Screening for Prostate Cancer
CancerIndex Home - Guide to Internet Resources for Cancer Home > Genitourinary (Male) > Prostate Cancer > Screening for Prostate Cancer

Raised levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are a common symptom of prostate cancer, however, it can be caused by other conditions too. Routinely screening of all men to check their levels of PSA is a controversial subject across the international medical community, healthcare providers and advocacy groups. This is because there are many risks (including invasive tests, 'false positives', unnecessary treatment and side effects) as well as potential benefits (earlier detection of disease when it is still curable), and the PSA test does not differentiate between slow growing tumours which may never need treatment and more aggressive prostate cancer. Research into better tests is needed.

Current policies vary between different countries. Some advocates recommend all men over 50 have an annual PSA test, many countries recommend against regular mass screening, but increasingly UK and recent US recommendations are for PSA testing to be a individual's decision to make an informed choice. It is complex and best discussed with your doctor.

Found this page useful?

Menu: Screening for Prostate Cancer

Information for Patients and the Public
Information for Health Professionals / Researchers
Latest Research Publications
Prostate Cancer
Cancer Screening and Early Detection

Information Patients and the Public (12 links)

Information for Health Professionals / Researchers (4 links)

Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

McClure P, Elnakib A, Abou El-Ghar M, et al.
In-vitro and in-vivo diagnostic techniques for prostate cancer: a review.
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2014; 10(10):2747-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
This paper overviews one of the most important, interesting, and challenging problems in oncology, early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Developing effective diagnostic techniques for prostate cancer is of great clinical importance and can improve the effectiveness of treatment and increase the patient's chance of survival. The main focus of this study is to overview the different in-vitro and in-vivo technologies for diagnosing prostate cancer. This review discusses the current clinically used in-vitro cancer diagnostic tools, such as biomarker tests and needle biopsies and including their applications, advantages, and limitations. Moreover, the current in-vitro research tools that focus on the role of nanotechnology in prostate cancer diagnosis have been detailed. In addition to the in-vitro techniques, the current study discusses in detail developed in-vivo non-invasive state-of-the-art Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for prostate cancer based on analyzing Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) and different types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), e.g., T2-MRI, Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI), Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE)-MRI, and multi-parametric MRI, focusing on their implementation, experimental procedures, and reported outcomes. Furthermore, the paper addresses the limitations of the current prostate cancer diagnostic techniques, outlines the challenges that these techniques face, and introduces the recent trends to solve these challenges, which include biomarkers used in in-vitro lab-on-a-chip nanotechnology-based methods.

Galunska B, Gerova D, Kosev P, et al.
Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in Bulgarian patients with prostate cancer: a pilot study.
Clin Lab. 2015; 61(3-4):329-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The antiproliferative effect of the active form of vitamin D on cancer cells and its ability to induce cell differentiation and suppression of tumor-induced angiogenesis in the last decade has provoked enormous research for the elucidation of its role in the prevention of different types of cancer and in slowing down the malignancy progression. The aim of the present pilot study was to determine the circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) levels in Bulgarian prostate cancer (PCa) patients and to investigate their relationship with various determinants associated with the severity and progression of the disease.
METHODS: A total of 53 male patients (mean age 67.0 ± 7.1 years) with clinical suspicion for PCa were enrolled in the study. All patients were subjected to systemic transrectal ultrasound-guided tru-cut prostate biopsies (10 cores at least). Detected tumors were graded using the Gleason grading system. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) serum levels were measured immunochemically. The 25OHD assay was performed by a validated HPLC-UV method. Other covariates (BMI, age, family history of PCa) were collected by interview at the time of hospitalization. One-way ANOVA with Kruskal Wallis statistics was used for comparison of medians of different parameters. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05.
RESULTS: Significantly lower 25OHD levels were detected in PCa patients compared to those with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) (p < 0.05). Patients with high grade tumors (Gleason score ≥ 7) showed significantly lower 25OHD levels, while those with low grade tumors (Gleason score < 7) revealed better 25OHD status (50.49 vs. 63.17 nmol/L, p < 0.05). A moderate negative correlation between 25OHD levels and the Gleason score was established (Spearman r = -0.46, p < 0.05). Significant seasonal variations in 25OHD levels, both for PCa and BPH patients, were detected (p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study shows an association between 25OHD status and classical markers characterizing the severity of PCa. The results might suggest a potential beneficial role of vitamin D for PCa patients. Further prospective studies are needed to strengthen the interrelationships between 25OHD levels and variables related with PCa and to test them for causality.

Shah M, Denlinger CS
Optimal post-treatment surveillance in cancer survivors: is more really better?
Oncology (Williston Park). 2015; 29(4):230-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
A substantial rise in the number of cancer survivors has led to management questions regarding effective post-treatment surveillance strategies. Although a number of professional societies have proposed surveillance guidelines, clinical practice varies; the general trend is toward more intensive strategies. The evidence supporting intensive surveillance is relatively lacking, with most studies showing that more intense surveillance regimens have minimal, if any, impact on outcomes in terms of survival, quality of life, or overall cost-effectiveness. This has been demonstrated in breast cancer, and data supporting a similar conclusion may be evolving in colorectal cancer, where large prospective studies call into question the utility of intensive surveillance; in prostate cancer, retrospective data suggest a similar trend. In this review, we discuss the established guidelines and current evidence regarding post-treatment surveillance, and we propose general management strategies in prostate, colorectal, and breast cancers.

Related: Breast Cancer Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer USA

Raslau D, Summerfield DT, Abu Dabrh AM, et al.
The risk of prostate cancer in pilots: a meta-analysis.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(2):112-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aviation exposes pilots to various occupationally related hazards, including ionizing radiation and chemical combustion. The possible increased risk of prostate cancer among pilots in comparison to the general population is a subject of debate. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the quality of supporting evidence and magnitude of this association.
METHODS: All studies pertaining to prostate cancer in pilots were retrieved from multiple databases and from a manual search. Any study that assessed the incidence of prostate cancer relative to the incidence in the general population was included regardless of language or size. A random effect model was used to pool relative risks (RR) across studies. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Q statistic and I².
RESULTS: Eight studies with a low risk of bias were included in the meta-analysis. Pilots had an increased risk of developing prostate cancer compared to the general population [RR 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-2.7]. The analysis was associated with substantial heterogeneity (I² = 79%). Several subgroups had significantly increased risk, such as African American pilots (RR 10.00; 95% CI, 5.04-19.86) and military pilots (RR 3.30; 95% CI, 2.03-5.39).
CONCLUSION: Pilots are at least twice as likely to develop prostate cancer compared to the general population. The implications of these findings are important considering the high prevalence of prostate cancer and the large number of pilots in the workforce.

Clemente S, Nigro R, Oliviero C, et al.
Role of the technical aspects of hypofractionated radiation therapy treatment of prostate cancer: a review.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 91(1):182-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
The increasing use of moderate (<35 fractions) and extreme (<5 fractions) hypofractionated radiation therapy in prostate cancer is yielding favorable results, both in terms of maintained biochemical response and toxicity. Several hypofractionation (HF) schemes for the treatment of prostate cancer are available, although there is considerable variability in the techniques used to manage intra-/interfraction motion and deliver radiation doses. We performed a review of the published studies on HF regimens as a topic of interest for the Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy working group, which is part of the Italian Association of Medical Physics. Aspects of organ motion management (imaging for contouring, target volume definition, and rectum/bladder preparation) and treatment delivery (prostate localization, image guided radiation therapy strategy and frequency) were evaluated and categorized to assess outcome relative to disease control and toxicity. Despite the heterogeneity of the data, some interesting trends that emerged from the review might be useful in identifying an optimum HF strategy.

Fager M, Toma-Dasu I, Kirk M, et al.
Linear energy transfer painting with proton therapy: a means of reducing radiation doses with equivalent clinical effectiveness.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 91(5):1057-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to propose a proton treatment planning method that trades physical dose (D) for dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LETd) while keeping the radiobiologically weighted dose (DRBE) to the target the same.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: The target is painted with LETd by using 2, 4, and 7 fields aimed at the proximal segment of the target (split target planning [STP]). As the LETd within the target increases with increasing number of fields, D decreases to maintain the DRBE the same as the conventional treatment planning method by using beams treating the full target (full target planning [FTP]).
RESULTS: The LETd increased 61% for 2-field STP (2STP) compared to FTP, 72% for 4STP, and 82% for 7STP inside the target. This increase in LETd led to a decrease of D with 5.3 ± 0.6 Gy for 2STP, 4.4 ± 0.7 Gy for 4STP, and 5.3 ± 1.1 Gy for 7STP, keeping the Drbe at 90% of the volume (Drbe, 90) constant to FTP.
CONCLUSIONS: LETd painting offers a method to reduce prescribed dose at no cost to the biological effectiveness of the treatment.

Qin A, Sun Y, Liang J, Yan D
Evaluation of online/offline image guidance/adaptation approaches for prostate cancer radiation therapy.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 91(5):1026-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate online/offline image-guided/adaptive treatment techniques for prostate cancer radiation therapy with daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Three treatment techniques were evaluated retrospectively using daily pre- and posttreatment CBCT images on 22 prostate cancer patients. Prostate, seminal vesicles (SV), rectal wall, and bladder were delineated on all CBCT images. For each patient, a pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy plan with clinical target volume (CTV) = prostate + SV and planning target volume (PTV) = CTV + 3 mm was created. The 3 treatment techniques were as follows: (1) Daily Correction: The pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy plan was delivered after online CBCT imaging, and position correction; (2) Online Planning: Daily online inverse plans with 3-mm CTV-to-PTV margin were created using online CBCT images, and delivered; and (3) Hybrid Adaption: Daily Correction plus an offline adaptive inverse planning performed after the first week of treatment. The adaptive plan was delivered for all remaining 15 fractions. Treatment dose for each technique was constructed using the daily posttreatment CBCT images via deformable image registration. Evaluation was performed using treatment dose distribution in target and critical organs.
RESULTS: Treatment equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for the CTV was within [85.6%, 100.8%] of the pretreatment planned target EUD for Daily Correction; [98.7%, 103.0%] for Online Planning; and [99.2%, 103.4%] for Hybrid Adaptation. Eighteen percent of the 22 patients in Daily Correction had a target dose deficiency >5%. For rectal wall, the mean ± SD of the normalized EUD was 102.6% ± 2.7% for Daily Correction, 99.9% ± 2.5% for Online Planning, and 100.6% ± 2.1% for Hybrid Adaptation. The mean ± SD of the normalized bladder EUD was 108.7% ± 8.2% for Daily Correction, 92.7% ± 8.6% for Online Planning, and 89.4% ± 10.8% for Hybrid Adaptation.
CONCLUSIONS: Both Online Planning and Hybrid Adaptation can achieve comparable target coverage and normal tissue sparing and are superior to the Daily Correction technique. The Daily Correction technique using a 3-mm target margin in the pretreatment plan is not appropriate to compensate for residual variations in CBCT image-guided prostate cancer radiation therapy.

Kuang Y, Wu L, Hirata E, et al.
Volumetric modulated arc therapy planning for primary prostate cancer with selective intraprostatic boost determined by 18F-choline PET/CT.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 91(5):1017-25 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study evaluated expected tumor control and normal tissue toxicity for prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with and without radiation boosts to an intraprostatically dominant lesion (IDL), defined by (18)F-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT).
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty patients with localized prostate cancer underwent (18)F-choline PET/CT before treatment. Two VMAT plans, plan79 Gy and plan100-105 Gy, were compared for each patient. The whole-prostate planning target volume (PTVprostate) prescription was 79 Gy in both plans, but plan100-105 Gy added simultaneous boost doses of 100 Gy and 105 Gy to the IDL, defined by 60% and 70% of maximum prostatic uptake on (18)F-choline PET (IDLsuv60% and IDLsuv70%, respectively, with IDLsuv70% nested inside IDLsuv60% to potentially enhance tumor specificity of the maximum point dose). Plan evaluations included histopathological correspondence, isodose distributions, dose-volume histograms, tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP).
RESULTS: Planning objectives and dose constraints proved feasible in 30 of 30 cases. Prostate sextant histopathology was available for 28 cases, confirming that IDLsuv60% adequately covered all tumor-bearing prostate sextants in 27 cases and provided partial coverage in 1 case. Plan100-105 Gy had significantly higher TCP than plan79 Gy across all prostate regions for α/β ratios ranging from 1.5 Gy to 10 Gy (P<.001 for each case). There were no significant differences in bladder and femoral head NTCP between plans and slightly lower rectal NTCP (endpoint: grade ≥ 2 late toxicity or rectal bleeding) was found for plan100-105 Gy.
CONCLUSIONS: VMAT can potentially increase the likelihood of tumor control in primary prostate cancer while observing normal tissue tolerances through simultaneous delivery of a steep radiation boost to a (18)F-choline PET-defined IDL.

Wittmann D
Coping with losses, grief, and mourning in prostate cancer.
Adv Psychosom Med. 2015; 34:109-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is a highly prevalent disease with a high likelihood of survival. If treated, survivors live with significant and lasting treatment-related side effects. Surgical treatment is associated with urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, and radiation leads to urinary and bowel irritability as well as erectile dysfunction. Patients who undergo hormonal treatment cope with sexual dysfunction, bone density loss, hot flashes, mood symptoms, and cardiac and metabolic disorders. Functional losses have a significant impact on patients and their partners' quality of life and are associated with distress and psychosocial morbidity. Psychosocial treatment is largely unavailable in usual care, but has been shown to reduce distress, to increase positive reappraisal of the illness, and to contribute to the recovery of sexual intimacy. Treatment for grief and mourning, typical reactions to loss, has not been introduced into psychosocial interventions but is increasingly recognized as a path toward a 'new normal' after prostate cancer treatment.

Sohail SK, Sarfraz R, Imran M, et al.
Power doppler ultrasonography guided and random prostate biopsy in prostate cancer diagnosis - a comparative study.
J Pak Med Assoc. 2015; 65(1):65-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of power Doppler-guided targeted prostate biopsy and random sextant biopsy in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
METHODS: The prospective study was carried out at the Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from January to December, 2012, and comprised clinically suspected cases of carcinoma prostate. Power Doppler-guided biopsies using automatic biopsy gun were obtained from the suspected targeted site. One to three cores per suspected site were obtained. Subsequently random sextant biopsies were performed in the same sitting. Six cores were obtained from 6 random sites using the same gun. Biopsies from both sources were processed for routine haematoxylin and eosin stainstained sections for histopathological examination.
RESULTS: Of the 50 patients in the study, 30(60%) were diagnosed with power Doppler-guided biopsy as malignant, whereas random sextant biopsy could pick up 22(44%) cases. For benign prostatic hyperplasia, random sextant biopsy labelled 28(56%)as benign, whereas only 20 (40%) were labelled as benign with power Doppler-guided biopsy. Discrepancy in the results between the two procedures was observed in 14(28%) cases, and of them, 1 1(22%) were labelled as malignant on power Doppler-guided biopsy while histopathology of sextant biopsies labelled these as benign.The sextant biopsies rendered a specificity, sensitivity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of 60.71%, 86.36%, 85%, 63.33% and 72% respectively.
CONCLUSION: Random sextant biopsy in combination with power Doppler-guided targeted biopsy increases the rate of detection of prostate cancer whereas both procedures in isolation have low sensitivity and specificity for cancer detection.

Humm JL, Sartor O, Parker C, et al.
Radium-223 in the treatment of osteoblastic metastases: a critical clinical review.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 91(5):898-906 [PubMed] Related Publications
The element radium (Ra) was discovered by the Curies in 1898 and within a decade was in broad scientific testing for the management of several forms of cancer. The compound was known to give rise to a series of both high-energy particulate and penetrating γ-emissions. The latter found an important role in early 20th century brachytherapy applications, but the short-range α-particles seemed much less useful. Although highly cytotoxic when released within a few cell diameters of critical cell nuclei, the dense double-strand break damage was poorly repaired, and concerns regarding treatment-related toxicities and secondary malignancies halted clinical development. Moreover, the most common isotope of Ra has an exceptionally long half-life (>1600 years for (226)Ra) that proved daunting when aiming for a systemic cancer therapy. Fortunately, other radium isotopes have more convenient half-lives while still producing cytotoxic α particles. Radium-223 dichloride has a half-life of 11.4 days, and this isotope was identified as an excellent candidate for radionuclide therapy of cancers metastatic to bone. The calcium-mimetic chemical properties of the radium allowed intravenous infusion with rapid uptake to sites of new bone formation. The highly efficient bone localization suggested a potential therapeutic role for osteoblastic bone metastases, and a series of phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical trials was undertaken to explore this possibility. This series of clinical explorations culminated in the ALSYMPCA trial, an international, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study that accrued 921 symptomatic men with bone-metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Results of this trial demonstrated a prolongation of overall survival, and regulatory agencies around the world have now approved this product as a treatment for advanced prostate cancer.

Related: Breast Cancer Myeloma Myeloma - Molecular Biology Osteosarcoma

Couper J, Collins A, Bloch S, et al.
Cognitive existential couple therapy (CECT) in men and partners facing localised prostate cancer: a randomised controlled trial.
BJU Int. 2015; 115 Suppl 5:35-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of cognitive existential couple therapy (CECT) for relationship function, coping, cancer distress and mental health in men with localised prostate cancer and in their partners.
PATIENTS SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A randomised controlled trial was conducted with 62 couples randomly assigned to the six-session CECT programme or care as usual. The couple's relationship function (primary outcome), and coping, cancer distress and mental health (secondary outcomes) were evaluated at T0 (baseline), T1 (after treatment) and T2 (9 months from T0). A repeated-measures analysis of covariance model, which incorporated T0 measurements as a covariate, was used to compare treatment groups at T1 and T2.
RESULTS: After CECT, patients reported significantly greater use of adaptive coping (P = 0.03) and problem-focused coping (P = 0.01). These gains were maintained at follow-up, while relationship cohesion had improved (P = 0.03), as had relationship function for younger patients (P = 0.01). Younger partners reported less cancer-specific distress (P = 0.008), avoidance (P = 0.04), intrusive thought (P = 0.006), and hyperarousal (P = 0.01). Gains were maintained at follow-up, while relationship cohesion (P = 0.007), conflict resolution (P = 0.01) and relational function (P = 0.009) all improved.
CONCLUSION: CECT resulted in improved coping for patients and lower cancer-distress for partners. Maintained over time this manifests as improved relationship function. CECT was acceptable to couples, alleviated long-term relationship decline, and is therefore suitable as a preventative mental health intervention for couples facing prostate cancer. Given resourcing demands, we recommend dissemination of CECT be targeted at younger couples, as CECT was more acceptable to the younger group, and they derived greater benefit from it.

Wang EH, Yu JB, Gross CP, et al.
Association between surgeon and hospital characteristics and lymph node counts from radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection.
Urology. 2015; 85(4):890-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether surgical approach and hospital characteristics independently determine the number of lymph nodes (LNs) removed from prostate cancer patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) and pelvic LN dissection (PLND).
METHODS: Using the National Cancer Database, we identified all surgically treated patients diagnosed with pretreatment intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer from 2010 to 2011. The primary outcome was the number of LNs retrieved at the time of RP. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess for differences in the adjusted number of LNs retrieved after accounting for patient and hospital characteristics and surgical approach.
RESULTS: Overall, 35,876 patients were diagnosed with intermediate-risk (61.2%) and high-risk (38.8%) prostate cancer and underwent RP and PLND.On multivariate analysis, open RP and high-volume and academic hospitals were independently associated with greater LN counts compared with robotic-assisted RP and medium or low and community hospitals, respectively (all P <.001). After adjusting for patient and hospital variables, higher adjusted LN counts were observed for open RP compared with robotic-assisted RP (7.1 vs 6.1; P <.001). Adjusted counts were also higher for high-volume hospitals compared with medium- or low-volume hospitals (7.8 vs 5.9; P <.001), and academic compared with community hospitals (7.3 vs 5.6; P <.001).
CONCLUSION: Among patients with aggressive prostate cancer treated with RP and PLND, retrieval of LN counts varied by surgical approach and hospital characteristics.

Ponte R, Ravetti JL, Pacella M, Toncini C
Multifocal blue nevus of the prostate: a case report.
Anal Quant Cytopathol Histpathol. 2014; 36(6):335-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Blue nevus of the prostate is rare and is most commonly discovered incidentally in patients presenting with classic symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia. Only 32 cases have been reported to date in the literature. We describe the first case of multifocal blue nevus of the prostate gland.
CASE: A 69-year-old man presented with obstructive urinary symptoms. The preoperative clinical and radiological fndings had shown a massive increase in the volume of the prostate. Suprapubic prostatectomy was performed with good postoperative course. The histopathological examination disclosed benign hyperplasia with large areas characterized by abundant fibromuscular component. In the context of this hyperplasia were observed a dozen foci of pigmented cells measuring 0.1-1 cm in diameter. Histochemical and immunohistochemical stains confirmed the pigment as melanin.
CONCLUSION: A review of the literature shows that the blue nevus of the prostate is an incidental finding and is most often associated with a benign disease of the prostate, as indeed occurred in our case. All the cases reported are monofocal. Ours is the first reported multifocal case and, as the material has not been fully sampled, consists of at least 12 different outbreaks of varying sizes. Even in our case blue nevus was asymptomatic, and the patient showed no symptoms related to the same blue nevus.

Hardaway AL, Herroon MK, Rajagurubandara E, Podgorski I
Marrow adipocyte-derived CXCL1 and CXCL2 contribute to osteolysis in metastatic prostate cancer.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2015; 32(4):353-68 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
Increased bone marrow adiposity is a common feature of advanced age, obesity and associated metabolic pathologies. Augmented numbers of marrow adipocytes positively correlate with dysregulated bone remodeling, also a well-established complication of metastatic disease. We have shown previously that marrow adiposity accelerates prostate tumor progression in the skeleton and promotes extensive destruction of the bone; however, the factors behind adipocyte-driven osteolysis in the skeletal tumor microenvironment are not currently known. In this study, utilizing in vivo diet-induced models of bone marrow adiposity, we reveal evidence for positive correlation between increased marrow fat content, bone degradation by ARCaP(M) and PC3 prostate tumors, and augmented levels of host-derived CXCL1 and CXCL2, ligands of CXCR2 receptor. We show by in vitro osteoclastogenesis assays that media conditioned by bone marrow adipocytes is a significant source of CXCL1 and CXCL2 proteins. We also demonstrate that both the adipocyte-conditioned media and the recombinant CXCL1 and CXCL2 ligands efficiently accelerate osteoclast maturation, a process that can be blocked by neutralizing antibodies to each of the chemokines. We further confirm the contribution of CXCR2 signaling axis to adiposity-driven osteoclastogenesis by blocking fat cell-induced osteoclast differentiation with CXCR2 antagonist or neutralizing antibodies. Together, our results link CXCL1 and CXCL2 chemokines with bone marrow adiposity and implicate CXCR2 signaling in promoting effects of marrow fat on progression of skeletal tumors in bone.

Related: CXCL1 CXCL2

Scher HI, Heller G, Molina A, et al.
Circulating tumor cell biomarker panel as an individual-level surrogate for survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(12):1348-55 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/04/2016 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Trials in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) need new clinical end points that are valid surrogates for survival. We evaluated circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration as a surrogate outcome measure.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Examining CTCs alone and in combination with other biomarkers as a surrogate for overall survival was a secondary objective of COU-AA-301, a multinational, randomized, double-blind phase III trial of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus prednisone alone in patients with metastatic CRPC previously treated with docetaxel. The biomarkers were measured at baseline and 4, 8, and 12 weeks, with 12 weeks being the primary measure of interest. The Prentice criteria were applied to test candidate biomarkers as surrogates for overall survival at the individual-patient level.
RESULTS: A biomarker panel using CTC count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was shown to satisfy the four Prentice criteria for individual-level surrogacy. Twelve-week surrogate biomarker data were available for 711 patients. The abiraterone acetate plus prednisone and prednisone-alone groups demonstrated a significant survival difference (P = .034); surrogate distribution at 12 weeks differed by treatment (P < .001); the discriminatory power of the surrogate to predict mortality was high (weighted c-index, 0.81); and adding the surrogate to the model eliminated the treatment effect on survival. Overall, 2-year survival of patients with CTCs < 5 (low risk) versus patients with CTCs ≥ 5 cells/7.5 mL of blood and LDH > 250 U/L (high risk) at 12 weeks was 46% and 2%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: A biomarker panel containing CTC number and LDH level was shown to be a surrogate for survival at the individual-patient level in this trial of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus prednisone alone for patients with metastatic CRPC. Additional trials are ongoing to validate the findings.

Rosenkrantz AB, Verma S, Turkbey B
Prostate cancer: top places where tumors hide on multiparametric MRI.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015; 204(4):W449-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Prostate tumors occasionally have unusual manifestations on multiparametric MR images that can present a diagnostic dilemma and result in a false-negative interpretation. This article presents examples of such "hiding places" of prostate tumors, four in the peripheral zone and four in the central gland.
CONCLUSION: The provided pointers in multiparametric MRI assessment can aid the radiologist in achieving an accurate diagnosis of tumor in the eight scenarios described.

Tan CH, Hobbs BP, Wei W, Kundra V
Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for the detection of prostate cancer: meta-analysis.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015; 204(4):W439-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyze dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) for the detection of prostate cancer in comparison with standard evaluation with T2-weighted imaging.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed electronic database search for the terms "dynamic contrast-enhanced," "prostate," and "MRI" was completed for articles up to September 17, 2013. All included studies had histopathologic correlation. Two by two contingency data were constructed for each study. A binormal bayesian ROC model was used to estimate and compare sensitivity, specificity, and AUC among eligible modalities.
RESULTS: Both DCE-MRI (0.82-0.86) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) (0.84-0.88) yielded significantly better AUC than T2-weighted imaging (0.68-0.77). Moreover, partial AUC for the combination of DCE-MRI, DWI, and T2-weighted imaging was improved significantly (0.111; 0.103-0.119) when compared with DCE-MRI alone (0.079; 0.072-0.085) and T2-weighted imaging alone (0.079; 0.074-0.084) but not DWI alone (0.099; 0.091-0.108). Sensitivity and specificity were similar among the four modalities.
CONCLUSION: DCE-MRI improves AUC of tumor detection overall compared with T2-weighted imaging alone. Methods for DCE-MRI analysis require standardization, but visual analysis performs similar to semiquantitative methods. A two-parameter approach using DCE-MRI and T2-weighted imaging or DWI and T2-weighted imaging may be sufficient, and the latter may be more favorable for most routine prostate cancer imaging.

Fu YQ, Zheng JS, Yang B, Li D
Effect of individual omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
J Epidemiol. 2015; 25(4):261-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/04/2016 Related Publications
Epidemiological studies have suggested inconsistent associations between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We performed a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies investigating both dietary intake and circulating n-3 PUFAs and PCa risk. PubMed and EMBASE prior to February 2014 were searched, and 16 publications were eligible. Blood concentration of docosahexaenoic acid, but not alpha-linolenic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid, showed marginal positive association with PCa risk (relative risk for 1% increase in blood docosahexaenoic acid concentration: 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.05; I(2) = 26%; P = 0.05 for linear trend), while dietary docosahexaenoic acid intake showed a non-linear positive association with PCa risk (P < 0.01). Dietary alpha-linolenic acid was inversely associated with PCa risk (relative risk for 0.5 g/day increase in alpha-linolenic acid intake: 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.00; I(2) = 0%; P = 0.04 for linear trend), which was dominated by a single study. Subgroup analyses indicated that blood eicosapentaenoic acid concentration and blood docosahexaenoic acid concentration were positively associated with aggressive PCa risk and nonaggressive PCa risk, respectively. Among studies with nested case-control study designs, a 0.2% increase in blood docosapentaenoic acid concentration was associated with a 3% reduced risk of PCa (relative risk 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.00; I(2) = 44%; P = 0.05 for linear trend). In conclusion, different individual n-3 PUFA exposures may exhibit different or even opposite associations with PCa risk, and more prospective studies, especially those examining dietary n-3 PUFAs and PCa risk stratified by severity of cancer, are needed to confirm the results.

Sun H, Deng Q, Pan Y, et al.
Association between estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) genetic variations and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
J BUON. 2015 Jan-Feb; 20(1):296-308 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Emerging published reports on the association between estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) genetic variation and cancer susceptibility are inconsistent. This review and meta- analysis was performed to achieve a more precise evaluation of this relationship.
METHODS: A literature search of PubMed database was conducted from the inception of this study through April 1st 2014. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to assess the association.
RESULTS: 87 studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that PvuII (T>C) polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and prostate cancer, in contrast with the decreased risk of gallbladder cancer. No significant association was found in Asian and Caucasian populations. Furthermore, XbaI (A>G) genetic variation was only associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, but was not related with race. In addition, T594T (G>A) polymorphisms were significantly associated with an increased risk of cancer, especially in Asian populations.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis indicated that PvuII (T>C) genetic variation may be risk factor for HCC, prostate cancer and gallbladder cancer. Meanwhile, XbaI (A>G) polymorphism may be potential prognostic factor for prostate cancer. Furthermore, T594T (G>A) was closely related with cancer susceptibility, especially in Asian populations.

Related: Gallbladder Cancer Liver Cancer Polymorphisms ESR1

Kouloulias V, Antypas C, Liakouli Z, et al.
The first implementation of IMRT technique for head & neck and prostate cancer patients in public sector in Greece: feasibility, treatment planning and dose delivery verification using the delta(4PT) Pre-Treatment volumetric quality assurance system.
J BUON. 2015 Jan-Feb; 20(1):196-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is nowadays the treatment of choice, in terms of technique, for either head & neck or prostate cancer. With this paper, we are sharing our experience for the first inplementation of IMRT planning in the public sector in Greece, and especially in the Aretaieion University Hospital of Athens.
METHODS: From May 2013 until January 2014 four prostate and four head & neck cancer patients were evaluated in the present study. We used the ONCENTRA IMRT treatment planning with a step and shoot technique in a SIEMENS ONCORE Linac. The dose verification method used was based on the delta4(PT) Pre-Treatment volumetric quality assurance system, by Scadidos.
RESULTS: In all cases, the Relative Standard Deviation between the prescribed and the calculated average dose received by the target volume was less than 5%, while the γ-index was more than 90%. The acute toxicity was low and equivalent to published data with IMRT technique.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the first implementation of IMRT technique in the Medical School of Athens was feasible and safe as well as in terms of dose verification. The IMRT technique is already in clinical use and further results with long term radiation induced toxicity will be reported.

Related: Head and Neck Cancers Head and Neck Cancers - Molecular Biology

Dezhong L, Xiaoyi Z, Xianlian L, et al.
miR-150 is a factor of survival in prostate cancer patients.
J BUON. 2015 Jan-Feb; 20(1):173-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common malignant disease in males and the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in men in developed countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether microRNA (miR)-150 is a factor influencing survival in prostate cancer patients.
METHODS: miR-150 mRNA and protein expression levels in prostatic cancer cell lines and healthy tissues were determined by quantitative (q) RT-PCR and Western blotting. Additionally, the protein expression of miR-150 was detected by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: High miR-150 expression was positively correlated with tumor recurrence or metastasis (p=0.010). In addition, PC patients with high miR-150 expression had significantly poorer overall survival/OR (hazard ratio/HR, 1.87; 95% confidence interval/CI, 1.19-2.94; p=0.006) and poorer disease-free survival/DFS (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.21- 2.98; p=0.005) than those with low miR-150 expression. The cumulative 5-year OS was only 35.19% (95% CI, 26.18- 44.20) in the high miR-150 expression group, whereas it was 55.93% (95% CI, 43.26-68.60) in the low miR-150 expression group (p<0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the expression of miR-150, tumor size, and number of tumor lesions were independent prognostic predictors for OS in PC patients.
CONCLUSION: miR-150 was overexpressed in PC at both the mRNA and protein levels, and high expression of miR-150 could serve as a novel and reliable prognostic biomarker for PC patients.

Related: MicroRNAs

Ratchanon S, Apiwattanasawee P, Prasopsanti K
A cost-utility analysis of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in men with localized prostate cancer in Thailand.
J Med Assoc Thai. 2015; 98 Suppl 1:S14-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Robotic machines are being used with increasing frequency in the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer in Thailand. While robotics may offer some advantages, it remains unclear whether potential benefits offset higher costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare cost utility between standard and robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy from a health system perspective.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: The authors created a care pathway and a model to facilitate a comprehensive cost utility analysis. All variables used in our model were derived from our review of the literature, exceptfor cost, utility for erectile dysfunction, and utility for urinary incontinence, which were derived from Chulalongkorn Hospital patient records. All costs described in this report are denominated in Thai baht, with a 2012 currency value. A positive margin was used to simulate the model. Sensitivity analysis was performed to estimate the robustness of the outcome.
RESULTS: Thailand utility values for erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence were 0.86 and 0.81, respectively. The cost of robotic laparoscopy was, on average, 120,359 baht (95% CI, 89,368-151,350 baht) higher than standard laparoscopy and was more effective with a mean gain of 0.05 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) (95% CI, 0.03-0.08) for the 100 procedures performed each year. The incremental cost effectiveness (ICER) ratio was 2,407,180 baht per QALYs, with a very low probability that robotic prostatectomy would be cost effective at the Thai-willingness-to pay (WTP) threshold of 160,000 baht/ QALY.
CONCLUSION: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy is not more cost effective than standard laparoscopic prostatectomy for the 100 cases performed each year. An increase in the number of cases may result in better economies of scale and a lower ICER, an outcome that may increase the overall value and cost effectiveness of an investment in this technology.

Related: Thailand

Mandelin J, Cardó-Vila M, Driessen WH, et al.
Selection and identification of ligand peptides targeting a model of castrate-resistant osteogenic prostate cancer and their receptors.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(12):3776-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/04/2016 Related Publications
We performed combinatorial peptide library screening in vivo on a novel human prostate cancer xenograft that is androgen-independent and induces a robust osteoblastic reaction in bonelike matrix and soft tissue. We found two peptides, PKRGFQD and SNTRVAP, which were enriched in the tumors, targeted the cell surface of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells in vitro, and homed to androgen receptor-null prostate cancer in vivo. Purification of tumor homogenates by affinity chromatography on these peptides and subsequent mass spectrometry revealed a receptor for the peptide PKRGFQD, α-2-macroglobulin, and for SNTRVAP, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78). These results indicate that GRP78 and α-2-macroglobulin are highly active in osteoblastic, androgen-independent prostate cancer in vivo. These previously unidentified ligand-receptor systems should be considered for targeted drug development against human metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer.

Shore ND, Karsh L, Gomella LG, et al.
Avoiding obsolescence in advanced prostate cancer management: a guide for urologists.
BJU Int. 2015; 115(2):188-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in men in the USA and 20–30% of men treated for localised prostate cancer will fail therapy and develop advanced prostate cancer. More drugs have been approved for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer in the past 3 years than in the past three decades, and each drug has its own mechanism of action and, often, unique monitoring requirements. As the treatment landscape for men with advanced prostate cancer is undergoing significant expansion, the roles of both oncologists and urologists are shifting, and the decision for the urologist to treat vs refer requires early assessment to identify which patients are candidates for these novel treatments and the monitoring of patients for tolerability, response, and potential side-effects. Given these rapid changes, the authors of this review met in January 2013 and again in April 2013 to discuss the current challenges facing urologists in adopting these new treatments into their own practices. Here, we provide a brief overview of advanced prostate cancer medical therapies approved in the past decade, the necessary monitoring procedures and early detection methods needed to safely and effectively manage patients receiving these therapies, and our recommendations for applying these new therapies within different models of urology practice, such that urologists can remain an integral component of their patient's care once he has transitioned into advanced prostate cancer

Related: Brachytherapy Cancer Screening and Early Detection Watchful Waiting - Prostate Cancer

Beebe-Dimmer JL, Yee C, Cote ML, et al.
Familial clustering of breast and prostate cancer and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in the Women's Health Initiative Study.
Cancer. 2015; 121(8):1265-72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the risk of breast and prostate cancer is increased among those with a family history of the same disease and particularly among first-degree relatives. However, less is known about the relationship between breast and prostate cancer within families and particularly among minority populations.
METHODS: Analyses of participants in the Women's Health Initiative observational cohort who were free of breast cancer at the time of their baseline examination were conducted. Subjects were followed for breast cancer through August 31, 2009. A Cox proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to estimate the risk of breast cancer associated with a family history of prostate cancer, breast cancer, and both among first-degree relatives.
RESULTS: There were 78,171 eligible participants, and 3506 breast cancer cases were diagnosed during the study period. A family history of prostate cancer was associated with a modest increase in breast cancer risk after adjustments for confounders (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.26). In a separate analysis examining the joint impact of both cancers, a family history of both breast and prostate cancer was associated with a 78% increase in breast cancer risk (aHR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.45-2.19). Risk estimates associated with a family history of both breast and prostate cancer were higher among African American women (aHR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.09-5.02) versus white women (aHR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.33-2.08).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that prostate cancer diagnosed among first-degree family members increases a woman's risk of developing breast cancer. Future studies are needed to determine the relative contributions of genes and a shared environment to the risk for both cancers.

Related: Breast Cancer

Kishan AU, Lamb JM, Jani SS, et al.
Pelvic nodal dosing with registration to the prostate: implications for high-risk prostate cancer patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 91(4):832-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To determine whether image guidance with rigid registration (RR) to intraprostatic markers (IPMs) yields acceptable coverage of the pelvic lymph nodes in the context of a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) regimen.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Four to seven kilovoltage cone-beam CTs (CBCTs) from 12 patients with high-risk prostate cancer were analyzed, allowing approximation of an SBRT regimen. The nodal clinical target volume (CTV(N)) and bladder were contoured on all kilovoltage CBCTs. The V100 CTV(N), expressed as a ratio to the same parameter on the initial plan, and the magnitude of translational shift between RR to the IPMs versus RR to the pelvic bones, were computed. The ability of a multimodality bladder filling protocol to minimize bladder height variation was assessed in a separate cohort of 4 patients.
RESULTS: Sixty-five CBCTs were assessed. The average V100 CTV(N) was 92.6%, but for a subset of 3 patients the average was 80.0%, compared with 97.8% for the others (P<.0001). The average overall and superior-inferior axis magnitudes of the bony-to-fiducial translations were significantly larger in the subgroup with suboptimal nodal coverage (8.1 vs 3.9 mm and 5.8 vs 2.4 mm, respectively; P<.0001). Relative bladder height changes were also significantly larger in the subgroup with suboptimal nodal coverage (42.9% vs 18.5%; P<.05). Use of a multimodality bladder-filling protocol minimized bladder height variation (P<.001).
CONCLUSION: A majority of patients had acceptable nodal coverage after RR to IPMs, even when approximating SBRT. However, a subset of patients had suboptimal nodal coverage. These patients had large bony-to-fiducial translations and large variations in bladder height. Nodal coverage should be excellent if the superior-inferior axis bony-to-fiducial translation and the relative bladder height change (both easily measured on CBCT) are kept to a minimum. Implementation of a strict bladder filling protocol may achieve this goal.

Showalter TN, Hegarty SE, Rabinowitz C, et al.
Assessing adverse events of postprostatectomy radiation therapy for prostate cancer: evaluation of outcomes in the Regione Emilia-Romagna, Italy.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 91(4):752-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Although the likelihood of radiation-related adverse events influences treatment decisions regarding radiation therapy after prostatectomy for eligible patients, the data available to inform decisions are limited. This study was designed to evaluate the genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events associated with postprostatectomy radiation therapy and to assess the influence of radiation timing on the risk of adverse events.
METHODS: The Regione Emilia-Romagna Italian Longitudinal Health Care Utilization Database was queried to identify a cohort of men who received radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer during 2003 to 2009, including patients who received postprostatectomy radiation therapy. Patients with prior radiation therapy were excluded. Outcome measures were genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events after prostatectomy. Rates of adverse events were compared between the cohorts who did and did not receive postoperative radiation therapy. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were developed for each class of adverse events, including models with radiation therapy as a time-varying covariate.
RESULTS: A total of 9876 men were included in the analyses: 2176 (22%) who received radiation therapy and 7700 (78%) treated with prostatectomy alone. In multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, the additional exposure to radiation therapy after prostatectomy was associated with increased rates of gastrointestinal (rate ratio [RR] 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.27; P<.001) and urinary nonincontinence events (RR 1.83; 95% CI 1.83-2.80; P<.001) but not urinary incontinence events or erectile dysfunction. The addition of the time from prostatectomy to radiation therapy interaction term was not significant for any of the adverse event outcomes (P>.1 for all outcomes).
CONCLUSION: Radiation therapy after prostatectomy is associated with an increase in gastrointestinal and genitourinary adverse events. However, the timing of radiation therapy did not influence the risk of radiation therapy-associated adverse events in this cohort, which contradicts the commonly held clinical tenet that delaying radiation therapy reduces the risk of adverse events.

Lo AC, Morris WJ, Pickles T, et al.
Patterns of recurrence after low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy: a population-based study of 2223 consecutive low- and intermediate-risk patients.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 91(4):745-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: This study examined patterns of recurrence after low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB), estimated local recurrence rate and compared that rate to the estimated local recurrence rate after radical prostatectomy (RP).
METHODS AND MATERIALS: A prospective database was maintained with clinical, dosimetric, and outcome data for all LDR-PB implantation procedures performed at our institution. From 1998 to 2008, 2223 patients with prostate cancer received LDR-PB without supplemental external beam radiation therapy. Patients who developed Phoenix-defined biochemical failure were reviewed for sites of relapse and investigations completed.
RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 5 years, 108 of 2223 patients (4.8%) developed biochemical relapse. In 1 additional patient, local relapse was found on transurethral prostate resection, but his prostate-specific antigen concentration was well short of triggering Phoenix-defined failure. Of the 109 patients with disease relapse, 18 of 2223 (0.8%) had a proven local recurrence, and 30 of 2223 (1.3%) had a proven distant recurrence. The remaining 61 of 2223 patients (2.7%) had unidentified sites of recurrence; of these, 57 patients (93%) had digital rectal examinations (DREs), 18 (30%) had post-treatment biopsies, 45 (74%) had bone scans, and 34 (56%) had computed tomography imaging of the abdomen and pelvis. If every biochemical failure were local, the local recurrence rate would be as high as 4.9%; however, by excluding those with proven distant failure and those with both a negative DRE and biopsy, we estimate that the local recurrence rate is 2.7% or less.
CONCLUSIONS: In the context of limitations of the study design, our population-based analysis indicates that the local recurrence rate after LDR-PB is as low or lower than that after RP in our jurisdiction.

Related: Brachytherapy

Wortel RC, Incrocci L, Pos FJ, et al.
Acute toxicity after image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy compared to 3D conformal radiation therapy in prostate cancer patients.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 91(4):737-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows significant dose reductions to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients. However, clinical data identifying the benefits of IG-IMRT in daily practice are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions to organs at risk and acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity levels of patients treated to 78 Gy with either IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=215) and IG-IMRT (n=260) receiving 78 Gy in 39 fractions within 2 randomized trials were selected. Dose surface histograms of anorectum, anal canal, and bladder were calculated. Identical toxicity questionnaires were distributed at baseline, prior to fraction 20 and 30 and at 90 days after treatment. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 endpoints were derived directly from questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were applied.
RESULTS: The median volumes receiving 5 to 75 Gy were significantly lower (all P<.001) with IG-IMRT for anorectum, anal canal, and bladder. The mean dose to the anorectum was 34.4 Gy versus 47.3 Gy (P<.001), 23.6 Gy versus 44.6 Gy for the anal canal (P<.001), and 33.1 Gy versus 43.2 Gy for the bladder (P<.001). Significantly lower grade ≥2 toxicity was observed for proctitis, stool frequency ≥6/day, and urinary frequency ≥12/day. IG-IMRT resulted in significantly lower overall RTOG grade ≥2 GI toxicity (29% vs 49%, respectively, P=.002) and overall GU grade ≥2 toxicity (38% vs 48%, respectively, P=.009).
CONCLUSIONS: A clinically meaningful reduction in dose to organs at risk and acute toxicity levels was observed in IG-IMRT patients, as a result of improved technique and tighter margins. Therefore reduced late toxicity levels can be expected as well; additional research is needed to quantify such reductions.

this page
it's private
powered by

This page last updated: 17th June 2015
Displaying links verified within last 2 weeks at time of update.

CancerIndex Logo

Site Map
Cancer Types

Health Professionals


© 1996-2015