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MeSH term: Gallbladder Neoplasms
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Clinical and Prognostic Significance of Neoplastic Spindle Cells in Gallbladder Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4561-4568 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens were obtained from 62 patients with gallbladder cancer who underwent surgery. The emergence of NSCs and their correlation with clinicopathological factors, prognosis, and EMT markers was evaluated.
RESULTS: The NSC grade correlated with tumor size, preoperative CA19-9, surgical margin, the degree of differentiation, the depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion, and perineural invasion. Multivariate analysis of overall survival showed that NSCs were an independent prognostic factor. A correlation between NSCs and EMT was also suggested.
CONCLUSION: NSCs are an independent prognostic factor for patients with postoperative gallbladder cancer, which also suggests a correlation between NSCs and EMT.
Unexpected Gallbladder Cancer during or after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Risk Factors and Experience of Diagnosis and Treatment of 22 Cases.
Am Surg. 2019; 85(6):671-675 [PubMed] Related Publications
Significance of Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis Measured Using ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT in Locally Advanced and Metastatic Gallbladder Carcinoma.
Yonsei Med J. 2019; 60(7):604-610 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 83 patients initially diagnosed with locally advanced and metastatic GBC and who underwent ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT at the time of initial diagnosis were retrospectively reviewed. The metabolic volume-based PET parameters of primary tumors and metastatic lesions were measured, including maximum and average standardized uptake values (SUV), MTV, and total lesion glycolysis. An overall survival (OS) analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with PET and clinical parameters. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to determine independent prognostic factors.
RESULTS: In univariate analysis, pathologic differentiation (
CONCLUSION: In locally advanced and metastatic GBC, volume-based PET/CT parameters of the total tumor burden of malignancy, such as MTV
BRD4 inhibitor and histone deacetylase inhibitor synergistically inhibit the proliferation of gallbladder cancer in vitro and in vivo.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(8):2493-2506 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sarcomatoid carcinomas of the gallbladder: clinicopathologic characteristics.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 475(1):59-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiotherapy or Chemoradiation in Unresectable Biliary Cancer: A Retrospective Study.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(6):3095-3100 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients with intrahepatic CC (ICC), Klatskin's tumor (KT), distal extrahepatic CC (ECC), and gallbladder cancer (GBC) diagnosed from 1991 to 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The treatment was mainly based on RT plus concurrent CHT +/- brachytherapy (BRT) boost. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival curves that were compared using the log-rank test.
RESULTS: Seventy-six patients were included in this analysis (males: 59%; females: 41%; median age: 66.5 years). A minority of patients (7.9%) were treated for disease recurrence after surgery. According to TNM, 78.5% of patients had T stage >3 and 77.6% of patients were treated with concurrent CHT-RT while 22.3% received RT followed by sequential CHT. Median RT dose was 50 Gy (range: 16-75 Gy) delivered with conventional fractionation. CHT was based on Gemcitabine or 5-fluorouracil. BRT was prescribed to 51.3% of patient with a median dose of 14 Gy. Reported Grade ≥3 acute GI and hematological toxicity were 13.2% and 8.1%, respectively. No other severe acute toxicities were reported. One- and 2-year overall survival (OS) were 58.1% and 25.8%, respectively (median: 13.5 months), while 1- and 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) were 43.4% and 9.4%, respectively. None of the following variables had a significant impact on OS and PFS: BRT boost, tumor site, concurrent CHT, and the drugs used in concurrent CHT. In contrast, patients receiving RT with 2D technique showed a PFS significantly higher compared to patients treated with the 3D technique (median: 15.5 vs. 8.5 months; p=0.02).
CONCLUSION: Combined modality treatment (RT+CHT±BRT) in unresectable biliary cancer was associated with acceptable toxicity and OS comparable to the actual standard treatment (CHT). The significantly improved PFS in patients undergoing 2D-RT raises doubts regarding the adequacy of target delineation in these neoplasms.
Epidemiology of gallbladder and bile duct malignancies in the Czech Republic.
Cas Lek Cesk. 2019; 158(2):52-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Atypical frontal lobe seizure as the first manifestation of gall-bladder cancer: a case report.
BMC Neurol. 2019; 19(1):95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CASE PRESENTATION: A 46 years young female presented first time to the hospital with uncontrolled seizures and headache in 5 months duration. Seizures were very atypical in semiology with ptosis and mydriasis to either side along with ipsilateral ocular deviation. The episodes were bilateral but right eyelid ptosis, mydriasis and right horizontal conjugate deviation were frequent. MRI brain showed encephalomalacia in the left frontal region on axial T2 and coronal T1 weighted images without any enhancement on gadolinium contrast. CECT abdomen revealed a heterogeneously enhancing gall bladder mass with the evidence of lung metastasis from chest CT scan. CSF for malignant cytology was negative. Seizures were refractory to the treatment.
CONCLUSION: Though CNS involvement is uncommon but it can be the only presentation in gall bladder cancer.
Pretreatment with Gemcitabine/5-Fluorouracil Enhances the Cytotoxicity of Trastuzumab to HER2-Negative Human Gallbladder Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:9205851 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Quantitative contrast-enhanced US helps differentiating neoplastic vs non-neoplastic gallbladder polyps.
Eur Radiol. 2019; 29(7):3772-3781 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: From September 2017 to May 2018, 29 patients (10 males; median age, 63 years) with GB polyps of ≥ 1 cm in diameter who were undergoing cholecystectomy were consecutively enrolled. All patients underwent preoperative conventional US and CEUS examinations. Quantitative analysis of CEUS findings using time-intensity curves between the two groups was independently performed by two radiologists. The interobserver agreement for the quantitative analysis of the CEUS results was measured using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of CEUS examination.
RESULTS: After the cholecystectomy, the patients were classified into the non-neoplastic polyp group (n = 12) and the neoplastic polyp group (n = 17) according to the pathological results. The interobserver agreement for quantitative assessment between the two radiologists was near perfect to substantial. Quantitative assessment of the CEUS findings revealed that the rise time, mean transit time, time to peak, and fall time of non-neoplastic GB polyps were significantly shorter than those of neoplastic polyps (p < 0.001, p = 0.008, p = 0.013, and p = 0.002, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of the quantitative CEUS parameters for the differentiation between the two groups were 76.5-100% and 75%, respectively, with an area under the curve of 0.765-0.887.
CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative analysis of CEUS findings could be valuable in differentiating GB neoplastic polyps from non-neoplastic polyps.
KEY POINTS: • Quantitative analysis of CEUS findings could be valuable in differentiating gallbladder neoplastic polyps from non-neoplastic polyps. • Quantitative analysis of CEUS findings in gallbladder polyps provides cut-off values for differentiation between neoplastic polyps and non-neoplastic polyps with near-perfect to substantial interobserver agreement.
Long non-coding RNA GBCDRlnc1 induces chemoresistance of gallbladder cancer cells by activating autophagy.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: We established doxorubicin (Dox)-resistant gallbladder cancer cells and used microarray analysis to compare the expression profiles of lncRNAs in Dox-resistant gallbladder cancer cells and their parental cells. Knockdown or exogenous expression of lncRNA combined with in vitro and in vivo assays were performed to prove the functional significance of lncRNA. The effects of lncRNA on autophagy were assessed by stubRFP-sensGFP-LC3 and western blot. We used RNA pull-down and mass spectrometry analysis to identify the target proteins of lncRNA.
RESULTS: The drug-resistant property of gallbladder cancer cells is related to their enhanced autophagic activity. And we found a lncRNA ENST00000425894 termed gallbladder cancer drug resistance-associated lncRNA1 (GBCDRlnc1) that serves as a critical regulator in gallbladder cancer chemoresistance. Furthermore, we discovered that GBCDRlnc1 is upregulated in gallbladder cancer tissues. Knockdown of GBCDRlnc1, via inhibiting autophagy at initial stage, enhanced the sensitivity of Dox-resistant gallbladder cancer cells to Dox in vitro and in vivo. Mechanically, we identified that GBCDRlnc1 interacts with phosphoglycerate kinase 1 and inhibits its ubiquitination in Dox-resistant gallbladder cancer cells, which leads to the down-regulation of autophagy initiator ATG5-ATG12 conjugate.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings established that the chemoresistant driver GBCDRlnc1 might be a candidate therapeutic target for the treatment of advanced gallbladder cancer.
Mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine carcinoma of gallbladder: case report.
World J Surg Oncol. 2019; 17(1):55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old female was referred to our department for a rapidly progressing tumor in the subhepatic area along with the infiltration of S5 and S6 liver segments. With regard to preoperative findings, the tumor appeared as operable, although, during the surgery, an extensive involvement of the hepatoduodenal ligament by the tumor through the lymph nodes was revealed. Due to acute perioperative bleeding from the necrotic tumor, we decided to perform modified resection. Histologically, the tumor was confirmed as MINEN of gallbladder, where the neuroendocrine component was dominant over the non-neuroendocrine component. Six weeks after the discharge, the patient underwent a follow-up CT revealing large recurrence of the disease. Thereafter, the patient was started on systemic therapy with etoposide and carboplatin in combination with somatostatin analogues. Thirteen months after the surgery, the patient is in good clinical condition, and while a recently performed PET/MRI scan revealed a hepatic lesion and hilar lymphadenopathy in full regression, there was a spread of small peritoneal and pleural metastases. The patient remains in the follow-up care.
CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasms is extremely rare. Radical surgery remains the only potentially effective approach to the cure of this disease. The role of biological therapy and debulking in the management of the disease has not yet been precisely defined. In our experience, both of these methods have the potential to positively influence overall survival rates and the postoperational quality of life of patients.
Gallbladder polyps - a follow-up study after 11 years.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2019; 19(1):42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Four hundred and thirteen subjects (190 women, 223 men; aged 29-75 years) were studied first in 2002 and again eleven years later in 2013. All subjects were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire, anthropometric data were recorded, and an abdominal ultrasound scan was carried out.
RESULTS: The prevalence of gallbladder polyps was 6.1% (115/1880) in the 2002 study and 12.1% (50/413) in the 2013 follow-up study. After eleven years, 36 subjects (8.7%, 36/413) had developed new polyps, thirteen subjects (48.1%, 13/27) no longer had gallbladder polyps, and 14 subjects (51.9%, 14/27) still had polyps. The number of polyps had increased in six of these subjects (43%, 6/14), decreased in a further six (43%, 6/14), and remained unchanged in two (14%, 2/14). The mean polyp size was 4.7 mm (± 2.2 mm, range 2-20 mm) in 2002 and 4.0 mm (± 1.9 mm, range 0.5-11 mm) at follow-up. A decrease in polyp size was noted in seven (50%) of the 14 subjects, an increase in size in five subjects (35.7%), and no change in two subjects (14.3%). The shape of the polyps had changed from pedunculated to sessile in two subjects (14.3%, 2/14) and from sessile to pedunculated in one subject (7.1%, 1/14).
CONCLUSIONS: In long-term follow-up, the prevalence of gallbladder polyps increased, with new lesions developing in 8.7% of the population. Polyps persisted in 51.9% of the subjects who had them in the original study and disappeared in the other 48.1%.
Prospective observational study on cholelithiasis in patients with carcinoma gall bladder in a tertiary referral hospital of Eastern India.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2019 Jan-Mar; 15(1):153-156 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objective: This prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary referral hospital of Eastern India on patients with the diagnosis of GBCA. The main objective was to assess the incidence of gallstones in patients with GBCA, and the relationship, if any, between the size and number of stones and GBCA in our patient cohort.
Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted, over a period of 2 years, at a tertiary referral hospital of Eastern India which caters to patients from all the neighboring districts. A total of 54 patients with the diagnosis of GBCA were included in the study. Data on their demographic and clinical profile, the incidence of associated gallstones, their size (<3 or ≥3cm), and number (solitary or multiple) were collected. Known predisposing factors of GBCA, if any, in those presenting without stones were noted.
Results: GBCA was found to afflict females 2.4 times as frequently as males. Patients, irrespective of their sex, were mostly in their sixth decade. Approximately three-fourth of the cases had associated cholelithiasis. The number of stones had no correlation with the disease. However, contrary to available published data, stones <3 cm were significantly more common in our study cohort.
Conclusion: The results of this study reaffirm that cholelithiasis is a strong predisposing factor for GBCA and females with gallstones in their sixth decade, are more at risk. Although number of stones was not found to be an independent risk factor, patients with stones <3 cm (mostly multiple) were found to be more at risk in our study.
Improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of T2 gallbladder carcinoma is pivotal to improvement in the overall prognosis for this disease.
Biosci Trends. 2019; 13(1):1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The optimal number of lymph nodes to evaluate among patients undergoing surgery for gallbladder cancer: Correlating the number of nodes removed with survival in 6531 patients.
J Surg Oncol. 2019; 119(8):1099-1107 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2015, patients with a diagnosis of GBC were identified in the National Cancer Database. A machine-based learning approach was used to identify the minimum number and range of LNs to evaluate relative to long-term outcomes.
RESULTS: Among 6531 patients with GBC, median number of LNs evaluated was 2 (IQR:1-5); only 21.1% (n = 1376) of patients had 6 or more LNs evaluated. The median number of metastatic LNs was 0 (IQR: 0-1). On multivariable analysis, evaluation of < 4 LNs was associated with a higher hazard of death (referent 4-7 LNs: < 4 LNs, HR = 1.27, 95% CI, 1.16-1.40; P < 0.001), whereas, patients who had 4 to 7 LNs and > 7 LNs evaluated had comparable long-term mortality risk (HR = 1.10, 95%CI, 0.98-1.24; P = 0.11). There was no difference in the proportion of patients who had at least one metastatic LN identified per T category based on total number of nodes resected (all P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The overwhelming majority of patients did not have the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) recommended 6 total LN count . A machine-based learning approach identified evaluation of 4 to 7 LNs as the LN number associated with optimal staging and survival. While obtaining 6 LNs may be challenging, evaluation of at least 4 LNs may be a more appropriate threshold as this cut-off value was associated with optimal patient outcomes and staging.
Minimally Invasive Surgery for Gallbladder Cancer.
Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2019; 28(2):243-253 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gallbladder Cancer: Diagnosis, Surgical Management, and Adjuvant Therapies.
Surg Clin North Am. 2019; 99(2):337-355 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cholesterol Granuloma Masquerading as Gallbladder Carcinoma on 18F-FDG PET/CT.
Clin Nucl Med. 2019; 44(6):489-490 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non-coding RNA PVT1 promotes tumor progression by regulating the miR-143/HK2 axis in gallbladder cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: In situ hybridization (ISH) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) were performed to detect the expression of PVT1 and miR-143 in GBC tissues and cell lines. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays were performed to assess the expression of the hexokinase 2 (HK2) protein. The relationships among PVT1, miR-143 and HK2 were evaluated using dual-luciferase reporter, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and biotin pull-down assays. The biological functions of PVT1, miR-143 and HK2 in GBC cells were explored with cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8), 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine (EdU), colony formation, transwell, wound healing and glucose metabolism assays in vitro. For in vivo experiments, a xenograft model was used to investigate the effects of PVT1 and HK2 on GBC.
RESULTS: PVT1 was upregulated in GBC tissues and cells and was positively associated with malignancies and worse overall survival. PVT1 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and restrained tumor growth in vivo. Further studies demonstrated that PVT1 positively regulated HK2 expression via its competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) activity on miR-143. Additionally, HK2 expression and function were positively correlated with PVT1. Furthermore, we observed that the PVT1/miR-143/HK2 axis promoted cell proliferation and metastasis by regulating aerobic glucose metabolism in GBC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study reveal a potential ceRNA regulatory pathway in which PVT1 modulates HK2 expression by competitively binding to endogenous miR-143 in GBC cells, which may provide new insights into novel molecular therapeutic targets for GBC.
Impact of Body Mass Index of Japanese Gallbladder Cancer Patients on their Postoperative Outcomes.
Acta Med Okayama. 2019; 73(1):51-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prognostic significance of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in patients with gallbladder carcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(8):e14550 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Robotic surgery for gallbladder cancer: Operative technique and early outcomes.
J Surg Oncol. 2019; 119(7):958-963 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Patients who underwent RRC for suspected or incidental GBC between July 2015 and August 2018 were analyzed. Patients who underwent ORC during the same period and fulfilled the study criteria formed the control group.
RESULTS: During the study period, 27 patients who underwent RRC formed the study group (group A) and 70 matched patients who underwent ORC formed the control group (group B). Median surgical time was higher in group A (295 vs 200 minutes, P < 0.001). However, median blood loss (200 vs 600 mL, P < 0.001), postoperative hospital stay (4 vs 5 days, P = 0.046) and postoperative morbidity (1 vs 15 patients, P = 0.035) were lower in group A. Median lymph node yield was 10 (range = 2-21) for group A and 9 (range = 2-25) for group B, and was comparable (P = 0.408). During a median follow up of 9 (1-46) months, two patients in group A developed recurrence (no port site recurrence).
CONCLUSION: RRC is safe and feasible and the short-term results are compared with ORC.
Neuroendocrine carcinoma of gallbladder: a case series and literature review.
Eur J Med Res. 2019; 24(1):8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CASE PRESENTATION: Eight gallbladder NEC patients were admitted into our hospital. The major complaint was right upper quadrant pain. Two patients underwent a radical resection of gallbladder and liver quadrate lobe. One of them underwent chemotherapies and had no recurrence of NEC during a 25-month followed-up period. The other patient did not undergo chemotherapies, and the NEC recurred in the patient 15 months afterwards. Two patients underwent a radical resection of gallbladder. One of them underwent chemotherapies and had an NEC recurrence 12 months afterwards. The other patient did not undergo chemotherapies and died due to the NEC recurrence 5 months after surgery. Three patients underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy and pathologic result showed gallbladder NEC. They did not undergo further treatment and no NEC recurrence was found. One patient underwent tumor biopsy and died due to obstructive jaundice 3 months afterwards. Pathologic results showed that all cases had positive chromogranin A and synaptophysin staining.
CONCLUSIONS: Gallbladder NEC showed no noticeably specific features, and the diagnosis relied on the pathological and immunohistochemistrical results. For T1N0M0 gallbladder NEC, cholecystectomy might be enough. For patients in a late stage, the management of combined therapies might be optimal.
Long non-coding RNA DILC promotes the progression of gallbladder carcinoma.
Gene. 2019; 694:102-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor Protein p53 and K-ras Gene Mutations in Peruvian Patients with Gallbladder Cancer
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(1):289-294 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gallbladder carcinoma. Surgical management of gallblad-der carcinoma. An analysis of 37 cases.
Ann Ital Chir. 2018; 89:501-506 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data at presentation, operative findings, postoperative evolution, complications and survival data were analyzed for 37 patients with gallbladder carcinoma (as cohort study) confirmed at histopathology between January 2005 and December 2011 in Surgical Department of Regional Institute of Gastroenterology And Hepatology "Octavian Fodor" Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
RESULTS: In 12 cases we had the suspicion of GBC (gallbladder carcinoma) before surgery, in 6 cases GBC was suspected intraoperatory and in 19 cases only after the histopathology exam. Radical cholecystectomy was considered in 9 cases (24.32%): 4 cases with cholecystectomy alone (patients with Tis-T1) and in 5 cases liver resection was associated.
CONCLUSION: The GBC has a low incidence (0.35% out of all cholecystectomies), the females being more affected (F:B=4.3:1). GBC was associated with low resecability rate (24.32%) and having a bad prognosis (survival under a year in stages T3 and T4). In most cases the diagnosis was hidden by an acute inflammatory process (acute cholecystitis) and the diagnosis was made after surgical intervention, therefore, the histopathology is crucial in these situations.
KEY WORDS: Gallbladder carcinoma, Jaundice, Palliative treatment, Resection, Survival.
Association between metabolic syndrome and hepatobiliary cancers: A case-control study.
Indian J Gastroenterol. 2019; 38(1):61-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: A case-control study was performed using the Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Cases with a diagnosis of liver, bile duct, and gallbladder cancers were matched in a 1:2 fashion with controls and analyzed for potential associations between hepatobiliary cancer and obesity/metabolic syndrome.
RESULTS: Four thousand two hundred and eighty-seven patients (62% male, 38% female) with hepatobiliary cancers were matched with 8574 controls. On univariate analysis, body mass index (BMI), smoking, diabetes, alcohol consumption, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension were associated with hepatobiliary cancer. Statin use and non-smoking status had an inverse association. On multivariate analysis, BMI, diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and insulin use were associated with the risk of hepatobiliary cancer. Statin use and non-smoking status were protective. On modeling BMI, each of diabetes and hypertension as a single covariate, there was a significant association with hepatobiliary cancer (1.59 [1.49-1.69], p < 0.001) which persisted despite adjusting for increasing age (1.006 [1005-1.006], p < 0.001) and background liver cirrhosis (1.037 [1.03-1.044], p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with the risk of hepatobiliary cancer. Statin use seems to be protective.
Validation of the oncologic effect of hepatic resection for T2 gallbladder cancer: a retrospective study.
World J Surg Oncol. 2019; 17(1):8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Data of 81 patients with histopathologically proven T2 GBC who underwent surgical resection between January 1999 and December 2017 were enrolled from a retrospective database. Of these, 36 patients had peritoneal-side (T2a) tumors and 45 had hepatic-side (T2b) tumors. To identify the optimal surgical management method, T2 GBC patients were classified into the hepatic resection group (n = 44, T2a/T2b = 20/24) and non-hepatic resection group (n = 37, T2a/T2b = 16/21). The recurrence pattern and role of hepatic resection for T2 GBC were then investigated.
RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 69 (range 36-88) years, and the male-to-female ratio was 42:39 (male, 51.9%; female, 48.1%). Hepatic-side GBC had a higher rate of recurrence than peritoneal-side GBC (44.4% vs. 8.3%, p = 0.006). The most common type of recurrence in T2a GBC was para-aortic lymph node recurrence (n = 2, 5.6%); the most common types of recurrence in T2b GBC were para-aortic lymph node recurrence (n = 7, 15.6%) and intrahepatic metastasis (n = 6, 13.3%). Hepatic-side GBC patients had worse survival outcomes than peritoneal-side GBC patients (76.0% vs. 96.6%, p = 0.041). Hepatic resection had no significant treatment effect in T2 GBC patients (p = 0.272). Multivariate analysis showed that lymph node metastasis was the only significant prognostic factor (p = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic resection is not essential for curative treatment in T2 GBC, and more systemic treatments are needed for GBC patients, particularly for those with T2b GBC.
Therapeutic outcomes and prognostic factors in unresectable gallbladder cancer treated with gemcitabine plus cisplatin.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Patients with GBC who were treated with GEMCIS from January 2008 to June 2017 in a single tertiary hospital were included. All cases of GBC were diagnosed by pathologic findings and extent of the tumour was assessed by imaging tests. Combination chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin 25 mg/m
RESULTS: A total of 173 patients received a median of 5.3 ± 4.4 cycles of chemotherapy over 3.8 ± 3.9 months. Most of the patients (94.8%) were stage IVB at the time of diagnosis and the most common site of metastasis was the liver (42.8%). Disease control rate was 59.5%: 2 (1.2%) patients with complete response, 26 (15.0%) patients with partial response and 75 (43.4%) patients with stable disease. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival were 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.1-10.2) and 5.6 (95% CI 4.5-6.8) months, respectively. Multivariable regression model indicated that metastasis to liver (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.63, 95% CI 1.11-2.40; P = 0.013), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) ≥3 (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.09-2.49; P = 0.017), CEA ≥ 5 ng/mL (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.02-2.19; P = 0.038), and CA19-9 ≥ 500 U/mL (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01-2.50; P = 0.043) were significantly associated with OS.
CONCLUSIONS: GEMCIS demonstrated a high disease control rate in patients with unresectable GBC. Factors independently related to OS were metastasis to liver, NLR ≥ 3, CEA ≥ 5 ng/mL and CA19-9 ≥ 500 U/mL.