TNF

Gene Summary

Gene:TNF; tumor necrosis factor
Aliases: DIF, TNFA, TNFSF2, TNLG1F, TNF-alpha
Location:6p21.33
Summary:This gene encodes a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. This cytokine is mainly secreted by macrophages. It can bind to, and thus functions through its receptors TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. This cytokine is involved in the regulation of a wide spectrum of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. This cytokine has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, and cancer. Knockout studies in mice also suggested the neuroprotective function of this cytokine. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor necrosis factor
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TNF (cancer-related)

Wang P, Wang J, Yu M, Li Z
Tumor Necrosis Factor-α T-857C (rs1799724) Polymorphism and Risk of Cancers: A Meta-Analysis.
Dis Markers. 2016; 2016:4580323 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objectives. To investigate the potential association of tumor necrosis factor-α T-857C polymorphism with susceptibility to the five common malignant tumors. Materials and Methods. A comprehensive search of PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases was performed up to November 2015. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of the association. Subgroup analysis, heterogeneity analyses, and publication bias were also texted in the meta-analysis. Results. A total of twenty-two publications involving 5215 cases and 6755 controls were recruited. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed an increased risk between the TNF-α T-857C polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility in T versus C model, heterozygote genetic model, and dominant genetic model. An increased risk between the TNF-α T-857C polymorphism and hepatocellular cancer susceptibility in homozygote genetic model and recessive genetic model was also found. No significant association was found between the TNF-α T-857C polymorphism and colorectal cancer, cervical cancer, and prostate cancer. Conclusions. Our meta-analyses suggest that TNF-α T-857C polymorphism may be associated with increased risk of gastric cancer and hepatocellular cancer development. Therefore, the TNF-α T-857C polymorphism could be considered as one possible risk factor of gastric cancer and hepatocellular cancer according to our study.

Wang K, Ren Y, Liu Y, et al.
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α-Induced Protein 8-like-2 (TIPE2) Inhibits Proliferation and Tumorigenesis in Breast Cancer Cells.
Oncol Res. 2017; 25(1):55-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced protein 8-like-2 (TNFAIP8L2 or TIPE2), a member of the tumor necrosis TNFAIP8 family, was found to be involved in the development and progression of several tumors. However, to date, the role of TIPE2 in breast cancer is still unclear. Thus, the aim of this study is to explore the role of TIPE2 in breast cancer. Our results indicated that TIPE2 expression was significantly decreased in human breast cancer tissue and cell lines. Overexpression of TIPE2 inhibited the proliferation in vitro and tumor xenograft growth in vivo. TIPE2 also inhibited the migration/invasion of breast cancer cells through preventing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. Mechanically, TIPE2 inhibited the expression of β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-Myc in breast cancer cells. In conclusion, our findings show that TIPE2 may play an important role in breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis in vivo. Therefore, TIPE2 may be a potential molecular target for the treatment of breast cancer.

Cacan E
Epigenetic-mediated immune suppression of positive co-stimulatory molecules in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells.
Cell Biol Int. 2017; 41(3):328-339 [PubMed] Related Publications
The immunological response against cancer is a critical balance between immune-activating and immune-suppressing mechanisms. Ovarian cancer creates a suppressive microenvironment to escape immune elimination; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood, and it is unclear whether chemotherapeutic drugs exert an immunoreactive or immunosuppressive effect on the tumor microenvironment. 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL/CD157) and OX-40 ligand (OX-40L/CD252) are important regulators of effector cytotoxic T-cells activity. This study demonstrates that expression of positive co-stimulatory molecules, OX-40L and 4-1BBL, is suppressed while expression of immunosuppressive molecule programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1/CD274) is enhanced in chemoresistant cells compared to parental chemosensitive ovarian cancer cells. Here, the molecular mechanisms of silencing of OX-40L and 4-1BBL expression were investigated in chemoresistant A2780-AD ovarian cancer cells. The suppression of OX-40L and 4-1BBL are due to DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, two important mechanisms that contribute to gene silencing during cancer progression. We identify important epigenetic regulators, histone deacetylase 1/3 (HDAC1/HDAC3) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), that exhibit aberrant association with OX-40L and 4-1BBL promoters in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. Knockdown of HDAC1 or DNMT1 expression, and pharmacological inhibition of DNMT or HDAC enzymatic activity, significantly increase OX-40L and 4-1BBL expression in chemoresistant cells. This study suggests that loss of histone acetylation and accumulation of DNA methylation correlates with suppressed expression of OX-40L and 4-1BBL in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. This study marks the first report of the regulation of these two molecules by histone deacetylation and DNA methylation in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells.

Subash-Babu P, Alshammari GM, Ignacimuthu S, Alshatwi AA
Epoxy clerodane diterpene inhibits MCF-7 human breast cancer cell growth by regulating the expression of the functional apoptotic genes Cdkn2A, Rb1, mdm2 and p53.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 87:388-396 [PubMed] Related Publications
Systematic analyses of plants that are used in traditional medicine may lead to the discovery of novel cytotoxic secondary metabolites. Diterpene possesses multiple bioactivities; here, epoxy clerodane diterpene (ECD) was isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) stem and shown potential antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The antiproliferative effect of ECD on MCF-7 cells was systematically analyzed by cell and nuclear morphology, alterations in oxidative stress, and the expression of tumor suppressor and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis-related genes. We found that the IC50 value of ECD was 3.2μM at 24h and 2.4μM at 48h. We observed that the cytotoxicity of ECD was specific to MCF-7 cells, whereas ECD was nontoxic to normal Vero and V79 cells. ECD significantly triggered intracellular ROS generation even from the lower doses of 0.6 and 1.2μM; and it is relative to higher dose of 2.4μM. Further, we used 0.6μM, 1.2μM and 2.4μM as experimental doses to analyze the relative dose-dependent effects. Nuclear staining revealed that cells treated with the 2.4μM dose exhibited characteristic apoptotic morphological changes and that 46% of the cells were apoptotic and 4% were necrotic after 48h. ECD significantly increased the expression of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway-related genes after 48h; we observed significantly (p≤0.05) increased expression of CYP1A, GPX, GSK3β and TNF-α and downregulated expression of NF-κB. ECD also increased the expression of tumor suppressor genes such as Cdkn2A, Rb1 and p53. In addition, we observed that ECD treatment significantly (p≤0.001) upregulated the expression of apoptotic genes such as Bax, cas-3, cas-8, cas-9 and p21 and downregulated the expression of BCL-2, mdm2 and PCNA. In conclusion, ECD regulates the expression of Cdkn2A, p53 and mdm2 and induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

Yokohama K, Fukunishi S, Ii M, et al.
Rosuvastatin as a potential preventive drug for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.
Int J Mol Med. 2016; 38(5):1499-1506 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents approximately 85% of all primary liver cancer cases. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the risk factors for HCC. NAFLD occurs in patients with components of metabolic syndrome, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Therefore, hyperlipidemia also represents a patient population at risk for HCC that can readily be identified. Rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, has exhibited a more potent affinity for the active site of HMG-CoA reductase than other statins. In addition, the hepatic uptake of rosuvastatin in rats has been found to be more selective and efficient than that with other drugs. Furthermore, the cytoprotective effects of rosuvastatin against ischemic injury have been clearly reported. Thus, in this study, we aimed to determine the role of rosuvastatin as a preventive drug in HCC associated with NAFLD. STAM mice, which developed HCC from NAFLD by being fed a high-fat diet (HFD), were divided into a group in which a HFD was given to the mice for 15 weeks (n=8) and another in which a HFD supplemented with 0.00125% rosuvastatin was given to the mice for 15 weeks (n=8). Rosuvastatin inhibited the development of hepatic tumors in the mice with NAFLD induced by a specific diet both macroscopically and histologically. Rosuvastatin significantly decreased the expression levels of pro-inflammatry cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Tumor aggressiveness is mediated by angiogenic factors. Therefore, we examined the hepatic mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The hepatic expression of these factors significantly decreased in the rousvastin-fed mice. Our results thus suggest rosuvastatin that prevents carcinogenesis and improves the hepatic background. Our data suggest that rosuvastatin has potential for use as a preventive drug for the development of HCC associated with NAFLD in mice.

Huang G, Chen X, Cai Y, et al.
miR-20a-directed regulation of BID is associated with the TRAIL sensitivity in colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(1):571-578 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that play important roles in cancer processes. Although miR-20a has been reported to be altered in a range of cancers, the role of miR-20a in colorectal cancer is not fully characterized, and the relationship between miR-20a dysregulation and the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) sensitivity is not defined. In the present study, we demonstrated significant upregulation of miR-20a in the serum of colorectal cancer patients, tumor tissues and cell lines by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Furthermore, we found that the TRAIL-induced apoptosis was associated with the expression level of miR-20a in colorectal cancer. The knockdown of miR-20a by inhibitors increased the antitumor effect of TRAIL via caspase-8 dependent pathway. BID, which is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, was found to be directly regulated by miR-20a in SW480 cells. The knockdown of miR-20a inhibited the translocation of tBID to the mitochondria, which induced the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Notably, we found that the knockdown of miR-20a also reversed the resistance of TRAIL in established TRAIL-resistant SW480 cells by tBID-mitochondria pathway. Therefore, our results suggest that miR-20a acts as a tumor promoter in colorectal cancer, and the understanding of the miR-20a might be a potential therapeutic target for colorectal cancer.

Ning X, Shang XW, Zhuang Y, et al.
Correlation between TRAIL and caspase-8 expression and their relationship with cell proliferation and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(4) [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor that mainly affects children and adolescents. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. Caspase-8 appears in the upstream of apoptosis signaling pathway among caspases. We investigated TRAIL and caspase-8 levels in osteosarcoma patients to determine their correlation with cell proliferation and apoptosis. Osteosarcoma and osteochondroma patients receiving surgery in our hospital were selected. TRAIL and caspase-8 expression levels in tissue were determined by immunohistochemistry, and protein levels in cells were evaluated by western blotting. Human osteosarcoma cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The osteosarcoma and osteochondroma cell cycles and apoptosis were investigated by flow cytometry. Correlation analysis was applied to TRAIL and caspase-8 levels during cell apoptosis. Positive TRAIL and caspase-8 expression rates in osteosarcoma tissue were significantly lower than in the controls (P < 0.05). TRAIL (0.114 ± 0.002) and caspase-8 (0.352 ± 0.124) levels in experimental cells were obviously lower than in the controls (P < 0.05). Osteosarcoma cells in the experimental group demonstrated higher proliferation and lower apoptosis at 24, 48, and 72 h (P < 0.05). The experimental cell number increased in the G1 stage and decreased in the S stage (P < 0.05). TRAIL and caspase-8 proteins showed positive correlation with apoptosis in osteosarcoma (P < 0.05). Human osteosarcoma presented reduced TRAIL and caspase-8 levels with enhanced cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis. TRAIL and caspase-8 expression levels were positively correlated with apoptosis in osteosarcoma.

Gan WY, Li HM, Zhang YG, et al.
Association between IL18-607C/A and -137G/C polymorphisms and susceptibility to non-small cell lung cancer in a Chinese population.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(4) [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related mortality in males and females worldwide. A pleiotropic effect has been observed in the interleukin 18 gene (IL18); its effects include the activation of natural killer cell cytotoxicity and the promotion of the Th1 immune response through the alteration of the expression of interferon-γ and TNF-α in humans. IL18 is therefore involved in the elimination of tumor cells in the human body. We recruited 357 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 414 controls to evaluate the correlation between two genetic variations (IL18-607C/A and IL18-137G/C) and the pathogenesis of NSCLC. We used polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism to genotype IL18-607C/A and IL18-137G/C. Statistical analysis revealed that individuals harboring the AA genotype of IL18-607C/A had an increased risk of NSCLC compared to those harboring the CC genotype (OR = 2.20, 95%CI = 1.30-3.74). Individuals expressing the A allele of IL18-607C/A had an elevated risk of developing NSCLC compared to those expressing the C allele (OR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.06-1.62). In summary, our analysis shows that the IL18-607C/A genetic variation is related to the risk of NSCLC, whereas the IL18-137G/C variation is not. Therefore, the IL18-607C/A variation is related to the pathogenesis of NSCLC in the Chinese population studied.

Laytragoon-Lewin N, Cederblad L, Andersson BÅ, et al.
Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Cancer Risk, Tumor Recurrence, or Survival of Head and Neck Cancer Patients.
Oncology. 2017; 92(3):161-169 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This paper aims at studying the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on cancer risk, tumor recurrence, and survival in head and neck (H&N) cancer patients.
METHODS: A total of 45 SNPs in 41 genes were investigated. A total of 174 Caucasian H&N cancer patients and 245 healthy blood donors were enrolled in the study.
RESULTS: Ten SNPs were associated with H&N cancer risk, but the identified SNPs differed among males and females. Some of the SNPs were related to immune response genes. The immune response gene SNPs were also related to survival. In particular, we noted that the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) rs1800629 could have an influence on cancer risk, tumor recurrence as well as survival.
CONCLUSION: Genetic variation of the TNFα rs1800629 might be useful as a biomarker in clinical decision-making since it was found to be related to cancer risk, tumor recurrence, and survival of H&N cancer patients.

Alvizo-Baez CA, Luna-Cruz IE, Vilches-Cisneros N, et al.
Systemic delivery and activation of the TRAIL gene in lungs, with magnetic nanoparticles of chitosan controlled by an external magnetic field.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2016; 11:6449-6458 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recently, functional therapies targeting a specific organ without affecting normal tissues have been designed. The use of magnetic force to reach this goal is studied in this work. Previously, we demonstrated that nanocarriers based on magnetic nanoparticles could be directed and retained in the lungs, with their gene expression under the control of a promoter activated by a magnetic field. Magnetic nanoparticles containing the TRAIL gene and chitosan were constructed using the ionic gelation method as a nanosystem for magnetofection and were characterized by microscopy, ζ-potential, and retention analysis. Magnetofection in the mouse melanoma cell line B16F10 in vitro induced TRAIL-protein expression and was associated with morphological changes indicative of apoptosis. Systemic administration of the nanosystem in the tail vein of mice with melanoma B16F10 at the lungs produced a very significant increase in apoptosis in tumoral cells that correlated with the number of melanoma tumor foci observed in the lungs. The high levels of apoptosis detected in the lungs were partially related to mouse survival. The data presented demonstrate that the magnetofection nanosystem described here efficiently induces apoptosis and growth inhibition of melanoma B16F10 in the lungs. This new approach for systemic delivery and activation of a gene based in a nanocomplex offers a potential application in magnetic gene delivery for cancer.

Huang Y, Wan G, Tao J
C1q/TNF-related protein-3 exerts the chondroprotective effects in IL-1β-treated SW1353 cells by regulating the FGFR1 signaling.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 85:41-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cartilage degeneration is known as a major cause of osteoarthritis (OA). C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3) is an adipokine relative to chondrogenesis in vitro. However, its effect on cartilage degeneration in OA remains unclearly. In the present study, SW1353 cells were treated with IL-1β to imitate the microenvironment of OA for vitro research. Then, an obvious down-regulation of CTRP3 were validated in IL-1β-treated SW1353 cells. In addition, CTRP3 overexpression significantly attenuated the decrease in cell proliferation and increase in cell apoptosis triggered by IL-1β. Moreover, CTRP3 up-regulation significantly inhibited the expression of FGFR1, but with slight decrease in FGFR3 levels. Further analysis corroborated that FGFR1 overexpression markedly ameliorated the pro-proliferation and anti-apoptotic effects of CTRP3 elevation in cells upon IL-1β. Down-regulation of FGFR1 attenuated the increase in Ras-GTP expression caused by IL-1β stimulation. Moreover, EGFR1 elevation also abated the inhibitory effect of CTRP3 on Ras expression and the CRTP3-induced activation of PI3K/AKT in cells upon IL-1β. Furthermore, Ras inhibitor manumycin A antagonized the decrease in phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt caused by IL-1β treatment. Both Manumycin A and PI3K/Akt agonist FGF-1 attenuated the inhibitory effect of IL-1β on cell growth. Together, this research suggested that CTRP3 might protect chondrocytes against IL-1β-induced injury by suppressing the FGFR1- Ras/PI3K/Akt signaling-mediated growth inhibitory pathway, indicating a potential agent against osteoarthritis.

Wang Z, Yin N, Zhang Z, et al.
Upregulation of T-cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin-Domain Containing-3 (Tim-3) in Monocytes/Macrophages Associates with Gastric Cancer Progression.
Immunol Invest. 2017; 46(2):134-148 [PubMed] Related Publications
T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (Tim-3) is an important immune regulatory molecule in cancer immune system. However, expression and function of Tim-3 in monocytes/macrophages in cancer progression mainly remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed Tim-3 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 62 gastric cancer patients and 45 healthy controls using flow cytometry and then associated Tim-3 levels with clinical pathological data from patients. We found Tim-3 level was significantly upregulated in monocytes from gastric cancer patients compared with those from healthy controls, and that upregulated Tim-3 levels associated with depth of tumor invasion and tumor lymph node metastasis and advanced clinical stages of gastric cancer patients. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mouse experiments revealed that Tim-3 level on monocytes/macrophages associated with xenograft formation and growth. In addition, culture of monocytes from healthy controls with gastric cancer cell-conditioned medium upregulated Tim-3 expression, but IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, or GM-CSF treatment or T-bet, Eomes, and T-bet/Eomes double gene knockout did not affect Tim-3 levels in blood monocytes/macrophages from human or mouse, respectively. Gal-9/Tim-3 signal was able to significantly stimulate monocyte to secrete IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, but not IL-1β, IL-12p70, or TNF-α in presence of LPS. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that Tim-3 expressed by monocyte/macrophages might be an important mechanism in gastric cancer progression.

Singh PR, Priya ES, Balakrishnan S, et al.
Nimbolide inhibits androgen independent prostate cancer cells survival and proliferation by modulating multiple pro-survival signaling pathways.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1623-1634 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most prominent cancer in men, experiencing a relapse in disease often express high serum TNF-α levels. It has been correlated with increased cell survival and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Previous studies reported that nimbolide, a terpenoid derived from the leaves and flowers of neem tree inhibits cancer growth through selective modulation of cell signaling pathways linked to inflammation, survival, proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis.
METHODS: The present study aimed to examine the effect of nimbolide at 1 and 2μM concentrations on TNF-α/TNFR1 mediated signaling molecules involved in cell survival and proliferation in PC-3 cell line via NF-κB and MAPK pathways by real time PCR and western blot. Protein and compound interaction were performed by Molecular docking analysis.
RESULTS: Our results indicate that nimbolide treatment suppressed expression of TNF-α, SODD, Grb2, SOS mRNA and modulated TNF-α/TNFR1 regulated NF-κB and MAPK signaling molecules in PC-3 cells. Additional molecular dynamics simulation studies confirmed the stability of nimbolide and signaling molecules binding interactions. Binding pose analysis revealed the significance of hydrogen bond interactions for effective stabilization of virtual ligand protein complexes.
CONCLUSION: Nimbolide inhibited prostate cancer cell survival and proliferation via NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

Sanmartín E, Ortiz-Martínez F, Pomares-Navarro E, et al.
CD44 induces FOXP3 expression and is related with favorable outcome in breast carcinoma.
Virchows Arch. 2017; 470(1):81-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
We studied the relationship between CD44 and Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) gene expression in cell lines and breast carcinomas and their association with clinicopathological variables and patient outcome. We assessed messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of CD44 and FOXP3 by quantitative real-time PCR and determined the number of FOXP3+ Tregs by immunohistochemistry in 264 breast cancer specimens. CD44 was stimulated with hyaluronan treatment, and the accompanying changes in FOXP3 mRNA expression in breast cancer cell lines representing breast cancer subtype were assessed. We found that lower CD44 expression correlated with the presence of necrosis, lymph-vascular invasion, grade 3 tumors, and aggressive phenotype (HER2 and basal-like). FOXP3 mRNA correlated positively with CD44 mRNA expression and Treg content. Moreover, stimulation of CD44 expression by hyaluronan in cell lines increased FOXP3 expression, which supports that their regulation is associated. Survival analysis revealed that low CD44 expression is associated with higher frequency of recurrence. Our findings indicate that CD44 has a regulatory role in FOXP3 expression and is associated with good prognostic factors in breast cancer.

Sun J, Jiang J, Lu K, et al.
Therapeutic potential of ADAM17 modulation in gastric cancer through regulation of the EGFR and TNF-α signalling pathways.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2017; 426(1-2):17-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) is highly expressed in various tumours and affects tumour progression. In this study, ADAM17 expression in 60 gastric cancer and 20 normal gastric mucosal tissues was assessed using immunohistochemistry. ADAM17 expression was higher in gastric cancer tissues than in normal gastric mucosal tissues (P < 0.0005). A significant relationship was identified between ADAM17 expression and the depth of tumour invasion, metastasis, and carcinoma stage. Furthermore, the effects of ADAM17 knockdown on the proliferation, cell invasion, and apoptosis of human gastric carcinoma cells (SGC-7901) were determined. SGC-7901 cells were transfected with ADAM17-shRNA, and cell proliferation and migration were assessed using CCK-8 and transwell assays, respectively, to evaluate the role of ADAM17 in tumour proliferation and invasion. Furthermore, the EGFR signalling pathway, the cell membrane receptor-bound TNF-α level, and apoptosis were evaluated by western blotting and flow cytometry. The inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion was observed in the ADAM17 knockdown cells, which was associated with modulation of the EGFR signalling pathway. Apoptosis was increased, and TNF-α signalling was attenuated in the ADAM17 knockdown cells. Our study demonstrated that ADAM17 over-expression in gastric cancer tissues was closely associated with tumour proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis.

Shafi O
Inverse relationship between Alzheimer's disease and cancer, and other factors contributing to Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.
BMC Neurol. 2016; 16(1):236 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The AD etiology is yet not properly known. Interactions among environmental factors, multiple susceptibility genes and aging, contribute to AD. This study investigates the factors that play role in causing AD and how changes in cellular pathways contribute to AD.
METHODS: PUBMED database, MEDLINE database and Google Scholar were searched with no date restrictions for published articles involving cellular pathways with roles in cancers, cell survival, growth, proliferation, development, aging, and also contributing to Alzheimer's disease. This research explores inverse relationship between AD and cancer, also investigates other factors behind AD using several already published research literature to find the etiology of AD.
RESULTS: Cancer and Alzheimer's disease have inverse relationship in many aspects such as P53, estrogen, neurotrophins and growth factors, growth and proliferation, cAMP, EGFR, Bcl-2, apoptosis pathways, IGF-1, HSV, TDP-43, APOE variants, notch signals and presenilins, NCAM, TNF alpha, PI3K/AKT/MTOR pathway, telomerase, ROS, ACE levels. AD occurs when brain neurons have weakened growth, cell survival responses, maintenance mechanisms, weakened anti-stress responses such as Vimentin, Carbonic anhydrases, HSPs, SAPK. In cancer, these responses are upregulated and maintained. Evolutionarily conserved responses and maintenance mechanisms such as FOXO are impaired in AD. Countermeasures or compensatory mechanisms by AD affected neurons such as Tau, Beta Amyloid, S100, are last attempts for survival which may be protective for certain time, or can speed up AD in Alzheimer's microenvironment via C-ABL activation, GSK3, neuro-inflammation.
CONCLUSIONS: Alzheimer's disease and Cancer have inverse relationship; many factors that are upregulated in any cancer to sustain growth and survival are downregulated in Alzheimer's disease contributing to neuro-degeneration. When aged neurons or genetically susceptible neurons have weakened growth, cell survival and anti-stress responses, age related gene expression changes, altered regulation of cell death and maintenance mechanisms, they contribute to Alzheimer's disease. Countermeasures by AD neurons such as Beta Amyloid Plaques, NFTs, S100, are last attempts for survival and this provides neuroprotection for certain time and ultimately may become pathological and speed up AD. This study may contribute in developing new potential diagnostic tests, interventions and treatments.

Liu D, Wang Y, Dong M, et al.
Polymorphisms in cytokine genes as prognostic markers in diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients treated with (R)-CHOP.
Ann Hematol. 2017; 96(2):227-235 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate whether cytokine genetic polymorphisms influence the outcome of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we tested 337 consecutive DLBCL treated with CHOP or rituximab-CHOP (R-CHOP) from interleukin 10 (IL10), Bcl-2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α polymorphisms. Patients who carried the IL10 rs1800871 TT or rs1800872 AA genotype showed higher complete response (CR) and overall response rate (ORR) significantly. A longer progression-free survival (PFS) was observed in patients with IL10 rs1800871 TT (P = 0.017) or rs1800872 AA (P = 0.017) genotype after rituximab-based chemotherapy, and better PFS was also noted with Bcl-2 rs1801018 AA genotype in the CHOP group (P = 0.048). Furthermore, the R-CHOP group patients who carried the IL10 non-CCA haplotype had longer PFS (P = 0.030). Cox proportional hazards analyses demonstrated that the genotype TT of IL10 rs1800871 and AA plus AC of rs1800872 were predictive of longer PFS and event-free survival (EFS) in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP. And the Bcl-2 rs2279115 AA plus AC genotypes and rs1801018 GG genotype were risk factors for EFS in DLBCL patients treated with CHOP. In conclusion, the results reminded us those DLBCL patients with IL10 rs1800871 TT, rs1800872 AA, or IL10 non-CCA haplotype are likely to benefit from the therapy of rituximab-based chemotherapy.

Hooshmand K, Asoodeh A, Behnam-Rassouli F
GL-9 peptide regulates gene expression of CD44 cancer marker and pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line (A549).
Mol Cell Biochem. 2016; 423(1-2):141-149 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we examined cytotoxic effect of GL-9 peptide on A459 cell line through studying the changes in TNF-α and CD44 gene expression and ROS production. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the treated A549 cells highly over expressed TNF-α, which was associated with a significant reduction of CD44 gene expression levels (p  <  0.05). ROS production rate was measured through the usage of DCFH-DA primer. Results demonstrated that GL-9 peptide could also induce cell death via ROS production. The effect of GL-9 peptide on human erythrocytes and leukocytes was analyzed. GL-9 peptide showed no significant toxic effect on human blood cells. Our results suggested that the GL-9 peptide as a potent natural agent could modulate gene expression of cancer cell markers.

Zhang M, Xie Y, Yan R, et al.
Curcumin ameliorates alveolar epithelial injury in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Life Sci. 2016; 164:1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To investigate the effects of curcumin on alveolar epithelial injury in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its potential mechanism.
MAIN METHODS: The rat COPD model was established by cigarette smoke exposure combined with intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide. Thirty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, COPD model, COPD with curcumin and COPD with solvent groups. Neutrophil and macrophage infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated, and the levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in BALF and serum were determined by ELISA. Histopathological examination and TUNEL staining were used to assess the alveolar epithelial injury. The protein expression of p66Shc and p-p66Shc in the lung tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry and western blot.
KEY FINDINGS: Curcumin significantly decreased the numbers of total cells, neutrophils and macrophages in BALF from COPD rats. In addition, the levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in BALF and serum of COPD rats were significantly decreased after treatment with curcumin. Moreover, curcumin ameliorated emphysema and ultrastructural damage of alveolar epithelial cells in COPD rats. The apoptosis index of alveolar epithelial cells in the COPD with curcumin group was significantly lower than that in the COPD model group. Furthermore, the protein expression of p66Shc and p-p66Shc in alveolar epithelia was significantly decreased in the COPD with curcumin group compared with COPD model group.
SIGNIFICANCE: Curcumin attenuates alveolar epithelial injury in COPD rats, which may be partially due to the down-regulation of p66Shc.

Färkkilä A, Zauli G, Haltia UM, et al.
Circulating levels of TNF-related apoptosis inducing-ligand are decreased in patients with large adult-type granulosa cell tumors-implications for therapeutic potential.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):11909-11916 [PubMed] Related Publications
Targeted treatments are needed for advanced adult-type granulosa cell tumors (AGCTs). We set out to assess tumor tissue and circulating levels of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a promising anti-cancer cytokine, in patients affected by AGCT. We analyzed tissue expression of TRAIL in 127 AGCTs using immunohistochemistry or RT-PCR. Soluble TRAIL was measured by means of ELISA from 141 AGCT patient serum samples, as well as the conditioned media of 15 AGCT patient-derived primary cell cultures, and the KGN cell line. Tissue and serum TRAIL levels were analyzed in relationship with clinical parameters, and serum estradiol, FSH, and LH levels. We found that AGCT samples expressed TRAIL mRNA and protein at levels comparable to normal granulosa cells. AGCT cells did not release soluble TRAIL. TRAIL protein levels were decreased in tumors over 10 cm in diameter (p = 0.04). Consistently, circulating TRAIL levels correlated negatively to tumor dimension (p = 0.01). Circulating TRAIL levels negatively associated with serum estradiol levels. In multiple regression analysis, tumor size was an independent factor contributing to the decreased levels of soluble TRAIL in AGCT patients. AGCTs associate with significantly decreased tumor tissue and serum TRAIL levels in patients with a large tumor mass. These findings encourage further study of agonistic TRAIL treatments in patients with advanced or recurrent AGCT.

Shin SY, Kim CG, Jung YJ, et al.
Euphorbia humifusa Willd exerts inhibition of breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis through inhibition of TNFα-induced MMP-9 expression.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016; 16(1):413 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy in women worldwide. Euphorbia humifusa Willd (EuH) is a plant that is widely used as a traditional medicine. However, no systemic studies on the anti-cancer effects of EuH have been reported. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-metastatic effect of the EuH.
METHODS: Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared from EuH methanol extracts (EA/EuH). Inhibitory effect of EA/EuH on cell migration was determined using an in vitro scratch-wound healing assay. The anti-invasive activity was determined by in vitro three-dimensional spheroid culture system and in vivo syngenic experimental lung metastasis experiment. Gene expression profiles were analyzed by using RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and luciferase reporter assay systems.
RESULTS: Ethyl acetate fraction from the EuH extract (EA/EuH) inhibited the migration and invasive capabilities of highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and attenuated syngeneic lung metastasis of mouse 4 T1 breast cancer cells in vivo. Mechanistically, EA/EuH decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 mRNA expression through the inhibition of NF-κB activity in MDA-MB-231 cells.
CONCLUSION: EuH may be beneficial in the prevention of invasion and metastasis of early stage breast cancer and can be served as an anti-metastatic agent or adjuvant therapy against metastatic breast cancer.

Zhang L, Hong Z, Zhang RR, et al.
Bakkenolide A inhibits leukemia by regulation of HDAC3 and PI3K/Akt-related signaling pathways.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 83:958-966 [PubMed] Related Publications
Leukemia has been the third type of cancer killing many people across the world. Bakkenolide A (Bak), extracted from Petasites tricholobus, has been suggested to against cancer and display protective effects on inflammatory cytokines formation. And increasing evidences suggest that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) plays vital roles in cancer formation and persistence via cell death, apoptosis and inflammation. But the function of Bakkenolide A in regulating leukemia is not understood yet, particularly via HDAC3. Here, we found that HDAC3 is up-regulated in clinical samples of leukemia compared with adjacent normal tissues. Then the expression of HDAC3 was knocked down via RNA interference in K562 cells. And inhibition of HDAC3 expression is able to improve leukemia invasion, migration and proliferation. Further, we also found HDAC3 bound to IκBα, affecting subsequent inflammation response. Moreover, Bakkenolide A was found to inhibit inflammation, induce apoptosis and cell death in leukemia cells via PI3K-regulated signaling pathway, down-regulating IKKs expression and suppressing in proinflammatory cytokines of IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α. Up-regulation of Caspase3/7 was observed in cells of HDAC3-knockdown and Bakkenolide A treatment, inducing leukemia cell apoptosis. Also, the expression of Akt and GSK were activated by HDAC3-knockdown and Bakkenolide A-treatment. Thus, these results indicated that Bakkenolide A-mediated HDAC3 sensitization in leukemia cells seem to be associated with activation of effector IKKs, Akt/GSK, and caspases through induction of the PI3K pathway, leading to inflammation, cell death, and apoptosis.

Singh M, Loftus T, Webb E, Benencia F
Minireview: Regulatory T Cells and Ovarian Cancer.
Immunol Invest. 2016; 45(8):712-720 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the last 15 years, it has become apparent that ovarian cancer is recognized by the immune system, taking into account that T cell infiltration can be associated with increased overall survival. Several studies indicate that a correct combination of cluster of differentiation 8 and cluster of differentiation 4 T cells is key to fight tumor progression and that the presence of regulatory T cells (Tregs) infiltrating ovarian solid tumors (or present in ascites) is deleterious. Several markers that characterize Tregs include glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, and forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3). Research has shown that Tregs can infiltrate cancerous tissue and contribute to tumor growth by secreting immunosuppressive cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta and interleukin (IL)-10. Importantly, these cells might hamper the efficacy of immunotherapeutic approaches, thus strategies involving depletion or regulation of this population have been proposed and tested in experimental models. In this Minireview, we will discuss the relevance of Tregs in ovarian cancer and the experimental approaches destined to impair their immunosuppressive effects.

Srivastava S, Tsongalis GJ, Kaur P
Role of microRNAs in regulation of the TNF/TNFR gene superfamily in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Clin Biochem. 2016; 49(16-17):1307-1310 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in the Western world. The biology of this disease remains elusive. In the present times, targeted molecular therapy defines the treatment. This has made understanding the elusive biology and molecular mechanisms of the disease more relevant. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-encoding RNAs that play important gene-regulatory roles in neoplastic processes. As in silico studies list nearly hundreds and more target genes for each miRNA, it is of interest to see if there are genes that have already been implicated in this disease.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify genes regulated by miRNAs that are independently implicated in the pathogenesis of CLL in previously published literature.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight miRNAs were selected. Genes implicated in the biology of CLL in association studies and massively parallel sequence studies were selected. TargetScanHuman 6.2, a computational program that predicts target genes of miRNAs on the basis of sequence analysis, was used to link the miRNAs to genes of interest.
RESULTS: The genes targeted by miR-15a, miR-223, miR-29a, and miR181a included IL10RA, BCL2, BCL6, DDX3X, and FBXW7. The most significant link observed was that several gene members of the TNF/TNFR superfamily were targets of miR-15a, miR-29a, and miR-181a.
CONCLUSION: MiRNAs implicated in the pathogenesis of CLL regulate genes that have independently been shown to play a role in CLL. The link between miRNAs and the TNF/TNFR superfamily is especially exciting. Understanding the molecular basis of these links in future studies may pave the way for using these miRNAs as therapeutic targets in CLL.

Ikemura S, Aramaki N, Fujii S, et al.
Changes in the tumor microenvironment during lymphatic metastasis of lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2017; 108(1):136-142 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis and growth in neoplastic lesions requires the multistep regulation of microenvironmental factors. We aimed to elucidate the microenvironmental changes in the process of lymphatic metastasis of lung squamous cell carcinoma. We examined the morphological characteristics of 102 cases of primary tumor (PT), 50 of intralymphatic tumor (ILT), 51 of lymph node (LN) micrometastasis (LN-Mic; ≤2 mm in size), and 82 of LN macrometastasis (LN-Mac; ≥10 mm in size). Afterwards we evaluated the expression of nine molecules (epidermal growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, CD44, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, Podoplanin, E-cadherin, S100A4, geminin, and ezrin) in matched PT, ILT, LN-Mic, and LN-Mac from 23 of these cases. The number of smooth muscle actin α-positive fibroblasts, CD34-positive microvessels and CD204-positive macrophages were also examined. As a result, the mitotic index of tumor cells was significantly lower in ILT and LN-Mic than PT and LN-Mac (P < 0.001). Moreover, stromal reaction in ILT and LN-Mic was less prominent than in PT and LN-Mac (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical study revealed that epidermal growth factor receptor expression level and frequency of geminin-positive cells in ILT and LN-Mic were significantly lower than in PT and LN-Mac (P < 0.05). The number of stromal cells indicated by staining of CD34, CD204, and smooth muscle actin α in ILT and LN-Mic was also significantly lower than in PT and LN-Mac (P < 0.05). In lung squamous cell carcinoma, drastic microenvironmental changes (e.g., growth factor receptor expression and proliferative capacity of tumor cells and structural changes in stromal cells) occur during both the process of lymphatic permeation and the progression into macrometastases.

Dewert N, Amschler K, Lorenz V, Schön MP
The IKKα-dependent non-canonical pathway of NF-κB activation is constitutively active and modulates progression-related functions in a subset of human melanomas.
Arch Dermatol Res. 2016; 308(10):733-742 [PubMed] Related Publications
Owing to activation of several resistance-mediating pathways including NF-κB signaling, metastasized melanoma is almost universally resistant against chemotherapy. Given that blocking of NF-κB either by proteasome-, pan-IKK- or selective IKKβ-inhibitors may increase the susceptibility of melanoma cells to chemotherapy, we have assessed the role of the second kinase within the IKK complex, IKKα. While expression of IKKα and overall activation of NF-κB were heterogeneous, the IKKα-specific p100/p52 processing was detected in a small subset of melanomas (1/9 primary and 1/12 metastatic melanomas) as well as in 1/8 melanoma cell lines. Down-modulation of IKKα by siRNA resulted in diminution of doxorubicin-induced NF-κB activation, constitutive and TNFα-stimulated expression of CXCL8 and ICAM-1, and cell migration. In contrast, overexpression of IKKα in melanoma cells did not significantly affect progression-related functions. Thus, IKKα may be a worthwhile target only in selected individualized therapies but not in general melanoma therapy.

Yu L, Li J, Xu S, et al.
An Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma with SMARCB1 (INI1) inactivation in adult end-stage renal disease: a case report.
Diagn Pathol. 2016; 11(1):98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Xp11.2 translocation/transcription factor E3 (TFE3) rearrangement renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a rare subtype of RCC with limited clinical and pathological data.
CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present an unusual high-grade Xp11.2 translocation RCC with a rhabdoid feature and SMARCB1 (INI1) inactivation in a 40-year-old man with end-stage kidney disease. The histological examination of the dissected left renal tumor showed an organoid architecture of the eosinophilic or clear neoplastic cells with necrosis and high mitotic activity. In some areas, non-adhesive tumor cells with eccentric nuclei were observed. Immunohistochemically (IHC), the tumor cells are positive for TFE3 and the renal tubular markers (PAX2 and PAX8), and completely negative for SMARCB1, an oncosuppressor protein. Break-apart florescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed TFE3 rearrangement on Xp11.2 and the presence of ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion gene. DNA sequencing revealed a frameshift mutation in exon 4 of SMARCB1 gene.
CONCLUSION: It is important to recognize this rare RCC with both TFE3 rearrangement and SMARCB1 inactivation, as the prognosis and therapeutic strategies, particularly targeted therapies for such tumors, might be different.

Liu ZJ, Liu HL, Zhou HC, Wang GC
TIPE2 Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Activation and EMT in Glioma Cells.
Oncol Res. 2016; 24(4):255-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) could facilitate tumor progression. TIPE2, the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced protein 8-like 2 (also known as TNFAIP8L2), is a member of the TNF-α-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8, TIPE) family and has been involved in the development and progression of several tumors. However, the effects of TIPE2 on the EMT process in glioma cells and the underlying mechanisms of these effects have not been previously reported. In our study, we assessed the roles of TIPE2 in the EMT process in glioma cells in response to hypoxia. Our results indicated that TIPE2 expression was significantly decreased in human glioma cell lines. TIPE2 overexpression significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced migration and invasion, as well as suppressed the EMT process in glioma cells. Furthermore, TIPE2 overexpression prevented hypoxia-induced expression of β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-myc in human glioma cells. In summary, these data suggest that TIPE2 overexpression inhibited hypoxia-induced Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation and EMT in glioma cells.

Zhang G, Liu Z, Han Y, et al.
Overexpression of miR-509 Increases Apoptosis and Inhibits Invasion via Suppression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Hs578T Cells.
Oncol Res. 2016; 24(4):233-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with high recurrence rates of metastasis and death. miR-509 has been reported to be a tumor suppressor in many cancers, but its effect in TNBC has not yet been identified. In this article, we explored the effects of miR-509 on the malignant phenotype of TNBC cells, including proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. We transiently transfected TNBC cells, Hs578T, with miR-509 mimic. Upon transfection, the expression of miR-509 was upregulated about 50-fold compared with cells transfected with scramble mimic. Overexpression of miR-509 inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and suppressed cell invasion of Hs578T cells. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was involved in miR-509-mediated suppressive effects of TNBC cells, as being treated with TNF-α could partially abolish the suppressive effects of miR-509. Collectively, these data suggest that miR-509 could reverse the malignant phenotype of TNBC cells, probably by suppressing TNF-α.

Palaska I, Gagari E, Theoharides TC
The effects of P. gingivalis and E. coli LPS on the expression of proinflammatory mediators in human mast cells and their relevance to periodontal disease.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2016 Jul-Sep; 30(3):655-664 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mast cells (MCs) are tissue-resident immune cells that participate in a variety of allergic and inflammatory conditions, including periodontal disease, through the release of cytokines, chemokines and proteolytic enzymes. Porhyromonas gingivalis (P. g) is widely recognized as a major pathogen in the development and progression of periodontitis. Here we compared the differential effects of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from P. g and E. coli on the expression and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) by human MCs. Human LAD2 MCs were stimulated with LPS from either P. g or E. coli (1-1000 ng/ml). MCs were also stimulated with SP (2μM) serving as the positive control or media alone as the negative control. After 24 h, the cells and supernatant fluids were collected and analyzed for β-Hexosaminidase (β-hex) spectrophotometrically, TNF, VEGF and MCP-1 release by ELISA and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for mediator gene expression, respectively. To assess the functional role of tolllike receptors (TRL) in mediator release, MCs were pre-incubated with either anti-TLR2 or anti- TLR4 (2 μg/ml) polyclonal antibody for 1 h before stimulation with LPS. When MCs were stimulated with SP (2 μM), there was a statistically significant β-hex release as well as release of TNF, VEGF and MCP-1. Stimulation of MCs with either type of LPS did not induce degranulation based on the lack of β-hex release. However, both types of LPS stimulated expression and release of TNF, VEGF and MCP-1. Although, P. g LPS induced significant release of TNF, VEGF and MCP-1, the effect was not concentration-dependent. There was no statistically significant difference between the effects of P. g and E. coli LPS. P. g LPS stimulated TNF through TLR-2 while E. coli utilized TRL-4 instead. In contrast, VEGF release by P. g LPS required both TRL-2 and TRL-4 while E. coli LPS required TLR-4. Release of MCP-1 was independent of TLR-2 or TLR-4. P. g LPS activates human MCs to generate and release TNF, VEGF and MCP-1 through different TLRs than E. coli LPS. MCs may, therefore, be involved in the inflammatory processes responsible for periodontal disease.

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