"A piperidinyl isoindole originally introduced as a non-barbiturate hypnotic, but withdrawn from the market due to teratogenic effects. It has been reintroduced and used for a number of immunological and inflammatory disorders. Thalidomide displays immunosuppresive and anti-angiogenic activity. It inhibits release of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA from monocytes, and modulates other cytokine action." (MeSH 2013)
Latest Research Publications
Web Resources: Thalidomide (6 links)
Latest Research Publications
Bortezomib combined with lenalidomide as the first-line treatment for the rare synchronous occurrence of multiple myeloma and pulmonary adenocarcinoma: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(1):e5787 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CASE SUMMARY: A 68-year-old man presented with 2 months of progressive lower back pain. Visualization with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple collapsed vertebrae from T12 to S3, as well as an altered signal intensity at the T3 vertebra. The patient was diagnosed with MM upon examination. A chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a round mass in the left lower lobe of the lungs, and a CT-guided needle biopsy uncovered a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. There were no additional notable findings in the left lung using positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Therefore, a diagnosis of MM with pulmonary adenocarcinoma was made. Surgery was performed to excise the lung cancer. Bortezomib was used as first-line induction therapy against both tumors and lenalidomide was used for maintenance. The patient went into complete remission. Using this combined chemotherapy, the patient has survived for over 3 years since a diagnosis was made despite relapsing twice after the first year.
CONCLUSION: This report clearly delineates the diagnosis and treatment of a rare case of synchronous MM and pulmonary adenocarcinoma, as well as depicts a potentially positive outcome for the patient. It also overviews some diagnostic and therapeutic implications for clinicians.
Anticancer effects of novel thalidomide analogs in A549 cells through inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 85:549-555 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thalidomide Combined with Chemotherapy in Treating Patients with Advanced lung Cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(5):2583-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Fourteen patients with advanced lung cancer were scheduled to receive chemotherapy combined with thalidomide. All patients in this study received thalidomide (100 mg orally per night before sleeping, produced by Changzhou Pharmaceutical Factory Co.Ltd) after the start of chemotherapy for at least 14 days. Chemotherapy was administered according to the condition of patients. After at least 14 days of treatment, efficacy and toxicity were evaluated.
RESULTS: There were 6 female and 8 male patients with advanced lung cancer recruited into this study, including 2 with SCLC and 12 with NSCLC. The median age was 56.7 (44-65) years. Progressive disease was observed in 12 patients (12/14), and stable disease in 2 (2/14). Grade 1 to 2 myelosuppression was observed in 4/14 patients, and Grade 1 to 2 elevation of hepatic enzymes was recorded in 5/14 patients. Adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract were documented in 2/14 patients, all beingGrade 1. No Grade 3-4 toxicity was recorded. No treatment related deaths occurred.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that thalidomide combined with chemotherapy is mildly effective and safe for treating patients with advanced lung cancer. However, further evaluation of this combination is warranted.
Identification of a thalidomide derivative that selectively targets tumorigenic liver progenitor cells and comparing its effects with lenalidomide and sorafenib.
Eur J Med Chem. 2016; 120:275-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Cell growth, the mitotic and apoptotic index of cell cultures were measured using the Cellavista instrument (SynenTec) using commercially available reagents.
RESULTS: Neither lenalidomide nor thalidomide (100 μM) affected tumorigenic LPCs but killed their non-tumorigenic counterparts. Sorafenib arrested growth in both cell types. All but two derivatives of thalidomide were ineffective; of the two effective derivatives, one (thalidomide C1) specifically affected the tumorigenic cell line (10 μM). Mitotic and apoptotic analyses revealed that thalidomide C1 induced apoptotic cell death and not mitotic arrest.
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that screens incorporating non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic liver cell lines are a sound approach to identify agents that are effective and selective. A high throughput instrument such as the Cellavista affords robust and reproducible objective measurements with a large number of replicates that are reliable. These experiments show that neither lenalidomide nor thalidomide are potentially useful for anti-liver cancer therapy as they kill non-tumorigenic liver cells and not their tumorigenic counterparts. Sorafenib in contrast, is highly effective, but not selective. One tested thalidomide derivative has potential as an anti-tumor drug since it induced growth arrest; and importantly, it selectively induced apoptotic cell death only in tumorigenic liver progenitor cells.
Phase I clinical trial of lenalidomide in combination with bevacizumab in patients with advanced cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(5):1097-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A "3 + 3" study design was used. Lenalidomide 10 or 20 mg (orally, days 1-21) and bevacizumab 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/kg, (intravenously, every 2 weeks) were given at four escalating dose levels, followed by an expansion phase at the highest maximum tolerated dose (MTD) (1 cycle = 4 weeks). Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), MTD, adverse events, and clinical outcomes were assessed.
RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were enrolled (median age, 60 years; men, 52 %). The most common tumor types were colorectal carcinoma (n = 11) and melanoma (n = 5). Overall, 105 cycles (median, 2) were administered. No DLTs were observed. The maximum tested dose (level 4) was used in the expansion phase. The most common toxicities were fatigue (n = 7, 23 %) and skin rash (n = 4, 13 %). One patient developed a transient ischemic attack (3.2 %); prophylactic anticoagulation became mandatory in the subsequent 17 treated patients. Of 31 patients, 27 were evaluable for response. Stable disease (SD) was noted in 10 (37 %) patients, including five patients with SD for ≥6 months (tumor types: clear cell sarcoma, germ cell tumor, colorectal carcinoma, and melanoma). The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 2.8 and 5.5 months, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of lenalidomide with bevacizumab in patients with advanced solid tumors was safe. Prolonged stable disease was noted in selected tumor types, warranting further clinical evaluation.
Lenalidomide versus investigator's choice in relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL-002; SPRINT): a phase 2, randomised, multicentre trial.
Lancet Oncol. 2016; 17(3):319-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The MCL-002 (SPRINT) study was a randomised, phase 2 study of patients with mantle cell lymphoma aged 18 years or older at 67 clinics and academic centres in 12 countries who relapsed one to three times, had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, at least one measurable lesion to be eligible, and who were ineligible for intensive chemotherpy or stem-cell transplantation. Using a centralised interactive voice response system, we randomly assigned (2:1) patients in a permuted block size of six to receive lenalidomide (25 mg orally on days 1-21 every 28 days) until progressive disease or intolerability, or single-agent investigator's choice of either rituximab, gemcitabine, fludarabine, chlorambucil, or cytarabine. Randomisation was stratified by time from diagnosis, time from last anti-lymphoma therapy, and previous stem-cell transplantation. Individual treatment assignment between lenalidomide and investigator's choice was open label, but investigators had to register their choice of comparator drug before randomly assigning a patient. Patients who progressed on investigator's choice could cross over to lenalidomide treatment. We present the prespecified primary analysis results in the intention-to-treat population for the primary endpoint of progression-free survival, defined as the time from randomisation to progressive disease or death, whichever occurred first. Patient enrolment is complete, although treatment and collection of additional time-to-event data are ongoing. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00875667.
FINDINGS: Between April 30, 2009, and March 7, 2013, we enrolled 254 patients in the intention-to-treat population (170 [67%] were randomly assigned to receive lenalidomide, 84 [33%] to receive investigator's choice monotherapy). Patients had a median age of 68·5 years and received a median of two previous regimens. With a median follow-up of 15·9 months (IQR 7·6-31·7), lenalidomide significantly improved progression-free survival compared with investigator's choice (median 8·7 months [95% CI 5·5-12·1] vs 5·2 months [95% CI 3·7-6·9]) with a hazard ratio of 0·61 (95% CI 0·44-0·84; p=0·004). In the 167 patients in the lenalidomide group and 83 patients in the investigator's choice group who received at least one dose of treatment the most common grade 3-4 adverse events included neutropenia (73 [44%] of 167 vs 28 [34%] of 83) without increased risk of infection, thrombocytopenia (30 [18%] vs 23 [28%]), leucopenia (13 [8%] vs nine [11%]), and anaemia (14 [8%] vs six [7%]).
INTERPRETATION: Patients with relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma ineligible for intensive chemotherapy or stem-cell transplantation have longer progression-free survival, with a manageable safety profile when treated with lenalidomide compared with monotherapy investigator's choice options.
FUNDING: Celgene Corporation.
A rare case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a patient with multiple myeloma after treatment by lenalidomide.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(11):15025-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Efficacy and safety of lenalidomide treatment in multiple myeloma (MM) patients--Report of the Polish Myeloma Group.
Leuk Res. 2016; 40:90-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
SUMMARY: LEN is an effective and safe therapeutic option, even in intensively treated resistant and relapsed MM patients, as well as in patients with stable disease and previous treatment-induced neurological complications. In particular, the number of LEN treatment cycles ≥ 6 was the factor which affected treatment response achievement the most, together with an important impact on OS.
Thalidomide Combined with Chemotherapy in Treating Patients with Advanced Colorectal Cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(17):7867-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHOD: A consecutive cohort of pretreated patients with advanced colorectal cancer were treated with thalidomide combined with chemotherapy. And chemotherapy for patients with advanced colorectal cancer were administered according to the condition of patients. Thalidomide was orally administered at a dosage of 50mg/day to 150 mg/day before sleeping for at least 14 days. After at least 14 days of treatment, safety and side effects were evaluated.
RESULTS: There were 12 female and 3 male patients with advanced cancer recruited into this study, including 9 patients with colon, 6 patients with rectal cancer. The median age of patients was 57(41- 82) years. Partial response was observed in 2 patients (2/15), and stable disease in 3 patients(3/15). Incidences of Grade 1 to 2 myelosuppression was observed in 1/15 patients, and Grade 1 to 2 elevation of hepatic enzyme was recorded in 1/15 patients. Adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract were documented in 1/15 patients, and were Grade 1. No Grade 3-4 toxicities were diagnosed. No treatment related death was found.
CONCLUSIONS: Thalidomide combined with chemotherapy was safe and mildly effective in treating patients with advanced colorectal cancer. However, further study should be conducted to clarify the effectiveness of this combination.
Clinical efficacy of metronomic chemotherapy after cool-tip radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Hyperthermia. 2016; 32(2):193-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with HCC were randomly apportioned to a test group (n = 22) receiving metronomic chemotherapy with capecitabine and thalidomide after RFA, or a control group (n = 28) receiving RFA only. Serum circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured in all patients before and 1 month after RFA treatment. Enhanced computed tomography or ultrasound imaging was performed to evaluate efficacy during 12 months of follow-up. The treatment groups were further stratified as HCC within or outside the Milan criteria for transplantation.
RESULTS: One month post-treatment, the tumour response rate (TRR), including complete response and partial response rate, of the test and control groups was statistically similar. At 12 months, the TRR of the test group (68.2%) was significantly higher than that of the control group (35.7%). In the test group, the TRR of patients whose tumour burdens were outside the Milan criteria was significantly higher than that of the control group. One month post-treatment, CECs and VEGF levels of the test group were significantly lower than baseline, while those of the control group were significantly higher. At the end of the 12-month follow-up, there was a progression-free survival (PFS) benefit of 2 months in the test group.
CONCLUSION: Metronomic capecitabine and thalidomide after RFA significantly reduced recurrence of HCC and extended PFS, especially for HCC outside the Milan criteria, perhaps via reduction of serum CECs and VEGF levels and inhibition of tumour angiogenesis.
Therapeutic Potential of Thalidomide and Its Analogues in the Treatment of Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(11):5767-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Therapeutic potential of thalidomide for gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(5):1711-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inhibition of 13-cis retinoic acid-induced gene expression of reactive-resistance genes by thalidomide in glioblastoma tumours in vivo.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(30):28938-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
17P deleted multiple myeloma presenting with intracranial disease: durable remission after tailored management.
Hematol Oncol. 2016; 34(3):165-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Low doses of CPS49 and flavopiridol combination as potential treatment for advanced prostate cancer.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2015; 16(6):553-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Front-line lenalidomide therapy in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.
Future Oncol. 2015; 11(11):1643-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
A phase I dose-escalation study of lenalidomide in combination with gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0121197 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had locally advanced or metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Patients received lenalidomide days 1-21 orally and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 intravenously (days 1, 8 and 15), each 28 day cycle. Three cohorts of lenalidomide were examined (Cohort I = 15 mg, Cohort II = 20 mg and Cohort III = 25 mg daily). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of lenalidomide given in combination with gemcitabine was defined as the highest dose level at which no more than one out of four (25%) subjects experiences a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). Patients should also be able to receive daily low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (e.g. dalteparin 5000 IU s.c. daily) as a prophylactic anticoagulant for venous thromboembolic events (VTEs). Twelve patients (n = 4, n = 3 and n = 5 in cohort I, II and III, respectively) were enrolled in this study.
RESULTS: Median duration of treatment was 11 weeks (range 1-66), and median number of treatment cycles were three (range 1-14). The only DLT was a cardiac failure grade 3 in cohort III. Frequent treatment-related adverse events (AEs) (all grades) included neutropenia, leucopenia and fatigue (83% each, but there was no febrile neutropenia); thrombocytopenia (75%); dermatological toxicity (75%); diarrhea and nausea (42% each); and neuropathy (42%).
DISCUSSION: This phase I study demonstrates the feasibility of the combination of lenalidomide and gemcitabine as first-line treatment in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. The tolerability profile demonstrated in the dose escalation schedule of lenalidomide suggests the dosing of lenalidomide to be 25 mg daily on days 1-21 with standard dosing of gemcitabine and merits further evaluation in a phase II trial.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01547260.
Perfusion parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging predict outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma receiving radiotherapy with or without thalidomide.
Hepatol Int. 2015; 9(2):258-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: DCEMRI was performed in advanced HCC patients undergoing radiotherapy with or without concomitant thalidomide. Initial first-pass enhancement slopes (slope) and peak enhancement ratios (peak) were measured over an operator-defined region of interest over tumor and non-tumor liver parenchyma. The perfusion parameters were correlated with clinical outcomes. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov. (identifier NCT00155272).
RESULTS: Forty-three patients were evaluable. There were 18 partial responses (PRs), 5 minimal responses (MRs), 17 stable diseases (SDs), and 3 progressive diseases (PDs). Baseline perfusion parameters as well as slope at 14 days of radiotherapy were higher in patients with PR or MR compared to SD or PD (0.81 ± 0.29 vs. 0.49 ± 0.34, p < 0.01; 0.39 ± 0.15 vs. 0.28 ± 0.16, p = 0.02; 0.97 ± 0.38 vs. 0.46 ± 0.26, p < 0.01; respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed perfusion parameters over liver parenchyma, but not over tumor, and independently predicted progression-free and overall survival (182 ± 33 vs. 105 ± 26 days, p = 0.01; 397 ± 111 vs. 233 ± 19 days, p = 0.001 respectively). For 22 patients receiving concomitant thalidomide, the perfusion parameters were not significantly different from those receiving radiotherapy alone.
CONCLUSIONS: Signal parameters of DCEMRI over tumor and liver parenchyma correlated with tumor response and survival, respectively, in HCC patients receiving radiotherapy.
Differentiation of antiinflammatory and antitumorigenic properties of stabilized enantiomers of thalidomide analogs.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(12):E1471-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Docetaxel and prednisone with or without lenalidomide in chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (MAINSAIL): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.
Lancet Oncol. 2015; 16(4):417-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study, we randomly assigned chemotherapy-naive patients with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in a 1:1 ratio to receive docetaxel (75 mg/m(2)) on day 1 and prednisone (5 mg twice daily) on days 1-21 and either lenalidomide (25 mg) or placebo once daily on days 1-14 of each 21 day treatment cycle. Permuted block randomisation was done with an interactive voice response system and stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, geographic region, and type of disease progression. Clinicians, patients, and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Efficacy analysis was by intention to treat. Patients who received at least one dose of study drug were included in the safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00988208.
FINDINGS: 1059 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned between Nov 11, 2009, and Nov 23, 2011 (533 to the lenalidomide group and 526 to the control group), and 1046 patients received study treatment (525 in the lenalidomide group and 521 in the placebo group). At data cutoff (Jan 13, 2012) after a median follow-up of 8 months (IQR 5-12), 221 patients had died: 129 in the lenalidomide group and 92 in the placebo group. Median overall survival was 17·7 months (95% CI 14·8-18·8) in the lenalidomide group and not reached in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·53, 95% CI 1·17-2·00, p=0·0017). The trial was subsequently closed early due to futility. The number of deaths that occurred during treatment or less than 28 days since the last dose were similar in both groups (18 [3%] of 525 patients in the lenalidomide group vs 13 [2%] of 521 patients). 109 (21%) patients in the lenalidomide group and 78 (15%) in the placebo group died more than 28 days from last dose, mainly due to disease progression. At least one grade 3 or higher adverse event was reported in 381 (73%) of 525 patients receiving lenalidomide and 303 (58%) of 521 patients receiving placebo. Grade 3-4 neutropenia (114 [22%] for lenalidomide vs 85 [16%] for placebo), febrile neutropenia (62 [12%] vs 23 [4%]), diarrhoea (37 [7%] vs 12 [2%]), pneumonia (24 [5%] vs five [1%]), dyspnoea (22 [4%] vs nine [2%]), asthenia (27 [5%] vs 17 [3%]), and pulmonary embolism (32 [6%] vs seven [1%]) occurred more frequently in the lenalidomide group than in the placebo group.
INTERPRETATION: Overall survival with the combination of lenalidomide, docetaxel, and prednisone was significantly worse than with docetaxel and prednisone for chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer. Further research with this treatment combination is not warranted.
FUNDING: Celgene Corporation.
Phase I trial of valproic acid and lenalidomide in patients with advanced cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2015; 75(4):869-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: In this 3+3 design study, VPA was administered daily on a 7-day-on, 7-day-off schedule, and lenalidomide was administered daily for 28 days. Because of the response noted during the dose-escalation phase, 12 additional patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) received the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in a dose-expansion phase.
RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with advanced cancer (14 men/12 women), median age of 56 years (range 38-70 years), and a median number of two prior therapies (range 0-12) were enrolled. The most common toxicities were fatigue, rash, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and change in mental status. Dose-limiting toxic (DLT) effects were grade III confusion (n = 3), somnolence (n = 1), and gait disturbance (n = 1). The MTD was reached at VPA 30 mg/kg and lenalidomide 25 mg. Although only two of the 12 patients from the dose-expansion phase had DLT during the first cycle at the MTD, during subsequent cycles the majority of patients required dose reduction of VPA to 5-20 mg/kg because of fatigue and drowsiness. No significant tumor reductions were noticed in patients with ACC, but seven of these patients had stable disease over four cycles. Of non-ACC patients, one patient with melanoma and one patient with parathyroid carcinoma had stable disease for six cycles and eight cycles, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Lenalidomide combined with VPA was well tolerated. We recommend starting VPA at 5 mg/kg and titrating upward to 20 mg/kg. No significant tumor reductions were noticed in patients with ACC.
Lenalidomide and cyclophosphamide immunoregulation in patients with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2015; 32(2):111-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Review of thalidomide use in the pediatric population.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015; 72(4):703-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic thalidomide and chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncologist. 2014; 19(12):1229-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Between June 2000 and November 2003, 56 patients with unresectable HCC and amenable to TACE were enrolled. The starting dose of thalidomide was 200 mg/day and was escalated every 2 weeks as tolerated to a maximum dose of 1,000 mg/day. Dose reductions and discontinuation were determined by toxicity. TACE was performed 4 weeks after initiation of thalidomide therapy and repeated as necessary.
RESULTS: Overall, 47 and 55 patients were evaluable for response and toxicity, respectively; the median dose of thalidomide given was 200 mg/day. Three patients (6.38%) patients achieved complete responses, whereas 10 (21.3%) had partial responses, for an overall response rate of 27.7%, and 27 (57.5%) had stable disease. Median progression-free survival was 7 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5-10 months), and median OS was 21 months (95% CI: 16-28 months) (Fig. 1). Fatigue and lethargy (49.1%), constipation (47.3%), and nausea (43.6%) were common. Grade 3-4 toxicities consisted mostly of increased aspartate aminotransferase (43.6%) and elevated alanine aminotransferase (38.2%) (Table 1).
CONCLUSION: Thalidomide and TACE were commonly associated with nonhematologic side effects, with fatigue and constipation being prominent. With a lack of clear therapeutic benefit, this combination is unlikely to be pursued for HCC.
Randomized phase II adjuvant factorial study of dose-dense temozolomide alone and in combination with isotretinoin, celecoxib, and/or thalidomide for glioblastoma.
Neuro Oncol. 2015; 17(2):266-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: The primary objective of this factorial phase II study was to determine if one of 3 potential chemotherapy agents added to dose-dense temozolomide (ddTMZ) improves progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. A prior phase I trial established the safety of combining ddTMZ with isotretinoin, celecoxib, and/or thalidomide. Adults with good performance status and no evidence of progression post chemoradiation were randomized into 8 arms: ddTMZ alone (7 days on/7 days off) or doublet, triplet, and quadruplet combinations with isotretinoin, celecoxib, and thalidomide.
RESULTS: The study enrolled 155 participants with a median age of 53 years (range, 18-84 y). None of the agents demonstrated improved PFS when compared with arms not containing that specific agent. There was no difference in PFS for triplet compared with doublet regimens, although a trend for improved overall survival (OS) was seen (20.1 vs 17.0 months, P = .15). Compared with ddTMZ, the ddTMZ + isotretinoin doublet had worse PFS (10.5 vs 6.5 months, P = .043) and OS (21.2 vs 11.7 months, P = .037). Trends were also seen for worse outcomes with isotretinoin-containing regimens, but there was no impact with celecoxib or thalidomide combinations. Treatment was well tolerated with expected high rates of lymphopenia.
CONCLUSIONS: The results do not establish a benefit for these combinations but indicate that adding isotretinoin to ddTMZ may be detrimental. This study demonstrated the feasibility and utility of the factorial design in efficiently testing drug combinations in newly diagnosed glioblastoma.
CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00112502.
A phase II study of lenalidomide in platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian carcinoma.
Ann Oncol. 2014; 25(11):2191-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma, with asymptomatic recurrence 6 months after prior therapy were treated with continuous oral lenalidomide (20 mg/day). The primary end point was to evaluate efficacy according to the rate of disease control at 4 months. Secondary objectives were progression-free survival (PFS) and safety.
RESULTS: Most of the 45 patients enrolled and treated had serous histology (78%) and a single line of prior chemotherapy (73%). Median platinum-free interval (PFI) was 11.3 months (range 6.9-56.8). Clinical benefit at 4 months was 38% [95% confidence interval (CI) 23% to 53%]. A 59% disease control rate was reported in patients with a PFI >12 months versus 24% with PFI of 6-12 months (P = 0.023). Four patients had RECIST partial responses and 21 had stable disease. CA125 responses were reported in eight patients, including one complete response. Median PFS was 3.4 months (95% CI 2.4-4.4). Most frequent toxicity was hematologic, notably grade 3-4 neutropenia in 29% of patients, along with fatigue (69%), gastrointestinal toxicity (constipation 53%, abdominal pain 49%, diarrhea 38%, nausea/vomiting 36%) and thrombosis (11%). Eight patients withdrew due to related toxicity.
CONCLUSIONS: Lenalidomide shows interesting efficacy in late recurrent ovarian cancer patients. Toxicity was mainly hematologic, gastrointestinal and venous thrombosis. Future studies will evaluate combination of lenalidomide with chemotherapy agents.
Potential synergistic anti-tumor activity between lenalidomide and sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014; 29(12):2021-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The anti-tumor efficacy of single-agent or combination treatment was measured by change in tumor volume and animal survival using an orthotopic liver cancer model. Distribution of T-cell subpopulations in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and splenocytes derived from tumor-implanted mice was measured by flow cytometry. Depletion of relevant T-cell subpopulations or cytokines was done by co-administration of relevant antibodies with study drug treatment. Tumor cell apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis were measured by transferase deoxytidyl uridine end labeling assay and immunohistochemical study, respectively.
RESULTS: Combination of sorafenib and lenalidomide produced significant synergistic anti-tumor efficacy in terms of tumor growth delay and animal survival. This synergistic effect was associated with a significant increase in interferon-γ expressing CD8(+) lymphocytes in TILs and a significantly higher number of granzyme- or perforin-expressing CD8(+) T cells, compared with vehicle- or single-agent treatment groups. Combination treatment significantly increased apoptotic tumor cells and vascular normalization in tumor tissue. The synergistic anti-tumor effect was abolished after CD8 depletion.
CONCLUSIONS: Lenalidomide can enhance the anti-tumor effects of sorafenib in HCC through its immune modulatory effects, and CD8(+) TILs play an important role in the anti-tumor synergism.
The preclinical activity of lenalidomide in indolent urothelial carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(7):3383-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in vitro and in vivo activity of lenalidomide was evaluated in human and murine UC cell lines. Tumors were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for (CD31), cleaved caspase-3 (CC3) and CD3+/CD20+ lymphocyte infiltration. Cereblon, a molecular target of lenalidomide was analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Significant pro-apoptotic activity, and reduction of cell viability was seen at low micromolar concentrations of lenalidomide against indolent human RT4 UC cells in vitro. Cereblon expression was quantitatively lower in sensitive RT4 cells compared to resistant 5637 cells. In RT4 xenografts, lenalidomide significantly reduced tumor size and CD31 expression, and increased expression of CC3 (p<0.05). Cereblon expression increased in lenalidomide-treated RT4 xenografts (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Lenalidomide demonstrated preclinical activity against superficially-invasive low-grade UC cells attributable to direct tumor cell apoptosis and anti-angiogenic activity. Clinical trials are warranted in patients with indolent UC.
Long-term durable response to lenalidomide in a patient with hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma.
World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20(22):7049-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A phase I/II study of lenalidomide in combination with sunitinib in patients with advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Ann Oncol. 2014; 25(9):1794-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with histologically confirmed, metastatic RCC were treated with 10 mg/day lenalidomide plus 37.5 mg/day sunitinib, orally in 21-day cycles. Doses were escalated to determine the MTD in phase I, with additional patients planned at this dose in phase II. Primary end points were MTD and response rate.
RESULTS: Sixteen patients received a median of 2, 3, and 5 cycles in cohort 1 [lenalidomide 10 mg (days 1-21) and sunitinib 37.5 mg (days 1-21)], cohort 2 [lenalidomide 10 mg (days 1-21) and sunitinib 37.5 mg (days 1-14)], and cohort 3 [lenalidomide 15 mg (days 1-21) and sunitinib 37.5 mg (days 1-14)], respectively. Median treatment durations were 41, 63, and 97 days for lenalidomide; and 41, 57, and 97.5 days for sunitinib. The MTD was found to be continuous dosing of lenalidomide 10 mg/day plus sunitinib 37.5 mg/day for 14 of 21 days. Dose-limiting toxicities included neutropenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, asthenia, atrial fibrillation, and increased transaminases. The most frequent grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events were hematologic, including neutropenia and leukopenia. One patient achieved partial response, and seven had stable disease of which three were confirmed at subsequent tumor assessments. B cells and several T-cell subsets were modulated versus baseline.
CONCLUSION: The dose schedules of lenalidomide and sunitinib evaluated in this study were not well tolerated; cumulative toxicity precluded enrollment at the MTD.