Gastric cancer (cancer of the stomach) is a disease in which malignant cells arise in the tissues of the stomach. Early symptoms can include indigestion, feeling bloated after eating, mild nausea, loss of appetite, or heartburn. In more advanced stages symptoms may include blood in the stool, vomiting, weight loss, or pain in the stomach. Known risk factors include prior stomach infection by Helicobacter pylori, smoking, frequent diet of dry salted foods, Menetrier's disease, and familial polyposis. Most cancers of the stomach are adenocarcinomas of which there are many sub-types.
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This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).
The postoperative clinical outcomes and safety of early enteral nutrition in operated gastric cancer patients.
J BUON. 2015 Mar-Apr; 20(2):468-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Four hundred gastric cancer patients undergoing radical gastrectomy of any extend with D2 nodal dissection were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group with 200 cases in each group. Patients in the control group received postoperative parenteral nutrition (PN), while patients in the experimental group received postoperative EEN. After treatment, the clinical outcomes, postoperative immune function, and nutritional status of the two groups were evaluated.
RESULTS: The postoperative fever time, intestinal function recovery time, anal exhaust time, and the length of hospital stay for patients in the experimental group were significantly shorter than those of the control group. We did not find significant differences in anastomotic leak, postoperative ileus and regurgitation between the two groups. The activities of multiple immune cell types, including CD3⁺, CD4⁺, CD4⁺/CD8⁺, and natural killer (NK) cells, were significantly lower in both groups on postoperative day 1 when compared with the preoperative levels (p<0.05). The level of CD8⁺ was not significantly different between the two groups (p>0.05). After treatment, levels of CD3⁺, CD4⁺, CD4⁺/CD8⁺, and NK cells in the experimental group patients were 35.6 ± 4.2, 42.2 ± 3.0, 1.7 ± 0.3, and 27.3 ± 5.3%, respectively, on postoperative day 7, which were similar to the preoperative levels. The immune cell levels from the control group patients remained significantly lower when compared with preoperative values; in addition, these values were also significantly lower when compared with the EEN patients (p<0.05) CONCLUSION: For gastric cancer patients undergoing radical gastrectomy, the clinical outcome, immune function and nutritional status after EEN were significantly improved. These data suggest the widespread use of EEN in clinical practice.
Clinical outcome and toxicity of 3D-conformal radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy based on the Intergroup SWOG 9008/INT0116 study protocol for gastric cancer.
J BUON. 2015 Mar-Apr; 20(2):428-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: A total of 102 patients who underwent postoperative fluorouracil (5-FU)-based radio-chemotherapy in our institution between 2004 and 2010 for stage IB-IV (AJCC 6th Edn.) gastric cancer were selected. Radiotherapy to 45 Gy was defined individually and delivered with 3D conformal technique. Chemotherapy was carried out during the first 4 and the last 3 days of radiotherapy with continuous infusion of 5-FU (400mg/m²/day) and leucovorin. Patients received an additional 3 cycles of chemotherapy of 5-FU (425mg/m²/day), mostly 1 before and 2 after radio-chemotherapy. Acute hematological and gastrointestinal toxicities were evaluated according to the CTC v3.0 scale.
RESULTS: Stage distribution was as follows: IB-5 (5%), II-32 (31%), III-49 (48%), and IV-14 (14%). There were 96% R0 resections; 15% of the patients had a D2 resection. Seventy-four patients (72.5%) received all 5 planned cycles and 98 (96%) completed radiotherapy. The 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 57% and 48%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that variables significantly affecting OS were pT3-T4, pN2-3, R1 resection and female gender. Only 2% of the patients experienced grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity; 7% had grade 3 or higher hematological toxicity.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated better treatment tolerance, compliance, OS of adjuvant radio-chemotherapy for gastric cancer in comparison with INT0116 study. Conformal radiation techniques might have contributed to this improvement.
Associated risk factor analysis for positive resection margins after endoscopic submucosal dissection in early-stage gastric cancer.
J BUON. 2015 Mar-Apr; 20(2):421-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed on 319 consecutive lesions in 316 patients who underwent ESD. Age, gender, surgeons, lesion location, maximum diameter of resected specimens, macroscopic type, depth of tumor invasion and tumor differentiation were evaluated as potential risk factors.
RESULTS: A total of 27 (8.5%) patients exhibited positive resection margins after ESD. Among 25 successfully followed-up patients 13 were subjected to gastrectomy, 1 was administered chemotherapy, 2 underwent additional endoscopic resection and 9, who were initially followed-up during a median period of 11.7 months (range 1-40), had neither recurrence nor metastasis. Univariate analysis revealed that age, lesion location, depth of tumor invasion, macroscopic type and tumor differentiation were correlated with positive resection margin. By contrast, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only age, tumor differentiation and depth of tumor invasion were independent risk factors of positive resection margins.
CONCLUSION: Age, tumor differentiation and depth of tumor invasion were independent risk factors for post-ESD positive resection margins. This result suggests that older patients, undifferentiated lesions and a greater depth of invasion increase the risk for post-ESD positive resection margins.
18F-FDG PET/CT role in staging of gastric carcinomas: comparison with conventional contrast enhancement computed tomography.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(20):e864 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus infection and gastric cancer: a systematic review.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(20):e792 [PubMed] Related Publications
Concurrent Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Siewert II and III Adenocarcinoma at Gastroesophageal Junction.
Am J Med Sci. 2015; 349(6):472-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Seventy-six patients having resectable adenocarcinoma at the gastroesophageal junction (T3/4, N+, M0) were recruited to participate and randomly assigned to either a chemoradiotherapy group or a surgery group. Patients in the chemoradiotherapy group were orally given capecitabine (1,000 mg/m2, twice daily for 14 days, days 1-14) and intravenous oxaliplatin (130 mg/m2 on day 1) for 2 cycles. Radiotherapy was performed with a total of 45 Gy administered in 25 sessions for 5 weeks. Patients in the surgery group received only surgical intervention.
RESULTS: In the concurrent chemoradiotherapy group, the overall response rate was 55.6% (20/36), tumor control rate was 100% and a pathological complete response was achieved in 16.7% (6/36). The entire chemoradiotherapy group had R0 resections as did 80% of the surgery group (32/40) (P < 0.05). In the concurrent chemoradiotherapy group, 6 patients developed grade 3 side effects. Treatment was either discontinued or the dose adjusted. Major hematological side effects in the chemoradiotherapy group included leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Nonhematological side effects included nausea, vomiting and appetite loss. Chemoradiotherapy-related death was not observed.
CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy administration increased the rate of R0 resection and demonstrated favorable safety in patients with Siewert II or III adenocarcinoma at the gastroesophageal junction. These results support the use of neoadjunctive chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction.
Risk factors of lymph node metastasis in patients with gastric neuroendocrine tumor with normal serum gastrin level.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):207-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODOLOGY: We performed clinicopathologic reviews of thirty gastric carcinoids with normal serum gastrin level from January 1996 to December 2010.
RESULTS: One case show distant metastasis and two cases showed lymph node metastasis at the time of diagnosis. For twenty seven cases which showed no regional lymph node or distant metastasis initially no additional lymph node or distant metastasis were diagnosed throughout the follow up period. Large tumor size (>10 mm), proper muscle infiltration, WHO classification grade 2 and lymphovascular invasion was noted risk factor of lymph node metastasis by univariate logistic regression analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Small (≤10 mm) gastric carcinoids with normal serum gastrin level confined to submucosa can be treated with endoscopic or local resection unless lymphovascular invasion.
Treatment of esophagojejunal anastomosis leakage: a systematic review from the last two decades.
Am Surg. 2015; 81(5):450-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Biomarkers for assessing mucosal barrier dysfunction induced by chemotherapy: Identifying a rapid and simple biomarker.
Clin Lab. 2015; 61(3-4):371-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Forty-two patients with gastric or colorectal cancer underwent chemotherapy, including FAM or FOLFOX4 regimens. Patients were asked to grade and record their symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity daily. The urinary lactulose-mannitol ratio was measured to assess the intestinal permeability. Plasma levels of citrulline, diamine oxidase (DAO), D-lactic acid, and endotoxin were also measured. Intestinal permeability was observed in the subgroup of patients with diarrhea or constipation.
RESULTS: The urinary lactulose-mannitol ratio and plasma citrulline levels increased on the third and sixth post-chemotherapy days, respectively. There were no significant differences in the plasma levels of D-lactic acid, endotoxin or DAO activity compared to their levels before chemotherapy. The urinary lactulose-mannitol ratio in diarrhea patients was significantly higher than in constipation patients.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the urinary lactulose-mannitol ratio and plasma citrulline level are appropriate biomarkers for assessing mucosal barrier dysfunction in patients receiving chemotherapy. Mucosal barrier dysfunction in diarrhea patients was greater than in constipation patients.
FGFR2 Assessment in Gastric Cancer Using Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization, and Immunohistochemistry.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2015; 143(6):865-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Copy numbers were compared by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using frozen vs formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue and biopsy vs surgical specimens. We correlated the results of qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using stage IV gastric cancer biopsy specimens and validated the results in surgical specimens.
RESULTS: FFPE tissues were suitable for qPCR, and biopsy specimens were equivalent to or better than surgical specimens. qPCR and IHC results exhibited an excellent correlation with FISH at eight or more copies by qPCR in any kind of tissue, 5% or more by IHC in biopsy specimens, and 10% or more by IHC in surgical specimens. FGFR2 amplification was 6.6% in stage IV gastric cancers, and 42% of these showed heterogeneous amplification and overexpression. IHC indicated a good correlation with FISH even in the heterogeneous cases.
CONCLUSIONS: FFPE biopsy tissues are an adequate source for FGFR2 evaluation in gastric carcinomas, and a qPCR-based copy number assay can be used for screening. IHC is also a valid and practical method for evaluating FGFR2, considering frequent heterogeneity.
Why the Proximal Splenic Artery Approach is the Ideal Approach for Laparoscopic Suprapancreatic Lymph Node Dissection in Advanced Gastric Cancer? A Large-Scale Vascular-Anatomical-Based Study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(18):e832 [PubMed] Related Publications
Association of common variants on chromosome 8q24 with gastric cancer in Venezuelan patients.
Gene. 2015; 566(1):120-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypergastrinemia is associated with adenocarcinomas in the gastric corpus and shorter patient survival.
APMIS. 2015; 123(6):509-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
A scoring system to predict the risk of postoperative complications after laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer based on a large-scale retrospective study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(17):e812 [PubMed] Related Publications
Stomach cancer and occupational exposure to asbestos: a meta-analysis of occupational cohort studies.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(11):1805-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate this association. Random effects models were used to summarise the relative risks across studies. Sources of heterogeneity were explored through subgroup analyses and meta-regression.
RESULTS: We identified 40 mortality cohort studies from 37 separate papers, and cancer incidence data were extracted for 15 separate cohorts from 14 papers. The overall meta-SMR for stomach cancer for total cohort was 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.27), with heterogeneous results across studies. Statistically significant excesses were observed in North America and Australia but not in Europe, and for generic asbestos workers and insulators. Meta-SMRs were larger for cohorts reporting a SMR for lung cancer above 2 and cohort sizes below 1000.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the conclusion by IARC that exposure to asbestos is associated with a moderate increased risk of stomach cancer.
Controversies in the treatment of local and locally advanced gastric and esophageal cancers.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(16):1754-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Update on metastatic gastric and esophageal cancers.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(16):1760-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
A new option for intracorporeal circular-stapled esophagojejunostomy in laparoscopic total gastrectomy: Roux-en-Y reconstruction with its efferent loop located at the left side of the patient to prevent twisting of the esophagojejunostomy.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):551-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODOLOGY: From November 2013 to November 2014, a series of 9 patients underwent LTG with Roux-en-Y reconstruction using the transorally inserted anvil (OrVil™, Covidien, Mansfield, MA, USA), whose efferent loop was located at the left side of the patient.
RESULTS: No twisting of the esophagojejunostomy was encountered in all cases. In addition, no stenosis or leakage of the esophagojejunostomy occurred.
CONCLUSIONS: This reconstruction system may be a feasible surgical procedure in LTG.
Regulation of neutrophil infiltration into peritoneal cavity by laparoscopic gastrectomy.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):546-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODOLOGY: We investigated data of 48 patients who underwent gastrectomy between 2010 and 2012. We analyzed the mRNA expression of chemokines, indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), and so on in peritoneal lavage fluid with real-time RT-PCR. We also determined the leukocyte population and calculated the granulocyte/lymphocyte (G/L) ratio in peritoneal lavage fluid using flow cytometry.
RESULTS: CCL3 mRNA was significantly upregulated, whereas IDO mRNA was significantly downregulated, in the open group compared to the laparoscopic surgery group. Flow cytometry revealed that the G/L ratio was significantly higher in the open group.
CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the production of chemokines and neutrophil infiltration into the abdominal cavity may be suppressed in the laparoscopic surgery. Thus, laparoscopic surgery may be beneficial in preserving local immunity.
Junctional adhesion molecule-A promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of gastric cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):540-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODOLOGY: A normal rat gastric mucosa-derived cell line (RGM1), a rat gastric cancer-like cell line established from RGM1 (RGK1), and a human gastric cancer cell line (NCI-N87) were used in this study. To examine the expression of junctional proteins, immunoblotting and immunofluorescent staining were performed with specific antibodies (JAM-A, claudins, occludin and ZO-1). JAM-A was knocked down by small interfering RNA.
RESULTS: RGM1 and RGK1 expressed JAM-A, occludin and ZO-1 but not claudins. RGK1 were significantly more invasive than RGM1. JAM-A knock-down significantly decreased the proliferation and the invasion of RGK1 but not of RGM1. JAM-A knock-down significantly decreased the proliferation of NCI-N87 cells and significantly decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL but not the expression of AKT or Mcl-1.
CONCLUSIONS: JAM-A promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of gastric cancer, suggesting that it has a pivotal role in gastric cancer progression.
Comparison between early enteral feeding with a transnasal tube and parenteral nutrition after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):536-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
RESULTS: Postoperative meal intake was significantly higher and the first day of defecation was significantly earlier in the EEF group than in the non-EEF group. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in the blood laboratory data and the rate of complications. In patients with complications, lymphocyte counts and postoperative body weights were compared as indicators of immunostimulation. The lymphocyte counts 7 days after operation and postoperative/preoperative body weight were significantly higher in the EEF group than in the non-EEF group.
CONCLUSIONS: Although immunostimulation-like findings were observed in the patients with complications after surgery in the present study, the significance of EEF was not clarified because of the lack of cases whose conditions were severe. EEF should be used especially for patients in whom severe disease is possible and avoidance of TPN is desirable.
Regulatory mechanisms of transcription factors and target genes on gastric cancer by bioinformatics method.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):524-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODOLOGY: The expression profile GSE13911 was downloaded from GEO database, composing of 31 normal and 38 tumor samples. The transcription factor (TF)--target gene regulatory network and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network related to gastric cancer were obtained from TRED and TRANSFAC databases. After combining the two networks, we constructed an integrated network.
RESULTS: In total, 5255 DEGs in tumor samples were identified, which were mainly enriched in 12 pathways including cell cycle. The integrated network of TF--target gene--protein interaction included 7 genes related to cell cycle, in which E2F1 was predicted to mediate the expression of MCM4, MCM5 and CDC6 through regulating the expression of its target gene MCM3.
CONCLUSION: In gastric cancer progression, E2F1 may play vital roles in the involvement of cell cycle pathway through regulating its target gene MCM3, which might interact with MCM4, MCM5 and MCM7. Besides, STAT1 was another potentially critical transcription factor which could regulate multiple target genes.
Single-incision laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer through a homemade single port access device.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):518-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODOLOGY: A single-incision laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D1 + α lymph node dissection was performed on a 46 years old male patient who had an early gastric cancer.
RESULTS: This single port access device has facilitated the conventional laparoscopic instruments to accomplish the surgery and we made in only 6 minutes. Total operating time for this surgery was 240 minutes. During the operation, there were about 100 milliliters of blood loss, and 17 lymph-nodes were retrieved.
CONCLUSION: This homemade single port access device shows its superiority in economy and convenience for complex single-incision surgeries. Single-incision laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer can be conducted by experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Fully take advantage of both SILS and fast track surgery plan can bring to successful surgeries with minimal postoperative pain, quicker mobilization, early recovery of intestinal function, and better cosmesis effect for the patients.
Risk factors associated with multiple and missed gastric neoplastic lesions after endoscopic resection: prospective study at a single institution in south Korea.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):512-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODOLOGY: Endoscopic surveillance was performed on 1 week, and 1, 6, 12 months af ter endoscopic resection. All multiple gastric lesions were divided into main and accessory lesions. The accessory lesions were subdivided into detected and missed lesions.
RESULTS: Totally, 250 lesions of 215 patients were analyzed. There were 81 early gastric cancers, 50 high grade dysplasias and 119 low grade dysplasias. Thirty patients (14%) had multiple gastric neoplastic lesions, either adenoma or cancer, within 1 year follow-up after endoscopic resection. Old age, male gender and severe intestinal metaplasia were independent risk factors of multiple gastric lesions. Small size (≤ 1 cm) and flat morphology were major risk factors of missed lesion. Among 10 missed lesions, 9 (90%) could be detected within 6 month after resection.
CONCLUSIONS: Old age, male gender, severe intestinal metaplasia were risk factors for multiple gastric lesions after endoscopic resection. Follow-up endoscopy is needed at least one time within six months after resection, with careful inspection of entire stomach.
Metastatic lymph node ratio and prognosis of gastric cancer at different pT stages.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):507-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODOLOGY: Clinical information was reviewed retrospectively in a total 535 patients who underwent surgery for gastric cancer. The prognostic value of MLR was compared with that of pN determined according to the UICC/AJCC guidelines (7th Edition), and the characteristics and advantages of MLR were analyzed. Moreover, the role of MLR in the evaluation of prognosis of patients with gastric cancer at different pT stages was investigated.
RESULTS: Univariate Kaplan-Meier method was used for the analysis of survival, and the results showed that MLR was closely associated with the prognosis of these patients. Multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that MLR was a major independent risk factor in the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. The area under the ROC curve of MLR in predicting the death of gastric cancer patients within 5 years after surgery was not associated with pN stage. MLR was effective in predicting the prognosis of patients with stage pT2 or pT3 gastric cancer (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: MLR is an independent risk factor in the prognosis of gastric cancer. MLR has a prognostic ability comparable to that of pN stage in gastric cancer. Thus, it is more reliable than pN in the evaluation of prognosis of gastric cancer patients, especially those with stage pT2-pT3 gastric cancer.
Effects of AGBL2 on cell proliferation and chemotherapy resistance of gastric cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):497-502 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODOLOGY: AGBL2 expression status was examined in gastric cancer cells and 256 gastric cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry staining. The relationship between AGBL2 protein expression and clinicopathological parameters and prognosis was subsequently determined.
RESULTS: AGBL2 expression was determined to be related to pathological tumor and nodal stages by Spearman's regression correlation analysis. The Cox regression test identified AGBL2 protein expression as an independent prognostic factor. AGBL2 and latexin were- found to be related to proliferation and chemotherapy resistance. The 2 proteins also formed immune com- plexes in immunoprecipitation experiments.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that AGBL2 interacts with latexin, regulating the tubulin tyrosination cycle. It is therefore a potential target for intervention.
Esophagojejunostomy reconstruction using a robot-sewing technique during totally robotic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):323-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODOLOGY: Between May 2011 and July 2012, 65 patients in whom gastric adenocarcinoma was diagnosed underwent a completely robotic total gastrectomy, including a robot-sewing esophagojejunal anastomosis. We demonstrated the surgical techniques with analysis of clinicopathologic data and short-term surgical outcomes.
RESULTS: All robotic surgeries were successfully performed without conversion. Among the 65 patients, 46 were men and 19 were women. The mean age (± SD) was 57.8 ± 6.5 y. The mean total operative time (± SD), EJ anastomosis time (± SD), and blood loss (± SD) were 245 ± 53 min, 45 ± 26 min, and 75 ± 50 ml, respectively. The mean (± SD) post-operative hospital stay was 5.4 ± 2.5 d. One patient was readmitted for an intestinal obstruction and underwent re-operation 14 d post-operatively; he recovered uneventfully and was discharged 10 d post- operatively. During the follow-up, no patients developed an esophgojejunostomy stricture.
CONCLUSIONS: A robot-sewing anastomosis for esophagojejunostomy reconstruction during robotic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer is feasible. Indeed, a robot-sewing anastomosis for esophagojejunostomy reconstruction may become a standard surgical technique during completely robotic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
Diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for the preoperative locoregional staging of primary gastric cancer.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015; 2:CD009944 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To provide both a comprehensive overview and a quantitative analysis of the published data regarding the ability of EUS to preoperatively define the locoregional disease spread (i.e., primary tumor depth (T-stage) and regional lymph node status (N-stage)) in people with primary gastric carcinoma.
SEARCH METHODS: We performed a systematic search to identify articles that examined the diagnostic accuracy of EUS (the index test) in the evaluation of primary gastric cancer depth of invasion (T-stage, according to the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system categories T1, T2, T3 and T4) and regional lymph node status (N-stage, disease-free (N0) versus metastatic (N+)) using histopathology as the reference standard. To this end, we searched the following databases: the Cochrane Library (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)), MEDLINE, EMBASE, NIHR Prospero Register, MEDION, Aggressive Research Intelligence Facility (ARIF), ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials MetaRegister, and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), from 1988 to January 2015.
SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies that met the following main inclusion criteria: 1) a minimum sample size of 10 patients with histologically-proven primary carcinoma of the stomach (target condition); 2) comparison of EUS (index test) with pathology evaluation (reference standard) in terms of primary tumor (T-stage) and regional lymph nodes (N-stage). We excluded reports with possible overlap with the selected studies.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: For each study, two review authors extracted a standard set of data, using a dedicated data extraction form. We assessed data quality using a standard procedure according to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) criteria. We performed diagnostic accuracy meta-analysis using the hierarchical bivariate method.
MAIN RESULTS: We identified 66 articles (published between 1988 and 2012) that were eligible according to the inclusion criteria. We collected the data on 7747 patients with gastric cancer who were staged with EUS. Overall the quality of the included studies was good: in particular, only five studies presented a high risk of index test interpretation bias and two studies presented a high risk of selection bias.For primary tumor (T) stage, results were stratified according to the depth of invasion of the gastric wall. The meta-analysis of 50 studies (n = 4397) showed that the summary sensitivity and specificity of EUS in discriminating T1 to T2 (superficial) versus T3 to T4 (advanced) gastric carcinomas were 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 0.90) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.93) respectively. For the diagnostic capacity of EUS to distinguish T1 (early gastric cancer, EGC) versus T2 (muscle-infiltrating) tumors, the meta-analysis of 46 studies (n = 2742) showed that the summary sensitivity and specificity were 0.85 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.91) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.93) respectively. When we addressed the capacity of EUS to distinguish between T1a (mucosal) versus T1b (submucosal) cancers the meta-analysis of 20 studies (n = 3321) showed that the summary sensitivity and specificity were 0.87 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.92) and 0.75 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.84) respectively. Finally, for the metastatic involvement of lymph nodes (N-stage), the meta-analysis of 44 studies (n = 3573) showed that the summary sensitivity and specificity were 0.83 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.87) and 0.67 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.72), respectively.Overall, as demonstrated also by the Bayesian nomograms, which enable readers to calculate post-test probabilities for any target condition prevalence, the EUS accuracy can be considered clinically useful to guide physicians in the locoregional staging of people with gastric cancer. However, it should be noted that between-study heterogeneity was not negligible: unfortunately, we could not identify any consistent source of the observed heterogeneity. Therefore, all accuracy measures reported in the present work and summarizing the available evidence should be interpreted cautiously. Moreover, we must emphasize that the analysis of positive and negative likelihood values revealed that EUS diagnostic performance cannot be considered optimal either for disease confirmation or for exclusion, especially for the ability of EUS to distinguish T1a (mucosal) versus T1b (submucosal) cancers and positive versus negative lymph node status.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: By analyzing the data from the largest series ever considered, we found that the diagnostic accuracy of EUS might be considered clinically useful to guide physicians in the locoregional staging of people with gastric carcinoma. However, the heterogeneity of the results warrants special caution, as well as further investigation for the identification of factors influencing the outcome of this diagnostic tool. Moreover, physicians should be warned that EUS performance is lower in diagnosing superficial tumors (T1a versus T1b) and lymph node status (positive versus negative). Overall, we observed large heterogeneity and its source needs to be understood before any definitive conclusion can be drawn about the use of EUS can be proposed in routine clinical settings.
Glycemic changes after gastrectomy in non-morbidly obese patients with gastric cancer and diabetes.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):245-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODOLOGY: Between December 2011 and June 2014, we included 46 patients with gastric cancer and T2DM of a body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m2, who underwent gastrectomy in our center. The comparisons of FPGs in specific periods were performed according to age, extent of gastrectomy, reconstruction type, preoperative triglyceride (TG) level and so on.
RESULTS: The non-morbidly obese patients experienced an improvement of glycemic control. T2DM resolution happened 3 weeks after surgery. FPG decreased significantly after postoperative day 21 compared to preoperative FPG. 32 patients experienced DM improvement after postoperative day 21. The age and relatively lower preoperative TG patients, who underwent total gastrectomy (P<0.001) or duodenal bypass reconstruction (Billroth II, Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy, or Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy, P=0.009) appeared to have a better glycemic control.
CONCLUSIONS: Our finding observed through this simulation model suggested that non-morbidly obese patients may also benefit from metabolic surgery for glycemic control, associated with age, extent of gastrectomy, reconstruction type, and preoperative triglyceride level.
Laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer in China: an overview.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):234-9 [PubMed] Related Publications