Gastrointestinal System Cancers
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Digestive and Gastrointestinal System cancers.

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Latest Research Publications

General Resources for GI Cancer (9 links)

Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Jung JH, Choi KD, Koh YW, et al.
Risk factors of lymph node metastasis in patients with gastric neuroendocrine tumor with normal serum gastrin level.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):207-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Locoregional gastric carcinoids with normal serum gastrin level have been recommended radical resection regardless of tumor size or depth of invasion. However, there have been some reports which showed small sporadic gastric carcinoids could be treated with local resection. The aim of this study was to elucidate risk factors of lymph node metastasis in patients with gastric carcinoids with normal serum gastrin level and determine the indications for limited resection such as endoscopic treatment.
METHODOLOGY: We performed clinicopathologic reviews of thirty gastric carcinoids with normal serum gastrin level from January 1996 to December 2010.
RESULTS: One case show distant metastasis and two cases showed lymph node metastasis at the time of diagnosis. For twenty seven cases which showed no regional lymph node or distant metastasis initially no additional lymph node or distant metastasis were diagnosed throughout the follow up period. Large tumor size (>10 mm), proper muscle infiltration, WHO classification grade 2 and lymphovascular invasion was noted risk factor of lymph node metastasis by univariate logistic regression analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Small (≤10 mm) gastric carcinoids with normal serum gastrin level confined to submucosa can be treated with endoscopic or local resection unless lymphovascular invasion.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Jorgensen B, Knudtson J
Stop cancer colon. Colorectal cancer screening--updated guidelines.
S D Med. 2015; Spec No:82-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the U.S. Its incidence and mortality have shown a decreasing trend over the last several decades. The greatest contribution to this trend has been colorectal cancer screening. Colonoscopy continues to be the preferred screening modality. However, recommendations for the use of screening tests other than colonoscopy have generated much interest. Guidelines regarding current screening and surveillance recommendations have recently been updated by expert panels, such as the U.S. Multi-Society Task Force, National Comprehensive Cancer Network and National Institute of Health. A review of the updated guidelines as well as a PubMed search for articles dating 2006 to present relating to colorectal cancer screening and surveillance was performed. We discuss the importance of colorectal screening and highlight updates to current colorectal cancer screening and surveillance guidelines.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Screening for Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer USA

Zhang H, Zhang X, Wang J, et al.
Comparison of high-resolution melting analysis, Sanger sequencing and ARMS for KRAS mutation detection in metastatic colorectal cancer.
Clin Lab. 2015; 61(3-4):435-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Treatment of metastatic colon carcinoma with the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody cetuximab/panitumumab is reported to be ineffective in KRAS-mutant tumors; therefore, it is necessary to perform KRAS mutation analysis before cetuximab or panitumumab treatment is initiated.
METHODS: This study was designed to compare and evaluate the efficacy of three different methodologies--high resolution melting (HRM), Sanger sequencing, and Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS)--for KRAS mutation detection in a clinical setting.
RESULTS: In total, 55 samples from patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were analyzed. Compared to Sanger sequencing, good consistency was found between the results of the ARMS (Kappa = 0.839) and HRM (Kappa = 0.839). The sensitivities of the methods were compared after a consensus was reached: if two of the three methodologies showed a similar result, it was considered as the consensus result. The frequency of KRAS mutations in our population was 34.5%, and discordant findings were observed in five samples. No significant difference in sensitivity was found among the three methodologies.
CONCLUSIONS: From the results, we can conclude that after careful in-laboratory validation, HRM is a good alternative to the ARMS and Sanger sequencing for KRAS mutation testing.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Panitumumab (Vectibix) Cetuximab (Erbitux)

Kong W, Wang J, Ping X, et al.
Biomarkers for assessing mucosal barrier dysfunction induced by chemotherapy: Identifying a rapid and simple biomarker.
Clin Lab. 2015; 61(3-4):371-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced mucosal barrier dysfunction is of clinical interest. However, the assessment of mucosal barrier dysfunction still poses challenges. In this study, we compared several biomarkers with the dual sugar gut permeability test for assessing mucosal barrier dysfunction during chemotherapy.
METHODS: Forty-two patients with gastric or colorectal cancer underwent chemotherapy, including FAM or FOLFOX4 regimens. Patients were asked to grade and record their symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity daily. The urinary lactulose-mannitol ratio was measured to assess the intestinal permeability. Plasma levels of citrulline, diamine oxidase (DAO), D-lactic acid, and endotoxin were also measured. Intestinal permeability was observed in the subgroup of patients with diarrhea or constipation.
RESULTS: The urinary lactulose-mannitol ratio and plasma citrulline levels increased on the third and sixth post-chemotherapy days, respectively. There were no significant differences in the plasma levels of D-lactic acid, endotoxin or DAO activity compared to their levels before chemotherapy. The urinary lactulose-mannitol ratio in diarrhea patients was significantly higher than in constipation patients.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the urinary lactulose-mannitol ratio and plasma citrulline level are appropriate biomarkers for assessing mucosal barrier dysfunction in patients receiving chemotherapy. Mucosal barrier dysfunction in diarrhea patients was greater than in constipation patients.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Wang F, Li S, Wang L, et al.
DATS suppresses growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by regulation of ERK1/2.
Clin Lab. 2015; 61(3-4):315-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is well known that garlics contain a large number of organosulfur compounds including diallyl trisulfide (DATS), which possess anticancer properties. However, the effects of DATS on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) growth are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of DATS on ESCC cell growth in vivo and in vitro, as well as the associated signaling pathways.
METHODS: Cell proliferation was measured using the crystal violet assay. The transwell method was used to evaluate the effect of DATS on ESCC cell migration. Also, Western blot was performed to detect the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT1 responds to DATS. Finally, the effect of DATS on ESCC xenografts in nude mice was also investigated.
RESULTS: Our results showed that DATS significantly inhibited ESCC cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. DATS time-dependently (p < 0.05) increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not AKT1. Suppression of ERK1/2 activation with PD9805 also completely blocked DATS-inhibited ESCC cell proliferation. Meanwhile, DATS also robustly suppressed ESCC xenograft growth and increased ERK1/2 activation in nude mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Our finding demonstrated that DATS inhibits the proliferation of ESCC cells by activation of ERK1/2 in vitro and in vivo. These findings revealed that DATS could be used for therapeutic intervention for human ESCC.

Related: Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer AKT1

Mayer RJ, Van Cutsem E, Falcone A, et al.
Randomized trial of TAS-102 for refractory metastatic colorectal cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2015; 372(20):1909-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Early clinical trials conducted primarily in Japan have shown that TAS-102, an oral agent that combines trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride, was effective in the treatment of refractory colorectal cancer. We conducted a phase 3 trial to further assess the efficacy and safety of TAS-102 in a global population of such patients.
METHODS: In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned 800 patients, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive TAS-102 or placebo. The primary end point was overall survival.
RESULTS: The median overall survival improved from 5.3 months with placebo to 7.1 months with TAS-102, and the hazard ratio for death in the TAS-102 group versus the placebo group was 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.81; P<0.001). The most frequently observed clinically significant adverse events associated with TAS-102 were neutropenia, which occurred in 38% of those treated, and leukopenia, which occurred in 21%; 4% of the patients who received TAS-102 had febrile neutropenia, and one death related to TAS-102 was reported. The median time to worsening performance status (a change in Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status [on a scale of 0 to 5, with 0 indicating no symptoms and higher numbers indicating increasing degrees of disability] from 0 or 1 to 2 or more) was 5.7 months with TAS-102 versus 4.0 months with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.78; P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with refractory colorectal cancer, TAS-102, as compared with placebo, was associated with a significant improvement in overall survival. (Funded by Taiho Oncology-Taiho Pharmaceutical; RECOURSE number, NCT01607957.).

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Shah M, Denlinger CS
Optimal post-treatment surveillance in cancer survivors: is more really better?
Oncology (Williston Park). 2015; 29(4):230-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
A substantial rise in the number of cancer survivors has led to management questions regarding effective post-treatment surveillance strategies. Although a number of professional societies have proposed surveillance guidelines, clinical practice varies; the general trend is toward more intensive strategies. The evidence supporting intensive surveillance is relatively lacking, with most studies showing that more intense surveillance regimens have minimal, if any, impact on outcomes in terms of survival, quality of life, or overall cost-effectiveness. This has been demonstrated in breast cancer, and data supporting a similar conclusion may be evolving in colorectal cancer, where large prospective studies call into question the utility of intensive surveillance; in prostate cancer, retrospective data suggest a similar trend. In this review, we discuss the established guidelines and current evidence regarding post-treatment surveillance, and we propose general management strategies in prostate, colorectal, and breast cancers.

Related: Breast Cancer Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Prostate Cancer USA

Saha A, Shree Padhi S, Roy S, Banerjee B
HCT116 colonospheres shows elevated expression of hTERT and β-catenin protein - a short report.
J Stem Cells. 2014; 9(4):243-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Clonospheres formed due to modified culture conditions are often studied for their stem cell like behaviour. The main objective of the current study is to compare the stem cell markers and link it to hTERT levels by monitoring their quantitative gene expression as they are potential targets for new generation combination therapeutics.
METHOD: In the present study we created stable colonospheres of Human colon cancer cell line HCT-116 long term culture conditions of Serum deprivation. Clonospheres formed after 15 days were collected by gentle and enzymatic dissociation was performed. Single cell suspension was obtained by mechanically dissociating the cells through a 22G needle. Single cells were replanted at a density 1200 cells/ml in Serum Free Medium in the 6 well plates for further passage. Passaging of cells was done at an interval of 8 days. The spheres formed were cyto-spun in special slides for Immunocytochemistry (ICC) studies for β-catenin protein and hTERT. The colonospheres were also processed for real time PCR expression studies for the same genes to confirm.
RESULTS: In this present study, immunofluorescence studies revealed high β-catenin expression in the nucleus in colonospheres as compared to that of differentiated cancer cell line HCT-116 where the signal was localized mostly in the membranous and non-nuclear regions. Also increased TRF2 signal in colonospheres indicated higher activity of hTERT gene as TRF2 is the direct activator of hTERT to protect the telomere. Quantitative PCR studies showed that there was a significant over expression (p<0.05) at the mRNA level of the hTERT, TRF2, Rap1 genes along with the β-catenin over expression. Immunofluorescence analysis also revealed higher expression of CSC marker CD44 and ALDH1in colonospheres compared to the parental population.
CONCLUSION: Clonospheres sub-population is showing higher degree of hTERT gene expression along with β-catenin when compared to the parental HCT-116 cancer cells. We also checked the co expression of other telomere maintenance genes mainly TRF 2 and Rap1 which also showed similar results. Therefore, we conclude that not only hTERT but possibly other Sheltrin proteins are regulated by β-catenin which is co expressed.

Related: CTNNB1 gene TERT

Wiela-Hojeńska A, Kowalska T, Filipczyk-Cisarż E, et al.
Evaluation of the toxicity of anticancer chemotherapy in patients with colon cancer.
Adv Clin Exp Med. 2015 Jan-Feb; 24(1):103-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Modern anticancer chemotherapy can cause numerous adverse effects in the organism, whose functioning has already been disrupted by the neoplastic process itself.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the frequency and severity of the toxicity of FOLFOX-4 and CLF-1 anticancer therapy in patients with colon cancer, and to analyze certain factors that might have increased the toxicity of the chemotherapy.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 64 patients suffering from generalized colon cancer, including 48 patients treated according to the FOLFOX-4 regimen and 16 patients treated according to the CLF-1 regimen. The toxicity of each regimen was analyzed on the basis of a confidential questionnaire formulated by the authors and laboratory research according to the extended WHO toxicity criteria.
RESULTS: The analysis of the symptoms of toxicity symptoms associated with the use of the FOLFOX-4 and CLF-1 therapeutic regimens revealed that the most common side effects included nausea and vomiting, despite ondansetron premedication, and neurotoxicity. Disruption of the functioning of the nervous system under the FOLFOX-4 regimen statistically significant exacerbation that increased with the number of chemotherapy cycles administered; this was more common and more severe in women. Paresthesia was also revealed to be a neurotoxic effect of the FOLFOX-4 regimen after termination of therapy. A statistically significant relationship was observed between the use of vitamin supplements and the incidence and severity of the toxicity of the FOLFOX-4 regimen.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study regarding the toxicity of the FOLFOX-4 and CLF-1 therapy regimens should be taken into consideration when monitoring chemotherapy safety in colon cancer. The patients' tolerance of the administered medication and the side effects reported by patients should be constantly evaluated, which will help prevent these side effects, apply appropriate therapy and contribute to the improvement of the patients' quality of life. The functioning of the central nervous system should be carefully evaluated when planning the anticancer therapy, especially if repeated administration of neurotoxic drugs is necessary in cases of a recurrence of the disease. Chemotherapy should be thoroughly monitored for safety, especially in women over 65 years of age suffering from coexisting diseases. Colon cancer patients and their families should be informed of the risks of nutritional supplements before the start of the anticancer chemotherapy, and may need to dispense with their use.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Fluorouracil Leucovorin Irinotecan

Zani A, De Masi S, Maffei C, et al.
The colorectal cancer screening program in the local health unit n. 6 of Livorno: evaluation of the screening activity in the period 2000-2011.
J Prev Med Hyg. 2014; 55(1):4-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The colorectal cancer screening program in the Local Health Unit n. 6 of Livorno is running since July 2000 and is meant to residents, aged between 50 and 70, who are invited to perform the test for faecal occult blood every 2 years. The aim of this work is an evaluation of the screening activity in the period 2000-2011.
METHODS: The evaluation is based on the analysis of the main quality indicators formulated by GISCoR (Italian Group for Colorectal screening).
RESULTS: The screening activity extension reached 93% in 2006 and 100% in 2009. The compliance level was maintained above the acceptable GISCoR value (> 45%) with a maximum of 54.9%. Values around 80% were recorded for the compliance to colonoscopy. The detection rate (DR) for cancer and advanced adenoma showed, as expected, the highest values in the early years and then move on values consistently lower than the regional average. In 2011, the raw DR for cancer was 0.9 x 1000 and the raw DR for advanced adenoma 5.3 x 1000. The distribution by stage at diagnosis of screen-detected carcinomas shows that 58.1% of these were identified at stage I while the proportion of cases in stage III+ is 19.5%.
CONCLUSIONS: The overall analysis shows a good performance of the program. The proportion of colonoscopies performed on the total number of positive subjects remains a critical point of the system. The distribution by stage of screen-detected cancers shows an excellent diagnostic anticipation of the screening program.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Cancer Screening and Early Detection

Shen Z, Yu J, Lei S, et al.
Glycemic changes after gastrectomy in non-morbidly obese patients with gastric cancer and diabetes.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):245-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the glycemic changes after gastrectomy in non-morbidly obese patients with gastric cancer (GC) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
METHODOLOGY: Between December 2011 and June 2014, we included 46 patients with gastric cancer and T2DM of a body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m2, who underwent gastrectomy in our center. The comparisons of FPGs in specific periods were performed according to age, extent of gastrectomy, reconstruction type, preoperative triglyceride (TG) level and so on.
RESULTS: The non-morbidly obese patients experienced an improvement of glycemic control. T2DM resolution happened 3 weeks after surgery. FPG decreased significantly after postoperative day 21 compared to preoperative FPG. 32 patients experienced DM improvement after postoperative day 21. The age and relatively lower preoperative TG patients, who underwent total gastrectomy (P<0.001) or duodenal bypass reconstruction (Billroth II, Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy, or Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy, P=0.009) appeared to have a better glycemic control.
CONCLUSIONS: Our finding observed through this simulation model suggested that non-morbidly obese patients may also benefit from metabolic surgery for glycemic control, associated with age, extent of gastrectomy, reconstruction type, and preoperative triglyceride level.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Lan H, Zhu N, Lan Y, et al.
Laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer in China: an overview.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):234-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since its introduction in China in 2000, laparoscopic gastrectomy has shown classical advantages of minimally invasive surgery over open counterpart. Like all the pioneers of the technique, Chinese gastrointestinal surgeons claim that laparoscopic gastrectomy led to faster recovery, shorter hospital stay and more rapid return to daily activities respect to open gastrectomy while offering the same functional and oncological results. There has been booming interest in laparoscopic gastrectomy since 2006 in China. The last decade has witnessed national growth in the application of laparoscopic gastrectomy and yielded a significant amount of scientific data to support its clinical merits and advantages. However, few prospective randomized controlled trials have investigated the benefits of laparoscopic gastrectomy in China. In this article, we make an overview of the current data and state of the art of laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer in China.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Qiu Z, Sun W, Zhou C, Zhang J
HER2 expression variability between primary gastric cancers and corresponding lymph node metastases.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):231-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The efficacy of anti-HER2 therapy is mainly dependent on HER2 overexpression in the metastatic lesions. It is essential to decipher the heterogeneity of gene profiles between primary tumor and matched metastases in gastric cancer.
METHODOLOGY: The frequency of HER2 expression in 100 gastric cancers of both primary tumors and corresponding multiple lymph node metastases were determined immunohistochemically. A modified HER2-scoring criteria by Hofmann et al recommended for gastric cancer were followed in our study, which considers basolateral, so-called "U-shape", HER2-expression as positive.
RESULTS: HER2 overexpression (2+, 3+) was seen in 33.0% of primary gastric cancers and 39.4% of the corresponding metastatic lymph nodes. For the first time, we compare HER2 expression heterogeneity among different lymph node metastases in the same patient, for the cases with 2 or more metastatic lymph nodes, HER2 expression discordance among the nodes was observed in 25.3% of the cases.
CONCLUSIONS: HER2 overexpression was seen in one-third of primary gastric cancers with lymph node metastases. As the receptor expression may lose or gain in the metastases at a probability of approximately 30%, assessment of the receptor status in metastatic lesions is encouraged.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Zu H, Wang H, Li C, et al.
Clinico-pathological features and prognostic analysis of gastric cancer patients in different age groups.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):225-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prognostic value of age on patients with gastric cancer is not well defined. The aim of this retrospective study is to analyze the impact of age on survival in patients with gastric cancer.
METHODOLOGY: A total of 1800 patients with gastric carcinoma, who had undergone gastrectomy between 1997-2007 years were included. They were divided into six different age groups (21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51- 60, 61-70 and 71-80 years). We reviewed patient's clinico-pathological characteristics and the prognosis with special reference to their ages.
RESULTS: Among the six age groups, the younger patients have more female-dominated patients and poorly differentiated carcinoma, whereas the older patients have a higher incidence of large tumors (≥5 cm) and more patients with stage T3. Moreover, there were more liver metastases in the older age groups. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences in 5-year survival rates among the six age groups. Multivariate analysis confirmed age, tumor size, pT stage, pN stage and curability were independent prognostic factors.
CONCLUSION: There are several distinctive properties related to age of patients with gastric cancer, the older patients have more aggressive features and poorer prognosis than the younger patients.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Nakamura M, Tahara T, Shiroeda H, et al.
The effect of short-term proton pump inhibitor plus anti-ulcer drug on the healing of endoscopic submucosal dissection-derived artificial ulcer: a randomized controlled trial.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):219-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Artificial ulcers remain a major complication after Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The development of more effective treatment regimen for this ulcer is required than the use of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) alone.
METHODOLOGY: Patients with ESD-derived artificial ulcers were randomly assigned to two groups: a group of patients who received rabeprazole 20 mg daily for 8 weeks (PPI group) and a group of patients who received a combination of rebamipide 300 mg daily for 8 weeks and rabeprazole 20 mg dairy for the first 4 weeks (reb+PPI group). The area reduction ratio and healing status of ulcers were evaluated endoscopically on postoperative 7, 28 and 56 days.
RESULTS: The overall ulcer area reduction ratio was higher in the reb+PPI group than in the PPI group, especially at an early stage. The ratio of progression to the H1 stage in the reb+PPI group was significantly higher than that in the PPI group, especially at an early stage.
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with 8 weeks of rebamipide plus the first 4 weeks of PPI demonstrated a reduction ratio of artificial ulcers superior to that with 8 weeks of PPI mono-therapy. This combination treatment is, therefore, one of the candidate treatment strategies against ESD-derived artificial ulcers.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Kikuchi S, Mieno H, Moriya H, et al.
A preliminary study on pre-operative tumor volumetry measured by three-dimensional computer tomography in gastric cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):214-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical significance of tumor volumetry measured by three-dimensional (3-D) multidetector row computed tomography (MD-CT).
METHODOLOGY: A total of 50 patients with gastric cancer who had undergone pre-operative tumor volumetry using 3D-MD-CT followed by subsequent laparotomy (11 women, 39 men; mean age 63.9 years) were examined. Tumor volume and conventional clinicopathological factors were studied and then analyzed with respect to survival.
RESULTS: Tumor volume was distributed widely and ranged from 0.16 cm3 to 363.5 cm3 with a mean of 43.6 cm3 (<10 cm3, 21 tumors; ≥10 cm3, 29 tu- mors). Significant differences in survival were found for volume (<10.0 cm3 vs. ≥10.0 cm3; p=0.0414), and depth of invasion (T1-2 vs. T3-4; p=0.0475), but not for diameter (<50 mm vs. ≥50 mm; p=0.2142), location (proximal third vs. middle or distal third; p=0.3254), macroscopic type (localized vs. invasive; p=0.3619), or microscopic type (differentiated vs. undifferentiated; p=0.1230).
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that tumor volume measured by pre-operative 3D-MD-CT offers an alternative indicator for determining the prognosis in gastric cancer.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Hu HK, Ke NW, Li A, et al.
Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: a single center experience in China.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):178-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are a unique subgroup of tumors in the digestive system but with great clinical heterogeneity. The information on clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of Chinese patients is rather limited.
METHODOLOGY: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, prognostic factors of this disease in a consecutive cohort (N=294) between January 2007 and December 2012.
RESULTS: Functioning tumors accounted for 9.2%. Rectum was the most predominant GEP-NETs locations. Abdominal pain occurred in 46.5% patients which was the most common initial symptom. G1, G2 and G3 tumors accounted for 41.5%, 34.7% and 23.8%, respectively. Endoscopy provided the highest detection rate of 95.7%. Consistence between endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) and surgically obtained histological Ki-67 index was 36.4%. Serum CgA test showed a 80.0% consistence with the tissue biopsy. The median follow up duration was 2.8 years (0.02-5.90 years), the median survival was 4.8 years, overall 5-year survival rate was 69.6%. We found colonic localization, tumor size larger than 20 mm, G3 tumor and metastasis were associated with worse outcome (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: We found both consistence and differences in GEP-NETs characteristics between our study and previous reports.

Related: MKI67 Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Komeda K, Hayashi M, Inoue Y, et al.
A new strategy with a grading system for liver metastases from colorectal cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):111-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The optimal indications, including timing, for resection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRCLM) remain controversial. The Japanese Society of Cancer of the Colon and Rectum has proposed "H-classification" based on the maximum size and number of CRCLM, and has advocated the "CRCLM-grade system", which involves adding the presence of primary lymph node metastasis status to H-classification. We evaluated clinicopathological factors in order to elucidate the optimal indications for and timing of hepatectomy.
METHODOLOGY: Ninety-six patients who underwent initial hepatectomy for CRCLM between August 1995 and May 2009 were retrospectively analyzed with respect to characteristics of primary colorectal metastatic hepatic tumors, operation details and prognosis.
RESULTS: Multivariate analysis identified depth of invasion in primary colorectal cancer (within sub-serosal (non-se) vs. beyond serosal (se)) and CRCLM-grade as independent risk factors. We then performed analyses using the combination of non-se/se and CRCLM-grade. Kaplan-Meier analysis identified significant differences between non-se+gradeA and se+gradeA, between non-se+gradeB and se+gradeB, and between non-se+gradeC and se+gradeC groups.
CONCLUSIONS: We could retrospectively predict survival in CRCLM patients by adopting this new simple classification. This method may allow more precise assessment of operative indications and timing for both operations and perioperative adjuvant treatment.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Engstrand J, Nilsson H, Jansson A, et al.
Fate of necrotic volume after microwave ablation of multiple liver metastases.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):108-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to find the rate of shrinkage of necrosis and time of peak ablation volume after multiple microwave ablations in the treatment of multiple liver metastases of colorectal cancer. These factors are not known and are important in evaluation of treatment and identification of local recurrence, as microwave treatment is becoming more used thanks to improved technology in diagnostics and interventional therapy.
METHODOLOGY: A retrospective analysis of non-cirrhotic patients with multiple liver only metastases of colorectal cancer, not suited for resection for this reason. Patients were selected for palliative microwave treatment at a liver multidisciplinary team conference. 68 ablations were made in six patients. Ablation volume was analysed with repeated imaging and computer analyses.
RESULTS: The ablation volume peeks after 5-7 days where after reduction of the necrosis in the liver occurs logarithmically with a 60% reduction of ablation volume after 100 days and 80% after a year.
DISCUSSION: Liver regeneration after microwave ablations occurs at a constant logarithmic rate after an initial expansion of the ablation volume during the first five days. Evaluation of ablation volume in comparison to tumour volume must take this into account so that follow-up imaging is properly timed.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Sturesson C, Hoekstra L, Andersson R, van Gulik TM
Importance of thrombocytes for the hypertrophy response after portal vein embolization.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):98-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Thrombocytes have proved to be important for liver regeneration after liver resection in the experimental setting. The aim of our study is to examine the effects of thrombocytes on liver hypertrophy after portal vein embolization (PVE).
METHODOLOGY: This retrospective cohort study comprised 75 patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer subjected to PVE in preparation for major liver resection. Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on if chemotherapy was given within 6 weeks before PVE or not.
RESULTS: The chemotherapy group showed lower levels of thrombocytes (p=0.003) and lower degree of hypertrophy (p=0.030) as compared to the group without chemotherapy. No correlation within groups between level of thrombocytes and degree of hypertrophy was found. However, in the chemotherapy group, a positive linear correlation between the degree of hypertrophy and the difference in thrombocytes between the time points of PVE and 2 months preceding PVE was found (p=0.0006).
DISCUSSION: Preprocedural chemotherapy results in decreased hypertrophy of the liver after PVE and lower levels of thrombocytes at the time for PVE. The absolute number of thrombocytes does not influence liver regeneration after PVE. For patients receiving preprocedural chemotherapy, PVE performed at a time when thrombocytes are decreasing is associated with a reduced regeneration.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Kasetsermwiriya W, Nagai E, Nakata K, et al.
Surgery of upper GI gastrointestinal stromal tumors: our experience, prognostic analysis.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):87-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To review our treatment experience of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the upper gastrointestinal tract and identify the prognostic factors that influence tumor recurrence.
METHODOLOGY: Data of 46 consecutive patients with upper GI GISTs who underwent surgery from 1988 to 2011 were reviewed. The overall and disease-free survival rates and influence of clinicopathologic variables on disease-free survival rate were evaluated.
RESULTS: The median age was 64 years (range, 20-86 years). R0 resections were performed in 43 (93.5%) patients. With a median follow-up time of 33 months (1-275 months), there were 5 (10.9%) recurrences and 2 mortalities in the high-risk group. The overall survival and recurrence-free survival rates at 5 years were 92.1% and 84.6%, respectively. Male gender, tumor size of >10 cm, high numbers of mitotic figures, R1 resection, high risk according to the Joensuu criteria, and a Ki-67 index of >10% were associated with a poor prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Surgical resection of low- and intermediate-risk GISTs has excellent results. High counts of mitotic figures, male gender, incomplete resection, large tumor size, and a high Ki-67 index are associated with a poor prognosis.

Related: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors MKI67 Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Ren X, Zhao Z, Huang W, et al.
Analysis of the characteristics and factors influencing lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal carcinoma and cancer of the gastric cardia.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):73-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To analyze the metastatic characteristics of lymph nodes in thoracic esophageal carcinoma and cancer of the gastric cardia, and to explore the factors influencing lymph node metastasis.
METHODOLOGY: A retrospective analysis of the treatment of 37 patients who received surgical treatment for thoracic esophageal and gastric cardia cancers from January 2010 to January 2012 was carried out,
RESULTS: Lymph node metastasis in patients with thoracic esophageal carcinoma was frequently found on the superior mediastinum, hilum of the lung, and inferior extremity of the carina. Metastasis in patients with cancer of the gastric cardia occurred mainly in the abdominal cavity and peripheral gastric cardia. A single factor analysis showed that a tumor infiltrating full-thickness, > 5 cm in length, and with a low degree of cell differentiation affected lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). The degree of differentiation, length, and infiltrating depth of the tumor were independent factors affecting lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Lymph node metastasis in patients with cancers of the esophagus and gastric cardia exhibits special characteristics. The cleaning scope should be assessed according to the actual situation, including the degree of tumor differentiation, lesion length, and infiltration depth.

Related: Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Kawasaki K, Oshikiri T, Kanaji S, et al.
Thoracoscopic esophagectomy in prone position: advantages of five ports over four ports.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):69-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Thoracoscopic esophagectomy in the prone position (ThE-PP) is usually performed with four ports, which makes the operation almost solo surgery. We now perform ThE-PP with five ports, with the advantage of having the assistant able to provide additional help. The aim of this study was to elucidate the benefits of ThE with five ports over ThE with four ports.
METHODOLOGY: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 47 patients with esophageal cancer who underwent ThE-PP. A total of 14 patients underwent ThE-PP with four ports and 33 with five ports. We compared the number of dissected lymph nodes (LNs)--total; upper left, middle, and lower mediastinum--between the four-port and five-port groups.
RESULTS: The number of LNs dissected, including the total, the upper left and middle mediastinum, were not significantly different between the two operations. The number of LNs dissected from the lower mediastinum, however, was significantly higher in the five-port group (median number and interquartile range: 5 and 2-7, respectively) than in the four-port group (0.5 and 0-3, respectively) (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: ThE-PP performed with five ports has an advantage over the same operation done with four ports in terms of lymphadenectomy in the lower mediastinum.

Related: Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer

Ye LP, Zhu LH, Zhou XB, et al.
Endoscopic excavation for the treatment of small esophageal subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):65-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic excavation for esophageal subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria.
METHODOLOGY: Forty-five patients with esophageal subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria were treated with endoscopic excavation between January 2010 and June 2012. The key steps were: (1) making several dots around the tumor; (2) incising the mucosa along with the marker dots, and then seperating the tumor from the muscularis propria by using a hook knife or an insulated-tip knife; (3) closing the artificial ulcer with clips after the tumor was removed.
RESULTS: The mean tumor diameter was 1.1 ± 0.6 cm. Endoscopic excavation was successfully performed in 43 out of 45 cases (95.6%), the other 2 cases were ligated with nylon rope. During the procedure perforation occurred in 4 (8.9%) patients, who recovered after conservative treatment. No massive bleeding or delayed bleeding occurred. Histologic diagnosis was obtained from 43 (95.6%) patients. Pathological diagnoses of these tumors were leiomyomas (38/43) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (5/43).
CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic excavation is a safe and effective method for the treatment of small esophageal subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria.

Related: Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

Ozturk MA, Dane F, Karagoz S, et al.
Is perineural invasion (PN) a determinant of disease free survival in early stage colorectal cancer?
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):59-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prognostic importance of perineural invasion (PN) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is unclear. The aim of this study to find out whether the PN was an independent stratification factor of postoperative relapse in curatively resected high-risk stage II & III CRC patients who were treated with adjuvant therapy.
METHODOLOGY: Data of patients with high risk stage II & all stage III CRCs treated with adjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Pathological features of final surgical specimen were noted. Disease-free survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier estimator, with differences determined by multivariate analysis using the Cox multiple hazards model. Results were compared using the log-rank test.
RESULTS: PN was found to be positive in 26% in the files of 593 eligible patients. In 21% of the reports PN status was not reported. Presence of PN in the resected primary tumors did not have independent effect on DFS. Further analyses for importance of PN on DFS of colon or rectal cancers did not show any effect.
CONCLUSIONS: This study had failed to demonstrate any prognostic effect of PN for DFS in surgically resected stage II and III CRC patients who received adjuvant treatments.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Liu W, Li J, Jin K, Liu Q
Totally laparoscopic right colectomy: technique description.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):51-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Total laparoscopic right colectomy (TLRC) with intracorporeal anastomosis is not widely performed as it requires adequate skills and competence in the use of mechanical linear staplers. Here we describe the technique of TLRC for resection for right colon cancer.
METHODOLOGY: We have performed TLRC in a patient for right colon cancer. Technique description of TLRC as well as short-term outcomes is reported.
RESULTS: A TLRC for the right colon adenocarcinoma has been successfully performed in a male patient. The specimen included 11 lymph nodes, all of which were free of metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: TLRC for right colon cancer was safe and feasible.

Ma CC, Li P, Wang LH, et al.
The value of single-incision laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer: a systematic literature review.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):45-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recently, single-incision laparoscopic colectomy (SILC) for colorectal malignancy is rapidly becoming the central issue for explorers of minimally invasive surgery worldwide. The aim of this systematic review was to establish the safety and efficacy of SILC for colorectal malignancy when implemented by experienced surgeons.
METHODOLOGY: PubMed, WHO international trial register and Embase were searched for publications concerning SILC and MLC from 2000 to 2013, with the last search on September 10, 2013. Only pure single-incision laparoscopic colonic surgery for malignant disease was included. Primary outcomes were the early postoperative complication profiles of SILC. Secondary outcomes were duration of operation time, blood loss, lymph node yields, conversion rate, distal margin of the resected tumor, and duration of hospital stay.
RESULTS: Eight studies involving 547 patients met the inclusion criteria. Compared with multiport laparoscopic colectomy (MLC), SILC has less postoperative complication and bleeding. The conversion, the median lymph node retrieval, proximal margin of the resected tumor and distal margin of the resected tumor for malignant disease achieved with SILC was acceptable. There was no significant reduction in length of hospital stay with SILC.
CONCLUSION: SILC is a technically reliable and realistic approach with short-term results similar to those obtained with the MLC procedure.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Yanmaz MT, Demir G, Erdamar S, et al.
Epidermal growth factor receptor in CRC patients in the era of the RAS.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):40-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to investigate EGFR expression patterns and the effect of EGFR expression on stage, prognosis and response to conventional chemotherapy agents other than monoclonal antibodies in CRC patients. This study included 59 metastatic CRC patients. The expression of EGFR was quantified by immunochemistry in biopsy specimens that were obtained before treatment was initiated. The cases were considered to be positive for EGFR if >1% of the tumor cells had complete circumferential membranous staining. The median age of the patients was 54.6 years, and 59% of the patients were male. Twenty-six patients presented with stage IV disease, and the remaining patients developed distant metastasis during follow-up. Fifty-one patients were treated with regimens containing irinotecan. The numbers of patients with EGFR expression in the primary tumors, the metastatic lymph nodes and the normal colonic tissue were 34 (65.4%), 10 (76.9%) and 34 (65.4%) respectively. The initial disease stage and lymph node stage were correlated with EGFR expression (p<0.05). Additionally, EGFR positivity was correlated with a statistically significant reduction in the response rate to chemotherapy, the overall survival (21 vs. 28 months) and the progression-free survival (15 vs. 22 months) in metastatic patiens treated with chemotherapy other than targeted therapies. In conclusion, EGFR expression in correlated with stage in all CRC patients and response to chemotherapy and survival in metastatic CRC patients.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer KRAS gene EGFR

Yoon SN, Kim KY, Kim JW, et al.
Comparison of short- and long-term outcomes of an early experience with robotic and laparoscopic-assisted resection for rectal cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):34-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Robotic surgery is increasingly used for rectal cancer. We compared the short- and long-term outcomes between robotic- and laparoscopic-assisted resection for rectal cancer.
METHODOLOGY: A retrospective chart review was performed between 2006 and 2010.
RESULTS: Seventeen robotic and 61 laparoscopic surgeries were performed consecutively. Median follow-up time was 58.2 months. No operation was converted to open surgery. No difference was observed between the groups for types of operations, diverting ileostomy rate, operation time, blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay, tumor diameter, distal margin, circumferential margin, tumor stage, differentiation, lymphovascular, or perineural invasion. However, the number of harvested lymph nodes was higher in the robot than that in the laparoscopy group (p = 0.017). Overall morbidity and reoperation rates were similar between the groups. The 5-yr overall and disease-free survival rates of all patients were 82.5% and 81.3%, respectively. The 5-yr overall and disease-free survival rates of the robotic and the laparoscopy groups were 94.1% and 79.7% (p = 0.241), and 94.1% and 77.9% (p = 0.159), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Robot-assisted resection for rectal cancer resulted in harvesting more lymph nodes without increasing morbidity and showed a comparable survival rate, compared with those of laparoscopy.

Ishibe A, Ota M, Kanazawa A, et al.
Nutritional management of anastomotic leakage after colorectal cancer surgery using elemental diet jelly.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):30-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Anastomotic leakage is major complication of colorectal surgery. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and fasting are conservative treatments for leakage in the absence of peritonitis in Japan. Elemental diet (ED) jelly is a completely digested formula and is easily absorbed without secretion of digestive juices. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of ED jelly in management of anastomotic leakage.
METHODOLOGY: Six hundred and two patients who underwent elective surgery for left side colorectal cancer from January 2008 to December 2011 were included in the study. Pelvic drainage was performed for all patients. Sixty-three (10.5%) patients were diagnosed with an anastomotic leakage, and of these, 31 (5.2%) without diverting stoma were enrolled in this study.
RESULTS: Sixteen patients received TPN (TPN group) and 15 patients received ED jelly (ED group). The duration of intravenous infusion was significantly shorter in the ED group than in the TPN group (15 days versus 25 days, P= 0.008). In the TPN group, catheter infection was occurred in 2 patients who required re-insertion of the catheter.
CONCLUSION: Conservative management of anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery with ED jelly appears to be a safe and useful approach.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

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