, et al.
Low ING4 protein expression detected by paraffin-section immunohistochemistry is associated with poor prognosis in untreated patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Gastric Cancer. 2014; 17(1):87-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) has deserved attention as a tumor suppressor gene in many malignant tumors. In our study, we investigated ING4 immunoexpression in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and its prognostic value.
METHOD: The expression of ING4 and Ki67 was investigated in 41 samples of various risk gastrointestinal stromal tumors by immunohistochemical technique. The associations of ING4 expression and clinicopathological parameters, and prognosis of the patients, were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression analysis.
RESULTS: ING4 expression showed a decreased trend from lower-risk to high-risk gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and an opposite trend for Ki67 expression. In lower-risk tumors, it was found the expression level of ING4 was 78.95 % ± 27.90 % and that of Ki67 was 4.42 % ± 3.75 %. However, in high-risk tumors, the expression level of ING4 was 9.23 % ± 7.66 % and that of Ki67 was 18.50 % ± 9.09 %. There was a strongly negative correlation between the expression levels of ING4 and Ki67. A significant difference was observed in the expression of ING4 between invasion and non-invasion (p < 0.001). The expression of ING4 was markedly correlated with tumor size (p < 0.001), mitotic index (p < 0.001), tumor necrosis (p = 0.021), invasion (p < 0.001), recurrence and metastasis (p = 0.021), and mortality (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: The low expression level of ING4 protein was correlated with high-risk GISTs. ING4 might be involved in the progression of GISTs and inhibit its invasion. ING4 might be one of the prognostic indicators in GISTs.

Related: Gastrointestinal System Cancers Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors MKI67

Zhao Y, Li Z, Sheng W, et al.
Radiosensitivity by ING4-IL-24 bicistronic adenovirus-mediated gene cotransfer on human breast cancer cells.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2013; 20(1):38-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is a common malignancy among women and is associated with poor 5-year survival rates. Gene radiotherapy, that is, gene therapy combined with radiotherapy, has been extensively studied as a new mode of therapy, but most studies have assessed only one gene. Here, we inserted two anti-oncogenes, ING4 (inhibitor of growth family member 4) and interleukin-24 (IL-24), in the same bicistronic adenovirus vector and explored the effect of dual-gene therapy combined with radiotherapy on breast cancer cells. Flow cytometry assays showed that adenovirus-mediated ING4 and IL-24 expression could suppress growth, promote apoptosis and induce G2/M cell-cycle arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, animal model studies demonstrated that the combination of ING4/IL-24 gene therapy and radiotherapy significantly suppressed cell proliferation and inhibited tumor growth (P<0.05). Mechanistically, the pro-apoptotic response likely involved the upregulation of Bax and Caspase-3 and the downregulation of Bcl-2. Thus, this study indicates that the co-expression of the two anti-oncogenes, ING4 and IL-24, could significantly promote radiotherapy sensitivity in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

Related: Apoptosis Breast Cancer IL24 (MDA7)

Byron SA, Min E, Thal TS, et al.
Negative regulation of NF-κB by the ING4 tumor suppressor in breast cancer.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e46823 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a key mediator of normal immune response but contributes to aggressive cancer cell phenotypes when aberrantly activated. Here we present evidence that the Inhibitor of Growth 4 (ING4) tumor suppressor negatively regulates NF-κB in breast cancer. We surveyed primary breast tumor samples for ING4 protein expression using tissue microarrays and a newly generated antibody. We found that 34% of tumors expressed undetectable to low levels of the ING4 protein (n = 227). Tumors with low ING4 expression were frequently large in size, high grade, and lymph node positive, suggesting that down-regulation of ING4 may contribute to breast cancer progression. In the same tumor set, we found that low ING4 expression correlated with high levels of nuclear phosphorylated p65/RelA (p-p65), an activated form of NF-κB (p = 0.018). Fifty seven percent of ING4-low/p-p65-high tumors were lymph node-positive, indicating a high metastatic tendency of these tumors. Conversely, ectopic expression of ING4 inhibited p65/RelA phosphorylation in T47D and MCF7 breast cancer cells. In addition, ING4 suppressed PMA-induced cell invasion and NF-κB-target gene expression in T47D cells, indicating that ING4 inhibited NF-κB activity in breast cancer cells. Supportive of the ING4 function in the regulation of NF-κB-target gene expression, we found that ING4 expression levels inversely correlated with the expression of NF-κB-target genes in primary breast tumors by analyzing public gene expression datasets. Moreover, low ING4 expression or high expression of the gene signature composed of a subset of ING4-repressed NF-κB-target genes was associated with reduced disease-free survival in breast cancer patients. Taken together, we conclude that ING4 negatively regulates NF-κB in breast cancer. Consequently, down-regulation of ING4 leads to activation of NF-κB, contributing to tumor progression and reduced disease-free patient survival in breast cancer.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Breast Cancer

Ling C, Xie Y, Zhao D, et al.
Enhanced radiosensitivity of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by adenovirus-mediated ING4 gene therapy.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2012; 19(10):697-706 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiotherapy is the common treatment of choice for locally advanced lung cancer, but the radioresistance of lung cancer remains a significant therapeutic obstacle. We previously demonstrated that adenovirus-mediated inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) tumor suppressor gene delivery (AdVING4) can chemosensitize human hepatocarcinoma cells to anticancer drug cisplatin (CDDP). However, its radiosensitizing effects in cancer therapy are largely elusive. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of AdVING4 gene therapy combined with ionizing radiotherapy for SPC-A1 human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro and in vivo in athymic nude mice, and also elucidated its underlying mechanisms. We found that AdVING4 gene therapy plus radiotherapy induced synergistic tumor suppression and apoptosis in in vitro SPC-A1 human NSCLC cells and in vivo SPC-A1 xenografted tumors s.c. implanted in athymic nude mice. Mechanistically, AdVING4 combined with radiation resulted in a substantial upregulation of Bax, Fas, FasL and Cleaved Caspase-3, and downregulation of Bcl-2 in SPC-A1 human NSCLC xenografted tumors. In addition, AdVING4 plus radiation synergistically reduced the tumor vessel CD34 expression and microvessel density (MVD) in vivo. Most importantly, AdVING4 potentially blocked the radiation-induced enhancement of cyclooxygenase-2 and survivin radioresistant factors, and vascular endothelial growth factor and IL-8 proangiogenic factors. The enhanced antitumor effects elicited by AdVING4 plus radiotherapy were closely associated with the cooperative activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, and synergistic inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, our results suggested that AdVING4 combined with radiotherapy may be a feasible and effective strategy for treatment of radioresistant NSCLC and other cancers.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer

Zhao Y, Li Z, Sheng W, et al.
Adenovirus-mediated ING4/IL-24 double tumor suppressor gene co-transfer enhances antitumor activity in human breast cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 28(4):1315-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer gene therapy represents a new and promising therapeutic modality for various types of cancer. Two or more anti-oncogenes carried by a single vector could theoretically improve treatment efficacy, reduce side-effects from vectors, and have a satisfactory clinical application prospect; however, this has seldom been studied in breast cancer. The inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4), as a member of the inhibitor of growth tumor suppressor family has potent inhibitory effects on a variety of tumors. Interleukin‑24 (IL-24) has also shown broad spectrum and tumor-specific antitumor activities. In this study, we aimed to prove the enhanced antitumor activity of adenovirus-mediated ING4/IL-24 double tumor suppressor gene co-transfer in human breast cancer cells. We assessed the combined effect of the ING4/IL-24 bicistronic adenovirus (Ad-ING4-IL-24) in vitro and in vivo on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells by detecting and comparing the apoptotic status in the bicistronic anti-oncogene group (Ad-ING4-IL-24) and in the ING4 or IL-24 single anti-oncogene groups, and also investigated the possible underlying mechanism. Our results showed that the bicistronic adenovirus-mediated ING4 and IL-24 co-expression induced additive growth suppression and apoptosis as well as an overlapping effect on the upregulation of p21, p27 and Bax, and the downregulation of Bcl-2 and survivin in MDA-MB‑231 human breast cancer cells in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, Ad-ING4-IL-24 treatment additively reduced CD34 expression and the microvessel density in MDA-MB-231 xenografted tumors in athymic nude mice, which correlated with the decreased expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor. The enhanced antitumor activity on breast cancer elicited by Ad-ING4-IL-24 was closely associated with the activation of the apoptotic pathways and the additive inhibition of tumor angiogenesis.

Related: Apoptosis Breast Cancer Angiogenesis and Cancer VEGFA IL24 (MDA7)

Wang R, Huang J, Feng B, et al.
Identification of ING4 (inhibitor of growth 4) as a modulator of docetaxel sensitivity in human lung adenocarcinoma.
Mol Med. 2012; 18:874-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Resistance to docetaxel (DTX) usually occurs in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. To better elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in resistance to DTX-based chemotherapy, we established a DTX-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cell line (SPC-A1/DTX). By gene array analysis, the expression of ING4 was found to be significantly downregulated in SPC-A1/DTX cells. Additionally, the decreased expression of the ING4 gene was induced upon DTX treatment of SPC-A1 cells. Overexpression of ING4 reverses DTX or paclitaxel resistance of DTX-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells (SPC-A1/DTX or A549/Taxol) by inducing apoptosis enhancement and G₂/M arrest, and small interfering RNA-mediated ING4 knockdown renders DTX-sensitive lung adenocarcinoma cells more resistant to DTX or paclitaxel. Also, overexpression of ING4 could enhance the in vivo sensitivity of SPC-A1/DTX cells to DTX. The phenotypical changes of SPC-A1/DTX cells induced by overexpression of ING4 might be associated with the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, which resulted in the activation of caspase-3. The level of ING4 expression in tumors of nonresponding patients was significantly lower than that in those of responders, suggesting that the expression of ING4 was positively correlated with tumor response to DTX. Our results provide the first evidence that ING4 might be essential for DTX resistance in lung adenocarcinoma. Thus, ING4 will be a potential molecular target for overcoming resistance to DTX-based chemotherapies in lung adenocarcinoma.

Related: Lung Cancer Signal Transduction Docetaxel

Mraz M, Dolezalova D, Plevova K, et al.
MicroRNA-650 expression is influenced by immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and affects the biology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Blood. 2012; 119(9):2110-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia as well as in normal B cells. Notably, miRNA gene encoding miR-650 and its homologs overlap with several variable (V) subgenes coding for lambda immunoglobulin (IgLλ). Recent studies describe the role of miR-650 in solid tumors, but its role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has not yet been studied. Our experiments demonstrate that miR-650 expression is regulated by coupled expression with its host gene for IgLλ. This coupling provides a unique yet unobserved mechanism for microRNA gene regulation. We determine that higher expression of miR-650 is associated with a favorable CLL prognosis and influences the proliferation capacity of B cells. We also establish that in B cells, miR-650 targets proteins important in cell proliferation and survival: cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4), and early B-cell factor 3 (EBF3). This study underscores the importance of miR-650 in CLL biology and normal B-cell physiology.

Related: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) CLL - Molecular Biology

Liu Y, Yu L, Wang Y, et al.
Expression of tumor suppressor gene ING4 in ovarian carcinoma is correlated with microvessel density.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012; 138(4):647-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Angiogenesis, estimated by microvessel density (MVD), has been shown to predict poor progression-free survival in women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Inhibitor of growth (ING) family proteins inhibit angiogenesis in a number of cancers. We evaluated the role of ING4 in regulation of angiogenesis in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine ING4 mRNA levels in 40 ovarian cancer patients and 40 normal controls. Also, we used immunohistochemistry to evaluate (1) ING4 protein expression levels and (2) the level of MVD by staining CD34, a microvessel marker, in these patients. Through statistical analysis, the possible correlation between the ING4 expression and angiogenesis was explored.
RESULTS: ING4 mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated in all ovarian cancer patients compared to normal controls (P < 0.001). Endometrioid carcinoma tissue had significantly lower ING4 levels compared to serous or mucinous ovarian cancer. ING4 expression correlated negatively with stage and histological grade of ovarian cancers. MVD correlated negatively with ING4 protein and mRNA levels (ρ = -0.865; P < 0.001 and ρ = -0.724; P < 0.001, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Loss of ING4 may promote microvessel formation and plays a role in facilitating the development of ovarian cancer. Although the specific mechanisms are not yet understood, our data suggest that ING4 may be a promising target for the treatment for ovarian cancer.

Related: Angiogenesis and Cancer Ovarian Cancer

Zhao Y, Su C, Zhai H, et al.
Synergistic antitumor effect of adenovirus-mediated hING4 gene therapy and (125)I radiation therapy on pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2012; 316(2):211-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis, even with surgery. ING4 is a member of the inhibitor of growth (ING) tumor suppressor family that has potent inhibitory effects on a variety of tumors; meanwhile, radiotherapy is a common adjunctive therapy for pancreatic cancer. Prior to this study, the effectiveness of a combination of ING4 gene-therapy and radiotherapy against pancreatic cancer had been unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that either ING4 or (125)I radiotherapy treatment could induce Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cell growth suppression and apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, both treatments inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis of Panc-1 pancreatic cancer subcutaneously xenografted in vivo. Moreover, the combination therapy had a synergistic effect.

Related: Apoptosis Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer VEGFA

Xie Y, Lv H, Sheng W, et al.
Synergistic tumor suppression by adenovirus-mediated inhibitor of growth 4 and interleukin-24 gene cotransfer in hepatocarcinoma cells.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2011; 26(6):681-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) is a novel member of ING tumor suppressor family and has apparent tumor-suppressive effect. Interleukin-24 (IL-24) as a unique cytokine-tumor suppressor displays ubiquitous antitumor property and tumor-specific killing activity. Multigene-based combination therapy may be an effective practice in cancer gene therapy. The therapeutic potential of a conjunction of ING4 and IL-24 for cancers is still elusive. This study evaluated the combined effect on SMMC-7721 and HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells by adenovirus-mediated ING4 and IL-24 coexpression (Ad-ING4-IL-24) and also elucidated its underlying molecular mechanism. It was demonstrated that Ad-ING4-IL-24 induced synergistic growth inhibition, apoptosis, invasion suppression, as well as an enhanced effect on upregulation of P21, P27, Fas, FasL, FADD, Bad, Bax, Bak, cleaved Bid, cleaved Caspase-8, -9, and -3, and cleaved PARP, downregulation of Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, 9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), IL-8, CD34, and microvessel density, and cytochrome c release from mitochondria into cytosol in in vitro SMMC-7721 and HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells and/or in vivo SMMC-7721 hepatocarcinoma subcutaneous xenografted tumors in athymic nude mice. The in vitro and in vivo synergistic antitumor activity elicited by Ad-ING4-IL-24 was closely associated with the cooperative activation of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways and reduced proangiogenic factors' production of VEGF and IL-8, leading to synergistic inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, results indicate that cancer gene therapy combining two or more tumor suppressors such as ING4 and IL-24 may constitute a novel and effective therapeutic strategy for hepatocarcinoma and other cancers.

Related: Apoptosis Liver Cancer MMP2 MMP9: matrix metallopeptidase 9 VEGFA IL24 (MDA7)

Mishima Y, Miyagi S, Saraya A, et al.
The Hbo1-Brd1/Brpf2 complex is responsible for global acetylation of H3K14 and required for fetal liver erythropoiesis.
Blood. 2011; 118(9):2443-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
The histone acetyltransferases (HATs) of the MYST family include TIP60, HBO1, MOZ/MORF, and MOF and function in multisubunit protein complexes. Bromodomain-containing protein 1 (BRD1), also known as BRPF2, has been considered a subunit of the MOZ/MORF H3 HAT complex based on analogy with BRPF1 and BRPF3. However, its physiologic function remains obscure. Here we show that BRD1 forms a novel HAT complex with HBO1 and regulates erythropoiesis. Brd1-deficient embryos showed severe anemia because of impaired fetal liver erythropoiesis. Biochemical analyses revealed that BRD1 bridges HBO1 and its activator protein, ING4. Genome-wide mapping in erythroblasts demonstrated that BRD1 and HBO1 largely colocalize in the genome and target key developmental regulator genes. Of note, levels of global acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 14 (H3K14) were profoundly decreased in Brd1-deficient erythroblasts and depletion of Hbo1 similarly affected H3K14 acetylation. Impaired erythropoiesis in the absence of Brd1 accompanied reduced expression of key erythroid regulator genes, including Gata1, and was partially restored by forced expression of Gata1. Our findings suggest that the Hbo1-Brd1 complex is the major H3K14 HAT required for transcriptional activation of erythroid developmental regulator genes.

Related: GATA1 gene Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Zhu Y, Lv H, Xie Y, et al.
Enhanced tumor suppression by an ING4/IL-24 bicistronic adenovirus-mediated gene cotransfer in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2011; 18(9):627-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
ING4 as a member of inhibitor of growth (ING) tumor suppressor family has potent inhibitory effects on a variety of tumors. Interleukin-24 (IL-24), a cytokine-tumor suppressor, also shows broad-spectrum and tumor-specific antitumor activities. In this report, we constructed an ING4/IL-24 bicistronic adenovirus (Ad-ING4-IL-24) and assessed its combined effect on in vitro and in vivo A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells. We demonstrated that ING4 and IL-24 combination treatment by adenovirus-mediated ING4 and IL-24 coexpression induced additive growth suppression and apoptosis as well as an overlapping effect on upregulation of P21, P27, Fas, Bax and cleaved Caspases-8, 9, 3 and downregulation of Bcl-2 in in vitro A549 lung carcinoma cells. Moreover, Ad-ING4-IL-24 treatment additively inhibited in vivo A549 lung carcinoma subcutaneous (s.c.) xenografted tumor growth and reduced CD34 and microvessel density in A549 xenografted tumors in athymic nude mice. The enhanced antitumor activity elicited by Ad-ING4-IL-24 was closely associated with the coordinate activation of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways and additive inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, our results indicate that cancer gene therapy combining two or more tumor suppressors such as ING4 and IL-24 may constitute a novel and effective therapeutic strategy for lung carcinoma and other cancers.

Related: Apoptosis Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer IL24 (MDA7)

You Q, Wang XS, Fu SB, Jin XM
Downregulated expression of inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) in advanced colorectal cancers: a non-randomized experimental study.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2011; 17(3):473-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer has a high cure rate if it can be detected early. Identifying and understanding the genes involved may enable early diagnosis and reduce mortality. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between the expression of ING4 and the pathological features in patients with colorectal cancer. We assayed ING4 protein expression levels in tumor samples from 97 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer between January 2001 and January 2002. The patients received no other treatments except surgery. ING4 protein expression was downregulated in adenoma relative to normal mucosa and further reduced in colorectal cancer tissues. Furthermore, the suppression of ING4 expression was also related to the more advanced Dukes' stages. We observed that ING4 expression levels in patients with lymphatic metastasis were lower than those without metastasis. Together, our results indicate that ING4 play a role in colorectal carcinoma progression.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Tapia C, Zlobec I, Schneider S, et al.
Deletion of the inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) tumor suppressor gene is prevalent in human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer.
Hum Pathol. 2011; 42(7):983-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene that was shown to be deleted in 10% to 20% of breast cancers by array comparative genome hybridization analysis. We developed fluorescent in situ hybridization to detect the ING4 gene directly in the tissue samples on tumor tissue microarrays. We evaluated the ING4 gene status in 1033 breast cancer tissue samples and observed that ING4 was deleted in 16.5% (170/1033) of all breast cancers. ING4 deletion was significantly associated with Her2 overexpression: of the tumors with ING4 deletion, 23.8% (39/164) were human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) positive, as compared with 14.1% (115/814) of the tumors without ING4 deletion (P = .002). In addition, the tumors with ING4 deletion were more likely to belong to the HER2 molecular subtype (estrogen receptor negative/progesterone receptor negative/human epidermal growth factor positive) of breast cancer, compared with the other subtypes (28.4% HER2 versus 15.7% all, P = .002). ING4 deletion did not affect survival outcome of all patients with breast cancer (P = .797) or of the patients with HER2-positive tumors (P = .792). We conclude that ING4 deletion in breast cancer is relatively common, as 1 in 6 breast cancer harbors ING4 deletion. Furthermore, ING4 deletion is more prevalent in HER2-positive tumors, suggesting a functional antagonistic relationship between the ING4 tumor suppressor and the HER2 oncogene. These results sustain the view that ING4 is a tumor suppressor in breast cancer and suggest that ING4 deletion may contribute to the pathogenesis of HER2-positive breast cancer.

Related: Breast Cancer FISH

Li XH, Kikuchi K, Zheng Y, et al.
Downregulation and translocation of nuclear ING4 is correlated with tumorigenesis and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Oncol. 2011; 47(3):217-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
ING4 (inhibitor of growth gene 4) is a new member of the ING gene family and is implicated in chromatin remodeling and repression of cell growth. In order to explore the roles of ING4 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), ING4 expression was assessed in 214 cases of HNSCC by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray, and in three oral SCC cell lines by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Expression of ING4 was also compared to clinicopathological variables, TUNEL assay staining, and the expression of several tumorigenic markers. We found nuclear expression of ING4 was gradually decreased from non-cancerous epithelium and dysplasia to HNSCC and was negatively correlated with a poorly-differentiated status, T staging, and TNM staging in HNSCC. In contrast, cytoplasmic expression of ING4 was significantly increased in HNSCC and was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and 14-3-3η expression. In addition, nuclear expression of ING4 was positively correlated with p21 and p300 expression and with the apoptotic index. These results suggest that the decreases in nuclear ING4 may play important roles in tumorigenesis, progression and tumor differentiation in HNSCC. Increases in cytoplasmic ING4 may be due to 14-3-3η binding and may also be involved in malignant progression. Nuclear ING4 may modulate the transactivation of target genes, promoting apoptosis and cell cycle arrest through interactions with p300 and p21.

Related: Apoptosis CDKN1A EP300 gene Head and Neck Cancers Head and Neck Cancers - Molecular Biology

Saha A, Bamidele A, Murakami M, Robertson ES
EBNA3C attenuates the function of p53 through interaction with inhibitor of growth family proteins 4 and 5.
J Virol. 2011; 85(5):2079-88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded EBNA3C is one of the latent proteins essential for the efficient transformation of human primary B lymphocytes into continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) in vitro through manipulation of a number of major cellular pathways. Although it does not have direct DNA-binding activity, EBNA3C plays a central role in the transcriptional modulation of a wide range of both viral and cellular genes during latent infection. Recently, we showed that EBNA3C can directly bind to the tumor suppressor protein p53 and repress its functions, in part by blocking its transcriptional activity as well as facilitating its degradation through stabilization of its negative regulator, Mdm2. In this study, we further showed that EBNA3C can negatively regulate p53-mediated functions by interacting with its regulatory proteins, the inhibitor of growth family proteins ING4 and ING5, shown to be frequently deregulated in different cancers. Functional mapping revealed that both ING4 and ING5 bound to N-terminal domain residues 129 to 200 of EBNA3C, which was previously demonstrated to associate with p53 and is also essential for LCL growth. In addition, we showed that a conserved domain of either ING4 or ING5 bound to both p53 and EBNA3C in a competitive manner, suggesting a potential role for EBNA3C whereby the ING4 or -5/p53 pathway is modulated in EBV-infected cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated that EBNA3C significantly suppresses both the ING4- and ING5-mediated regulation of p53 transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. A colony formation assay as well as an apoptosis assay showed that EBNA3C nullified the negative regulatory effects on cell proliferation induced by coupled expression of p53 in the presence of either ING4 or ING5 in Saos-2 (p53(-/-)) cells. This report demonstrates a possible role for the candidate tumor suppressor ING genes in the biology of EBV-associated cancers.

Related: TP53 ING5

Zhang XJ, Ye H, Zeng CW, et al.
Dysregulation of miR-15a and miR-214 in human pancreatic cancer.
J Hematol Oncol. 2010; 3:46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent reports indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in malignancies. However, the role that miRNAs play in pancreatic cancer remains to be determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate aberrantly expressed miRNAs in pancreatic cancer tissues and demonstrate their roles in disease progression.
RESULTS: We detected the expression patterns of miRNAs in 10 pancreatic cancer tissues and their adjacent benign tissues by quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and found that miR-15a and miR-214 were dysregulated in the tumor samples. This is the first time that miR-214 has been identified as aberrantly expressed in pancreatic cancer. In vitro experiments showed that overexpression of miR-15a inhibited the viability of pancreatic cancer cells, whereas overexpression of miR-214 decreased the sensitivity of the cells to gemcitabine (GEM). Furthermore, we identified WNT3A and FGF7 as potential targets of miR-15a and ING4 as a target of miR-214.
CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant expression of miRNAs such as miR-15a and miR-214 results in different cellular effects in pancreatic cancer. Downregulation of miR-15a might contribute to proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells, whereas upregulation of miR-214 in pancreatic cancer specimens might be related to the poor response of pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapy. MiR-15a directly targets multiple genes relevant in pancreatic cancer, suggesting that it may serve as a novel therapeutic target for treatment of the disease.

Related: Apoptosis Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer

Li J, Li G
Cell cycle regulator ING4 is a suppressor of melanoma angiogenesis that is regulated by the metastasis suppressor BRMS1.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(24):10445-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
ING4 has been previously shown to play important roles in regulating apoptosis, cell cycle progress, cell migration, and invasion. In this study, we investigated the impact of ING4 on melanoma angiogenesis. ING4 overexpression strongly suppressed the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and their ability to form tubular structure in vitro. We also found that ING4 inhibits interleukin-6 (IL-6) at both mRNA and protein levels through suppressing NF-κB activity. Knockdown of endogenous ING4 resulted in enhanced HUVEC growth and IL-6 expression. Our in vivo studies using nude mice confirmed that ING4 inhibited blood vessel formation and the recruitment of CD31-positive cells in matrigel plugs. Furthermore, we found that expression of ING4 was induced by BRMS1, a metastasis suppressor that inhibits melanoma angiogenesis through inhibiting NF-κB activity and IL-6 level as well. Further experiments showed that ING4 knockdown abrogated the suppressive effect of BRMS1 on HUVEC growth, whereas ING4 overexpression inhibited BRMS1 knockdown-induced angiogenesis, indicating that ING4 is a downstream target of BRMS1 in regulating tumor angiogenesis. Collectively, our findings indicate that ING4 is induced by BRMS1 and that it inhibits melanoma angiogenesis by suppressing NF-κB activity and IL-6 expression. Restoration of ING4 function offers a potential new strategy for the treatment of human melanoma.

Related: Melanoma Angiogenesis and Cancer

Xie Y, Sheng W, Miao J, et al.
Enhanced antitumor activity by combining an adenovirus harboring ING4 with cisplatin for hepatocarcinoma cells.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2011; 18(3):176-88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The inhibitor of growth (ING) family proteins have been defined as candidate tumor suppressors. ING4 as a novel member of the ING family has potential tumor-suppressive effects. In this study, we explored the combined effect of adenovirus-mediated ING4 (Ad-ING4) gene transfer plus chemotherapy drug cisplatin (CDDP) on SMMC-7721 human hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo, and its underlying mechanism. We demonstrated that Ad-ING4 plus CDDP induced synergistic growth inhibition, enhanced apoptosis, and had an additive effect on upregulation of Fas, Bax, Bak, cleaved Bid, cleaved caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, and on downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) in SMMC-7721 hepatocarcinoma cells. Moreover, Ad-ING4 plus CDDP synergistically suppressed in vivo SMMC-7721 hepatocarcinoma subcutaneous (s.c.) xenografted tumor growth and reduced tumor vessel CD34 expression and microvessel density (MVD) in athymic nude mice. Most importantly, Ad-ING4 plus CDDP did not have overlapping toxicities in HL-7702 normal human liver cells and normal liver tissues of mice. The in vitro and in vivo enhanced antitumor effect elicited by Ad-ING4 plus CDDP was closely associated with the cooperative regulation of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways and synergistic inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, our results indicate that Ad-ING4 plus CDDP is a potential combined treatment strategy for hepatocarcinoma.

Related: Apoptosis Cisplatin Angiogenesis and Cancer Signal Transduction

Zhou L, Picard D, Ra YS, et al.
Silencing of thrombospondin-1 is critical for myc-induced metastatic phenotypes in medulloblastoma.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(20):8199-210 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mechanisms by which c-Myc (Myc) amplification confers aggressive medulloblastoma phenotypes are poorly defined. Here, we show using orthotopic models that high Myc expression promotes cell migration/invasion and induces metastatic tumors, which recapitulate aggressive histologic features of Myc-amplified primary human medulloblastoma. Using ChIP-chip analysis, we identified cell migration and adhesion genes, including Tsp-1/THBS1, ING4, PVRL3, and PPAP2B, as Myc-bound loci in medulloblastoma cells. Expression of Tsp-1 was most consistently and robustly diminished in medulloblastoma cell lines and primary human tumors with high Myc expression (n = 101, P = 0.032). Strikingly, stable Tsp-1 expression significantly attenuated in vitro transformation and invasive/migratory properties of high Myc-expressing medulloblastoma cells without altering cell proliferation, whereas RNA interference-mediated Myc knockdown was consistently accompanied by increased Tsp-1 levels and reduced cell migration and invasion in medulloblastoma cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed colocalization of Myc and obligate partner Max and correlated diminished RNA polymerase II occupancy (∼3-fold decrease, P < 0.01) with increased Myc binding at a core Tsp-1 promoter. Reporter gene and/or gel shift assays confirmed direct repression of Tsp-1 transcription by Myc and also identified JPO2, a Myc interactor associated with metastatic medulloblastoma, as a cofactor in Myc-mediated Tsp-1 repression. These findings indicate the Myc-regulatory network targets Tsp-1 via multiple mechanisms in medulloblastoma transformation, and highlight a novel critical role for Tsp-1 in Myc-mediated aggressive medulloblastoma phenotypes.

Related: Childhood Medulloblastoma / PNET

Wang QS, Li M, Zhang LY, et al.
Down-regulation of ING4 is associated with initiation and progression of lung cancer.
Histopathology. 2010; 57(2):271-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: Tumour suppressor ING4 is one of ING family genes, which are involved in cell cycle arrest, gene transcription regulation, DNA repair and apoptosis. ING4 inhibition has been reported in various tumours, including gliomas, breast tumours, and stomach adenocarcinoma. The aim was to evaluate ING4 expression in lung cancers.
METHOD AND RESULTS: By immunohistochemistry of 246 lung tumour tissues, reduced ING4 nuclear and cytoplasmic expression were both revealed in lung cancer and associated with tumour grade. Interestingly, compared with normal tissues, we found more tumours with ING4 expression in the cytoplasm higher than in the nucleus. Nuclear ING4 inhibition correlated with the tumour stage and lymph node metastasis. Consistent with these findings, semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting demonstrated decreased ING4 mRNA and expression in 100% (50/50) tumour tissues. Furthermore, ING4 expression was lower in grade III than in grades I-II tumours. Reduced ING4 mRNA correlated with lymph node metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that overall inhibition of ING4 expression and ING4 expression higher in cytoplasm than in nucleus of tumour cells may be involved in the initiation and progression of lung cancers, and thus, analysis for ING4 expression may be useful as a clinical diagnostic and prognostic tool for lung cancer.

Related: Lung Cancer

Li Z, Xie Y, Sheng W, et al.
Tumor-suppressive effect of adenovirus-mediated inhibitor of growth 4 gene transfer in breast carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2010; 25(4):427-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
The inhibitor of growth (ING) family proteins have been defined as candidate tumor suppressors. ING4 as a novel member of ING family has potential suppressive effect on different tumors via multiple pathways. However, the role of adenovirus-mediated ING4 (Ad-ING4) gene therapy for human breast carcinoma remains unknown. This study investigates the therapeutic effect of Ad-ING4 on human breast cancers in vitro and in vivo in an athymic nude mouse model, using two human breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-MB-231 (mutant p53) and MCF-7 (wild-type p53) and elucidated its underlying mechanism. It was found that Ad-ING4 treatment could induce in vitro significant growth suppression in both mutant p53 MDA-MB-231 and wild-type p53 MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells despite p53 status. This study further demonstrates that Ad-ING4 gene transfer resulted in G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis, upregulated P21, P27, and Bax, downregulated Bcl-2, IL-8, and Ang-1, promoted cytochrome c release from mitochondria into cytosol, and activated caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP in mutant p53 MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. Moreover, intratumoral injections of Ad-ING4 in nude mice bearing mutant p53 MDA-MB-231 breast tumors remarkably inhibited the human breast xenografted tumor growth and reduced CD34 expression of tumor vessels and microvessel density. This retarded MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo elicited by Ad-ING4 closely correlated with the upregulation of cell cycle-related molecules P21 and P27, decrease in the ratio of anti- to proapoptotic molecules Bcl-2/Bax, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol followed by caspase-9 and -3 activation leading to apoptosis via intrinsic apoptotic pathway, and the reduced expression of proangiogenic factors IL-8 and Ang-1 involved in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, the results indicate that Ad-ING4 is a potential candidate for breast cancer gene therapy.

Related: Apoptosis Breast Cancer CASP3

Borkosky SS, Gunduz M, Beder L, et al.
Allelic loss of the ING gene family loci is a frequent event in ameloblastoma.
Oncol Res. 2010; 18(10):509-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ameloblastoma is the most frequently encountered odontogenic tumor, characterized by a locally invasive behavior, frequent recurrences, and, although rare, metastatic capacity. Loss or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) allows cells to acquire neoplastic growth. The ING family proteins are tumor suppressors that physically and functionally interact with p53 to perform important roles in apoptosis, DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, and senescence. TP53 genetic alterations were reported to infrequently occur in ameloblastoma. Considering that other TSGs related to TP53 could be altered in this tumor, we focused our study on the ING family genes. We analyzed the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) status of the ING family (ING1-ING5) chromosomal loci in a group of ameloblastomas by microsatellite analysis, and correlated the ING LOH status with clinicopathological characteristics. By using specific microsatellite markers, high frequency of LOH was found at the loci of each ING gene family member (33.3-72.2%). A significant relationship was shown between LOH of D2S 140 (ING5 locus) and solid tumor type (p = 0.02). LOH of ING3MS (ING3 locus) was also high in solid type tumors, showing a near significant association. In addition, a notable tendency toward higher LOH for half of the markers was observed in recurrent cases. LOH of ING family genes appears as a common genetic alteration in solid ameloblastoma. The current study provides interesting novel information regarding the potential prognostic significance of the allelic loss of the ING gene family loci in ameloblastoma tumorigenesis.

Related: ING1

Kim S, Welm AL, Bishop JM
A dominant mutant allele of the ING4 tumor suppressor found in human cancer cells exacerbates MYC-initiated mouse mammary tumorigenesis.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(12):5155-62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ING4 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene that is deleted in 10% to 20% of human breast cancers and is mutated in various human cancer cell lines. To evaluate whether ING4 has a tumor-suppressive role in breast tissue, we overexpressed it in mouse mammary glands using a transplant system. Ectopic expression of ING4 suppressed MYC-induced mammary hyperplasia, but not tumorigenesis. In the same model system, we show that a COOH-terminal truncation mutant of ING4 found in human cancer cells could act alone to induce abnormal gland structures resembling mammary hyperplasia, which did not progress to tumors. However, coexpression of the ING4 mutant with MYC increased the penetrance and metastasis of MYC-initiated mammary tumors, giving rise to tumors with more organized acinar structures. Similarly, in vitro expression of the ING4 mutant in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells reinforced tight junctional structures. Our results provide direct functional evidence that ING4 could suppress the early stages of breast cancer and that dominant mutant alleles of ING4 might contribute to malignant development.


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