Mantle Cell Lymphoma

Overview

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a B-cell lymphoma recognised in the Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL) classification, 1994. MCL accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. It is characterised by a t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation which juxtaposes the bcl-1 locus to the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene sequences and leads to deregulation of cyclin D1. Deletion of the ATM gene (11q22) is frequent in MCL.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • MLL2
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Chromosome 11
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Cyclin D1
  • Immunophenotyping
  • FISH
  • Translocation
  • Base Sequence
  • ATM
  • Neprilysin
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Deletion
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Insertional Mutagenesis
  • CCND1
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Tetraspanins
  • Mantle-Cell Lymphoma
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • CCND2
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • p53 Protein
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • EZH2
  • Trisomy
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Survival Rate
  • Chromosome 14
  • Mutation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Cancer DNA
  • Recurrence
  • VDJ Recombinases
  • Apoptosis
  • BIRC3
  • Triterpenes
  • Messenger RNA
  • Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
  • beta 2-Microglobulin
  • B-Lymphocytes
Tag cloud generated 10 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression (12)

How to use this data tableClicking on the Gene or Topic will take you to a separate more detailed page. Sort this list by clicking on a column heading e.g. 'Gene' or 'Topic'.

GeneLocationAliasesNotesTopicPapers
CCND1 11q13.3 BCL1, PRAD1, U21B31, D11S287E Translocation
-t(11;14)(q13;q32) in Mantle Cell Lymphoma
-CCND1 mutations in Mantle Cell Lymphoma
433
IGH 14q32.33 IGD1, IGH@, IGHJ, IGHV, IGHD@, IGHJ@, IGHV@, IGH.1@, IGHDY1 Translocation
-t(11;14)(q13;q32) in Mantle Cell Lymphoma
-IGH and Mantle-Cell Lymphoma
433
ATM 11q22.3 AT1, ATA, ATC, ATD, ATE, ATDC, TEL1, TELO1 GWS
-ATM deletions in Mantle-Cell Lymphoma
51
TP53 17p13.1 P53, BCC7, LFS1, TRP53 GWS
-TP53 mutations in Mantle Cell Lymphoma
42
SOX11 2p25 MRD27 Overexpression
Prognostic
-SOX11 and Mantle-Cell Lymphoma
25
CCND2 12p13 MPPH3, KIAK0002 -CCND2 and Mantle-Cell Lymphoma
14
CCND3 6p21 -CCND3 and Mantle-Cell Lymphoma
9
BIRC3 11q22.2 AIP1, API2, MIHC, CIAP2, HAIP1, HIAP1, MALT2, RNF49, c-IAP2 GWS
-BIRC3 mutation in Mantle Cell Lymphoma
3
CD200 3q13.2 MRC, MOX1, MOX2, OX-2 -CD200 and Mantle-Cell Lymphoma
3
EZH2 7q35-q36 WVS, ENX1, EZH1, KMT6, WVS2, ENX-1, EZH2b, KMT6A Overexpression
Prognostic
Epigenetics
-EZH2 overexpression in Mantel Cell Lymphoma
3
KMT2D 12q13.12 ALR, KMS, MLL2, MLL4, AAD10, KABUK1, TNRC21, CAGL114 GWS
-MLL2 mutations in Mantle cell lymphoma
2
WHSC1 4p16.3 WHS, NSD2, TRX5, MMSET, REIIBP GWS
-WHSC1 mutations in Mantle Cell Lymphoma
2

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

GWS - Genome/Exome Wide Study, large-scale/significant (selected):
Beà S et al. Landscape of somatic mutations and clonal evolution in mantle cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110(45):18250-5

Recurrent Structural Abnormalities

Selected list of common recurrent structural abnormalities

Abnormality Type Gene(s)
t(11;14)(q13;q32) in Mantle Cell LymphomaTranslocationCCND1 (11q13.3)IGH (14q32.33)

This is a highly selective list aiming to capture structural abnormalies which are frequesnt and/or significant in relation to diagnosis, prognosis, and/or characterising specific cancers. For a much more extensive list see the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer.

Latest Publications

Miao Y, Lin P, Wang W, et al.
CCND1-IGH Fusion-Amplification and MYC Copy Number Gain in a Case of Pleomorphic Variant Mantle Cell Lymphoma.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2016; 146(6):747-752 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) may present de novo or undergo progression to a clinically aggressive variant, known as a blastoid or pleomorphic variant. We report an unusual case of classic MCL in a 78-year-old man with a typical immunophenotype, including CD5 positivity, who subsequently relapsed with CD5-negative pleomorphic variant MCL.
METHODS: Biopsy specimens were evaluated using Wright-Giemsa-stained or H&E-stained sections, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, conventional cytogenetic, next-generation sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization.
RESULTS: The patient continued to be refractory to intensive chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Initial conventional cytogenetic analysis showed a complex karyotype with amplification of the CCND1-IGH fusion gene on the der(14): 44, Y, t(X;2)(p22.3;q21), del(2)(p21), del(6)(p23), add(7)(p22),-9, del(9)(p22), add(11)(q13),-13, add(14)(p11.2), der(14)t(11;14)(q13;q32)hsr(14)(q32), add(18)(q23), add(21)(p11.1),-22,+mar[12]. A repeat biopsy revealed MCL, pleomorphic variant, with loss of CD5 expression and extra copies of the MYC CONCLUSIONS: CCND1-IGH fusion-amplification with MYC copy number gain is extremely rare and may play a role in disease progression in a subset of MCL cases.

Gallo M, Cacheux V, Vincent L, et al.
Leukemic non-nodal mantle cell lymphomas have a distinct phenotype and are associated with deletion of PARP1 and 13q14.
Virchows Arch. 2016; 469(6):697-706 [PubMed] Related Publications
Leukemic non-nodal mantle cell lymphoma (lMCL) is a particular subtype of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), characterized by leukemic non-nodal disease and slow progression. Recognition of this entity is relevant to avoid overtreatment. Despite indolent clinical behaviour, lMCL might transform to a more aggressive disease. The purpose of this study was to compare lMCL with classical MCL (cMCL) and aggressive MCL (aMCL) using immunohistochemistry, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and array-based comparative genomic hybridization, in order to identify biomarkers for lMCL diagnosis and prognosis. Seven lMCL patients were included. All had bone marrow involvement without lymphadenopathy. An lMCL phenotype was distinct from that of cMCL and aMCL: SOX11-, ATM+, PARP1+/-, and low KI67 (average 2 %). Beyond the t(11;14) translocation, fewer secondary cytogenetic alterations were found in lMCL compared to cMCL and aMCL, including deletion of PARP1 and 13q14. At last follow-up, one patient with lMCL had died of disease and another had progressive disease. These patients were respectively 13q14 deletion- and PARP1-positive. One other case of lMCL harbored a 13q14 deletion associated with PARP1 deletion. This patient had indolent disease. lMCL has a particular phenotype and fewer secondary cytogenetic alterations than cMCL and aMCL. PARP1 protein expression and 13q14 deletion are associated with a progressive clinical course of lMCL and should be included in initial diagnostic studies as predictors of unfavorable outcome. PARP1 deletion is involved in lMCL pathogenesis and might confer advantage.

Chen R, Sanchez J, Rosen ST
Clinical Management Updates in Mantle Cell Lymphoma.
Oncology (Williston Park). 2016; 30(4):353-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is often considered incurable. Different clinical and biological biomarkers can be utilized to categorize this lymphoma into various risk levels. Several randomized trials reported in 2015 shed light on the optimal induction therapy. Recent advances include: (1) identification of new pathways to target, (2) novel therapeutics to treat patients with relapsed/refractory disease, and (3) monitoring of minimal residual disease and adoption of a maintenance therapy approach to prevent relapses post induction or post stem cell transplantation. Due to the efforts of translational/clinical research, the overall survival of patients with mantle cell lymphoma has increased and should continue to improve.

Masamha CP, Albrecht TR, Wagner EJ
Discovery and characterization of a novel CCND1/MRCK gene fusion in mantle cell lymphoma.
J Hematol Oncol. 2016; 9:30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The t(11;14) translocation resulting in constitutive cyclin D1 expression is an early event in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) transformation. Patients with a highly proliferative phenotype produce cyclin D1 transcripts with truncated 3'UTRs that evade miRNA regulation. Here, we report the recurrence of a novel gene fusion in MCL cell lines and MCL patient isolates that consists of the full protein coding region of cyclin D1 (CCND1) and a 3'UTR consisting of sequences from both the CCND1 3'UTR and myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42-binding kinase's (MRCK) intron one. The resulting CCND1/MRCK mRNA is resistant to CCND1-targeted miRNA regulation, and targeting the MRCK region of the chimeric 3'UTR with siRNA results in decreased CCND1 levels.

Roisman A, Huamán Garaicoa F, Metrebian F, et al.
SOXC and MiR17-92 gene expression profiling defines two subgroups with different clinical outcome in mantle cell lymphoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(6):531-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a heterogeneous B-cell lymphoid malignancy where most patients follow an aggressive clinical course whereas others are associated with an indolent performance. SOX4, SOX11, and SOX12 belong to SOXC family of transcription factors involved in embryonic neurogenesis and tissue remodeling. Among them, SOX11 has been found aberrantly expressed in most aggressive MCL patients, being considered a reliable biomarker in the pathology. Several studies have revealed that microRNAs (miRs) from the miR-17-92 cluster are among the most deregulated miRNAs in human cancers, still little is known about this cluster in MCL. In this study we screened the transcriptional profiles of 70 MCL patients for SOXC cluster and miR17, miR18a, miR19b and miR92a, from the miR-17-92 cluster. Gene expression analysis showed higher SOX11 and SOX12 levels compared to SOX4 (P ≤ 0.0026). Moreover we found a negative correlation between the expression of SOX11 and SOX4 (P < 0.0001). miR17-92 cluster analysis showed that miR19b and miR92a exhibited higher levels than miR17 and miR18a (P < 0.0001). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering revealed two subgroups with significant differences in relation to aggressive MCL features, such as blastoid morphological variant (P = 0.0412), nodal presentation (P = 0.0492), CD5(+) (P = 0.0004) and shorter overall survival (P < 0.0001). Together, our findings show for the first time an association between the differential expression profiles of SOXC and miR17-92 clusters in MCL and also relate them to different clinical subtypes of the disease adding new biological information that may contribute to a better understanding of this pathology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Panero J, Alves-Paiva RM, Roisman A, et al.
Acquired TERT promoter mutations stimulate TERT transcription in mantle cell lymphoma.
Am J Hematol. 2016; 91(5):481-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive lymphoid neoplasm with poor prognosis. Acquired telomerase reverse transcriptase gene promoter (TERTp) mutations are among the most frequent somatic non-coding mutations in cancers. In this study, the prevalence of TERTp mutations in 24 MCL and 21 other lymphoid neoplasias (oLN) was investigated. Eight MCL samples (33%) carried TERTp mutations, two homozygous and six heterozygous (seven C228T and one C250T), which directly correlated with higher TERT transcription, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and IGHV mutational status in MCL neoplastic cells. TERTp mutations were not found in oLN. TERTp mutations correlated with more lymphoma proliferation and tumor burden, as suggested by the higher number of lymphoma cells circulating in peripheral blood, and tended to associate with longer MCL telomeres, especially in homozygous mutants, although not statistically significant. Telomere-biology genes were overexpressed in MCL cells in comparison to healthy lymphocytes, but were not influenced by mutation status. The findings described for the first time that acquired TERTp mutations are common in MCL but not in other lymphoid neoplasms. It was also demonstrated that TERTp mutations are associated with higher TERT mRNA expression in MCL cells in vivo and higher tumor burden, suggesting these mutations as a driver event in MCL development and progression.

Zhu J, Wu Z, Fan L, et al.
[Clinical significance of detecting t(11;14) by fluorescence in situ hybridization for the diagnosis of 7 patients with atypical mantle cell lymphoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2016; 33(1):13-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features and diagnosis of 7 patients with atypical mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).
METHODS: The 7 MCL patients were misdiagnosed as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) due to a score of 4 for their immunophenotypes. The clinical features and diagnosis of such patients were retrospectively analyzed.
RESULTS: Six patients had superficial lymphadenectasis but their lymph nodes could not be palpated. All 7 patients were as stage IV considering bone marrow infiltration. Scores of immunophenotype of CLL were 4, and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for t(11;14) were positive in all patients.
CONCLUSION: Some MCL patients have clinical features similar to CLL. Interphase FISH can play an important role in the diagnosis of MCL.

Markozashvili D, Pichugin A, Barat A, et al.
Histone deacetylase inhibitor abexinostat affects chromatin organization and gene transcription in normal B cells and in mantle cell lymphoma.
Gene. 2016; 580(2):134-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare lymphoma caused by the t(11:14) juxtaposing the cyclin D1 (CCND1) locus on chromosome 11 and the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus on chromosome 14. Several new treatments are proposed for MCL, including histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). We have studied gene expression and chromatin organization in the translocated 11q13 locus in MCL cells as compared to lymphoblastoid cell lines as well as the effect of HDACi abexinostat on chromatin organization and gene expression in the 11q13 locus. We have identified a cluster of genes overexpressed in the translocation region on chromosome 11 in MCL cells. Abexinostat provokes a genome-wide disaggregation of heterochromatin. The genes upregulated after the t(11;14) translocation react to the HDACi treatment by increasing their expression, but their gene promoters do not show significant alterations in H3K9Ac and H3K9me2 levels in abexinostat-treated cells.

Martin P, Maddocks K, Leonard JP, et al.
Postibrutinib outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2016; 127(12):1559-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite unprecedented clinical activity in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), primary and acquired resistance to ibrutinib is common. The outcomes and ideal management of patients who experience ibrutinib failure are unclear. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients with MCL who experienced disease progression while receiving ibrutinib across 15 international sites. Medical records were evaluated for clinical characteristics, pathological and radiological data, and therapies used pre- and postibrutinib. A total of 114 subjects met eligibility criteria. The median number of prior therapies was 3 (range, 0-10). The Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (MIPI) scores at the start of ibrutinib were low, intermediate, and high in 46%, 31%, and 23% of patients, respectively. Of patients with available data prior to ibrutinib and postibrutinib, 34 of 47 and 11 of 12 had a Ki67 >30%. The median time on ibrutinib was 4.7 months (range 0.7-43.6). The median overall survival (OS) following cessation of ibrutinib was 2.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-4.9). Of the 104 patients with data available, 73 underwent subsequent treatment an average of 0.3 months after stopping ibrutinib with a median OS of 5.8 months (95% CI, 3.7-10.4). Multivariate Cox regression analysis of MIPI before postibrutinib treatment, and subsequent treatment with bendamustine, cytarabine, or lenalidomide failed to reveal any association with OS. Poor clinical outcomes were noted in the majority of patients with primary or secondary ibrutinib resistance. We could not identify treatments that clearly improved outcomes. Future trials should focus on understanding the mechanisms of ibrutinib resistance and on treatment after ibrutinib.

Di Martino S, Catapano O, Siesto SR, et al.
Quantitative PCR detection of t(11;14) bcl-1/JH in mantle cell lymphoma patients: comparison of peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate samples.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 19(24):4801-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) featured by participation of the lymph nodes, spleen, blood and bone marrow with a short remission period to standard therapies and a median overall survival of 4-5 years.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, we compare the levels of bcl-1/JH fusion products detected by q-PCR in the concurrent peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) aspirate samples from 7 patients with MCL.
RESULTS: In patients with moderate to high levels of bcl-1/JH copies, the results of q-PCR analysis of PB and BM aspirate samples correlate well. In patients with high levels of bcl-1/JH copies, instead, PB levels are a good indication of tumor burden. Finally, in patients with low levels of bcl-1/JH copies, the t(11;14) may be detected by identification of neoplastic cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that PB can be reliably used in place of BM aspirate both for detection of translocation status during minimal residual disease monitoring and for a possible molecular relapse, especially in those patients who have moderate to high levels of bcl-1/JH copies. If these results will be confirmed on a wider number of MCL patients, future study will be required to address the issue.

Cheminant M, Derrieux C, Touzart A, et al.
Minimal residual disease monitoring by 8-color flow cytometry in mantle cell lymphoma: an EU-MCL and LYSA study.
Haematologica. 2016; 101(3):336-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Quantification of minimal residual disease may guide therapeutic strategies in mantle cell lymphoma. While multiparameter flow cytometry is used for diagnosis, the gold standard method for minimal residual disease analysis is real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). In this European Mantle Cell Lymphoma network (EU-MCL) pilot study, we compared flow cytometry with RQ-PCR for minimal residual disease detection. Of 113 patients with at least one minimal residual disease sample, RQ-PCR was applicable in 97 (86%). A total of 284 minimal residual disease samples from 61 patients were analyzed in parallel by flow cytometry and RQ-PCR. A single, 8-color, 10-antibody flow cytometry tube allowed specific minimal residual disease assessment in all patients, with a robust sensitivity of 0.01%. Using this cut-off level, the true-positive-rate of flow cytometry with respect to RQ-PCR was 80%, whereas the true-negative-rate was 92%. As expected, RQ-PCR frequently detected positivity below this 0.01% threshold, which is insufficiently sensitive for prognostic evaluation and would ideally be replaced with robust quantification down to a 0.001% (10-5) threshold. In 10 relapsing patients, the transition from negative to positive by RQ-PCR (median 22.5 months before relapse) nearly always preceded transition by flow cytometry (4.5 months), but transition to RQ-PCR positivity above 0.01% (5 months) was simultaneous. Pre-emptive rituximab treatment of 2 patients at minimal residual disease relapse allowed re-establishment of molecular and phenotypic complete remission. Flow cytometry minimal residual disease is a complementary approach to RQ-PCR and a promising tool in individual mantle cell lymphoma therapeutic management. (clinicaltrials identifiers: 00209209 and 00209222).

Weinstein S, Toker IA, Emmanuel R, et al.
Harnessing RNAi-based nanomedicines for therapeutic gene silencing in B-cell malignancies.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(1):E16-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite progress in systemic small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery to the liver and to solid tumors, systemic siRNA delivery to leukocytes remains challenging. The ability to silence gene expression in leukocytes has great potential for identifying drug targets and for RNAi-based therapy for leukocyte diseases. However, both normal and malignant leukocytes are among the most difficult targets for siRNA delivery as they are resistant to conventional transfection reagents and are dispersed in the body. We used mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) as a prototypic blood cancer for validating a novel siRNA delivery strategy. MCL is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma that overexpresses cyclin D1 with relatively poor prognosis. Down-regulation of cyclin D1 using RNA interference (RNAi) is a potential therapeutic approach to this malignancy. Here, we designed lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) coated with anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies that are specifically taken up by human MCL cells in the bone marrow of xenografted mice. When loaded with siRNAs against cyclin D1, CD38-targeted LNPs induced gene silencing in MCL cells and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice with no observed adverse effects. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of cyclin D1 therapy in MCL and present a novel RNAi delivery system that opens new therapeutic opportunities for treating MCL and other B-cell malignancies.

El Halabi L, Ghez D, Ribrag V
Novel targeted therapeutics for mantle cell lymphoma--what's on the horizon?
Expert Rev Hematol. 2016; 9(3):271-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Major advances have significantly improved the outcome of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Incorporation of rituximab to CHOP regimen, the adoption of high dose cytarabine with frontline autologous stem cell transplantation in young patients, maintenance rituximab or bortezomib based chemotherapy in elderly patients, improved the disease outcome. Bortezomib, lenalidomide, temsirolimus and ibrutinib have proven their efficacy and are approved for the use in refractory or relapsed MCL patients. Several other molecules are currently being evaluated such as cyclin dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2) and Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Unfortunately, we don't have specific biomarkers that could reveal which of the underlying pathways or genetic alterations are mostly involved in each individual case of MCL. Efforts should be done in this field aiming to an optimal personalized therapy.

Arakawa F, Kimura Y, Yoshida N, et al.
Identification of miR-15b as a transformation-related factor in mantle cell lymphoma.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(2):485-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B cell lymphoma with a poor prognosis. It is characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation, resulting in over-expression of CCND1. Morphologically, MCL is categorised into two types: classical MCL (cMCL) and aggressive MCL (aMCL), with a proportion of cMCL progressing to develop into aMCL. miRNAs are currently considered to be important regulators for cell behavior and are deregulated in many malignancies. Although several genetic alterations have been implicated in the transformation of cMCL to aMCL, the involvement of miRNAs in transformation is not known. In an effort to identify the miRNAs related to the transformation of MCL, miRNA microarray analyses were used for cMCL and aMCL cases. These analyses demonstrated significant differences in the expression of seven microRNAs based on a t-test (p-value <0.05); miR-15b was greatly upregulated in aMCL. Locked nucleic acid in situ hybridization showed increased staining of miR-15b in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of aMCL. These results correlated well with the microRNA microarray analysis. Although the molecular functions of miR-15b are largely unknown, it has been found to be associated with the cell cycle and apoptosis. However, the physiological significance of increased miR-15b in MCL is still unknown. Our present findings suggest that the upregulated expression of miR-15b is likely to play an important role in the trans-formation of cMCL to aMCL.

Czuczman NM, Barth MJ, Gu J, et al.
Pevonedistat, a NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor, is active in mantle cell lymphoma and enhances rituximab activity in vivo.
Blood. 2016; 127(9):1128-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by an aggressive clinical course and inevitable development of refractory disease, stressing the need to develop alternative therapeutic strategies. To this end, we evaluated pevonedistat (MLN4924), a novel potent and selective NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor in a panel of MCL cell lines, primary MCL tumor cells, and 2 distinct murine models of human MCL. Pevonedistat exposure resulted in a dose-, time-, and caspase-dependent cell death in the majority of the MCL cell lines and primary tumor cells tested. Of interest, in the MCL cell lines with lower half-maximal inhibitory concentration (0.1-0.5 μM), pevonedistat induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest, downregulation of Bcl-xL levels, decreased nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, and apoptosis. In addition, pevonedistat exhibited additive/synergistic effects when combined with cytarabine, bendamustine, or rituximab. In vivo, as a single agent, pevonedistat prolonged the survival of 2 MCL-bearing mouse models when compared with controls. Pevonedistat in combination with rituximab led to improved survival compared with rituximab or pevonedistat monotherapy. Our data suggest that pevonedistat has significant activity in MCL preclinical models, possibly related to effects on NF-κB activity, Bcl-xL downregulation, and G1 cell cycle arrest. Our findings support further investigation of pevonedistat with or without rituximab in the treatment of MCL.

Yu W, Denu RA, Krautkramer KA, et al.
Loss of SIRT3 Provides Growth Advantage for B Cell Malignancies.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(7):3268-79 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
B cell malignancies comprise a diverse group of cancers that proliferate in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and peripheral blood. SIRT3 (sirtuin 3) is the major deacetylase within the mitochondrial matrix that promotes aerobic metabolism and controls reactive oxygen species (ROS) by deacetylating and activating isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). There is controversy as to whether SIRT3 acts as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor, and here we investigated its role in B cell malignancies. In mantle cell lymphoma patient samples, we found that lower SIRT3 protein expression was associated with worse overall survival. Further, SIRT3 protein expression was reduced in chronic lymphocytic leukemia primary samples and malignant B cell lines compared to primary B cells from healthy donors. This lower level of expression correlated with hyperacetylation of IDH2 and SOD2 mitochondrial proteins, lowered enzymatic activities, and higher ROS levels. Overexpression of SIRT3 decreased proliferation and diminished the Warburg-like phenotype in SIRT3-deficient cell lines, and this effect is largely dependent on deacetylation of IDH2 and SOD2. Lastly, depletion of SIRT3 from malignant B cell lines resulted in greater susceptibility to treatment with an ROS scavenger but did not result in greater sensitivity to inhibition of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α pathway, suggesting that loss of SIRT3 increases proliferation via ROS-dependent but hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-independent mechanisms. Our study suggests that SIRT3 acts as a tumor suppressor in B cell malignancies, and activating the SIRT3 pathway might represent a novel therapeutic approach for treating B cell malignancies.

Chen D, Mao C, Zhou Y, et al.
PF-04691502, a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor has potent pre-clinical activity by inducing apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest in aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(1):253-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is activated in a variety of human tumors including B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Targeting this pathway has been validated in solid and hematological tumors. In the present study, we demonstrated that PF-04691502, a novel PI3K/mTOR inhibitor has potent activity in a panel of aggressive B-NHL cell lines including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). MTS analysis showed that PF-04691502 effectively inhibited cell proliferation with IC50 values ranging from 0.12 to 0.55 µM. Cells treated with PF-04691502 exhibited decreased phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein confirming the mechanism of action of a PI3K/mTOR inhibitor. Also, treatment of B-NHL cell lines with PF-04691502 induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, PF-04691502 significantly induced G1 cell cycle arrest associated with a decrease in cyclin D1 which contributed to suppression of cell proliferation. Finally, rituximab enhanced apoptosis induced by PF-04691502. Taken together, our findings provide for the first time that PF-04691502 inhibits the constitutively activated PI3K/mTOR pathway in aggressive B-cell NHL cell lines associated with inhibition of cell cycle progression, cell proliferation and promotion of apoptosis. These findings suggest that PF-04691502 is a novel therapeutic strategy in aggressive B-cell NHL and warrants early phase clinical trial evaluation with and without rituximab.

Kim A, Seong KM, Kang HJ, et al.
Inhibition of Lyn is a promising treatment for mantle cell lymphoma with bortezomib resistance.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(35):38225-38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although proteasome inhibition with bortezomib (BTZ) is a validated treatment for relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), many patients show resistance to BTZ. However, the molecular mechanism of BTZ resistance in MCL has not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated BTZ-resistant MCL cells in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that BTZ-resistant MCL cells showed highly increased expression of the B-cell receptor (BCR) components CD79A and CD19. Activation of the BCR signaling pathway enhanced the activity of Src family kinases (SFKs), especially Lyn, and downstream kinases PI3K/AKT/mTOR in BTZ-resistant MCL cells. Depletion of CD79A and Lyn significantly reduced several kinase activities involved in PI3K signaling, leading to inhibition of proliferation. In addition, the SFKs inhibitor dasatinib inhibited the proliferation of BTZ-resistant cells, preventing the binding of CD19 with Lyn and PI3K p85. We also verified our findings with the mouse xenograft tumor model. Dasatinib treatment significantly decreased tumor size in the mouse bearing BTZ-resistant MCL cells, but not in the mouse bearing BTZ-sensitive MCL cells. Collectively, our data show that overexpression of the BCR and its activated signaling confers BTZ resistance in MCL cells. Thus, targeting BCR signaling with dasatinib could be a novel therapeutic approach for patients with MCL that has relapsed or is refractory to treatment with BTZ.

Yi S, Zou D, Li C, et al.
High incidence of MYC and BCL2 abnormalities in mantle cell lymphoma, although only MYC abnormality predicts poor survival.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(39):42362-71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The incidence and prognostic role of MYC and BCL2 rearrangements in mature B-cell lymphomas have been extensively studied, except the infrequent mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Here, we analyzed the MYC and BCL2 abnormalities and other cytogenetic aberrations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 50 MCL patients with bone marrow involvement. Eighteen patients (36.0%) had MYC gains and/or amplifications, and twelve patients (24.0%) had BCL2 gains and/or amplifications. Among the 18 patients with MYC abnormality, four had simultaneous MYC translocations, but no BCL2 translocation was detected among patients with BCL2 abnormality. Only two patients (4.0%) had both MYC and BCL2 abnormalities. The patients with a MYC abnormality had a significantly higher tumor burden, a higher percentage of medium/high risk MIPI group and genomic instability compared to those without this abnormality. However, no significant difference was observed between patients with or without a BCL2 abnormality in terms of clinical and cytogenetic factors. Patients with a MYC abnormality had poorer progress-free survival (PFS) (9.0 vs. 48.0 months, p = .000) and overall survival (OS) (12.0 vs. 94.5 months, p = .000), but the presence of a BCL2 abnormality did not significantly influence either PFS or OS. In multivariate analysis, the MYC abnormality was the independent adverse factor for both PFS and OS, and intensive chemotherapy did not improve the outcome of these patients. Thus, the presence of a MYC but not BCL2 abnormality predicted the poor survival of MCL patients, and a new treatment strategy should be developed for these patients.

Restelli V, Chilà R, Lupi M, et al.
Characterization of a mantle cell lymphoma cell line resistant to the Chk1 inhibitor PF-00477736.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(35):37229-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma characterized by the chromosomal translocation t(11;14) that leads to constitutive expression of cyclin D1, a master regulator of the G1-S phase. Chk1 inhibitors have been recently shown to be strongly effective as single agents in MCL. To investigate molecular mechanisms at the basis of Chk1 inhibitor activity, a MCL cell line resistant to the Chk1 inhibitor PF-00477736 (JEKO-1 R) was obtained and characterized. The JEKO-1 R cell line was cross resistant to another Chk1 inhibitor (AZD-7762) and to the Wee1 inhibitor MK-1775. It displayed a shorter doubling time than parental cell line, likely due to a faster S phase. Cyclin D1 expression levels were decreased in resistant cell line and its re-overexpression partially re-established PF-00477736 sensitivity. Gene expression profiling showed an enrichment in gene sets involved in pro-survival pathways in JEKO-1 R. Dasatinib treatment partly restored PF-00477736 sensitivity in resistant cells suggesting that the pharmacological interference of pro-survival pathways can overcome the resistance to Chk1 inhibitors. These data further corroborate the involvement of the t(11;14) in cellular sensitivity to Chk1 inhibitors, fostering the clinical testing of Chk1 inhibitors as single agents in MCL.

Chen Z, Teo AE, McCarty N
ROS-Induced CXCR4 Signaling Regulates Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) Cell Survival and Drug Resistance in the Bone Marrow Microenvironment via Autophagy.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(1):187-99 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Patients with advanced stages of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) have a poor prognosis after standard therapies. MCL cells in those patients often spread into tissues other than lymph nodes, such as the bone marrow. Apart from directed migration and homing, there is little understanding of the function of the CXCR4/SDF-1 signaling axis in MCL. In this report, we aim to understand mechanisms of MCL cell survival in the bone marrow.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: For comprehensive analyses of MCL interactions with bone marrow stromal cells, we have generated gene knockout cells using CRISPR-CAS9 system and gene knockdown cells to reveal novel roles of the CXCR4/SDF-1 signaling.
RESULTS: CXCR4 silencing in MCL cells led to a significant reduction in proliferation, cell adhesion to bone marrow stromal cells, and colony formation in PHA-LCM methylcellulose medium, which were reversed upon the addition of SDF-1-neutralizing antibodies. In addition, tracking MCL cell engraftment in vivo revealed that quiescent MCL cells are significantly reduced in the bone marrow upon CXCR4 silencing, indicating that CXCR4/SDF-1 signaling is required for the survival and maintenance of the quiescent MCL cells. Further analysis revealed novel mechanisms of ROS-induced CXCR4/SDF-1 signaling that stimulate autophagy formation in MCL cells for their survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data, for the first time, revealed new roles of the CXCR/SDF-1 signaling axis on autophagy formation in MCL, which further promoted their survival within the bone marrow microenvironment. Targeting the CXCR4/SDF-1/autophagy signaling axis may contribute to an enhanced efficacy of current therapies.

Miao Y, Wang R, Fan L, et al.
Detection of t(12;14)(p13;q32) in a patient with IGH-CCND1 negative mantle cell lymphoma resembling ultra-high risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(6):7494-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
T(12;14)(p13;q32) is a rare recurrent chromosomal translocation, which has only been identified in a small subgroup of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) without typical t(11;14)(q13;q32). This rearrangement causes aberrant over-expression of cyclin D2 (CCND2), which disrupts the normal cell cycle. Here we report a subtle case of MCL with t(12;14)(p13;q32) that was initially misdiagnosed as ultra-high risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A 60-year-old male patient presented with obvious leukocytosis and progressive weakness. Morphology of peripheral blood and immunophenotyping by flow cytometry pointed to a diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using IGH-CCND1 probe was negative for CCND1 abnormality, but demonstrated IGH breakapart signals. The initial diagnosis of CLL was established and the patient was treated with six courses of immunochemotherpy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR). Complete remission (CR) was achieved at the end of treatment, but disease relapsed quickly. The patient was transferred to our hospital, flow cytometry using additional markers showed that the clonal cells were CD200+(dim), CD148+(strong), and chromosome analysis revealed a complex karyotype, 47, XY, t(12;14)(p13;q32), +12, del(9p21), which indicated over-expression of CCND2, and immunostaining showed strong positivity of SOX11 further confirming the characteristics of CCND1-negtive MCL. The final diagnosis was revised to rare subtype of MCL with CCND2 translocation and intensive regimens were employed. This confusable MCL case illustrates the importance of cytogenetic analysis and clinicopathologic diagnosis of this rare category of MCL.

Ryan RJ, Drier Y, Whitton H, et al.
Detection of Enhancer-Associated Rearrangements Reveals Mechanisms of Oncogene Dysregulation in B-cell Lymphoma.
Cancer Discov. 2015; 5(10):1058-71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: B-cell lymphomas frequently contain genomic rearrangements that lead to oncogene activation by heterologous distal regulatory elements. We used a novel approach called "pinpointing enhancer-associated rearrangements by chromatin immunoprecipitation," or PEAR-ChIP, to simultaneously map enhancer activity and proximal rearrangements in lymphoma cell lines and patient biopsies. This method detects rearrangements involving known cancer genes, including CCND1, BCL2, MYC, PDCD1LG2, NOTCH1, CIITA, and SGK1, as well as novel enhancer duplication events of likely oncogenic significance. We identify lymphoma subtype-specific enhancers in the MYC locus that are silenced in lymphomas with MYC-activating rearrangements and are associated with germline polymorphisms that alter lymphoma risk. We show that BCL6-locus enhancers are acetylated by the BCL6-activating transcription factor MEF2B, and can undergo genomic duplication, or target the MYC promoter for activation in the context of a "pseudo-double-hit" t(3;8)(q27;q24) rearrangement linking the BCL6 and MYC loci. Our work provides novel insights regarding enhancer-driven oncogene activation in lymphoma.
SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate a novel approach for simultaneous detection of genomic rearrangements and enhancer activity in tumor biopsies. We identify novel mechanisms of enhancer-driven regulation of the oncogenes MYC and BCL6, and show that the BCL6 locus can serve as an enhancer donor in an "enhancer hijacking" translocation.

Akhter A, Mahe E, Street L, et al.
CD10-positive mantle cell lymphoma: biologically distinct entity or an aberrant immunophenotype? Insight, through gene expression profile in a unique case series.
J Clin Pathol. 2015; 68(10):844-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive disease with genetic heterogeneity and discrete clinical subtypes. MCL is rarely CD10 positive. These cases raise the question whether a subset of MCL may be germinal centre (GC) derived, and have distinct clinicopathological characteristics.
AIMS AND METHODS: A series of nine CD10-positive MCL cases is described herein. The clinicopathological and immunophenotypic features, immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation (SHM) status and gene expression profile (GEP) data are detailed. These features were compared with two independent sets (n=20, each) of CD10-negative MCL cases (controls), which were randomly selected from our institutional registry.
RESULTS: GEP showed distinct expression of a GC signature in CD10-positive MCL cases with minimal impact on downstream signalling pathways. There were no significant differences in the clinicopathological features or clinical outcome between our CD10-positive and CD10-negative MCL cases. The frequency of SHM was comparable with established data.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides convincing evidence that CD10 expression is related to a distinct GC signature in MCL cases, but without clinical or biological implications.

Lu K, Chen N, Zhou XX, et al.
The STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 synergizes with vorinostat to induce apoptosis of mantle cell lymphoma cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 464(1):292-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) characterized by the translocation t (11; 14) (q13; q32). Drug resistance remains a formidable obstacle to treatment and the median survival for MCL patients is between 3 and 5 years. Thus, there is an urgent need to discover novel approaches to MCL therapy. The signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been found to be constitutively activated in several subtypes of MCL cell lines and MCL tumors. WP1066, a small-molecule inhibitor of STAT3, exerted antitumor activity in hematological and solid malignancies by inhibiting key survival and growth signaling pathways. In the present study, we evaluated the antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity of WP1066 combined with pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat (SAHA) in a panel of MCL cell lines. In addition, potential mechanisms involved were also explored. The outcome showed that combination of WP1066 with SAHA resulted in synergistic growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in MCL cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, combination of WP1066 with SAHA inhibited the constitutive STAT3 activation and modulated mRNA expressions of anti- and pro-apoptotic genes. Our findings suggest that agents targeting the STAT3 pathway such as WP1066 may be useful therapeutic drugs for MCL when combined with SAHA.

Vose JM
Mantle cell lymphoma: 2015 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and clinical management.
Am J Hematol. 2015; 90(8):739-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
DISEASE OVERVIEW: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by involvement of the lymph nodes, spleen, blood and bone marrow with a short remission duration to standard therapies and a median overall survival (OS) of 4-5 years.
DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is based on lymph node, bone marrow, or tissue morphology of centrocytic lymphocytes, small cell type, or blastoid variant cells. A chromosomal translocation t (11:14) is the molecular hallmark of MCL, resulting in the overexpression of cyclin D1. Cyclin D1 is detected by immunohistochemistry in 98% of cases. The absence of SOX-11 or a low Ki-67 may correlate with a more indolent form of MCL. The differential diagnosis of MCL includes small lymphocytic lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma.
RISK STRATIFICATION: The MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI) is the prognostic model most often used and incorporates ECOG performance status, age, leukocyte count, and lactic dehydrogenase. A modification of the MIPI also adds the Ki-67 proliferative index if available. The median OS for the low-risk group was not reached (5-year OS of 60%). The median OS for the intermediate risk group was 51 months and 29 months for the high risk group.
RISK-ADAPTED THERAPY: For selected indolent, low MIPI MCL patients, initial observation may be appropriate therapy. For younger patients with intermediate or high risk MIPI MCL, aggressive therapy with a cytotoxic regimen ± autologous stem cell transplantation should be considered. For older MCL patients with intermediate or high risk MIPI, combination chemotherapy with R-CHOP, R-Bendamustine, or a clinical trial should be considered. In addition, rituximab maintenance therapy may prolong the progression-free survival. At the time of relapse, agents directed at activated pathways in MCL cells such as bortezomib (NFkB inhibitor), lenalidamide (anti-angiogenesis) and Ibruitinib (Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase [BTK] inhibitor) have demonstrated excellent clinical activity in MCL patients. Autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation can also be considered in young patients. Clinical trials with novel agents are always a consideration for MCL patients.

Teo AE, Chen Z, Miranda RN, et al.
Differential PAX5 levels promote malignant B-cell infiltration, progression and drug resistance, and predict a poor prognosis in MCL patients independent of CCND1.
Leukemia. 2016; 30(3):580-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Reduced Paired box 5 (PAX5) levels have important roles in the pathogenesis of human B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, the role of PAX5 in human lymphoma remains unclear. We generated PAX5-silenced cells using mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) as a model system. These PAX5(-) MCL cells exhibited unexpected phenotypes, including increased proliferation in vitro, enhanced tumor infiltration in vivo, robust adhesion to the bone marrow stromal cells and increased retention of quiescent stem-like cells. These phenotypes were attributed to alterations in the expression of genes including p53 and Rb, and to phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway hyperactivation. On PAX5 silencing, the MCL cells displayed upregulated interleukin (IL)-6 expression and increased responses to paracrine IL-6. Moreover, decreased PAX5 levels in CD19+ MCL cells correlated with their increased infiltration and progression; thus, PAX5 levels can be used as a prognostic marker independent of cyclin D1 in advanced MCL patients. Importantly, high-throughput screening of 3800 chemical compounds revealed that PAX5(-) MCL cells are highly drug-resistant compared with PAX5 wild-type MCL cells. Collectively, the results of our study support a paradigm shift regarding the functions of PAX5 in human B-cell cancer and encourage future efforts to design effective therapies against MCL.

Xiao Z, Ni Y, Yin G, et al.
Mantle cell lymphoma concurrent with T-large granular lymphocytic leukemia: report of a case and review of literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(3):3365-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma is one of the B-cell lymphomas. The concurrent presentation of mantle cell lymphoma with large granular lymphocytic leukemia simultaneously has never been reported. In this case we present an old man with concomitant mantle cell lymphoma and large granular lymphocytic leukemia diagnosed by the morphology of the bone marrow aspiration, immunophenotyping of the peripheral blood by flow cytometry detecting the increased CD3+CD4-CD8+ cells, immunohistochemical studies of lymph node showed cyclinD1+, chromosome analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed t(11,14), positive results of IGH and TCR rearrangement studies. The patient discharged from the hospital voluntarily and lost the follow-up. A brief discussion is also presented.

Wehkamp U, Pott C, Unterhalt M, et al.
Skin Involvement of Mantle Cell Lymphoma May Mimic Primary Cutaneous Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma, Leg Type.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(8):1093-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a B-cell neoplasm with a variable and generally aggressive clinical course. So far our knowledge of skin involvement of MCL is limited. To understand the clinical and histopathologic features of MCL with skin involvement, the files of the Lymph Node Registry Kiel were screened for MCL diagnosed in the skin. Over a period of 13 years, 1321 biopsy specimens were diagnosed as MCL; among them, 14 patients (1%) showed skin involvement. Of these, skin was the initial site of manifestation in 6/11 (55%) cases. One patient presented with a skin-limited lymphoma. Furthermore, 7/12 (58%) patients presented with lesions on the leg. The lymphomas were highly proliferative with blastoid cytology in 12/14 (86%) cases. Moreover, the immunophenotype with expression of BCL2 (100%), MUM-1/IRF4 (83%), and IgM (82%) and lack of CD10 (25%) and BCL6 (0%) closely resembled the features of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type. Solely the expression of cyclin D1 (100%) and the presence of t(11;14) (100%) allowed a distinction from cases of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type. Only 2 MCL cases with skin involvement presented with classical cytology. Interestingly, in these 2 cases skin involvement occurred simultaneously in a lesion of coexisting primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma. Our data suggest that clinical presentation on the leg and blastoid cytology along with high proliferation and expression of Bcl2, Mum-1/IRF4, and IgM are typical for MCL involving the skin. Lymphomas with these features might be erroneously diagnosed as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type, if cyclin D1 staining is not performed.

Delfau-Larue MH, Klapper W, Berger F, et al.
High-dose cytarabine does not overcome the adverse prognostic value of CDKN2A and TP53 deletions in mantle cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2015; 126(5):604-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
We revisited the prognostic value of frequently detected somatic gene copy number alterations (CNAs) in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients treated first line with immunochemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), with or without high-dose cytarabine, in the randomized European MCL Younger trial. DNA extracted from tumor material of 135 patients (median age, 56 years) was analyzed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and/or quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction of short fluorescent fragments. As expected, MYC (18%) was the more frequently gained, whereas RB1 (26%), ATM (25%), CDKN2A (p16) (25%), and TP53 (22%) were the more frequently deleted. Whether adjusted for MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI) or not, deletions of RB1, CDKN2A, TP53, and CDKN1B were associated with shorter overall survival (OS), similarly in both treatment arms, whereas CNAs in MYC, ATM, CDK2, CDK4, and MDM2 had no prognostic value. Additive effects were seen for CDKN2A (hazard ratio, 2.3; P = .007, MIPI-adjusted) and TP53 deletions (hazard ratio, 2.4; P = .007), reflected in a dismal outcome with simultaneous deletions (median OS, 1.8 years) compared with single deletions (median OS, 4.3 and 5.1 years) or without these deletions (median OS, 7 years), again similarly in both treatment arms. The additive prognostic effects of CDKN2A and TP53 deletions were independent of the Ki-67 index. Despite immunochemotherapy, high-dose cytarabine, and ASCT, younger MCL patients with deletions of CDKN2A (p16) and TP53 show an unfavorable prognosis and are candidates for alternative therapeutic strategies. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00209222.

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