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"An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen." (MeSH 2013)

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Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Popat UR, Mehta RS, Bassett R, et al.
Fludarabine with a higher versus lower dose of myeloablative timed-sequential busulfan in older patients and patients with comorbidities: an open-label, non-stratified, randomised phase 2 trial.
Lancet Haematol. 2018; 5(11):e532-e542 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HCT) conditioning regimens that can reduce risk of relapse without increasing non-relapse mortality are needed. We aimed to test the safety of timed-sequential delivery of low-dose versus high-dose myeloablative busulfan in older patients and patients with comorbidities.
METHODS: This non-stratified, open-label, randomised phase 2 trial was done at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, USA). Patients with haematological cancers aged between 5 and 75 years were eligible to participate in the study. Patients who had HIV or uncontrollable infections were excluded. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1 by a computer-generated programme in block sizes of four) to receive a total intravenous busulfan dose to achieve an area under the curve of 16 000 μmol/min (16K group) or 20 000 μmol/min (20K group) on the basis of pharmacokinetic analysis, plus intravenous fludarabine 40 mg/m
FINDINGS: Between April 18, 2012, and Dec 9, 2015, 98 patients were enrolled. 49 patients were randomly assigned to the 16K group and 49 to the 20K group, one of which was removed from the study before starting the intervention. Median age was 60 years (IQR 54-67). 50 (52%) patients had an HCT-specific comorbidity index score of 3 or more, and 41 (42%) had a high or very high Disease Risk Index score. Day 100 non-relapse mortality was 4% (95% CI 0-10) in the 16K group and 6% (0-13) in the 20K group (p=0·65). Infection was the most common grade 3-5 toxicity in both the 20K group (25 [52%] of 48 patients) and the 16K group (24 [49%] of 49 participants). Mucositis (nine [19%] of 48 patients vs three [6%] of 49 patients), idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (nine [19%] of 48 patients vs two [4%] of 49 patients), and culture-negative neutropenic fever (16 [33%] of 48 patients vs eight [16%] of 49 patients) were more common in the 20K group than in the 16K group.
INTERPRETATION: Myeloablative doses of busulfan administered in a timed-sequential manner with fludarabine is associated with low non-relapse mortality in older patients and patients with comorbidities. Additional studies are required to show whether this approach can reduce the risk of relapse.
FUNDING: Cancer Center Support Grant (US National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health).

Hamidieh AA, Eslami Shahre Babaki A, Rostami T, et al.
A Single-Center Experience With Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Modest Pitch for Non-Total Body Irradiation Conditioning Regimens.
Exp Clin Transplant. 2019; 17(2):243-250 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used for several decades to treat patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Total body irradiation has been promoted as an important component of conditioning regimens for this process; however, recent reports of chemotherapy-based conditioning regimens have shown comparable outcomes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report our experience with radiation-free conditioning using busulfan and cyclophosphamide in 127 pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who were treated between 1997 and 2014. The median age was 11 years (range, < 1 to 15 y), 70% of patients were male, 81.1% received transplants from HLA-matched siblings, 83% received peripheral blood stem cells, 41% were in second complete remission at the time of transplant, and 83% had B-lineage immunophenotype.
RESULTS: In patients who were in complete remission at the time of transplant, 5-year overall survival, leukemia-free survival, and relapse rates were 62.48% (95% confidence interval, 52.29-71.09%), 49.43% (95% confidence interval, 39.57-58.53%), and 45.64% (95% confidence interval, 35.85-54.88%), respectively. We observed significant differences between outcomes in patients by time of transplant, presence of chronic graft-versus-host disease, and remission status.
CONCLUSIONS: Our relapse rates were comparable to those shown in recent studies, although the transplant-related mortality rate was lower. The results of our study showed that a busulfan/cyclophosphamide conditioning regimen has acceptable outcomes without the undesirable adverse effects of total body irradiation, particularly in pediatric patients. Large multicenter studies are needed to assess less toxic conditioning regimens with fewer adverse effects in these patients.

Valdez BC, Tang X, Li Y, et al.
Epigenetic modification enhances the cytotoxicity of busulfan and4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide in AML cells.
Exp Hematol. 2018; 67:49-59.e1 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
The combination of the DNA-alkylating agents busulfan (Bu) and cyclophosphamide is the most commonly used myeloablative pretransplantation conditioning therapy for myeloid leukemias. However, it is associated with significant nonrelapse mortality, which prohibits dose escalation to control relapse. We hypothesized that combining these two drugs with an epigenetic modifier would increase antileukemic efficacy without jeopardizing patient safety. A preclinical study was performed to determine the synergistic cytotoxicity of Bu, 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4HC), and the hypomethylating agent decitabine (DAC) in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines. Exposure of KBM3/Bu250

Saraceni F, Beohou E, Labopin M, et al.
Thiotepa, busulfan and fludarabine compared to busulfan and cyclophosphamide as conditioning regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplant from matched siblings and unrelated donors for acute myeloid leukemia.
Am J Hematol. 2018; 93(10):1211-1219 [PubMed] Related Publications
Busulfan plus cyclophosphamide (BuCy) is the traditional conditioning regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT) for young, fit patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The thiotepa-busulfan-fludarabine (TBF) protocol has recently demonstrated promising outcome in cord blood and haploidentical SCT; however, there is limited evidence about this regimen in transplant from matched siblings (MSD) and unrelated donors (UD). We retrospectively compared outcomes of 2523 patients aged 18-50 with AML in remission, undergoing transplant from MSD or UD prepared with either TBF or BuCy conditioning. A 1:3 pair-matched analysis was performed: 146 patients receiving TBF were compared with 438 patients receiving BuCy. Relapse risk was significantly lower in the TBF when compared with BuCy group (HR 0.6, P = .02), while NRM did not differ. No significant difference was observed in LFS and OS between the two regimens. TBF was associated with a trend towards higher risk of grades III-IV aGVHD (HR 1.8, P = .06) and inferior cGVHD (HR 0.7, P = .04) when compared with BuCy. In patients undergoing transplant in first remission, the advantage for TBF in terms of relapse was more evident (HR 0.4, P = .02), leading to a trend for better LFS in favor of TBF (HR 0.7, P = .10), while OS did not differ between the two cohorts. In conclusion, TBF represents a valid myeloablative conditioning regimen providing significantly lower relapse and similar survival when compared with BuCy. Patients in first remission appear to gain the most from this protocol, as in this subgroup a tendency for better LFS was observed when compared with BuCy.

Khalil MMI, Messner HA, Lipton JH, et al.
Fludarabine and busulfan plus low-dose TBI as reduced intensity conditioning in older patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant for myeloid malignancies.
Ann Hematol. 2018; 97(10):1975-1985 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have been using a combination of fludarabine/busulfan plus low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) as the reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen for patients age ≥ 60 years undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for myeloid malignancies. We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of 116 older patients (median age 64 years) who underwent HCT from 2006 to 2015 for myeloid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1). On univariate analysis, overall survival (OS) for the cohort at 3 years was 33% (95% CI 25-42). Cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) at 3 years were 24% (95% CI 16-32) and 43% (95% CI 34-52), respectively. Multivariable analysis for OS demonstrated AML patients to have superior outcome (HR 1.60 for other myeloid, 95% CI 1.01-2.54, p = 0.045), as well as related donors (HR 1.92 for unrelated, 95% CI 1.22-3.03, p = 0.005). For NRM, AML patients had superior outcome (HR 1.76 for other myeloid, 95% CI 1.03-3.01, p = 0.038), as well as patients with related donors (HR 1.81 for unrelated, 95% CI 1.07-3.07, p = 0.028). We then demonstrated that AML patients with related donors (n = 45) had superior 3-year OS of 51% (95% CI 36-65), compared to 21% (95% CI 12-32) for all other patients (p = 0.0003). We conclude that the RIC regimen used is effective for older patients, particularly AML patients in CR1 with matched related donors.

Sakellari I, Gavriilaki E, Chatziioannou K, et al.
Long-term outcomes of total body irradiation plus cyclophosphamide versus busulfan plus cyclophosphamide as conditioning regimen for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a comparative study.
Ann Hematol. 2018; 97(10):1987-1994 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of total body irradiation (TBI) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains controversial. Therefore, we investigated long-term treatment outcomes of transplanted ALL patients aiming to identify prognostic factors and the impact of conditioning. We enrolled consecutive ALL patients transplanted from 1990 to 2016, following TBI- or busulfan (Bu)-based conditioning regimen. We studied 151 ALL patients transplanted in first complete remission (CR) (60), other CR (33), or relapsed/refractory disease (58) from sibling (87), and HLA-matched (42) or mismatched (17) unrelated and alternative donors (5). High-dose fractionated TBI-based conditioning was administered in 84. No differences were observed in baseline characteristics, except for disease stage at transplant, donor type, and graft source. With a follow-up of 19.0 (0.5-170.5) in TBI and 14.5 (1.2-319.1) months in non-TBI patients, there was no difference in acute (grades II-IV) or chronic GVHD, thrombotic microangiopathy, and bacterial or fungal infections. Only viral infections were significantly increased in the non-TBI group. There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence (CI) of treatment-related or relapse mortality and disease-free or overall survival (OS). In the multivariate analysis, unfavorable pre-transplant predictors of OS were age (p = 0.024), advanced disease stage (p = 0.007), and female-to-male donor (p = 0.006). Interestingly, TBI patients younger than 40 years had significantly higher OS (55.1%, p = 0.023) and DFS (48.6%, p = 0.020). In conclusion, high-dose TBI is feasible in younger patients providing better survival. The choice between TBI- or Bu-conditioning regimens remains challenging.

Gayoso J, Balsalobre P, Kwon M, et al.
Busulfan-based myeloablative conditioning regimens for haploidentical transplantation in high-risk acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes.
Eur J Haematol. 2018; 101(3):332-339 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High-risk acute leukemia (AL) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) remain a therapeutic challenge. Unmanipulated haploidentical-related donor transplantation based on a myeloablative conditioning regimen (HAPLO-MAC) and post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) as prophylaxis against graft vs host disease (GvHD) is now a promising rescue strategy that could become universally available.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of HAPLO-MAC with PT-Cy in patients with AL and MDS reported to the Haploidentical Transplantation Subcommittee of the Spanish Group for Hematopoietic Transplantation (GETH).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report our multicenter experience using an IV busulfan-based HAPLO-MAC regimen and PT-Cy for treatment of 65 adults with high-risk AL and MDS.
RESULTS: Engraftment was recorded in 64 patients (98.5%), with a median time to neutrophil and platelet recovery of 16 and 27 days, respectively. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GvHD and chronic GvHD was 28.6% and 27.5%, respectively. After a median follow-up of 31 months for survivors, the cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality and relapse at 2 years was 18.8% and 25%, respectively. Estimated 30-month event-free survival and overall survival were 56% and 54.5%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: HAPLO-MAC comprising an IV busulfan-based conditioning regimen enabled long-term disease control with acceptable toxicity in high-risk AL and MDS.

Jiang Y, Fang X, Sui X, et al.
Comparison of Different Conditioning Regimens of Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Exp Clin Transplant. 2018; 16(6):736-744 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the safety and efficacy of 2 conditioning regimens (busulfan/fludarabine vs modified busulfan/cyclophosphamide) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
MATERAILS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with primary acute myeloid leukemia had been randomized into busulfan/fludarabine and modified busulfan/cyclophosphamide groups. We retrospectively compared hematopoietic engraftment, regimen-related toxicity, graft-versus-host disease, transplant-related mortality, leukemia-free survival, and overall survival between the groups.
RESULTS: All patients achieved engraftment with 100% donor chimerism. The median times for the neutrophil and platelet engraftment in the busulfan/fludarabine and modified busulfan/cyclophosphamide groups were 14.1 versus 14.3 days and 12.7 versus 12.2 days, respectively. Significantly lower incidences of pretreatment toxicity, blood transfusion, and virus activation were observed in the busulfan/fludarabine group. Acute grade 1 graft-versus-host-disease developed in all patients, which was successfully controlled with methylprednisolone. There were no significant differences in engraftment, graft-versus-host disease, leukemia-free survival, and overall survival between groups. Both of these conditioning regimens achieved stable engraftment. Regimen-related toxicity in the busulfan/fludarabine group was well tolerated compared with that in the modified busulfan/cyclophosphamide group, without an increase in relapse rate.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that myeloablative busulfan/fludarabine might be a highly effective and low-toxicity alternative for patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

Nemecek ER, Hilger RA, Adams A, et al.
Treosulfan, Fludarabine, and Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation for Children and Young Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndrome Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Prospective Phase II Trial of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2018; 24(8):1651-1656 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
This multicenter study evaluated a treosulfan-based regimen in children and young adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). Forty patients with median age 11 years (range, 1 to 19) underwent allogeneic HCT for AML in first (n = 18), second (n = 11), and third or greater remission (n = 3) or MDS (n = 8) using bone marrow (n = 25), peripheral blood stem cells (n = 5), or cord blood (n = 9). The regimen consisted of body surface area (BSA)-based treosulfan 10 g/m

Kako S, Fujiwara S, Sato M, et al.
Safety and Efficacy of Once-Daily Intravenous Busulfan in Allogeneic Transplantation: A Matched-Pair Analysis.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2018; 24(10):2139-2144 [PubMed] Related Publications
Compared with 4-times-daily infusion of intravenous busulfan (ivBU4), the safety and efficacy of once-daily infusion of ivBU (ivBU1) has not been fully clarified. We have been routinely using ivBU1 in a conditioning regimen in adult patients with myeloid malignancy who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In this study, a total of 91 patients who received ivBU1 for 2 days (n = 18) or 4 days (n = 73) in our institutions were compared with 273 control patients who received ivBU4, who were matched for age, sex, performance status, disease risk, conditioning regimen, and donor type, selected from the database of the Japanese Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation using optimal matching algorithms. One-year overall survival (56.8% versus 57.1%, P = .94), disease-free survival (51.6% versus 50.8%, P = .73), relapse rate (28.5% versus 26.2%, P = .94), nonrelapse mortality (19.9% versus 23.0%, P = .71), and the incidence of graft-versus-host disease were not significantly different between the ivBU1 and ivBU4 groups. In patients who received ivBU1, neutrophil recovery was slower (median days: 22 versus 17, P = .001), and the incidence of veno-occlusive disease was lower (2.6% versus 17.4%, P = .04). In conclusion, ivBU1 can be safely administered with clinical outcomes similar to those with ivBU4.

Scordo M, Morjaria SM, Littmann ER, et al.
Distinctive Infectious Complications in Patients with Central Nervous System Lymphoma Undergoing Thiotepa, Busulfan, and Cyclophosphamide-conditioned Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2018; 24(9):1914-1919 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
We investigated the incidence of viral, fungal, bacterial, and parasitic infections observed in 57 patients with central nervous system lymphoma after thiotepa, busulfan, and cyclophosphamide-conditioned autologous stem cell transplantation (TBC-ASCT) and 79 patients with systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma after traditional carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan-conditioned ASCT (BEAM-ASCT). Twenty of 57 (35%) TBC-ASCT patients had detectable viremia with human herpesvirus 6, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, or BK virus, versus 9 of 79 (11%) BEAM-ASCT patients. Eight TBC-ASCT patients had clinically relevant viral infections (4 human herpesvirus 6, 2 cytomegalovirus, 1 adenovirus, 2 BK virus), versus 0 in the BEAM-ASCT group. Four TBC-ASCT patients suffered infections from either a fungal or parasitic pathogen versus 1 BEAM-ASCT patient. TBC was associated with greater risk of viral reactivation compared with BEAM, independent of other factors (hazard ratio, 4.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 11.3; P < .001). Prolonged lymphopenia and steroid use in the peri- and post-ASCT period did not explain these observed differences. The pathogenesis of these unusual infections in TBC-ASCT patients remains incompletely understood, and may involve more potent immune suppression with TBC conditioning. Clinicians should be aware of these differences in infection risk in TBC-ASCT patients, which more closely parallel those seen in allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients. New prophylactic approaches to help minimize these infections should be considered in this population.

Tang L, Wang N, Xing C, et al.
Effect of absolute monocyte count post-transplant on the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant with busulfan and cyclophosphamide conditioning.
Leuk Res. 2018; 69:60-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peripheral monocytes have recently been evaluated as a prognostic factor in different types of hematological malignancies. This study assessed the prognostic value of absolute monocyte count (AMC) post-transplant on the clinical outcomes of 59 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who had undergone myeloablative conditioning (MAC) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) with busulfan and cyclophosphamide (Bu/Cy). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with a high AMC (≥ 0.57 × 10

Benadiba J, Ansari M, Krajinovic M, et al.
Pharmacokinetics-adapted Busulfan-based myeloablative conditioning before unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation for myeloid malignancies in children.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(4):e0193862 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is an alternative to provide transplants in children with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who lack a related donor. Intravenous Busulfan (Bu) combined with therapeutic drug monitoring-guided dosing has been increasingly used, with more predictable bioavailability and better outcomes comparing to oral Bu. There is still an important variation in Bu pharmacokinetic between patients that is associated with an increased risk of toxicity and graft failure. The objective of the study was to analyze the impact of first-dose pharmacokinetic adapted myeloablative conditioning regimen of intravenous Bu on the different outcomes after transplantation. Data of 36 children who underwent allogeneic HSCT with Bu plus a second alkylating agent at Sainte Justine Hospital in Montreal, Canada, between December 2000 and April 2012 were analyzed. For children with high risk myeloid malignancies receiving an UCBT, first dose Bu pharmacokinetic seems to be a significant prognostic factor, influencing neutrophil (100% vs 67.9%) and platelet recovery (95.5% vs 70.5%), non-relapse mortality (0% vs 18.6%), EFS (64% vs 28.6%) and OS (81.3% vs 37.5%) for a first-dose steady-state concentration (Css) <600ng/mL vs >600ng/mL, respectively. These data reinforce the importance of Busulfan therapeutic drug monitoring-guided dosing in pediatric HSCT patients, particularly in the context of UCBT.

Rakszawski K, Miki K, Claxton D, et al.
Clofarabine followed by haploidentical stem cell transplant using fludarabine, busulfan, and total-body irradiation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide in non-remission AML.
Int J Hematol. 2018; 108(3):348-350 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 30-40% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) experience induction failures. In these patients who do not achieve remission with two cycles of standard induction therapies, the probability of achieving remission with subsequent inductions is very limited. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative option for these patients, but high relapse rate and transplant-related mortality often preclude them to proceed to transplant. Thus, AML not in remission at time of HSCT remains a huge unmet need in current HSCT practice, particularly if the patient does not have an HLA-matched donor identified by the time of two induction failures. We used clofarabine cytoreduction immediately followed by fludarabine (Flu) and busulfan (Bu) × 3 with total-body irradiation (TBI) conditioning (Flu/Bu3/TBI) for haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplant with post-transplant cyclophosphamide for two cases of refractory AML with a very high tumor burden at transplant and achieved complete remission by day + 30 in both cases.

Boga C, Yeral M, Gereklioglu C, et al.
Effects of two doses of anti-T lymphocyte globulin-Fresenius given after full-match sibling stem cell transplantation in acute myeloblastic leukemia patients who underwent myeloablative fludarabine/busulfan conditioning.
Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2018; 11(3):149-157 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Anti-T lymphocyte globulin Fresenius (rATG-F; ATG-Fresenius) and antithymocyte globulin (thymoglobulin), which are included in transplant protocols, are used to reduce the risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) or suppress allograft rejection. Available clinical studies have been conducted in heterogenous patient populations and with different administration protocols including stem cell sources. Additionally, the pharmacokinetics of ATG is variable, and the clinically effective dose of rATG-F, in particular, is not exactly known. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients who underwent hemopoietic peripheral stem cell transplantation from full-matched sibling donors and given two different doses of r-ATG-F.
METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective chart review conducted between July 2005 and July 2016. Sixty-nine consecutive AML patients who underwent transplant with fludarabine- and busulfan-based conditioning were included in the study. Patients in Group 1 received 15 mg/kg body weight rATG-F to 2013 (n = 46), and Group 2 received 30 mg/kg of rATG-F dose begining in 2013 to reduce to cGVHD (n = 23). Cyclosporine and methotrexate were used to treat acute GVHD (aGVHD) prophylaxis. Outcome parameters were compared between the groups.
RESULTS: Although the recommended dose r-ATG-F had led to a decrease in the cumulative incidence of cGVHD (27 [58.7%] vs. 8 [34.8%]; p = .03), it also increased the infection rate at 1 year (3 [6.5%] vs. 4 [17.4%]; p = .02). The two groups were similar in terms of engraftment time, aGVHD, relapse, nonrelapse mortality, and rATG-F-related toxicity. A Cox regression model revealed that aGVHD III-IV was associated with increased nonrelapse mortality at 1 year (hazard ratio = 18.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.667-199.255; p = <.02). No patients developed rATG-F-related severe adverse events (Common Terminology Criteria grade 4 or 5).
CONCLUSION: Dose difference of rATG-F did not influence survival parameters; however, increasing the dose to 30 mg/kg seems to be effective for reducing cGVHD with an increase in infection rate requiring close monitoring of infections in AML patients who received myeloablative fludarabine/busulfan conditioning.

Jung SH, Lee JJ, Kim JS, et al.
Phase 2 Study of an Intravenous Busulfan and Melphalan Conditioning Regimen for Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Multiple Myeloma (KMM150).
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2018; 24(5):923-929 [PubMed] Related Publications
This prospective study evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of intravenous busulfan and melphalan as a conditioning regimen for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). A total of 99 patients with MM, enrolled between January 2013 and March 2016, received intravenous busulfan (9.6 mg/kg) and melphalan (140 mg/m

Abate ME, Paioli A, Cammelli S, et al.
Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease after high-dose intravenous busulfan/melphalan conditioning therapy in high-risk Ewing Sarcoma.
Bone Marrow Transplant. 2018; 53(5):591-599 [PubMed] Related Publications
This mono-institutional observational study was conducted to determine incidence, severity, risk factors, and outcome of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD) in high-risk Ewing sarcoma (ES) patients treated with intravenous busulfan and melphalan (BU-MEL) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). During the past 10 years, 75 consecutive ES patients resulted evaluable for the analysis. After diagnosis of SOS/VOD, defibrotide therapy was started as soon as the medication was available. The variables analyzed as potential risk factors were: gender, patient's age at diagnosis, primary tumor site, disease stage, and prior radiation therapy (RT) given, focusing on RT liver exposure. The median age at diagnosis was 18.8 years. Five patients developed moderate to severe SOS/VOD (cumulative incidence, 6.67%). None of 32 pediatric patients (≤17 years) developed SOS/VOD (p = 0.0674). In univariate analysis, prior RT liver exposure resulted statistically significant (p = 0.0496). There was one death due to severe SOS/VOD. This study reports the largest series of high-risk ES patients treated with intravenous BU-MEL before ASCT. The incidence of SOS/VOD was lower when compared with other studies that used oral busulfan. Any prior RT liver exposure should be avoided. Earlier defibrotide treatment confirms to be effective.

Deeg HJ, Stevens EA, Salit RB, et al.
Transplant Conditioning with Treosulfan/Fludarabine with or without Total Body Irradiation: A Randomized Phase II Trial in Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2018; 24(5):956-963 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this prospective, randomized, phase II "pick the winner" trial we assessed the efficacy of transplant conditioning with treosulfan/fludarabine ± 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) in reducing post-transplant relapse in 100 patients, aged 2 to 70 years (median, 57), with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (n = 51) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 49). Patients received i.v. treosulfan, 14 g/m

Shimoni A, Labopin M, Savani B, et al.
Intravenous Busulfan Compared with Treosulfan-Based Conditioning for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Study on Behalf of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2018; 24(4):751-757 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dose intensity of the conditioning regimen has significant impact on the outcomes after stem cell transplantation (SCT) for acute myeloid leukemia. Most studies have shown more relapse, less nonrelapse mortality (NRM), and similar overall survival after reduced-intensity and myeloablative conditioning. There are limited data on the dose equivalence and expected outcomes of treosulfan-based compared with busulfan-based conditioning. We compared SCT outcomes after fludarabine with either intravenous busulfan at a myeloablative dose (FB4, 12.8 mg/kg, n = 1265) or a reduced dose (FB2, 6.4 mg/kg, n = 1456) or treosulfan at 42 g/m

Kebriaei P, Anasetti C, Zhang MJ, et al.
Intravenous Busulfan Compared with Total Body Irradiation Pretransplant Conditioning for Adults with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2018; 24(4):726-733 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Total body irradiation (TBI) has been included in standard conditioning for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Non-TBI regimens have incorporated busulfan (Bu) to decrease toxicity. This retrospective study analyzed TBI and Bu on outcomes of ALL patients 18-60 years old, in first or second complete remission (CR), undergoing HLA-compatible sibling, related, or unrelated donor HCT, who reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research from 2005 to 2014. TBI plus etoposide (25%) or cyclophosphamide (75%) was used in 819 patients, and intravenous Bu plus fludarabine (41%), clofarabine (30%), cyclophosphamide (15%), or melphalan (13%) was used in 299 patients. Bu-containing regimens were analyzed together, since no significant differences for patient outcomes were noted between them. Bu patients were older, with better performance status; took longer to achieve first CR and receive HCT; were treated more recently; and were more likely to receive peripheral blood grafts, antithymocyte globulin, or tyrosine kinase inhibitors. With median follow-up of 3.6 years for Bu and 5.3 years for TBI, adjusted 3-year outcomes showed treatment-related mortality Bu 19% versus TBI 25% (P = .04); relapse Bu 37% versus TBI 28% (P = .007); disease-free survival (DFS) Bu 45% versus TBI 48% (P = .35); and overall survival (OS) Bu 57% versus TBI 53% (P = .35). In multivariate analysis, Bu patients had higher risk of relapse (relative risk, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.15 to 1.85; P = .002) compared with TBI patients. Despite the higher relapse, Bu-containing conditioning led to similar OS and DFS following HCT for ALL.

Jain R, Gupta K, Bhatia A, et al.
Hepatic Sinusoidal-obstruction Syndrome and Busulfan-induced Lung Injury in a Post-autologous Stem Cell Transplant Recipient.
Indian Pediatr. 2017; 54(9):765-770 [PubMed] Related Publications
Veno-occlusive disease of the liver is mostly encountered as a complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with myeloablative regimens with an incidence estimated to be 13.7%. It is clinically characterized by tender hepatomegaly, jaundice, weight gain and ascites. Strong clinical suspicion and an early recognition of clinical signs are essential to establish the diagnosis and institute effective regimen. Another complication of cytotoxic drugs given for cancers, is development of busulfan-induced lung injury. A strong index of suspicion is needed for its diagnosis, especially in setting where opportunistic fungal and viral infections manifest similarly. We illustrate the clinical and autopsy finings in a 2½-year-old boy who received autologous stem-cell transplantation following resection of stage IV neuroblastoma. He subsequently developed both hepatic veno-occlusive disease and busulfan-induced lung injury. The autopsy findings are remarkable for their rarity.

Le Bourgeois A, Labopin M, Blaise D, et al.
Reduced-intensity versus reduced-toxicity myeloablative fludarabine/busulfan-based conditioning regimens for allografted non-Hodgkin lymphoma adult patients: a retrospective study on behalf of the Société Francophone de Greffe de Moelle et de Thérapie Cellulaire.
Ann Oncol. 2017; 28(9):2191-2198 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Fludarabine/busulfan-based conditioning regimens are widely used to perform allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (allo-SCT) in high-risk non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients. The impact of the dose intensity of busulfan on outcomes has not been reported yet.
Patients and methods: This was a retrospective with the aim to compare the outcomes of NHL patients who received before allo-SCT a fludarabine/busulfan conditioning regimen, either of reduced intensity (FB2, 2 days of busulfan at 4 mg/kg/day oral or 3.2 mg/kg/day i.v.) (n = 277) or at a myeloablative reduced-toxicity dose (FB3/FB4, 3 or 4 days of busulfan at 4 mg/kg/day oral or 3.2 mg/kg/day i.v.) (n = 101).
Results: In univariate analysis, the 2-year overall survival (FB2 66.5% versus 60.3%, P = 0.33), lymphoma-free survival (FB2 57.9% versus 49.8%, P = 0.26), and non-relapse mortality (FB2 19% versus 21.1%, P = 0.91) were similar between both groups. Cumulative incidence of grade III-IV acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) (FB2 11.2% versus 18%, P = 0.08), extensive chronic GVHD (FB2: 17.3% versus 10.7%, P = 0.18) and 2-year GVHD free-relapse free survival (FB2: 44.4% versus 42.8%, P = 0.38) were also comparable. In multivariate analysis there was a trend for a worse outcome using FB3/FB4 regimens (overall survival: HR 1.47, 95% CI: 0.96-2.24, P = 0.08; lymphoma-free survival: HR: 1.43, 95% CI: 0.99-2.06, P = 0.05; relapse incidence: HR 1.54; 95% CI: 0.96-2.48, P = 0.07). These results were confirmed using a propensity score-matching strategy.
Conclusion: We conclude that reduced toxicity myeloablative conditioning with fludarabine/busulfan does not improve the outcomes compared with reduced-intensity conditioning in adults receiving allo-SCT for NHL.

Kawamura K, Kako S, Mizuta S, et al.
Comparison of Conditioning with Fludarabine/Busulfan and Fludarabine/Melphalan in Allogeneic Transplantation Recipients 50 Years or Older.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2017; 23(12):2079-2087 [PubMed] Related Publications
The optimal conditioning regimen for elderly patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) remains unclear. We retrospectively analyzed 1607 patients aged 50 years or older with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who underwent allo-HCT using fludarabine/busulfan (FB) or fludarabine/melphalan (FM) between 2007 and 2014. We compared the clinical outcomes among FB2 (busulfan at 6.4 mg/kg iv, n = 463), FB4 (busulfan at 12.8 mg/kg iv, n = 721), and FM140 (melphalan at 140 mg/m

Sweiss K, Quigley JG, Oh A, et al.
A novel drug interaction between busulfan and blinatumomab.
J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2019; 25(1):226-228 [PubMed] Related Publications
Busulfan is an alkylating agent used in pre-transplant conditioning for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Several factors contribute to variations in busulfan drug disposition including bioavailability, age, liver function, genetic polymorphisms, and concurrent administration of other drugs. Busulfan is metabolized by hepatic oxidation via the cytochrome P450 3A4 system as well as through conjugation with glutathione. Interactions with drugs such as phenytoin, itraconazole, and metronidazole have been reported to alter busulfan clearance and result in sub- or supra-therapeutic concentrations. We report a case of a clinically significant drug interaction between intravenous busulfan and the bifunctional T-cell engager, blinatumomab, observed through busulfan therapeutic drug monitoring. We found that busulfan clearance was reduced resulting in a higher area under the concentration-time curve when it was administered 48 h after blinatumomab. Repeat busulfan pharmacokinetic testing two weeks later demonstrated increased clearance of the drug and a 31% higher dose recommendation. Similar to other protein therapeutics, cytokine elevations during blinatumomab treatment can lead to cytochrome 3A4 suppression. We hypothesize that the increased busulfan levels observed could be related to a cytokine-mediated CYP3A4 suppression. This represents a unique pharmacologic consideration in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation which would impact several drugs that undergo CYP3A4 metabolism, including calcineurin inhibitors, cyclophosphamide, sirolimus, and triazole antifungals. Additionally, this mechanism of CYP3A4 suppression may be relevant in treatments and disease states where cytokine levels are elevated such as haploidentical stem cell transplantation, graft-versus-host disease, and use of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy.

Talleur AC, Triplett BM, Federico S, et al.
Consolidation Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Patients with High-Risk Neuroblastoma Using Busulfan/Melphalan, Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Anti-GD2 Antibody, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor, Interleukin-2, and Haploidentical Natural Killer Cells.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2017; 23(11):1910-1917 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
The treatment of pediatric high-risk neuroblastoma is intensive and multimodal. Despite the introduction of immunotherapy for minimal residual disease, survival rates remain suboptimal and new therapies are needed. As part of a phase 2 trial, we are using a consolidation therapy regimen that combines a busulfan/melphalan conditioning schema, autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT), and experimental immunotherapy with hu14.18K322A (a humanized anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-2, with or without the adoptive transfer of haploidentical natural killer cells (NKs). Here we report on 30 patients who have undergone AHCT with this experimental immunotherapy regimen, 21 of whom received haploidentical NKs. The median time to neutrophil engraftment was 13 days (range, 10 to 28 days) and to platelet engraftment of at least 20  ×  103/mm

Shimoni A, Vago L, Bernardi M, et al.
Missing HLA C group 1 ligand in patients with AML and MDS is associated with reduced risk of relapse and better survival after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with fludarabine and treosulfan reduced toxicity conditioning.
Am J Hematol. 2017; 92(10):1011-1019 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reduced-toxicity conditioning with fludarabine and treosulfan is a dose-intensive regimen with enhanced anti-leukemia effect and acceptable toxicity in AML/MDS. HLA-C regulates natural-killer (NK) cell function by inhibiting Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and is divided into C1 and C2 epitopes. The missing-ligand theory suggests that missing recipient KIR ligands drives NK-alloreactivity after SCT, in the absence of HLA-mismatch by activating unlicensed donor NK cells. We analyzed SCT outcomes in 203 patients with AML/MDS, median age 58 years, given SCT from matched-siblings (n = 97) or matched-unrelated donors (n = 106), using two treosulfan doses (total 36 or 42 g/m

Lee KH, Lee JH, Lee JH, et al.
Reduced-Intensity Conditioning with Busulfan, Fludarabine, and Antithymocyte Globulin for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation from Unrelated or Haploidentical Family Donors in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2017; 23(9):1555-1566 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the role of antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-containing reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from unrelated (UD) or haploidentical family donors (HFD), we conducted a phase 2 trial of 237 patients (age range, 16 to 69 years) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in remission. Patients undergoing UD-HCT (n = 93) or HFD-HCT (n = 59) received RIC comprising busulfan, fludarabine, and ATG, 9 mg/kg, whereas those undergoing HCT from matched sibling donors (MSD, n = 85) received myeloablative busulfan and cyclophosphamide conditioning or aforementioned RIC with ATG, 4.5 mg/kg. For graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, cyclosporine and methotrexate were administered. The median follow-up period was 44.7 months after HCT for 161 survivors. For UD-HCT versus HFD-HCT, there were no significant differences in leukemia recurrence, nonrelapse mortality, relapse-free survival, grades 2 to 4 acute GVHD, and moderate-to-severe chronic GVHD. Furthermore, when the outcomes of UD-HCT and HFD-HCT were combined and compared with those of MSD-HCT, there were no significant differences in leukemia recurrence (3-year cumulative incidence, 30% versus 29%), nonrelapse mortality (3-year cumulative incidence, 7% versus 8%), relapse-free survival (3-year estimate, 63% versus 63%), and grades 2 to 4 acute GVHD (120-day cumulative incidence, 16% versus 13%). Moderate-to-severe chronic GVHD, however, occurred less frequently in UD/HFD-HCT (2-year cumulative incidence, 22% versus 40%; P = .006). The addition of ATG to conditioning regimen was a significant predictor for less chronic GVHD (subdistribution hazard ratio, .59). In AML in remission, UD/HFD-HCT after ATG-containing RIC achieved leukemia control equivalent to that of MSD-HCT. Despite HLA disparity in UD/HFD-HCT, chronic GVHD occurred less frequently after ATG-containing RIC, suggesting a strong GVHD-modulating effect of ATG.

Nieto Y, Valdez BC, Pingali SR, et al.
High-dose gemcitabine, busulfan, and melphalan for autologous stem-cell transplant in patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma: a phase 2 trial and matched-pair comparison with melphalan.
Lancet Haematol. 2017; 4(6):e283-e292 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High-dose melphalan is of little benefit as a regimen for patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma undergoing an autologous stem-cell transplant (ASCT). The poor performance of single-agent melphalan in this setting prompted us to study a new high-dose combination of infused gemcitabine, busulfan, and melphalan.
METHODS: We did a phase 2 trial at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, USA). We enrolled patients with primary refractory or relapsed myeloma who had received treatment with bortezomib, an immunomodulatory drug, or both, or who were receiving a salvage ASCT. Gemcitabine was infused at 1875 mg/m
FINDINGS: Between Nov 30, 2010, and Dec 11, 2013, we enrolled 74 patients into the gemcitabine, busulfan, and melphalan trial. In these patients, median age was 58 years (IQR 51-62), median number of previous lines of therapy was two (2-5), 38 patients had high-risk cytogenetics, 17 were unresponsive to all previous treatments, and 32 were receiving a salvage ASCT. We identified 184 patients for the concurrent control cohort. The study patients and the concurrent controls received similar post-ASCT maintenance. Among patients with measurable disease at ASCT, 16 of 65 patients (24·6%, 95% CI 14·2-35·0) in the gemcitabine, busulfan, and melphalan group had stringent complete remission compared with 22 of 174 patients (12·6%, 10·1-15·1) in the concurrent control group (p=0·040). Median follow-up time was 36 months (IQR 30-46) in the patients receiving gemcitabine, busulfan, and melphalan and 34 months (25-53) in the matched control subset (n=111). With respect to the secondary survival endpoints, the gemcitabine, busulfan, and melphalan cohort had significantly longer median progression-free survival than the matched control cohort (15·1 months [95% CI 8·7-22·1] vs 9·3 months [8·0-10·7]) with a significantly reduced risk of progression or death (HR 0·55, 95% CI 0·38-0·81, log-rank p=0·030), as well as significantly longer median overall survival (37·5 months [26-not reached] vs 23·0 months [16·6-30·5]) and a lower risk of death (HR 0·60, 0·34-0·84, log-rank p=0·0092). For only the patients treated with gemcitabine, busulfan, and melphalan, grade 3 or worse adverse events included grade 3 mucositis (12 patients), grade 3 dermatitis (five patients), grade 3 aminotransferase elevation (seven patients), grade 3 diarrhoea (two patients), and three treatment-related deaths. One death was cardiac sudden death and two were due to sepsis.
INTERPRETATION: Gemcitabine, busulfan, and melphalan is a comparatively safe and active regimen for ASCT in patients with refractory or relapsed myeloma. Better outcomes were achieved in patients who received this regimen than in a concurrent matched cohort receiving melphalan, although this will need to be confirmed in a prospective, randomised trial.
FUNDING: Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization and US National Cancer Institute.

Yu SC, Huang HH, Li CC, et al.
Cervical Papanicolaou Smears in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients: High Prevalence of Therapy-Related Atypia during the Acute Phase.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2017; 23(8):1367-1373 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients have a higher risk of cervical cancer. Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is the standard tool for screening cervical cancer, but there is limited research about the cervical cytology in HSCT recipients. Here, we retrospectively included adult female patients who underwent allogeneic or autologous HSCT at National Taiwan University Hospital during 2009 to 2015 and reviewed their Pap smears before and after HSCT. There were 248 allogeneic and 131 autologous HSCT recipients in our study. In allogeneic HSCT recipients, 38.7% (96 of 248) had pre-HSCT Pap smears and 17.1% (44 of 248) had post-HSCT Pap smears. In the autologous HSCT recipients, 35.1% (46 of 131) had pre-HSCT Pap smears and 13.7% (18 of 131) had post-HSCT Pap smears. Compared with allogeneic HSCT recipients without post-HSCT Pap smears, more recipients with post-HSCT Pap smears received bone marrow-derived stem cells (18.2% versus 4.9% respectively; P = .0077) and had longer overall survival (median overall survival, not reached versus 22.1 months; P < .0001). The abnormal rates of post-HSCT Pap smear were 13% (6 of 44) and 11% (2 of 18) in allogeneic and autologous recipients respectively, higher than in the general Taiwanese population (1.22%). Infections were rare in post-HSCT Pap smears. Of note, 11% (5 of 44) of post-HSCT Pap smears from allogeneic recipients showed therapy-related atypia, manifesting as enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei, vacuolated cytoplasm, and occasional tadpole-like cells. These atypical cytological features mimic precancerous lesions, but cervical biopsies and human papilloma virus tests were negative. The atypical cytological features resolved spontaneously in the subsequent follow-up Pap smears. On average, Pap smears with therapy-related atypia were sampled at day +77, significantly earlier than those without therapy-related atypia (P = .016). Therapy-related atypia was more frequent in post-HSCT Pap smears sampled within 100 days after HSCT (before day +100, 4 of 5, 80%, versus after day +100, 1 of 39, 2.56%; P = .0002). The strong temporal relationship suggests these atypical cytological changes resulted from conditioning regimen, most likely busulfan-containing chemotherapy. No therapy-related atypia were observed after total body irradiation or nonbusulfan-containing chemotherapy. In conclusion, therapy-related atypia was common in post-HSCT Pap smears sampled within 100 days after HSCT. Clinical information is critical for correct cytological diagnosis.

Rhee SJ, Lee JW, Yu KS, et al.
Pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can greatly benefit from a novel once-daily intravenous busulfan dosing nomogram.
Am J Hematol. 2017; 92(7):607-613 [PubMed] Related Publications
Busulfan, a bifunctional alkylating agent, has been used as a conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of this study was to derive a novel once-daily intravenous (IV) busulfan dosing nomogram for pediatric patients undergoing HSCT using a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model. A population PK analysis was performed using 2183 busulfan concentrations in 137 pediatric patients (age: 0.6-22.2 years), who received IV busulfan once-daily for 4 days before undergoing HSCT. Based on the final population PK model, an optimal once-daily IV busulfan dosing nomogram was derived. The percentage of simulated patients achieving the daily target area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) by the new nomogram was compared with that by other busulfan dosing regimens including the FDA regimen, the EMA regimen, and the empirical once-daily regimen without therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). A one-compartment open linear PK model incorporating patient's body surface area, age, dosing day, and aspartate aminotransferase as a significant covariate adequately described the concentration-time profiles of busulfan. An optimal dosing nomogram based on the PK model performed significantly better than the other dosing regimens, resulting in >60% of patients achieving the target AUC while the percentage of patients exceeding the toxic AUC level was kept <25% during the entire treatment period. A novel once-daily busulfan dosing nomogram for pediatric patients undergoing HSCT is useful for clinicians, particularly in a setting where TDM service is not readily available or to optimize the dose on day 1.

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