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Melphalan

"An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen." (MeSH 2013)

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Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Mateos MV, Oriol A, Martínez-López J, et al.
Outcomes with two different schedules of bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (VMP) for previously untreated multiple myeloma: matched pair analysis using long-term follow-up data from the phase 3 VISTA and PETHEMA/GEM05 trials.
Ann Hematol. 2016; 95(12):2033-2041 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone (VMP) is a standard-of-care for previously untreated, transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma (MM). Here, we compared outcomes between VMP regimens in the VISTA trial (9-cycle VMP schedule, including 4 cycles of twice weekly bortezomib) and the PETHEMA/GEM05 trial (less intensive 6-cycle VMP schedule with 1 cycle of twice weekly and 5 cycles of weekly bortezomib, then bortezomib-based maintenance). A total of 113 patient pairs matched by propensity score (estimated using logistic regression and incorporating eight exposure/outcome-related parameters) were included in this retrospective analysis. Median cumulative bortezomib dose was higher in PETHEMA/GEM05 than VISTA (49.6 vs 37.0 mg/m(2)); median dose intensity was lower (2.0 vs 5.1 mg/m(2)/month). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and time-to-progression (TTP) were significantly longer in PETHEMA/GEM05 than VISTA (PFS, 30.5 vs 20.0 months, p = 0.0265; TTP, 33.8 vs 24.2 months, p = 0.0049) after a median follow-up of 77.2 and 26.0 months, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was similar (61.3 vs 61.0 months, p = 0.6528; median follow-up, 77.6 vs 60.1 months). Post-induction complete response rate was lower in PETHEMA/GEM05 than VISTA (19 vs 31 %; p = 0.03318); on-study (including maintenance) rate was similar (30 vs 31 %; p = 0.89437). This analysis suggests that the less-intensive PETHEMA/GEM05 VMP regimen plus maintenance may improve PFS and TTP, but not OS, compared with the VISTA VMP regimen.
TRIAL REGISTRATIONS: NCT00111319, NCT00443235.

Tuncer S, Sencer S, Kebudi R, et al.
Superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy in the primary management of advanced intra-ocular retinoblastoma: first 4-year experience from a single institution in Turkey.
Acta Ophthalmol. 2016; 94(7):e644-e651 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To report our 4-year experience in Turkey, with advanced intra-ocular retinoblastoma managed primarily with intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC).
METHODS: From October 2011 to September 2015, 26 group D eyes of 24 treatment-naïve retinoblastoma patients managed primarily with IAC were evaluated in this prospective study.
RESULTS: Of 76 procedures, ophthalmic artery cannulation failed in two patients with unilateral involvement. In the remaining 22 patients (24 eyes), the mean age at diagnosis was 18 months (range, 6-55 months). Each eye received a mean of 3 IAC sessions/eye (range, 2-5 sessions). After a median follow-up of 29 months (range, 6-55 months), complete regression of the main tumour was achieved in 23 of 24 eyes. One eye with partial regression required enucleation due to ciliary body involvement by the tumour. Overall, 16 eyes (66.6%) were salvaged with primary IAC with or without additional local treatments, and eight (33.3%) required enucleation. The main IAC-related periocular complications included transient eyelid oedema (n = 13), ptosis (n = 6) and forehead hyperpigmentation (n = 3), each resolving in 2 weeks to 4 months. Intra-ocular complications included chorioretinal atrophy (n = 9), newly noted retinal detachment (n = 5) and vitreous haemorrhage (n = 1). Kaplan-Meier eye estimates of enucleation-free survival rates were 83.3% (95% CI, 68.4-98.1%), 69.1% (95% CI, 49.8-88.3%) and 62.9 (95% CI, 41.9-83.8%) at 6 months, 1 and 2 years, respectively, and stable thereafter.
CONCLUSION: Our first 4-year experience in Turkey showed that enucleation or external-beam radiotherapy could be avoided in two-thirds of eyes with advanced intra-ocular retinoblastoma managed primarily with IAC.

Voorhees PM, Usmani SZ
The role of high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplant in the rapidly evolving era of modern multiple myeloma therapy.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2016; 14(9):719-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
The advent of the immunomodulatory drugs thalido-mide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide; the proteasome inhib-itors bortezomib, carfilzomib, and ixazomib; the histone deacet-ylase inhibitor panobinostat; and the monoclonal antibodies elotuzumab and daratumumab has led to dramatic improvements in outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma. Along with progress in nontransplant therapy have come questions regarding the continued role of high-dose melphalan (HDM) supported by autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Emerging evidence from phase 3 studies demonstrates that consolidation therapy with HDM/ASCT further improves depth of response and progression-free survival in the context of modern therapy for multiple myeloma. Moreover, unprecedented survival data from ongoing phase 3 studies of patients treated with modern myeloma therapy followed by HDM/ASCT in first-line or second-line therapy reaffirm single and tandem HDM/ASCT as important standards of care for eligible patients. Herein, we review the evolving role of HDM/ASCT for the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed multiple myeloma.

Shields CL, Alset AE, Say EA, et al.
Retinoblastoma Control With Primary Intra-arterial Chemotherapy: Outcomes Before and During the Intravitreal Chemotherapy Era.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016; 53(5):275-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To compare outcomes of intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma as primary therapy before (Era I) and during (Era II) the intravitreal chemotherapy era.
METHODS: In this retrospective interventional case series at a tertiary referral center, 66 eyes of 66 patients with untreated unilateral retinoblastoma were used. intraarterial chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery under fluoroscopic guidance was performed using melphalan in every case, with additional topotecan as necessary. Intravitreal chemotherapy using melphalan and/or topotecan was employed as needed for active vitreous seeding. Globe salvage was measured based on the International Classification of Retinoblastoma (ICRB) during two eras.
RESULTS: The two eras encompassed 2008 to 2012 (intraarterial chemotherapy alone, Era I) and 2012 to 2015 (intraarterial chemotherapy plus intravitreal chemotherapy, Era II). Over this period, there were 66 patients with unilateral untreated retinoblastoma treated with primary intra-arterial chemotherapy. A comparison of features (Era I vs Era II) revealed no significant difference in mean patient age (24 vs 24 months), ICRB groups, mean largest tumor diameter (19 vs 17 mm), mean largest tumor thickness (10 vs 10 mm), vitreous seed presence (56% vs 59%), subretinal seed presence (67% vs 62%), retinal detachment (70% vs 66%), or vitreous hemorrhage (0% vs 5%). There was no significant difference in mean number of intra-arterial chemotherapy cycles (3 vs 3.1) or intraarterial chemotherapy dosages. Following therapy, there was a significant difference (Era I vs Era II) in the need for enucleation overall (44% vs 15%, P = .012), especially for group E eyes (75% vs 27%, P = .039). Four of the eyes that initiated therapy in Era I later required intravitreal chemotherapy during Era II. The enucleation rate was 0% for groups B and C in both eras and non-significant for group D (23% vs 13%). There were no patients with stroke, seizure, limb ischemia, extraocular tumor extension, secondary leukemia, metastasis, or death.
CONCLUSIONS: The current era of retinoblastoma management using intra-arterial chemotherapy plus additional intravitreal chemotherapy (as needed for vitreous seeding) has improved globe salvage in eyes with advanced retinoblastoma. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53(5):275-284.].

Chen C, Ma FW, Du CY, Wang P
Multiple Differential Networks Strategy Reveals Carboplatin and Melphalan-Induced Dynamic Module Changes in Retinoblastoma.
Med Sci Monit. 2016; 22:1508-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common malignant tumor of the eye in childhood. The objective of this paper was to investigate carboplatin (CAR)- and melphalan (MEL)-induced dynamic module changes in RB based on multiple (M) differential networks, and to generate systems-level insights into RB progression. MATERIAL AND METHODS To achieve this goal, we constructed M-differential co-expression networks (DCNs), assigned a weight to each edge, and identified seed genes in M DCNs by ranking genes based on their topological features. Starting with seed genes, a module search was performed to explore candidate modules in CAR and MEL condition. M-DMs were detected according to significance evaluations of M-modules, which originated from refinement of candidate modules. Further, we revealed dynamic changes in M-DM activity and connectivity on the basis of significance of Module Connectivity Dynamic Score (MCDS). RESULTS In the present study, M=2, a total of 21 seed genes were obtained. By assessing module search, refinement, and evaluation, we gained 18 2-DMs. Moreover, 3 significant 2-DMs (Module 1, Module 2, and Module 3) with dynamic changes across CAR and MEL condition were determined, and we denoted them as dynamic modules. Module 1 had 27 nodes of which 6 were seed genes and 56 edges. Module 2 was composed of 28 nodes and 54 edges. A total of 28 nodes interacted with 45 edges presented in Module 3. CONCLUSIONS We have identified 3 dynamic modules with changes induced by CAR and MEL in RB, which might give insights in revealing molecular mechanism for RB therapy.

Delforoush M, Strese S, Wickström M, et al.
In vitro and in vivo activity of melflufen (J1)in lymphoma.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:263 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Melphalan has been used in the treatment of various hematologic malignancies for almost 60 years. Today it is part of standard therapy for multiple myeloma and also as part of myeloablative regimens in association with autologous allogenic stem cell transplantation. Melflufen (melphalan flufenamide ethyl ester, previously called J1) is an optimized derivative of melphalan providing targeted delivery of active metabolites to cells expressing aminopeptidases. The activity of melflufen has compared favorably with that of melphalan in a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments performed preferentially on different solid tumor models and multiple myeloma. Melflufen is currently being evaluated in a clinical phase I/II trial in relapsed or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma.
METHODS: Cytotoxicity of melflufen was assayed in lymphoma cell lines and in primary tumor cells with the Fluorometric Microculture Cytotoxicity Assay and cell cycle analyses was performed in two of the cell lines. Melflufen was also investigated in a xenograft model with subcutaneous lymphoma cells inoculated in mice.
RESULTS: Melflufen showed activity with cytotoxic IC50-values in the submicromolar range (0.011-0.92 μM) in the cell lines, corresponding to a mean of 49-fold superiority (p < 0.001) in potency vs. melphalan. In the primary cultures melflufen yielded slightly lower IC50-values (2.7 nM to 0.55 μM) and an increased ratio vs. melphalan (range 13-455, average 108, p < 0.001). Treated cell lines exhibited a clear accumulation in the G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. Melflufen also showed significant activity and no, or minimal side effects in the xenografted animals.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms previous reports of a targeting related potency superiority of melflufen compared to that of melphalan. Melflufen was active in cell lines and primary cultures of lymphoma cells, as well as in a xenograft model in mice and appears to be a candidate for further evaluation in the treatment of this group of malignant diseases.

Chao A, Kao LY, Liu L, Wang NK
Diffuse chorioretinal atrophy after a single standard low- dose intravitreal melphalan injection in a child with retinoblastoma: a case report.
BMC Ophthalmol. 2016; 16:27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Controlling retinoblastoma with seeding is challenging despite advances in treatment modalities. Intravitreal melphalan is an alternative to external beam radiation or enucleation for recurrent or refractory vitreous seeds. Significant ocular side effects following intravitreal melphalan injections are uncommon. Complications have been reported in eyes receiving higher concentrations of melphalan and repetitive injections. We report a case in which diffuse chorioretinal atrophy was developed at the injection site after a single, standard low-dose intravitreal melphalan injection.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 12-month-old female child without a family history of retinoblastoma presented with unilateral group C retinoblastoma in her right eye. A solitary tumour with retinal breaks on the tumour surface, and vitreous seeds overlying the tumour were observed at the 8 o'clock position of the retina. After two cycles of intra-arterial chemotherapy with melphalan, the main tumour displayed significant regression, but the vitreous seeds overlying the main tumour were still active. Because of the persistence of vitreous seeds and the inadequate response to intra-arterial melphalan treatment, intravitreal melphalan (8 μg in 0.05 mL) was injected using a 32-gauge needle 2.5 mm from the 5 o'clock position of the limbus, the meridian opposite to the vitreous seeds. After 1 month, the retina around the injection site demonstrated diffuse retinal pigment epithelium alterations with dense hard exudates. Although the main retinal mass, and vitreous seeds resolved, the hard exudates persisted for more than 2 years after the single low-dose melphalan injection.
CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal melphalan injections should be cautiously used for eyes with refractory seeds, particularly when multiple injections are required to control retinoblastoma seeds. Dose- related retinal toxicity could occur in pre-treated eyes even when a relatively low standard dose is used. Such patients should be followed up closely to monitor the treatment response and to assess potential delayed toxicity.

Cavo M
Together for better?
Blood. 2016; 127(4):375-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this issue of Blood, Mateos et al report that bortezomib plus melphalan and prednisone (VMP) and lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (Rd) administered in a sequential or an alternating scheme were equally active and induced comparable toxicities in elderly myeloma patients.

Zweegman S, van der Holt B, Mellqvist UH, et al.
Melphalan, prednisone, and lenalidomide versus melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide in untreated multiple myeloma.
Blood. 2016; 127(9):1109-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
The combination of melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide (MPT) is considered standard therapy for newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma who are ineligible for stem cell transplantation. Long-term treatment with thalidomide is hampered by neurotoxicity. Melphalan, prednisone, and lenalidomide, followed by lenalidomide maintenance therapy, showed promising results without severe neuropathy emerging. We randomly assigned 668 patients between nine 4-week cycles of MPT followed by thalidomide maintenance until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity (MPT-T) and the same MP regimen with thalidomide being replaced by lenalidomide (MPR-R). This multicenter, open-label, randomized phase 3 trial was undertaken by Dutch-Belgium Cooperative Trial Group for Hematology Oncology and the Nordic Myeloma Study Group (the HOVON87/NMSG18 trial). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). A total of 318 patients were randomly assigned to receive MPT-T, and 319 received MPR-R. After a median follow-up of 36 months, PFS with MPT-T was 20 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 18-23 months) vs 23 months (95% CI, 19-27 months) with MPR-R (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.72-1.04; P = .12). Response rates were similar, with at least a very good partial response of 47% and 45%, respectively. Hematologic toxicity was more pronounced with MPR-R, especially grades 3 and 4 neutropenia: 64% vs 27%. Neuropathy of at least grade 3 was significantly higher in the MPT-T arm: 16% vs 2% in MPR-R, resulting in a significant shorter duration of maintenance therapy (5 vs 17 months in MPR-R), irrespective of age. MPR-R has no advantage over MPT-T concerning efficacy. The toxicity profile differed with clinically significant neuropathy during thalidomide maintenance vs myelosuppression with MPR.

Wichert S, Pettersson Å, Hellmark T, et al.
Phagocyte function decreases after high-dose treatment with melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma.
Exp Hematol. 2016; 44(5):342-351.e5 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-dose melphalan with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard of care for younger patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and is aimed at achieving as deep and complete a response as possible after various combinations of induction therapy. However, it is frequently associated with infectious complications. This study investigated the effects of high-dose treatment with autologous stem cell support on patients' innate immunity, with a focus on subpopulations and functioning of recently released polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes in peripheral blood. Flow cytometry-based analysis was used to measure the degree of PMN maturation and activation, before and after ASCT and compared with healthy controls. After high-dose treatment and ASCT, a smaller proportion of patients' PMNs had the capacity for oxidative burst. Moreover, patients' PMNs, both before and after ASCT, had a reduced capacity for phagocytosis. Eosinophils, which recently have been suggested to play a role in promoting malignant plasma cell proliferation, were markedly reduced after ASCT, with slow regeneration. HLA-DR expression by monocytes was significantly depressed after ASCT, a characteristic often attributed to monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Our results suggest that several aspects of phagocytic function are impaired for at least 20 days after ASCT.

Khattry N, Gupta A, Jain R, et al.
LACE versus BEAM conditioning in relapsed and refractory lymphoma transplant: retrospective multicenter analysis of toxicity and efficacy.
Int J Hematol. 2016; 103(3):292-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We compared the lomustine, cytarabine, cyclophosphamide and etoposide (LACE) and BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan (BEAM) conditioning regimens for toxicity, engraftment kinetics, and efficacy in 139 patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant for primary refractory or relapsed lymphoma. Ninety-two patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and 47 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma were enrolled. Seventy-five patients received LACE while 64 received BEAM. The incidence of grade 3-4 oral mucositis (9 vs 38%; P < 0.001) and parenteral nutrition requirement (32 vs 69%; P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the LACE cohort. The median days to myeloid (10 vs 11; P = 0.007) and platelet engraftment (13 vs 15; P = 0.026) were shorter for the LACE cohort. Transplant-related mortality in the LACE group was 9% compared to 13% in patients treated with BEAM (P = NS). The probability of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) at 5 years for entire cohort was 46 and 41%, respectively. Probability of OS (LACE 46% vs BEAM 47%; P = NS) and PFS (LACE 37% vs BEAM 47%; P = NS) at 5 years was comparable between two groups. We conclude that LACE has better toxicity profile compared to BEAM and results in similar long-term survival in primary refractory or relapsed lymphoma transplant.

Lub S, Maes A, Maes K, et al.
Inhibiting the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome induces a metaphase arrest and cell death in multiple myeloma cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(4):4062-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an ubiquitin ligase involved in cell cycle. During the metaphase-anaphase transition the APC/C is activated by Cdc20. The aim of this study is to elucidate the importance and therapeutic potential of APC/C and its co-activator Cdc20 in multiple myeloma (MM). Gene expression analysis revealed that Cdc20 was expressed at higher levels in gene expression-based high-risk MM patients. Moreover, high Cdc20 expression correlated with poor prognosis. Treatment of human myeloma cell lines with proTAME, an APC/C inhibitor, resulted in an accumulation of APC/CCdc20 substrate cyclin B1 and an accumulation of cells in metaphase. Moreover we observed a significant dose-dependent decrease in viability and increase in apoptosis in MM cells upon proTAME treatment. The induction of apoptosis was accompanied with caspase 3, 8, 9 and PARP cleavage. A similar metaphase arrest and induction of apoptosis were obtained with specific knockdown of Cdc20. In addition, we demonstrated the accumulation of Bim was partially responsible for the observed cell death. Combining proTAME with another APC/C inhibitor apcin or the alkylating agent melphalan resulted in enhanced anti-MM activity. This study suggests that the APC/C and its co-activator Cdc20 could be a new and promising target especially in high-risk MM patients.

Lambert NG, Winegar BA, Feola GP, Ramasubramanian A
Ocular dysmotility after intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma.
J AAPOS. 2015; 19(6):574-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report the case of a 15-month-old boy with retinoblastoma who developed exotropia secondary to a right medial rectus infarct after intra-arterial chemotherapy. He had unilateral sporadic group C tumor (International Classification of Retinoblastoma) and was treated with intra-arterial melphalan. One week after the first session of intra-ophthalmic arterial melphalan chemotherapy, he was noted to have orbital congestion, exotropia, and right adduction limitation. Magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of a right medial rectus infarct. The tumor showed a good response to intra-arterial chemotherapy but the exotropia persisted.

Ramachandran IR, Condamine T, Lin C, et al.
Bone marrow PMN-MDSCs and neutrophils are functionally similar in protection of multiple myeloma from chemotherapy.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 371(1):117-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable cancer of plasma cells localized preferentially in the bone marrow (BM). Resistance to chemotherapy represents one of the main challenges in MM management. BM microenvironment is known to play a critical role in protection of MM cells from chemotherapeutics; however, mechanisms responsible for this effect are largely unknown. Development of MM is associated with accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) mostly represented by pathologically activated relatively immature polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN-MDSCs). Here, we investigated whether PMN-MDSCs are responsible for BM microenvironment-mediated MM chemoresistance. Using in vivo mouse models allowing manipulation of myeloid cell number, we demonstrated a critical role for myeloid cells in MM growth and chemoresistance. PMN-MDSCs isolated from MM-bearing host are immunosuppressive and thus, functionally distinct from their counterpart in tumor-free host neutrophils. We found, however, that both PMN-MDSCs and neutrophils equally promote MM survival from doxorubicin and melphalan and that this effect is mediated by soluble factors rather than direct cell-cell contact. Our data indicate that targeting PMN-MDSCs would enhance chemotherapy efficacy in MM.

Elborai Y, Hafez H, Moussa EA, et al.
Comparison of toxicity following different conditioning regimens (busulfan/melphalan and carboplatin/etoposide/melphalan) for advanced stage neuroblastoma: Experience of two transplant centers.
Pediatr Transplant. 2016; 20(2):284-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The outcome for advanced neuroblastoma has improved with combined modality therapy: induction chemotherapy, surgery, and consolidation with high-dose chemotherapy/autologous HSCT, followed by local radiation, cisretinoic acid, and recently antibody therapy. In the United States, the most common conditioning regimen is CEM, while in Europe/Middle East, Bu/Mel has been widely used; it remains unclear which regimen has the best outcome. Assess renal, hepatic, and infectious toxicity through Day+100 in 2 different regimens. Retrospective comparison between CEM-DFCHCC Boston and Bu/Mel- CCHE-57357. Thirty-five patients, median age 4, in Boston (2007-2011) and 38 patients, median age 3, in Cairo (2009-2011). Renal toxicity; creatinine was significantly higher in CEM than Bu/Mel: 57% (median day+90) vs. 29% (median>day+100), p = 0.004. One CEM patient died from renal dialysis at day+19. Hepatic toxicity was significantly higher in CEM than Bu/Mel: 80% (median day+26) vs. 58% (median day+60), p = 0.04. In infectious complications with CEM 14%, bacteremia (n = 4) and fungemia (n = 1), 3 had culture-negative sepsis requiring vasopressors. With Bu/Mel 18%, bacteremia (n = 7), none required pressors, p = 0.4. Bu/Mel was associated with less acute hepatic and renal toxicity and thus may be preferable for preserving organ functions.

Jaiswal SR, Chakrabarti A, Chatterjee S, et al.
Haploidentical Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide in Children with Advanced Acute Leukemia with Fludarabine-, Busulfan-, and Melphalan-Based Conditioning.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2016; 22(3):499-504 [PubMed] Related Publications
Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCY) therapy has made haploidentical transplantation a global reality in adults, but the literature is largely silent on the feasibility of this approach in children. We conducted a prospective study of 20 patients (median age, 12 years; range, 2-20 years) with advanced acute leukemia to evaluate the feasibility of PTCY-based haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation in children. The conditioning regimen comprised fludarabine, i.v. busulfan, and melphalan (Flu-Bu-Mel). PTCY on days +3 and +4 was followed by mycophenolate mofetil for 14-21 days and cyclosporine for 60 days. Thirteen patients (65%) had refractory or relapsed myelogenous leukemia, and the remainder had high-risk lymphoblastic leukemia. Prompt engraftment was noted at a median of 14 days, with full donor chimerism by day +28. The cumulative incidence of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was 35% and 5%, respectively. Nonrelapse mortality at 1 year was 20%. The incidence of disease progression was 25.7%. The actuarial overall survival at 2 years was 64.3% (95% confidence interval, 53.4%-75.2%). Our data suggest that Flu-Bu-Mel-based conditioning followed by PTCY-based haploidentical PBSC transplantation with reduced duration of immunosuppression is feasible in pediatric patients with advanced leukemia.

Michaels ST, Abruzzo TA, Augsburger JJ, et al.
Selective Ophthalmic Artery Infusion Chemotherapy for Advanced Intraocular Retinoblastoma: CCHMC Early Experience.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2016; 38(1):65-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Selective ophthalmic artery infusion chemotherapy (SOAIC) is increasingly used to treat retinoblastoma. We report the toxicities and outcome of 19 eyes in 17 patients with retinoblastoma receiving SOAIC treatment between 2008 and 2013. From the 87 treatments, mild local reactions were common. Myelosuppression was more common after triple-agent SOAIC (melphalan, carboplatin, and topotecan) than single-agent melphalan. Ocular salvage was achieved in 11 of 19 eyes and associated with triple-agent therapy. SOAIC is a effective therapy for some retinoblastoma with manageable toxicity; however, systemic toxicity increases with increasing therapeutic intensity of SOAIC.

Berglund Å, Ullén A, Lisyanskaya A, et al.
First-in-human, phase I/IIa clinical study of the peptidase potentiated alkylator melflufen administered every three weeks to patients with advanced solid tumor malignancies.
Invest New Drugs. 2015; 33(6):1232-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Melflufen (melphalan flufenamide, previously designated J1) is an optimized and targeted derivative of melphalan, hydrolyzed by aminopeptidases overexpressed in tumor cells resulting in selective release and trapping of melphalan, and enhanced activity in preclinical models.
METHODS: This was a prospective, single-armed, open-label, first-in-human, dose-finding phase I/IIa study in 45 adult patients with advanced and progressive solid tumors without standard treatment options. Most common tumor types were ovarian carcinoma (n = 20) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC, n = 11).
RESULTS: In the dose-escalating phase I part of the study, seven patients were treated with increasing fixed doses of melflufen (25-130 mg) Q3W. In the subsequent phase IIa part, 38 patients received in total 115 cycles of therapy at doses of 30-75 mg. No dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed at 25 and 50 mg; at higher doses DLTs were reversible neutropenias and thrombocytopenias, particularly evident in heavily pretreated patients, and the recommended phase II dose (RPTD) was set to 50 mg. Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) evaluation after 3 cycles of therapy (27 patients) showed partial response in one (ovarian cancer), and stable disease in 18 patients. One NSCLC patient received nine cycles of melflufen and progressed after 7 months of therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, melflufen can safely be given to cancer patients, and the toxicity profile was as expected for alkylating agents; RPTD is 50 mg Q3W. Reversible and manageable bone marrow suppression was identified as a DLT. Clinical activity is suggested in ovarian cancer, but modest activity in treatment of refractory NSCLC.

Gullà A, Di Martino MT, Gallo Cantafio ME, et al.
A 13 mer LNA-i-miR-221 Inhibitor Restores Drug Sensitivity in Melphalan-Refractory Multiple Myeloma Cells.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(5):1222-33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The onset of drug resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in multiple myeloma. Although increasing evidence is defining the role of miRNAs in mediating drug resistance, their potential activity as drug-sensitizing agents has not yet been investigated in multiple myeloma.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Here we studied the potential utility of miR-221/222 inhibition in sensitizing refractory multiple myeloma cells to melphalan.
RESULTS: miR-221/222 expression inversely correlated with melphalan sensitivity of multiple myeloma cells. Inhibition of miR-221/222 overcame melphalan resistance and triggered apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells in vitro, in the presence or absence of human bone marrow (BM) stromal cells. Decreased multiple myeloma cell growth induced by inhibition of miR-221/222 plus melphalan was associated with a marked upregulation of pro-apoptotic BBC3/PUMA protein, a miR-221/222 target, as well as with modulation of drug influx-efflux transporters SLC7A5/LAT1 and the ABC transporter ABCC1/MRP1. Finally, in vivo treatment of SCID/NOD mice bearing human melphalan-refractory multiple myeloma xenografts with systemic locked nucleic acid (LNA) inhibitors of miR-221 (LNA-i-miR-221) plus melphalan overcame drug resistance, evidenced by growth inhibition with significant antitumor effects together with modulation of PUMA and ABCC1 in tumors retrieved from treated mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings provide the proof of concept that LNA-i-miR-221 can reverse melphalan resistance in preclinical models of multiple myeloma, providing the framework for clinical trials to overcome drug resistance, and improve patient outcome in multiple myeloma.

Usmani SZ, Cavenagh JD, Belch AR, et al.
Cost-effectiveness of lenalidomide plus dexamethasone vs. bortezomib plus melphalan and prednisone in transplant-ineligible U.S. patients with newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma.
J Med Econ. 2016; 19(3):243-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a cost-effectiveness assessment of lenalidomide plus dexamethasone (Rd) vs bortezomib plus melphalan and prednisone (VMP) as initial treatment for transplant-ineligible patients with newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM), from a U.S. payer perspective.
METHODS: A partitioned survival model was developed to estimate expected life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted LYs (QALYs), direct costs and incremental costs per QALY and LY gained associated with use of Rd vs VMP over a patient's lifetime. Information on the efficacy and safety of Rd and VMP was based on data from multinational phase III clinical trials and a network meta-analysis. Pre-progression direct costs included the costs of Rd and VMP, treatment of adverse events (including prophylaxis) and routine care and monitoring associated with MM. Post-progression direct costs included costs of subsequent treatment(s) and routine care and monitoring for progressive disease, all obtained from published literature and estimated from a U.S. payer perspective. Utilities were obtained from the aforementioned trials. Costs and outcomes were discounted at 3% annually.
RESULTS: Relative to VMP, use of Rd was expected to result in an additional 2.22 LYs and 1.47 QALYs (discounted). Patients initiated with Rd were expected to incur an additional $78,977 in mean lifetime direct costs (discounted) vs those initiated with VMP. The incremental costs per QALY and per LY gained with Rd vs VMP were $53,826 and $35,552, respectively. In sensitivity analyses, results were found to be most sensitive to differences in survival associated with Rd vs VMP, the cost of lenalidomide and the discount rate applied to effectiveness outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: Rd was expected to result in greater LYs and QALYs compared with VMP, with similar overall costs per LY for each regimen. Results of this analysis indicated that Rd may be a cost-effective alternative to VMP as initial treatment for transplant-ineligible patients with MM, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio well within the levels for recent advancements in oncology.

Lee JH, Han JW, Hahn SM, et al.
Combined intravitreal melphalan and intravenous/intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma with vitreous seeds.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2016; 254(2):391-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect and complications of combined intravitreal melphalan and intravenous/intra-arterial chemotherapy as a primary approach for retinoblastoma with vitreous seeds.
METHODS: In this retrospective case series, eight eyes from eight retinoblastoma patients with vitreous seeds were included. All eyes received 20-30 μg of intravitreal melphalan accompanied by intravenous and intra-arterial chemotherapy. Triple freeze-thaw cryotherapy was performed when withdrawing the needle from the eye to prevent tumor dissemination.
RESULTS: Tumors and vitreous seeds regressed in all eyes. The mean number of intravitreal melphalan injections was 3.25 (median 3.50, range 2-4). Globe salvage was attained in seven of eight eyes (87.5 %). Enucleation was performed in one case, in which the pathologic section showed no residual tumor and tumor-free resection margins. Serous retinal detachment was observed in four eyes (50 %), and vitreous hemorrhage developed in two (25 %). Retinal pigment epithelium atrophy or mottling was found in three eyes (37.5 %). There were no cases of extraocular tumor extension or remote metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: Combined intravitreal melphalan and intravenous/intra-arterial chemotherapy was effective for tumor and vitreous seeding control, but vision-threatening complications such as vitreous hemorrhage or serous retinal detachment occurred in half the cases.

Mateos MV, Martínez-López J, Hernández MT, et al.
Sequential vs alternating administration of VMP and Rd in elderly patients with newly diagnosed MM.
Blood. 2016; 127(4):420-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bortezomib plus melphalan and prednisone (VMP) and lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (Rd) are 2 standards of care for elderly untreated multiple myeloma (MM) patients. We planned to use VMP and Rd for 18 cycles in a sequential or alternating scheme. Patients (233) with untreated MM, >65 years, were randomized to receive 9 cycles of VMP followed by 9 cycles of Rd (sequential scheme; n = 118) vs 1 cycle of VMP followed by 1 cycle of Rd, and so on, up to 18 cycles (alternating scheme; n = 115). VMP consisted of one 6-week cycle of bortezomib using a biweekly schedule, followed by eight 5-week cycles of once-weekly VMP. Rd included nine 4-week cycles of Rd. The primary end points were 18-month progression free survival (PFS) and safety profile of both schemes. The 18-month PFS was 74% and 80% in the sequential and alternating arms, respectively (P = .21). The sequential and alternating groups exhibited similar hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity. Both arms yielded similar complete response rate (42% and 40%), median PFS (32 months vs 34 months, P = .65), and 3-year overall survival (72% vs 74%, P = .63). The benefit of both schemes was remarkable in patients aged 65 to 75 years. In addition, achieving complete and immunophenotypic response was associated with better outcome. The present approach, based on VMP and Rd, is associated with high efficacy and acceptable toxicity profile with no differences between the sequential and alternating regimens. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00443235.

Brammer JE, Khouri I, Gaballa S, et al.
Outcomes of Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation for Lymphoma with Melphalan-Based Conditioning.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2016; 22(3):493-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Haploidentical transplantation (Haplo-SCT) with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is increasingly utilized for the treatment of lymphoma and almost exclusively with the nonmyeloablative fludarabine (Flu)/cyclophosphamide/total body irradiation (TBI) conditioning regimen. We present early results of a reduced-intensity (RIC) regimen utilizing fludarabine and melphalan (FM) for the treatment of advanced lymphoma. All patients with a diagnosis of lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who received Haplo-SCT at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed (N = 22). Patients received Flu 160 mg/m(2) and melphalan 100 mg/m(2) to 140 mg/m(2) with thiotepa 5 mg/kg or 2 Gy TBI. Because of concerns of increased treatment-related mortality (TRM) with the melphalan 140 mg/m(2) regimen (FM140), a RIC regimen with melphalan 100 mg/m(2) (FM100) was devised. Rituximab was included for CD20(+) disease. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis consisted of PTCy 50 mg/kg on days +3 and + 4, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. Sixty-eight percent of all patients were not in complete remission at the time of transplantation. The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort were 54%, 1-year TRM was 19%, and the cumulative incidence of relapse at 2 years was 27%. Two-year PFS for Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma were 57%, 51%, and 75%. Patients treated with FM100 compared to FM140 had equivalent PFS (71% versus 37%, P = .246) and OS (71% versus 58%, P = .32). These early results establish Flu and melphalan 100 mg/m(2) with 2 Gy TBI or thiotepa 5 mg/kg as a very promising conditioning regimen for the treatment of advanced lymphoma with Haplo-SCT and PTCy.

Tuncer S, Balcı Ö, Tanyıldız B, et al.
Intravitreal Lower-Dose (20 µg) Melphalan for Persistent or Recurrent Retinoblastoma Vitreous Seeds.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2015; 46(9):942-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The major cause of failure in the management of retinoblastoma is the persistence/recurrence of vitreous seeds (VS). This study reports the efficacy and complications of standard lower-dose (20 µg) intravitreal melphalan for VS.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of all patients with active VS treated with lower-dose intravitreal melphalan (20 µg/0.1 mL) on a monthly basis until complete VS regression was achieved.
RESULTS: A total of 14 injections were delivered to seven eyes of seven patients (range: 1-4; median: 2). At a median follow-up of 20 months (range: 12-32 months), complete regression of VS was achieved in all cases (100%), and globe salvage was achieved in six cases (86%). One eye required enucleation for solid tumor recurrence. Side effects of retinal pigment epithelium mottling at the site of injection was noted in two eyes (29%).
CONCLUSION: The 2-year results of this study suggest that standard lower-dose (20 µg) intravitreal melphalan is safe and highly effective for the management of viable VS from retinoblastoma.

Ferguson PJ, Sykelyk A, Figueredo R, Koropatnick J
Synergistic cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines by oncolytic adenovirus dl1520 (ONYX-015) and melphalan.
Tumori. 2016 Jan-Feb; 102(1):31-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: In light of the need for more selective anticancer therapy, much work has been directed at developing compounds or biological agents that target functions specific to cancer cells. To this end, numerous viruses have been engineered to exploit the dependence of cancer cells on particular anomalies that contribute to their rogue proliferative activity, such as dysfunctional p53, overactive mitogenic signaling, or a defective interferon response. The oncolytic human adenovirus dl1520 (ONYX-015) was engineered to propagate specifically in p53-deficient tumors, which comprise over half of all tumors. Based on successes in clinical trials, the full potential of dl1520 and other oncolytic viruses may be even better realized by using them in combination with conventional chemotherapy drugs.
METHODS: As a model system in which to test this potential, representative cell lines from 2 common cancer types, oral squamous cell carcinoma (HN-5a) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), were chosen, as well as platinum-drug-resistant variants of each.
RESULTS: Following preliminary screening of virus and drug combinations, dl1520 and melphalan were found to synergistically inhibit proliferation of all the cancer cell lines. Melphalan pretreatment or cotreatment with dl1520 enhanced inhibition of proliferation by dl1520 by up to 60% and increased apoptosis by up to 25%. The tight-junction protein CAR (coxsackie and adenovirus receptor), via which adenovirus enters cells, was not upregulated by treatment with melphalan, suggesting that other mechanisms contribute to synergy.
CONCLUSIONS: The synergy between melphalan and dl1520 suggests that tumor-selective cell killing by oncolytic viruses may be augmented by combining with cytotoxic drugs.

Yarovoy AA, Ushakova TL, Gorshkov IM, et al.
Intraocular surgery with melphalan irrigation for vitreous hemorrhage in an only eye with retinoblastoma.
Eur J Ophthalmol. 2015; 26(1):e17-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To illustrate the successful outcome of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with melphalan irrigation for vitreous hemorrhage (VH) with suspected viable retinoblastoma. Despite the high risk of intraocular surgery, it was performed to preserve the only potentially seeing eye with treated retinoblastoma.
METHODS: Vitreous hemorrhage occurred in the only eye of a 4-year-old boy after treatment for recurrent multifocal group C retinoblastoma with systemic chemotherapy (carboplatin, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide; and vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin), ruthenium brachytherapy with plaque repositioning, cryotherapy, and external radiotherapy. The VH developed 8 months after repeated brachytherapy with subsequent intravitreal melphalan chemotherapy. The patient's parents refused to remove the eye. The fellow eye was enucleated earlier because of VH and secondary glaucoma, without histologic signs of a viable tumor. Pars plana lensectomy, 25-G vitrectomy with melphalan irrigation (5 μg/mL), and silicone oil tamponade were performed.
RESULTS: No ophthalmoscopic or morphologic signs of a viable tumor were detected. Four months later, the silicone oil was removed. Visual acuity was 20/200 with aphakic correction. Follow-up for 34 months revealed no signs of tumor recurrence or dissemination.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high risk of intraocular surgery, the need to preserve the only potentially seeing eye with treated retinoblastoma may require PPV. Thus, in unclear cases of VH with suspected viable tumor, PPV with intraocular melphalan irrigation, with caution, may be a reasonable procedure.

Jolivot PA, Poinsignon V, Paci A, et al.
A case of melphalan sustained accumulation in an 80-year old patient.
Int J Clin Pharm. 2015; 37(6):984-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Case We report the case of melphalan accumulation in an 80-year old female with multiple myeloma. Her initial health status was good except for a moderate chronic renal failure (estimated glomerular filtration rate: 31 ml/min) and anemia. Among other drugs, her usual treatment included trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and the patient received melphalan from day 1 to day 4 for multiple myeloma. On day 13, she was admitted in intensive care unit for acute renal failure and severe sepsis with pancytopenia. Usual treatments were stopped. Melphalan blood concentrations were 123.6 ng/ml on day 16 and 87.5 ng/ml on day 17 while cerebrospinal fluid concentration was 173.8 ng/ml on day 25. Patient recovered on day 30. Melphalan accumulation may be explained by substrate competition between sulfamethoxazole and melphalan in metabolism pathway and chronic renal failure. Conclusion close clinical and renal monitoring should be performed in patient receiving melphalan and sulfamethoxazole.

Francis JH, Marr BP, Brodie SE, Abramson DH
Anterior Ocular Toxicity of Intravitreous Melphalan for Retinoblastoma.
JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015; 133(12):1459-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
IMPORTANCE: Intravitreous injections of melphalan hydrochloride are increasingly used in the treatment of vitreous seeding of retinoblastoma. Although this technique can save eyes otherwise destined for enucleation, ocular salvage may be accompanied by local toxic effects. Posterior segment toxic effects in this context are well established. This report describes the toxic effects on the anterior segment following intravitreous administration of melphalan.
OBSERVATIONS: Our clinic cohort included 76 patients who received intravitreous injections of melphalan at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from September 12, 2012, through April 15, 2015; data analysis was performed from April 15 through May 15, 2015. We report a series of 5 patients from this cohort who developed anterior segment toxic effects. These abnormalities were found at the injection site or within the meridian of the injection and included a traumatic cataract following an injection at an outside hospital, iris depigmentation and thinning, iris recession with retinal necrosis and hypotony, a filtering conjunctival bleb, and focal scleromalacia with localized pigmentation.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Intravitreous injection of melphalan may result in toxic effects on the anterior segment of the eye, in addition to retinal abnormalities, and appears to be more common in the meridian of the injection where the drug concentration is highest.

Even-Or E, Ben-Haroush A, Yahel A, et al.
Fertility After Treatment With High Dose Melphalan in Women With Acute Myelogenous Leukemia.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016; 63(2):334-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High-dose melphalan (HDM) is an integral component of conditioning regimens for autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with malignant and non-malignant diseases. The gonadotoxic effects of HDM are often obscured by previous or concurrent administration of alkylating agents. From April 1996 to January 2006 our acute myeloid leukemia treatment regimen included induction and consolidation therapy with cytosine arabinoside, anthracyclines and etoposide, followed by HDM and autologous stem cell infusion. We explored gonadal function in surviving female patients so treated, who represent a unique group of patients exposed to HDM as a single gonadotoxic agent.
PROCEDURE: The fertility assessment included a questionnaire, blood tests for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and anti mullerian hormone (AMH), and a gynecological ultrasound exam for antral follicular count (AFC).
RESULTS: Eight female survivors participated. Although fertility assessment showed considerable damage to ovarian reserve in all participants, four of the eight female survivors conceived and bore children without medical intervention.
CONCLUSION: In this cohort, HDM treatment reduced fertility potential but did not preclude fecundity. Early referral to a fertility clinic and long term follow-up including serial measurements of AMH levels and AFC for female patients receiving HDM are recommended.

Akyüz C, Kıratlı H, Şen H, et al.
Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy for Retinoblastoma: A Single-Center Experience.
Ophthalmologica. 2015; 234(4):227-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Studies conducted in recent years have reported promising results regarding the treatment of retinoblastoma with the intra-arterial use of melphalan. In the present study, we intended to report the results of intra-arterial chemotherapy with melphalan (IACT) in the treatment of newly diagnosed or relapsed-refractory retinoblastoma patients at the Department of Pediatric Oncology of Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients with intraocular retinoblastoma who were treated with IACT from December 2011 to May 2014. A total of 56 eyes of 46 consecutive patients (30 males and 16 females) were included in the study. Forty-four eyes received systemic chemotherapy upon diagnosis (systemic chemotherapy group, SCG), and 12 eyes were those of newly diagnosed patients (primary intra-arterial melphalan group, PIAG). The choice of the IACT dose was based on age. Tumor control and globe salvage with IACT were analyzed. Complete blood counts were examined 7 days after the IACT for systemic toxicity. Ocular toxicities such as proptosis, eyelid edema, ocular motility, and retinal and optic atrophy were assessed by an ocular oncologist with regular ophthalmologic examinations.
RESULTS: Enucleation was avoided overall in 66% (37/56) of the eyes, including 75% (9/12) in the PIAG and 64% (28/44) in the SCG patients. The 1-year enucleation-free survival rate was 56.7% at a median follow-up time of 11.9 months (range 0.27-27.6). IACT was administered in a total of 124 cycles (ranging from 1 to 7 cycles, mean 2.3). The responses were as follows: regression of the retinal tumor in 27 eyes and improvements in vitreous seeding in 5 of 15 eyes. The further treatment requirements after IACT were as follows: enucleation in 19 eyes (10 with vitreous seeding), radiotherapy in 3 eyes, systemic chemotherapy in 1 eye, and local therapy in 1 eye. No severe systemic side effects occurred. Transient swelling of the eyelids (22 patients), conjunctival chemosis (12 patients), upper eyelid ptosis (5 patients), redness over the frontal area (3 patients), limitation of ocular motility (3 patients) and mild proptosis (1 patient) were detected. Retinal pigment epithelial alterations (30 patients) and optic atrophy (3 patients) were seen in the late follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: Globe salvage and avoidance of radiotherapy may be achieved by IACT with limited toxicity. This treatment is efficient, repeatable and safe.

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