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Brachytherapy is where radioactive pellets ('seeds') or wires are placed inside the body to treat the cancer. Ultrasound, x-rays, or CT scans are used to help carefully position the radioactive source to treat the cancer. Brachytherapy is used in the treatment of prostate, cervical, endometrial, and other cancers. There are a number of different types of brachyotherapy techniques which can be categorised as:

  • Interstitial radiation: the radiation source is placed directly into or next to the tumour using small pellets, seeds, wires, tubes, or containers.
  • Intracavitary radiation: a container of radioactive material is placed in a cavity of the body such as the chest, rectum, uterus, or vagina.
Brachytherapy may be permanent (small 'seeds' are left in place after their radioactive material is used up) or temporary (hollow needles, tubes, or fluid-filled balloons are placed into the body for a shorter time to deliver either a high-dose rate [HDR] or low-dose rate [LDR]).

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    MeSH term: Brachytherapy
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Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Han Q, Deng M, Lv Y, Dai G
Survival of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer after iodine125 seeds implantation brachytherapy: A meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(5):e5719 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Brachytherapy with iodine-labeled seeds (I-seeds) implantation is increasingly being used to treat tumors because of its positional precision, minimal invasion, least damage to noncancerous tissue due to slow and continuous release of radioactivity and facilitation with modern medical imaging technologies. This study evaluates the survival and pain relief outcomes of the I-seeds implantation brachytherapy in advanced pancreatic cancer patients.
METHODS: Literature search was carried out in multiple electronic databases (Google Scholar, Embase, Medline/PubMed, and Ovid SP) and studies reporting I seeds implantation brachytherapy in pancreatic cancer patients with unresectable tumor were selected by following predetermined eligibility criteria. Random effects meta-analysis was performed to achieve inverse variance weighted effect size of the overall survival rate after the intervention. Sensitivity and subgroups analyses were also carried out.
RESULTS: Twenty-three studies (824 patients' data) were included in the meta-analysis. I-seeds implantation brachytherapy alone was associated with 8.98 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.94, 11.03] months (P < 0.00001) overall survival with 1-year survival of 25.7 ± 9.3% (mean ± standard deviation; SD) and 2-year survival was 17.9 ± 8.6% (mean ± SD). In stage IV pancreatic cancer patients, overall survival was 7.13 [95% CI: 4.75, 9.51] months (P < 0.00001). In patients treated with I-seeds implantation along with 1 or more therapies, overall survival was 11.75 [95% CI: 9.84, 13.65] months (P < 0.00001) with 1-year survival of 47.4 ± 22.75% (mean ± SD) and 2-year survival was 16.97 ± 3.1% (mean ± SD). I-seeds brachytherapy was associated with relief of pain in 79.7 ± 9.9% (mean ± SD) of the patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Survival of pancreatic cancer patients after I-seeds implantation brachytherapy is found to be 9 months, whereas a combined treatment with I-seeds brachytherapy and other therapies was associated with approximately 12 months' survival. The majority of patients who underwent I-seeds brachytherapy had their pain relieved.

Yao L, Cao Q, Wang J, et al.
CT-Guided (125)I Seed Interstitial Brachytherapy as a Salvage Treatment for Recurrent Spinal Metastases after External Beam Radiotherapy.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:8265907 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical efficacy of CT-guided (125)I seed interstitial brachytherapy in patients with recurrent spinal metastases after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Between August 2003 and September 2015, 26 spinal metastatic lesions (24 patients) were reirradiated by this salvage therapy modality. Treatment for all patients was preplanned using a three-dimensional treatment planning system 3-5 days before (125)I seed interstitial brachytherapy; dosimetry verification was performed immediately after seed implantation. Median actual D90 was 99 Gy (range, 90-176), and spinal cord median Dmax was 39 Gy (range, 6-110). Median local control (LC) was 12 months (95% CI: 7.0-17.0). The 6- and 12-month LC rates were 52% and 40%, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was 11 months (95% CI: 7.7-14.3); 6-month and 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates were 65%, 37%, 14%, and 9%, respectively. Pain-free survival ranged from 2 to 42 months (median, 6; 95% CI: 4.6-7.4). Treatment was well-tolerated, with no radiation-induced vertebral compression fractures or myelopathy reported. Reirradiation with CT-guided (125)I seed interstitial brachytherapy appears to be feasible, safe, and effective as pain relief or salvage treatment for patients with recurrent spinal metastases after EBRT.

Hu L, Wang H, Zhao Y, Wang J
(125)I Seeds Radiation Induces Paraptosis-Like Cell Death via PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway in HCT116 Cells.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:8145495 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
(125)I seeds brachytherapy implantation has been extensively performed in unresectable and rerecurrent rectal carcinoma. Many studies on the cancer-killing activity of (125)I seeds radiation mainly focused on its ability to trigger apoptosis, which is the most well-known and dominant type of cell death induced by radiation. However our results showed some unique morphological features such as cell swelling, cytoplasmic vacuolation, and plasma membrane integrity, which is obviously different to apoptosis. In this study, clonogenic proliferation was carried out to assay survival fraction. Transmission electron microscopy was used to analyze ultrastructural and evaluate morphologic feature of HCT116 cells after exposure to (125)I seeds radiation. Immunofluorescence analysis was used to detect the origin of cytoplasmic vacuoles. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to detect the size and granularity of HCT116 cells. Western blot was performed to measure the protein level of AIP1, caspase-3, AKT, p-Akt (Thr308), p-Akt (Ser473), and β-actin. We found that (125)I seeds radiation activated PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and could trigger paraptosis-like cell death. Moreover, inhibitor of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway could inhibit paraptosis-like cell death induced by (125)I seeds radiation. Our data suggest that (125)I seeds radiation can induce paraptosis-like cell death via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

Cho O, Noh OK, Oh YT, et al.
Clinical Impact of Escalating Relative High-dose-rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy Dose in Stage IIB Cervical Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(1):327-334 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate whether high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (IBT) dose ratios can predict treatment outcomes in patients with stage IIB cervical cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety-three patients treated with weekly cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy and HDR IBT were analyzed. Potential prognostic factors and treatment outcomes were compared between low-HDR-IBT-ratio (≤0.43) and high-HDR-IBT-ratio (>0.43) groups, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.
RESULTS: Five-year disease-specific survival (DSS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were significantly shorter in the low-compared to the high-HDR-IBT-ratio group. A high HDR IBT ratio was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor for DSS and PFS.
CONCLUSION: A high HDR IBT dose ratio improves DSS and PFS in patients with stage IIB cervical cancer. Therefore, active administration of HDR IBT beyond previously accepted levels may be necessary for the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer.

Hjälm-Eriksson M, Ullén A, Johansson H, et al.
Comorbidity as a predictor of overall survival in prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy combined with HDR brachytherapy boosts.
Acta Oncol. 2017; 56(1):21-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The risk stratification currently applied prior to curative treatment for localized prostate cancer (PC) does not take into account comorbidity or age. Therefore, we investigated the impact of comorbidity on overall survival (OS) in PC patients treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: At a single center, 611 consecutive patients diagnosed with localized PC from 1998 to 2004 underwent definitive EBRT (50 Gy) and HDR brachytherapy boosts (2 × 10 Gy) combined with neoadjuvant total androgen blockade. Comorbidity was assessed with the Charlson comorbidity score. The impact of risk factors on OS and disease-free survival (DFS) was calculated using Cox proportional hazard ratios. Risk groups were defined as follows: low-risk PC: PSA <10, WHO grade 1 and T stage 1; high-risk PC: PSA >20 and/or WHO grade 3 and/or T stage 3a; intermediate-risk PC representing patients who did not fit either the low- or high-risk PC group.
RESULTS: Mean age in the study cohort was 66.4 years, and 51% of the patients reported some degree of comorbidity. Divided into risk groups 8.2% were categorized as low-risk, 64% as intermediate-risk and 27.8% as high-risk PC. Overall 10-year survival was 72.2%, and 89% of the patients were relapse-free. In the univariate and multivariate analyses using Cox proportional hazard ratios, age, comorbidity and T stage were statistically significant predictors of OS: hazard ratios 1.56, 1.44 and 1.2 (p-values .002, .04 and .05), respectively. WHO grade, PSA at diagnosis, T stage and comorbidity were also significant predictors of DFS (p-values .0001, .0001, .009 and .003, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Comorbidity assessed with the Charlson score predicts OS in patients with localized PC treated with curative intent using combined EBRT and HDR brachytherapy boost, and should be considered when making decisions before radical treatment.

Tan Q, Qin Q, Yang W, et al.
Combination of 125I brachytherapy and chemotherapy for unresectable recurrent breast cancer: A retrospective control study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(44):e5302 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recurrent breast cancer remains an incurable malignancy and cannot be removed by surgery in the majority of cases. This study aimed to explore the feasibility and efficacy of the combination of I brachytherapy and chemotherapy for the treatment of unresectable recurrent breast cancer. Patients with unresectable recurrent breast cancer treated between January 2011 and December 2014 with a combination of I brachytherapy and capecitabine or gemcitabine were evaluated and outcomes were compared with those of women treated with capecitabine or gemcitabine in conventional dose as a monotherapy. Of 61 patients evaluated, 28 received the combination treatment and 33 received capecitabine or gemcitabine monotherapy. The combination of I brachytherapy and chemotherapy resulted in a significant improvement in progression-free survival versus capecitabine or gemcitabine monotherapy (median, 17.8 vs 11.4 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.84; P = 0.013). The objective response rate (ORR) was significantly higher with the combination (82.1%) than with monotherapy (54.5%; P = 0.022), and the rate of pain relief was higher in the combination arm (100% vs 73.6%; P = 0.038). There was no significant improvement for overall survival (median, 30.1 vs 27.2 months; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.47-1.44; P = 0.496). There were no serious complications detected during the follow-up period, any grade toxicities were comparable between treatment arms. In conclusion, the combination of I brachytherapy and second-line chemotherapy is superior to chemotherapy alone and is an effective and safe therapy for unresectable recurrent breast cancer. However, further investigation and much larger scale randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up are needed.

Nose T, Otani Y, Asahi S, et al.
A Japanese prospective multi-institutional feasibility study on accelerated partial breast irradiation using interstitial brachytherapy: clinical results with a median follow-up of 26 months.
Breast Cancer. 2016; 23(6):861-868 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A Japanese prospective multi-institutional feasibility study on accelerated partial breast irradiation using interstitial brachytherapy was performed. The first clinical results were reported with a median follow-up of 26 months.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-six female breast cancer patients with positive hormone receptors and tumors ≤3 cm, pN0M0, completed the protocol treatment. After breast-conserving surgery and histological confirmation of negative surgical margins and pN0, brachytherapy applicators were implanted either postoperatively (n = 45) or intraoperatively (n = 1). High-dose-rate brachytherapy of 36 Gy/6 fractions was delivered. All clinical data were prospectively collected using case report forms and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events ver.3.0.
RESULTS: At the median follow-up of 26 months, no breast cancer recurrence of any type was observed. Sequelae ≥G2 were dermatitis (G2, 7 %), fibrosis (G2, 11 %; G3, 4 %), fracture (G2, 2 %), pain (G2, 7 %; G3, 2 %), and soft tissue necrosis (G2, 6 %). Cosmetic outcomes evaluated by excellent/good scores were 100 % at pre-therapy (n = 46), 94 % at 12 months (n = 46), and 81 % at 24 months (n = 36), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Disease control and sequelae were satisfactory due to the strict eligibility and protocol-defined treatment parameters. The cosmetic outcomes were comparable to those of previous Japanese breast-conserving therapy series.

Casas F, Henríquez I, Bejar A, et al.
Intermittent versus continuous androgen deprivation therapy to biochemical recurrence after external beam radiotherapy: a phase 3 GICOR study.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2017; 19(3):373-378 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We compared biochemical control and quality of life with intermittent (6 months) versus continuous (36 months) androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in a non-inferiority randomized phase 3 trial in patients with biochemical failure (BF) after external beam radical radiotherapy (EBRT).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were stratified according to the Gleason score (GS) and were classified as low risk with a GS < 6 and 7 (3 + 4) and high risk with a GS of 7 (4 + 3) and >7. Patients were followed with PSA determinations and quality-of-life assessments (QLQ C-30 and QLQ PR-25) every 6 months for a period of 3 years. BF after radiation was defined as a PSA level of nadir +2 ng/ml. Disease progression (DP) after ADT was defined as PSA ≥4 ng/ml (BF) and/or metastases.
RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were included in this multicenter phase 3 trial from 2005 to 2009. Thirty-eight and 39 patients were included in the intermittent and continuous groups, respectively. The median follow-up for both groups was 48 months (40-68). DP after ADT in the intermittent group was seen in three patients (distant metastases in one patient) versus 0 in the continuous group. The QLQ-C30 and QLQ PR-25 scores did not show any statistically difference between the two ADT groups.
CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences were seen in DP and QLQ between intermittent (6 months) and continuous (36 months) ADT in patients with BF after EBRT.

Crook J
Contemporary Role of Radiotherapy in the Management of Primary Penile Tumors and Metastatic Disease.
Urol Clin North Am. 2016; 43(4):435-448 [PubMed] Related Publications
Squamous cell cancer of the penis is a radiocurable malignancy all too often managed solely by partial or total penectomy. Effective management of the primary tumor while preserving penile morphology and function is a priority. External radiotherapy and brachytherapy have a role to play in the definitive management of the primary tumor. Surgical nodal staging remains a cornerstone of management because it is the strongest predictor of survival, and inguinal status determines pelvic management. Postoperative radiotherapy of the regional nodes for high-risk pathology is indicated. Chemoradiotherapy should be considered as neoadjuvant treatment for unresectable nodes or as definitive management.

Dumas L, Ring A, Butler J, et al.
Improving outcomes for older women with gynaecological malignancies.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2016; 50:99-108 [PubMed] Related Publications
The incidence of most gynaecological malignancies rises significantly with increasing age. With an ageing population, the proportion of women over the age of 65 with cancer is expected to rise substantially over the next decade. Unfortunately, survival outcomes are much poorer in older patients and evidence suggests that older women with gynaecological cancers are less likely to receive current standard of care treatment options. Despite this, older women are under-represented in practice changing clinical studies. The evidence for efficacy and tolerability is therefore extrapolated from a younger; often more fit population and applied to in every day clinical practice to older patients with co-morbidities. There has been significant progress in the development of geriatric assessment in oncology to predict treatment outcomes and tolerability however there is still no clear evidence that undertaking a geriatric assessment improves patient outcomes. Clinical trials focusing on treating older patients are urgently required. In this review, we discuss the evidence for treatment of gynaecological cancers as well as methods of assessing older patients for therapy. Potential biomarkers of ageing are also summarised.

Wang X, Meng J
Efficacy of brachytherapy concomitant with chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil in unresectable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
J BUON. 2016 May-Jun; 21(3):588-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Brachytherapy is a form of targeted radiation therapy and has shown good short-term efficacy in clinical practice. The purpose of this clinical trial was to determine the feasibility and safety of radioactive iodine 125 seeds implantation concomitantly with chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil (TPF) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
METHODS: A total of 23 previously untreated patients with histologically documented advanced unresectable HNSCC underwent percutaneous interstitial implantation of radioactive iodine 125 seeds, and simultaneously received 3 cycles of chemotherapy every 21 days (75 mg/m(2) docetaxel D1, 75 mg/m(2) cisplatin D1, and 750 mg/m(2) 5-fluorouracil D2-5). The treatment efficacy was evaluated based on tumor size and clinical symptoms of the patients.
RESULTS: The overall response rate was 78.3%. No acute complications and treatment-related radiation damages occurred. Two-year progression-free survival (PFS) 60.9% and overall survival (OS) 52.2% were achieved. Four patients (17.4%) died of cardiovascular causes and local disease recurrence.
CONCLUSION: Brachytherapy based on iodine 125 seeds implantation given concomitantly with chemotherapy is a mildly invasive, effective and safe therapeutic approach for advanced HNSCC.

Nielsen MB, Rasmussen PC, Tanderup K, et al.
Clinical outcome of interstitial pulsed dose rate brachytherapy in multimodality treatment of locally advanced primary or recurrent rectal and sigmoid cancer with high risk of incomplete microscopic resection.
Acta Oncol. 2016; 55(12):1408-1413 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of interstitial pulsed dose rate brachytherapy (PDR-BT) in multimodality treatment of locally advanced primary or recurrent rectal and sigmoid cancer with high risk of microscopic incomplete resection (R1).
METHODS AND MATERIAL: A total of 73 consecutive patients (recurrent/primary: 40/33) were treated with PDR-BT between 2001 and 2010. Patients received preoperative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and concomitant chemotherapy. Following resection of the tumor and the involved pelvic organs, a median of four (3-8) catheters were sutured to the tumor bed with a distance of approximately 1 cm between the catheters. A target respecting the catheters with a margin of 5 mm was contoured on computed tomography (CT) and three-dimensional (3D) dose planning with a planning aim for BT of D90 > 30 Gy, (0.6 Gy/pulse, 1 pulse/h) was performed. Previously irradiated patients (27%) underwent surgery that was directly followed by PDR-BT. Postoperative EBRT was then applied to the tumor bed 3-5 weeks after PDR-BT.
RESULTS: A total of 23 patients (31%) received a radical resection (R0) and 45 patients (62%) received an R1 resection. Five patients (7%) received a macroscopic incomplete resection (R2). The five-year overall survival was 33%. Local control at five years was 67% for patients who received a R0 resection and 32% for patients who received an R1 resection. The five-year actuarial risk of a grade 3-4 BT-related complication was 5%.
CONCLUSIONS: Meaningful disease control and survival can be obtained at an acceptable rate of late morbidity in selected patients with locally advanced primary and recurrent rectal or sigmoid cancer using (chemo) RT, extensive surgery and PDR-BT when a high risk of an R1 resection is expected.

Magan T, Khoo CT, Jabbour PM, et al.
Intra-arterial Chemotherapy for Adult Onset Retinoblastoma in a 32-Year-Old Man.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016; 53:e43-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 32-year-old man with active unilateral group D retinoblastoma that was recurrent following external beam radiotherapy was treated with intra-arterial chemotherapy, leading to tumor regression. Additional plaque radiotherapy and intravitreal chemotherapy were required for complete control. Final visual acuity was 20/40. In selected cases, adult-onset retinoblastoma can be managed with intra-arterial chemotherapy. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:e43-e46.].

Chen Z, Yang Z, Wang J, Hu W
Dosimetric impact of different bladder and rectum filling during prostate cancer radiotherapy.
Radiat Oncol. 2016; 11:103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of volumetric changes of bladder and rectum filling on the 3D dose distribution in prostate cancer radiotherapy.
METHODS: A total of 314 cone-beam CT (CBCT) image data sets from 19 patients were enrolled in this study. For each CBCT, the bladder and rectum were contoured and volume sizes were normalized to those on their original CT. The daily delivered dose was recalculated on the CBCT images and the doses to bladder and rectum were investigated. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify the mean dose change of the volume change using SPSS 19.
RESULTS: The data show that the variances of the normalized volume of the bladder and the rectum are 0.13-0.58 and 0.12-0.50 respectively. The variances of V70Gy, V60Gy, V50Gy, V40Gy and V30Gy of bladder are bigger than those of rectum for 17 patients. The linear regression analysis indicates a 10 % increase in bladder volume will cause a 5.6 % (±4.9 %) reduction in mean dose (p <0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The bladder's volume change is more significant than that of the rectum for the prostate cancer patient. The rectum volume variations are not significant except for air bubbles, which change the shape and the position of the rectum. The bladder volume variations may cause dose changes proportionately. Monitoring the bladder's volume before fractional treatment delivery will be crucial for accurate dose delivery.

Taguchi S, Shiraishi K, Fukuhara H, et al.
Optimal timing of salvage radiotherapy for biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy: is ultra-early salvage radiotherapy beneficial?
Radiat Oncol. 2016; 11:102 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of salvage radiotherapy for biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy is controversial. In particular, the prognostic significance of salvage radiotherapy delivered before a current definition of biochemical recurrence, i.e. ultra-early salvage radiotherapy, is unclear.
METHODS: We reviewed 76 patients with pT2-3N0M0 prostate cancer who underwent salvage radiotherapy for post-prostatectomy biochemical recurrence at the following three timings: ultra-early salvage radiotherapy (n = 20) delivered before meeting a current definition of biochemical recurrence (two consecutive prostate-specific antigen [PSA] values ≥0.2 ng/mL); early salvage radiotherapy (n = 40) delivered after meeting the definition but before PSA reached 0.5 ng/mL; and delayed salvage radiotherapy (n = 16) delivered after PSA reached 0.5 ng/mL. The primary endpoint was failure of salvage radiotherapy, defined as a PSA value ≥0.2 ng/mL. The log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively.
RESULTS: During the follow-up period (median: 70 months), four of 20 (20 %), nine of 40 (23 %) and seven of 16 (44 %) patients failed biochemically in the ultra-early, early and delayed salvage radiotherapy groups, respectively. On univariate analyses, the outcome of delayed salvage radiotherapy was worse than the others, while there was no significant difference between ultra-early and early groups. Multivariate analysis demonstrated the presence of Gleason pattern 5, perineural invasion and delayed salvage radiotherapy as independent predictors of poorer survival.
CONCLUSIONS: No survival benefit of ultra-early salvage radiotherapy was demonstrated, whereas delayed salvage radiotherapy was associated with worse outcome as reported in previous studies. Our results may support the current recommendations that salvage radiotherapy should be undertaken after two consecutive PSA values ≥0.2 ng/mL and before reaching 0.5 ng/mL.

Cordoba A, Escande A, Lopez S, et al.
Low-dose brachytherapy for early stage penile cancer: a 20-year single-institution study (73 patients).
Radiat Oncol. 2016; 11:96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to analyze the results of exclusive interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) as a conservative approach in the treatment of penile cancer confined to the glans or the shaft with long-term follow-up in a single institution.
MATERIALS/METHODS: Between July 1992 and November 2013, 73 consecutive patients with non-metastatic invasive penile cancer were treated by Low dose rate (LDR) IBT in our institution. The localization of the primary lesion was glands in 67 patients (91.8 %) and shaft in 6 patients (8.2 %). All 73 patients presented with squamous cell carcinoma with grades of differentiation as follows: 34 patients with grade 1 (44.7 %), 9 patients with grade 2 (11.8 %), 9 patients with grade 3 (11.8 %) and 21 patients unknown (28.8 %). Six patients (7.8 %) presented with in situ carcinoma, 55 patients (75,3 %) presented with T1, 11 patients (15 %) presented with T2, and one patient (1.3 %) presented with Tx. Inguinal nodal dissection was performed in 29 patients (38.2 %); 13 patients (17.8 %) presented with histologically confirmed positive ganglion. After circumcision, IBT was performed using a hypodermic needle. The median dose delivered was 60 Gy (range, 40 to 70 Gy). The median activity of the iridium-192 wire was 1.12 mCi/cm, and the median reference isodose rate was 0.4 Gy/h (range, 0.2-1.2). Patients with histological inguinal metastases received external beam radiotherapy to the selected inguinal affected area with a median dose of 45 Gy (30-55 Gy).
RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 51.8 months (range 34.4 to 68.7). The 5-year overall survival was 82.0 %, with eight deaths from cancer and five non-cancer-related deaths. Disease-specific survival was 91.4 %, relapse-free survival was 64.4 %, and local relapse-free survival as 74 %. Total or partial penile preservation was 87.9 % at 5-years. Complications rates at 5 years were 6.6 % urethral stenosis (five patients), two patients (2.6 %) with pain related to sexual intercourse and four patients (5.3 %) with dysuria grade 2. Five patients (6.8 %) required penile amputation for necrosis.
CONCLUSIONS: IBT provides good local control with organ preservation, excellent tolerance and low complication rates in early-stage penile cancers.

Rief H, Bruckner T, Schlampp I, et al.
Resistance training concomitant to radiotherapy of spinal bone metastases - survival and prognostic factors of a randomized trial.
Radiat Oncol. 2016; 11:97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of resistance training versus passive physical therapy on bone survival in the metastatic bone during radiation therapy (RT) as combined treatment in patients with spinal bone metastases. Secondly, to evaluate overall survival and progression-free-survival (PFS) as well as to quantify prognostic factors of bone survival after combined treatment.
METHODS: In this randomized trial 60 patients were allocated from September 2011 until March 2013 into one of the two groups: resistance training (group A) or passive physical therapy (group B) with thirty patients in each group during RT. We estimated patient survival using Kaplan-Meier survival method. The Wald-test was used to evaluate the prognostic importance of pathological fracture, primary site, Karnofsky performance status, localization of metastases, number of metastases, and cerebral metastases.
RESULTS: Median follow-up was 10 months (range 2-35). Bone survival showed no significant difference between groups (p = .303). Additionally no difference between groups could be detected in overall survival (p = .688) and PFS (p = .295). Local bone progression was detected in 16.7 % in group B, no irradiated bone in group A showed a local progression over the course (p = 0.019). In univariate analysis breast cancer, prostate cancer, and the presence of cerebral metastases had a significant impact on bone survival in group B, while no impact could be demonstrated in group A.
CONCLUSIONS: In this group of patients with spinal bone metastases we were able to show that guided resistance training of the paravertebral muscles had no essential impact on survival concomitant to RT. Importantly, no local bone progression in group A was detected, nevertheless no prognostic factor for combined treatment could be evaluated.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial identifier NCT 01409720 . Registered 8 February 2011.

Petereit D, Omidpanah A, Boylan A, et al.
A Multi-faceted Approach to Improving Breast Cancer Outcomes in a Rural Population, and the Potential Impact of Patient Navigation.
S D Med. 2016; 69(6):268-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The mastectomy rate in rural areas of the Northern Plains of the U.S. was 64 percent from 2000 through 2005. We implemented a breast cancer patient navigation (BPN) program in May 2007 to increase breast conservation (BC) rates.
METHODS: We analyzed mastectomy and BC rates among our 1,466 patients with either ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or stage I/II invasive breast cancer treated from 2000 through 2012. We used interrupted time series (ITS) to compare rates in treatment following implementation of BPN. In addition, breast conservation rates were compared to population data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.
RESULTS: The BC rates were 56 percent for navigated patients versus 37 percent for non-navigated patients (95 percent CI for difference: 14.8 to 25.6 percent). There was a consistent annual increase in treatment with BC versus a mastectomy (+2.9 percent/year, p-trend < 0.001). The BC rate of 60 percent in 2012 now mirrors those observed in the SEER database. The ITS did not find that the change in BC rates over time was significantly attributable to implementation of the BPN. Other secular trends may have contributed to the change in BC rates over time.
CONCLUSIONS: A number of factors may have contributed to an increase of BC rates over time, including physician and patient education, more radiation therapy options, and possibly a dedicated breast cancer PN program. This analysis demonstrates that overall breast cancer care among this rural and medically-underserved population is improving in our region and now parallels other regions of the country.

Beuzit L, Edeline J, Brun V, et al.
Comparison of Choi criteria and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma treated with glass-microspheres Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT).
Eur J Radiol. 2016; 85(8):1445-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To compare Choi criteria with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) for the prediction of overall survival (OS) in patients treated with glass-microspheres, Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).
METHODS: Between 2010 and 2014, 45 adult patients with locally advanced ICC treated with SIRT were retrospectively analyzed. Computed tomography scans performed before and after treatment were analyzed using both RECIST 1.1 and Choi criteria. Response was correlated with survival.
RESULTS: Patients who achieved an objective response according to Choi had a longer OS than non-responders (median OS 19.9 months [95% CI, 1.1-38.7 months] vs. 7.5 months if stable disease [uncountable CI] and 3 months if progressive disease [95% CI, 0-6.2 months], log-rank test: p=0.003) whereas there was no significant survival difference according to the RECIST response (p=0.339). Among the 39 RECIST non-responding patients, those identified as responders by Choi (n=31) had significantly better OS than Choi non-responders (median OS 19.9 months (95% CI, 5.1-34.7 months) and 5.4 months (95% CI, 0-11.6 months), p=0.005).
CONCLUSIONS: Choi criteria appear more appropriate than RECIST to identify responders with long survival among patients who received SIRT for ICC.

Fellin G, Mirri MA, Santoro L, et al.
Low dose rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) as monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer in Italy: practice and outcome analysis in a series of 2237 patients from 11 institutions.
Br J Radiol. 2016; 89(1065):20150981 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) in localized prostate cancer is available since 15 years in Italy. We realized the first national multicentre and multidisciplinary data collection to evaluate LDR-BT practice, given as monotherapy, and outcome in terms of biochemical failure.
METHODS: Between May 1998 and December 2011, 2237 patients with early-stage prostate cancer from 11 Italian community and academic hospitals were treated with iodine-125 ((125)I) or palladium-103 LDR-BT as monotherapy and followed up for at least 2 years. (125)I seeds were implanted in 97.7% of the patients: the mean dose received by 90% of target volume was 145 Gy; the mean target volume receiving 100% of prescribed dose (V100) was 91.1%. Biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test and multivariable Cox regression were used to evaluate the relationship of covariates with outcomes.
RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 65 months. 5- and 7-year DSS, OS and BFFS were 99 and 98%, 94 and 89%, and 92 and 88%, respectively. At multivariate analysis, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network score (p < 0.0001) and V100 (p = 0.09) were correlated with BFFS, with V100 effect significantly different between patients at low risk and those at intermediate/high risk (p = 0.04). Short follow-up and lack of toxicity data represent the main limitations for a global evaluation of LDR-BT.
CONCLUSION: This first multicentre Italian report confirms LDR-BT as an excellent curative modality for low-/intermediate-risk prostate cancer.
ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Multidisciplinary teams may help to select adequately patients to be treated with brachytherapy, with a direct impact on the implant quality and, possibly, on outcome.

Santos AM, Marcu LG, Wong CM, Bezak E
Risk estimation of second primary cancers after breast radiotherapy.
Acta Oncol. 2016; 55(11):1331-1337 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: There is evidence towards the induction of second primary cancers (SPCs) after breast radiotherapy (RT). Organs, such as the lungs and the esophagus, have been identified as common sites for SPC formation. As a result, the current study investigated the risk of secondary carcinogenesis associated with particular RT techniques for breast cancer; including whole breast, segmented breast, partial breast and mammosite brachytherapy.
METHODS: In this study, seven breast cancer patients had all major organs contoured on their planning computed tomography (CT) images. Whole breast, segmented breast, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and mammosite boost treatment plans were generated for each patient using Pinnacle3 treatment planning system. Differential dose-volume histograms were generated for a number of critical structures: bladder, brain and central nervous system (CNS), breast, colon, liver, lung, mouth and pharynx, esophagus, ovary, salivary gland, small intestine, stomach, and uterus. The lifetime attributed risk (LAR) of cancer induction was estimated using the Schneider et al. excess absolute risk models and dose-volume histograms for the above organs.
RESULTS: The sites with the highest LAR estimates were the ipsilateral and contralateral lungs, and contralateral breast for all treatment techniques. For all sites, the LAR estimates for the segmented breast and mammosite treatments were lower than those for the whole breast and APBI treatments. For right-sided target volumes the liver also resulted in high LAR estimates, with all techniques having a LAR greater than 20 per 10 000 person-years (PY), except for mammosite with a mean LAR estimate of 13.2 per 10 000 PY. For left-sided target volumes the stomach also resulted in high LAR estimates, with both whole breast and APBI having a LAR greater than 20 per 10 000 PY, and mammosite the lowest with a LAR of 8.3 per 10 000 PY.
CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the lungs and contralateral breast showed high LAR estimates.

Lim TY, Kudchadker RJ, Wang J, et al.
Effect of pulse sequence parameter selection on signal strength in positive-contrast MRI markers for MRI-based prostate postimplant assessment.
Med Phys. 2016; 43(7):4312 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: For postimplant dosimetric assessment, computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to identify prostate brachytherapy seeds, at the expense of accurate anatomical contouring. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is superior to CT for anatomical delineation, but identification of the negative-contrast seeds is challenging. Positive-contrast MRI markers were proposed to replace spacers to assist seed localization on MRI images. Visualization of these markers under varying scan parameters was investigated.
METHODS: To simulate a clinical scenario, a prostate phantom was implanted with 66 markers and 86 seeds, and imaged on a 3.0T MRI scanner using a 3D fast radiofrequency-spoiled gradient recalled echo acquisition with various combinations of scan parameters. Scan parameters, including flip angle, number of excitations, bandwidth, field-of-view, slice thickness, and encoding steps were systematically varied to study their effects on signal, noise, scan time, image resolution, and artifacts.
RESULTS: The effects of pulse sequence parameter selection on the marker signal strength and image noise were characterized. The authors also examined the tradeoff between signal-to-noise ratio, scan time, and image artifacts, such as the wraparound artifact, susceptibility artifact, chemical shift artifact, and partial volume averaging artifact. Given reasonable scan time and managable artifacts, the authors recommended scan parameter combinations that can provide robust visualization of the MRI markers.
CONCLUSIONS: The recommended MRI pulse sequence protocol allows for consistent visualization of the markers to assist seed localization, potentially enabling MRI-only prostate postimplant dosimetry.

Oh D, Huh SJ, Park W, et al.
Clinical outcomes in cervical cancer patients treated by FDG-PET/CT-based 3-dimensional planning for the first brachytherapy session.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(25):e3895 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2017 Related Publications
The aim of the study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes in cervical cancer patients treated with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT)-guided 3-dimensional brachytherapy (3D-BT) planning for the first brachytherapy session.We retrospectively analyzed 87 patients with cervical cancer who received definitive radiotherapy (RT). Primary tumor size was ≤4 cm in 22 patients (25.3%), >4 cm and ≤6 cm in 45 patients (51.7%), and >6 cm in 20 patients (23.0%). The median total dose of external beam RT was 50.4 (50.4-60.4) Gy. FDG-PET/CT-guided 3D-BT with an iridium-192 source was performed. The clinical target volume (CTV) for 3D-BT included the entire cervix and the abnormal FDG-uptake with a 1-cm expansion. A planned total dose was 24 Gy at 4 Gy per insertion 3 times per week using a tandem and 2 ovoids.The mean D95 and D90 for the CTV were 73.4 (±5.9) Gy and 77.9 (±6.9) Gy, respectively (EQD2, α/β=10). The D2cc for the rectum and bladder was 374 (±97.4) cGy and 394 (±107.6) cGy per fraction, respectively. The EQD2 (α/β=3) for the D2cc was 74.5 (±12.4) Gy for the rectum and 77.3 (±14.6) Gy for the bladder. The median follow-up period was 40 (8-61) months. The 3-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) rates were 84.7%, 72.1%, and 89.2%, respectively. The 3-year LC rate was 100% for tumors ≤ 4 cm, 91.1% for tumors > 4 cm and ≤ 6 cm, and 70.5% for tumors > 6 cm (P = 0.014). Local failure developed in 9 patients. Three patients had local failures outside of the CTV. Grade 1, 2, and 3 rectal bleeding developed in 5, 4, and 2 patients, respectively. One patient experienced rectovaginal fistula.FDG-PET/CT-guided 3D-BT planning is a feasible approach, which showed favorable clinical outcomes.

Jumeau R, Renard-Oldrini S, Courrech F, et al.
High dose rate brachytherapy with customized applicators for malignant facial skin lesions.
Cancer Radiother. 2016; 20(5):341-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Brachytherapy is a well-known treatment in the management of skin tumors. For facial or scalp lesions, applicators have been developed to deliver non-invasive treatment. We present cases treated with customized applicators with high dose rate system.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with poor performance status treated for malignant skin lesions of the scalp or the facial skin between 2011 and 2014 were studied. Afterloading devices were chosen between Freiburg(®) Flap, silicone-mold or wax applicators. The clinical target volume (CTV) was created by adding margins to lesions (10mm to 20mm). The dose schedules were 25Gy in five fractions for postoperative lesions, 30Gy in six fractions for exclusive treatments and a single session of 8Gy could be considered for palliative treatments.
RESULTS: In 30 months, 11 patients received a treatment for a total of 12 lesions. The median age was 80 years. The median follow-up was 17 months and the 2-year local control rate was 91%. The mean CTV surface was 41.1cm(2) with a mean thickness of 6.1mm. We conceived three wax applicators, used our silicone-mold eight times and the Freiburg(®) Flap one time. We observed only low-grade radiodermitis (grade I: 50%, grade II: 33%), and no high-grade skin toxicity.
CONCLUSION: High dose rate brachytherapy with customized applicators for facial skin and scalp lesions is efficient and safe. It is a good modality to treat complex lesions in patients unfit for invasive treatment.

Cosset JM, Flam T, Belin L, et al.
Long-term results of permanent implant prostate cancer brachytherapy: A single-institution study of 675 patients treated between 1999 and 2003.
Cancer Radiother. 2016; 20(4):261-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To analyse long-term overall survival, relapse-free survival and late toxicities in a series of 675 patients treated between 1999 and 2003, with a median follow-up of 132 months.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The cohort included low-risk patients and a selection of "favourable-intermediate" risk patients. All patients were homogeneously treated using an intraoperative dynamic planning prostate brachytherapy technique, with loose 125 iodine seeds. Hormone therapy, consisting most often of an anti-androgen alone, was given in 393 patients (58%).
RESULTS: The 10-year overall survival was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 90-94) without a significant difference between the low and the select intermediate-risk groups (P=0.17). The 10-year relapse-free survival rate for the entire cohort was 82% (95% CI: 79-85), and was significantly higher in the low-risk group than in the intermediate one (87 vs 71%; P<0.0001). Twenty-six percent of the relapses observed in this series occurred after more than 10 years of follow-up. The 10-year cumulative incidence of grade 3-4 urinary toxicity (whatever the delay and the recovery) was 5.78%. The cumulative incidence of grades 3-4 rectal toxicity in the present series was 1.65% at 10 years. As for sexual toxicity, 61% of our patients retained an erectile capacity at 10 years (with or without oral medication), with age being a major factor.
CONCLUSION: With a median follow-up of more than 11 years, this series appears to confirm the excellent long-term results of low-dose rate prostate brachytherapy, both in terms of survival and in terms of toxicity.

Iizuka J, Hashimoto Y, Hashimoto Y, et al.
Efficacy and Feasibility of Low-Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer in Renal Transplant Recipients.
Transplant Proc. 2016; 48(3):910-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In young patients with localized prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy is the treatment of choice in the general population. Radiotherapy, such as low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy, is a viable alternative as well. However, in transplant patients, irradiation is not proposed as often as it is in healthy adults because of the risk of post-radiation ureteral stenosis and gastrointestinal toxicity as the result of fragile tissue. The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy and feasibility of LDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients (RTRs).
METHODS: Between May 2007 and December 2014, all patients who had undergone LDR brachytherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer at our institution were retrospectively identified (n = 203). Of these patients, 2 had a history of renal transplantation. We reviewed all available clinical data retrospectively. One patient had a functioning graft and the other had re-started hemodialysis 7 years after the transplantation.
RESULTS: The mean time from renal transplantation to prostate cancer diagnosis was 16 years. The mean follow-up after seed implantation was 45 months. There were no peri-operative complications after seed implantation. The 2 patients remained free of prostate-specific antigen progression during the follow-up period. The renal function of the patient with a functioning graft, as measured by serum creatinine, was stable during and after the operation.
CONCLUSIONS: LDR brachytherapy is technically feasible and acceptable as a minimally invasive treatment in carefully selected RTRs with localized prostate cancer. This treatment should be considered a suitable option for RTRs with localized prostate cancer.

Costa F, Sarmento S, Gomes D, et al.
In vivo dosimetry using Gafchromic films during pelvic intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT).
Br J Radiol. 2016; 89(1063):20160193 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To characterize in vivo dose distributions during pelvic intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) for rectal cancer and to assess the alterations introduced by irregular irradiation surfaces in the presence of bevelled applicators.
METHODS: In vivo measurements were performed with Gafchromic films during 32 IOERT procedures. 1 film per procedure was used for the first 20 procedures. The methodology was then optimized for the remaining 12 procedures by using a set of 3 films. Both the average dose and two-dimensional dose distributions for each film were determined. Phantom measurements were performed for comparison.
RESULTS: For flat and concave surfaces, the doses measured in vivo agree with expected values. For concave surfaces with step-like irregularities, measured doses tend to be higher than expected doses. Results obtained with three films per procedure show a large variability along the irradiated surface, with important differences from expected profiles. These results are consistent with the presence of surface hotspots, such as those observed in phantoms in the presence of step-like irregularities, as well as fluid build-up.
CONCLUSION: Clinical dose distributions in the IOERT of rectal cancer are often different from the references used for prescription. Further studies are necessary to assess the impact of these differences on treatment outcomes. In vivo measurements are important, but need to be accompanied by accurate imaging of positioning and irradiated surfaces.
ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: These results confirm that surface irregularities occur frequently in rectal cancer IOERT and have a measurable effect on the dose distribution.

Rasmusson E, Gunnlaugsson A, Kjellén E, et al.
Low-dose rate brachytherapy with I-125 seeds has an excellent 5-year outcome with few side effects in patients with low-risk prostate cancer.
Acta Oncol. 2016; 55(8):1016-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Low-dose rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) has been used in Sweden for more than a decade for treatment of low-risk prostate cancer. This study presents the outcome for patients treated with LDR-BT at a single institution with focus on the association between dose and biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS).
METHODS: In total 195 patients were treated with LDR-BT between 2004 and 2008. The patients were followed systematically for side effects for at least one year. PSA levels were followed regularly from three months and for at least five years. Outcome was analyzed in relation to clinical variables at baseline and to radiotherapy data.
RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier estimated BFFS at five years was 95.7%. Dose to the prostate in terms of D90% was significantly associated with BFFS [HR 0.90 (95%CI 0.83-0.96), p = 0.002].
CONCLUSION: Out data confirmed that absorbed dose is a predictive factor for BFFS for low-risk patients without androgen deprivation therapy. With our treatment routines and dosimetry, a D90% in the range of 170-180 Gy gives excellent outcomes with acceptable toxicity for patients with low-risk prostate cancer.

Abu-Khalaf MM, Raza MA, Hatzis C, et al.
Efficacy and tolerability of combination cisplatin and ifosfamide chemotherapy with vaginal cuff brachytherapy in the first line treatment of uterine carcinosarcoma.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2016; 37(2):199-203 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: A retrospective study to evaluate six cycles of cisplatin 40 mg/m2 on day 1 and ifosfamide 1,200 mg/m2 daily on days 1 to 4 with Mesna every four weeks as first line treatment for 29 patients with a diagnosis of uterine carcinosarcoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 23 of 29 patients received high dose rate intracavitary vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCBT) with two fractions of seven Gy each. Median age was 65 years (range 40-82); 13 (44.8%) had Stage I disease, three (10.3%) had Stage II, eight (27.6%) had Stage III, and five (17.2%) patients had Stage IV disease.
RESULTS: Most common toxicities were anemia grade 1 (35%)/grade 2 (45%), and neutropenia grade 3 (17%)/grade 4 (6.9%). Eleven dose modifications, four treatment discontinuations, and one patient withdrawal occurred. At a median follow up of 45 months (range 9 to 144), Progression free survival (PFS) was 20% and overall survival (OS) was 40% for Stage IV, PFS 75% and OS 62.5% for Stage III, compared to a PFS 75% and OS 72.2% for Stages I-II. Median OS for the entire group was 12.43 years (95% CI 3.69 to inf); for Stage I-III 12.4 years (6.1 to inf), and for Stage IV 15.6 months (95% CI 9.4 to inf).
CONCLUSIONS: Cisplatin and ifosfamide chemotherapy with VCBT was well tolerated and has promising activity in uterine carcinosarcoma.

Shady W, Kishore S, Gavane S, et al.
Metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis on FDG-PET/CT can predict overall survival after (90)Y radioembolization of colorectal liver metastases: A comparison with SUVmax, SUVpeak, and RECIST 1.0.
Eur J Radiol. 2016; 85(6):1224-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To compare the performance of 4 metrics of metabolic response on FDG-PET/CT against RECIST 1.0 for determining response and predicting overall survival (OS) following (90)Y resin microspheres radioembolization of colorectal liver metastases (CLM).
METHODS: We conducted an IRB-waived retrospective review of our radioembolization database to identify patients with unresectable CLM treated between December 2009 and December 2013. We included patients who had both PET/CT and contrast enhanced CT (CECT) available at baseline and on the first follow-up post-radioembolization. On baseline CECT up to five target tumors were chosen per patient according to RECIST 1.0. Four metrics of FDG-avidity (SUVmax, SUVpeak, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG)) on PET/CT were measured for the same target tumors. Using RECIST 1.0, patients were classified as no progression (partial response or stable disease) and progression. For each PET metric, a cut-off point of ≥30% decrease was chosen to define response. OS was calculated from the time of radioembolization using Kaplan-Meier methodology. The log-rank test was used for univariate analysis to identify predictors of OS.
RESULTS: The study enrolled 49 patients with 119 target tumors; a median of 2 (range: 1-5) tumors were selected per patient. Median OS was 12.7 months (95%CI: 7.2-16.7). Response by MTV (P=0.035) and TLG (P=0.044) reached statistical significance in predicting OS. Response by SUVmax (P=0.21), SUVpeak (P=0.20) or no progression by RECIST 1.0 (P=0.44) did not predict OS.
CONCLUSION: Metabolic response based on changes in MTV and TLG can predict OS post-radioembolization of CLM.

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