Gene Summary

Gene:KLK3; kallikrein related peptidase 3
Aliases: APS, PSA, hK3, KLK2A1
Summary:Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases having diverse physiological functions. Growing evidence suggests that many kallikreins are implicated in carcinogenesis and some have potential as novel cancer and other disease biomarkers. This gene is one of the fifteen kallikrein subfamily members located in a cluster on chromosome 19. Its protein product is a protease present in seminal plasma. It is thought to function normally in the liquefaction of seminal coagulum, presumably by hydrolysis of the high molecular mass seminal vesicle protein. Serum level of this protein, called PSA in the clinical setting, is useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of prostatic carcinoma. Alternate splicing of this gene generates several transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:prostate-specific antigen
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (6)

Cancer Overview

The product of the KLK3 gene, usually referred to as "prostate-specific antigen" or PSA is an important tumour marker used in the diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer. Originally it was thought that PSA was only produced by the cells of the prostate gland (a male sex hormone gland). However, it has been shown that PSA is also expressed in other tissues, particularly in breast. Elevated PSA levels are seen in some breast and gynecologic cancers.

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Prostate Cancer
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Transcriptome
  • Prostate
  • Disease Progression
  • Xanthones
  • Messenger RNA
  • Staging
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Transcription
  • MicroRNAs
  • Survival Rate
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Androgen Receptors
  • Risk Factors
  • Telomerase
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Chromosome 19
  • Up-Regulation
  • Young Adult
  • Trefoil Factor-2
  • Androgens
  • Semen
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Kallikreins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Breast Cancer
  • Transcription Factors
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Tissue Kallikreins
  • KLK3
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • Genotype
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Prostate CancerPSA expression in Prostate Cancer
The product of the KLK3 gene, known as "prostate-specific antigen" (PSA) is expressed by the prostate and other tissues. It is expressed by healthy cells but abnormally high levels of PSA in the blood are found in men prostate disorders including prostate cancer. PSA is an important tumour marker used in the diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer. In the blood some PSA binds to proteins some remains free. Some studies suggest that the ratio of free to total PSA is an early indicator of the degree of tumour aggressiveness.
View Publications3000
Breast CancerPSA expression in Breast Cancer
PSA is not "prostate-specific". It can be expressed by breast tissues (in both normal and abnormal breast) and in various breast milk, nipple aspirate, and cyst fluid. PSA in breast cancer is associated with the expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor. A number of studies have indicated that elevated PSA levels are a favourable prognostic factor in breast cancer. In particular, a large cohort study of 953 women with breast cancer (Yu, 1998) found that survival and relapse free survival were significantly better in patients with levels higher than the 30th percentile of PSA compared to PSA-negative patients. PSA expression was significantly associated with smaller tumours, smaller proportion of S-phase cells, diploid tumours and younger age. PSA remained a significant independent prognostic factor after taking into account other clinical and pathological features.
View Publications174
Ovarian CancerPSA expression in Ovarian Cancere View Publications30

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: KLK3 (cancer-related)

Osip'yants AI, Knyazev EN, Galatenko AV, et al.
Changes in the Level of Circulating hsa-miR-297 and hsa-miR-19b-3p miRNA Are Associated with Generalization of Prostate Cancer.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2017; 162(3):379-382 [PubMed] Related Publications
We performed diagnostic classification of plasma specimens from patients with non-metastatic and metastatic prostate cancer based on pairs of miRNA that have no individual diagnostic significance. Of 230 miRNA detected in plasma specimens, 3 pairs were diagnostically significant. The miRNA pair hsa-miR-19b-3p and hsa-miR-297 demonstrated highest sensitivity and specificity. Among common target genes of these miRNA, CFL2 gene associated with cell mobility was detected.

Dondoo TO, Fukumori T, Daizumoto K, et al.
Galectin-3 Is Implicated in Tumor Progression and Resistance to Anti-androgen Drug Through Regulation of Androgen Receptor Signaling in Prostate Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(1):125-134 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)-related deaths are increasing worldwide. Therefore, clarification of the mechanisms of hormone-related tumor progression and resistance to anti-androgen drugs is useful in order to develop strategies for appropriate treatment of CRPC. Galectin-3 has been shown to be correlated with tumor progression in a variety of cancer types through the regulation of tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined tumor cell invasion and migration using the xCELLigence system. Control LNCaP and galectin-3-expressing LNCaP (LNCaP-Gal-3) cells were cultured with androgen-depleted medium with 5% charcoal-stripped serum. Cells were treated for 24 h with or without dihydrotestosterone alone or combined with MDV3100 and bicalutamide; gene profile was then analyzed by microarray analysis and mRNA expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We evaluated tumor growth using spheroids and xenograft tumor growth in a mouse model.
RESULTS: In vitro, LNCaP-Gal-3 cells promoted both cell migration and invasion in an androgen-independent manner compared to control LNCaP cells. Galectin-3 also enhanced anchorage-independent growth and xenograft tumor growth even after castration. Importantly, galectin-3 greatly enhanced transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR), especially on treatment with dihydrotestosterone. In microarray and qRT-PCR analyses, galectin-3 increased the expression of several AR-target genes, such as kallikrein-related peptidase 3 (KLK3), and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2). These AR-target genes were not fully suppressed by anti-androgen drugs such as bicalutamide or MDV3100. Galectin-3 significantly inhibited the effect induced by anti-androgen drugs MDV3100 and bicalutamide, suggesting that galectin-3 may be involved in resistance to anti-androgen drug through enhancement of transcriptional activity of AR and expression of AR-related genes.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that galectin-3 is a potential target molecule for future treatment of anti-androgen drug-resistant prostate cancer.

Burdelski C, Dieckmann T, Heumann A, et al.
p16 upregulation is linked to poor prognosis in ERG negative prostate cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12655-12663 [PubMed] Related Publications
Altered expression of the p16 tumor suppressor is frequently found in prostate cancer, but its role for tumor development and patient prognosis is disputed. In order to clarify the prognostic role of p16 and to draw conclusions on interactions with key molecular features of prostate cancer, we studied p16 expression in a tissue microarray (TMA) with more than 12,400 prostate cancers and attached clinical, pathological, and molecular data such as ERG status and deletions of 3p13, 5q21, 6q15, and PTEN. p16 immunostaining was absent in non-neoplastic prostate cells but was found in 37 % of 9627 interpretable prostate cancers. Finding p16 expression in 58 % of ERG positive but in only 22 % of ERG negative cancers (p < 0.0001), highlights the known androgen-dependence of both genes. Significant associations between p16 upregulation and tumor phenotype or patient prognosis were strictly limited to the subset of ERG negative cancers. For example, p16 positivity increased from 15 % in Gleason ≤3 + 3 to 38 % in Gleason ≥4 + 4 cancers (p < 0.0001) and was associated with early PSA recurrence (p < 0.0001). p16 upregulation was strongly linked to deletions of PTEN (p < 0.0001), highlighting the interaction of both genes in growth control. In conclusion, p16 upregulation is a strong prognostic factor in ERG negative cancers. The strict limitation of its prognostic impact to a molecularly defined subgroup challenges the concept of molecular prognosis testing without considering molecular subtypes.

Choi HE, Shin JS, Leem DG, et al.
6-(3,4-Dihydro-1H-isoquinoline-2-yl)-N-(6-methoxypyridine-2-yl) nicotinamide-26 (DIMN-26) decreases cell proliferation by induction of apoptosis and downregulation of androgen receptor signaling in human prostate cancer cells.
Chem Biol Interact. 2016; 260:196-207 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previously, we reported that 6-(3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)-N-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl) nicotinamide (DIMN) analogues inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells as an anti-androgenic compound. In the present study, we evaluated cytotoxic effects of these DIMN derivatives and found that DIMN-26 most potently inhibited the proliferation of the LNCap-LN3 androgen-dependent and DU145 androgen-independent prostate cancer cells through induction of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis. The G2/M phase arrest was found due to increases in the activation of cdc2 (also known as cyclin-dependent kinase 1, CDK1)/cyclin B1 complex. DIMN-26 also induced apoptosis in LNCap-LN3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In addition, DIMN-26 caused the dephosphorylation and mitochondrial accumulation of Bad protein and induced the loss of mitochondria membrane potential, consequently releasing cytochrome c into the cytosol of the cell. Furthermore, overexpression of AKT protein significantly reduced DIMN-26-induced PARP-1 cleavage and p-Bad decrease and cdc2 activation. In addition, DIMN-26 inhibited the 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced cell growth and proliferation and nuclear translocation and transcriptional activities of androgen receptor (AR) in LNCap-LN3 prostate cancer cells. Consistent with these findings, DIMN-26 significantly inhibited the DHT-induced expression of AR-response genes (ARGs), such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), AR, β2-microglobulin (B2M), selenoprotein P (SEPP1), and ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) in LNCap-LN3 prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest that DIMN-26 plays a therapeutic role not only in induction of G2/M arrest and apoptosis but also in suppression of androgen receptor signaling in androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.

Díaz P, Cardenas H, Orihuela PA
Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) did not affect cell viability despite increased androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene expression in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.
Andrologia. 2016; 48(8):922-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We examined whether aqueous extract of Lepidium meyenii (red Maca) could inhibit growth, potentiate apoptotic activity of two anticancer drugs Taxol and 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) or change mRNA expression for the androgen target genes, androgen receptor (Ar) and prostate-specific antigen (Psa) in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Red Maca aqueous extract at 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml was added to LNCaP cells, and viability was evaluated by the MTS assay at 24 or 48 hr after treatment. Furthermore, LNCaP cells were treated with 80 μg/ml of red Maca plus Taxol or 2ME 5 μM and viability was assessed 48 hr later. Finally, LNCaP cells were treated with red Maca 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml, and 12 hr later, mRNA level for Ar or Psa was assessed by real-time PCR. Treatment with red Maca did not affect viability of LNCaP cells. Apoptotic activity induced by Taxol and 2ME in LNCaP cells was not altered with red Maca treatment. Relative expression of the mRNA for Ar and Psa increased with red Maca 20 and 40 μg/ml, but not at 80 μg/ml. We conclude that red Maca aqueous extract does not have toxic effects, but stimulates androgen signalling in LNCaP cells.

Kong X, Qian X, Duan L, et al.
microRNA-372 Suppresses Migration and Invasion by Targeting p65 in Human Prostate Cancer Cells.
DNA Cell Biol. 2016; 35(12):828-835 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most prevalent malignant tumors. microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis, and their roles in PCa are becoming more apparent. In this study, we found that microRNA-372 (miR-372) is downregulated in human PCa and inhibits the proliferation activity, migration, and invasion of DU145 cells. Subsequently, p65 is confirmed as a target of miR-372, and knockdown of p65 expression similarly resulted in decreased proliferation activity, migration, and invasion. CDK8, MMP-9, and prostate-specific antigen were involved in both these processes. Taken together, our results show evidence that miR-372 may function as a tumor suppressor gene by regulating p65 in PCa and may provide a strategy for blocking PCa metastasis.

Kulda V, Topolcan O, Kucera R, et al.
Prognostic Significance of TMPRSS2-ERG Fusion Gene in Prostate Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(9):4787-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Current research of prostate cancer (PCa) offers a promising way of identifying patients with adverse prognosis who do benefit from radical treatment that can affect quality of life as resections are associated with numerous side-effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene status, tumor tissue prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), miR-23b, miR-26a and miR-221 expression levels in combination with preoperative serum PSA level to the risk of PCa recurrence after radical prostatectomy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 108 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. PSA was measured in peripheral blood collected preoperativelly. The expression of TMPRSS2-ERG transcript and the expression of miR-23b, miR-26a and miR-221 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues was analyzed by reverse transcription (RT) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
RESULTS: Significantly shorter time to recurrence was observed in patients with high expression of TMPRSS2-ERG (p=0.0020). High levels of preoperative PSA (>10.0 ng/ml) proved to be marker of shorter time to recurrence (p=0.0153). The most promising marker of the risk of recurrence after radical prostatectomy was a combination of high level of preoperative serum PSA and high expression of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript in tumor tissue (p=0.0001).
CONCLUSION: A combination of high preoperative serum PSA and high expression of TMPRSS2-ERG could be promising in distinguishing those tumors that are aggressive and life-threatening.

Smith AD, Truong M, Bristow R, et al.
The Utility of Serum CA9 for Prognostication in Prostate Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(9):4489-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) catalyses the interconversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid and bicarbonate and is considered a putative biomarker of tumour hypoxia. We set out to evaluate the prognostic significance of CA9 in prostate cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Plasma samples were assessed from 68 men with high-risk localised prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiotherapy (RT), and 20 men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) treated with docetaxel chemotherapy between 2010 and 2012 at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Canada.
RESULTS: Of the 68 patients with high-risk localised prostate cancer, 57 underwent RP and 11 underwent RT. Baseline CA9 was not associated with recurrence or prostate-specific antigen in either group (p=0.98 and 0.20, respectively). CA9 levels before chemotherapy correlated with overall survival (r=-0.37; two-sided p=0.11).
CONCLUSION: Baseline CA9 in men with CRPC may portend a more aggressive prostate cancer phenotype with poorer survival.

Caspar A, Mostertz J, Leymann M, et al.
In Vitro Cultivation of Primary Prostate Cancer Cells Alters the Molecular Biomarker Pattern.
In Vivo. 2016 09-10; 30(5):573-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The high variability of primary cells propagated in vitro led us to study the expression patterns of 11 most commonly accepted and widely used biomarkers specific for prostate cancer (PC) cells in primary cell models.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary PC cells from five PC patients were partially subjected to RNA preparation immediately and remaining cells were propagated up to 84 days followed by RNA preparation. Subsequently, biomarker mRNA quantification was performed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and biomarker transcript concentrations before and after cultivation of primary PC cells were compared.
RESULTS: Evaluation of androgen receptor, prostate-specific antigen, acid phosphatase, prostate-specific membrane antigen, fatty acid synthase, cytokeratin types 5/8/19, E-cadherin, epithelial cell adhesion molecule and fibroblast-specific protein 1 demonstrated temporal changes, as well as individual differences in expression, during primary PC cell propagation.
CONCLUSION: Experimental design, as well as data evaluation, may need to take under consideration the high variability of biomarker expression in primary PC cells.

Pang C, Liu M, Fang W, et al.
MiR-139-5p is Increased in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Prostate Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 39(3):1111-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a causal role in cancer tumorigenesis. Aberrant expression of miRNA (miR)-139-5p has been observed in various types of cancers. The present study evaluated the relationship between miR-139-5p expression levels and prostate cancer (PCa), to assess the feasibility of using peripheral blood miR-139-5p as a potential non-invasive biomarker for PCa.
METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from peripheral whole blood samples from 45 PCa patients, 45 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients and 50 healthy controls (HC). The expression of miR-139-5p was assessed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: MiR-139-5p in peripheral blood was significantly higher in PCa patients than in patients with BPH and HC individuals (P<0.001). Higher miR-139-5p expression was observed to be associated with certain clinicopathological parameters, including PSA>20ng/ml (P<0.05), pathological tumor stage 3/4 (P<0.05) and Gleason score >7 (P<0.01). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that miR-139-5p distinguished PCa patients from BPH patients [area under the curve (AUC), 0.936; 95% CI, 0.878-0.993; P<0.001].
CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral blood miR-139-5p may be utilized as a potential novel non-invasive biomarker for PCa screening.

Vozianov SO, Kashuba VI, Grygorenko VM, et al.
Klin Khir. 2016; (4):54-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The biopsy material specimens were investigated in 33 patients, examined for the prostatic cancer suspicion. In accordance to the morphological investigation data, in 15 patients a benign prostatic hyperplasia was verified, and in 18--pancreatic adenocarcinoma. NotI-Microchips of 180 clones of the third chromosome were used for determination of epigenetic changes. In 50 genes of the third chromosome a high rate of the methylation state changes (from 33 to 82%) was noted. Some changed genes take part in cancerogenesis (HMGB1L5, LRRC58, GPR149, DZIP1L, C3orf77, NUDT16) and in the prostatic gland cancer occurrence (BCL6, ITGA9, FBLN2, SOX2, LRRC3B etc.). Dependence of the genes methylation state from the clinic-morphological indices in patients with the prostatic gland cancer, including, the prostate-specific antigen level, the tumor differentiation degree in accordance to Gleason, was not established. Panel, consisting of 16 new potential markers for early and differentiated diagnosis of prostatic gland cancer, was identified: BHLHE40, FOXP1, LOC285205, ITGA9, CTDSPL, FGF12, LOC440944/SETD5, VHL, CLCN2, OSBPL10/ZNF860, LMCD1, FAM19A4, CAND2, MAP4, KY and LRRC58.

Kirby R
The role of PSA in detection and management of prostate cancer.
Practitioner. 2016; 260(1792):17-21, 3 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prostate specific antigen (PSA) test clearly provides the opportunity for clinically relevant prostate cancer to be detected at a stage when treatment options are greater and outcomes may be improved. However, in some patients the PSA test may lead to investigations which can identify clinically insignificant cancers which would not have become evident in a man's lifetime. In addition, a raised PSA may often indicate benign prostatic enlargement, and this may provide an opportunity for treatment of this condition before complications develop. The lack of sensitivity and specificity that characterises PSA testing in the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer largely disappears after treatment of localised prostate cancer, especially after surgery. Three monthly PSA measurement is usually recommended for the first year after primary treatment. Subsequently less frequent testing is required. A PSA rise after primary treatment usually indicates biochemical recurrence and often the need for further therapy. There are two promising urinary RNA biomarkers, prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) and fusion gene TMPRSS2:ERG, both of which aim to distinguish between men with low-risk (indolent) and those with aggressive (clinically significant) cancers.

Zhao Y, Wang L, Ren S, et al.
Activation of P-TEFb by Androgen Receptor-Regulated Enhancer RNAs in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
Cell Rep. 2016; 15(3):599-610 [PubMed] Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) is required for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progression, but the function and disease relevance of AR-bound enhancers remain unclear. Here, we identify a group of AR-regulated enhancer RNAs (e.g., PSA eRNA) that are upregulated in CRPC cells, patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), and patient tissues. PSA eRNA binds to CYCLIN T1, activates P-TEFb, and promotes cis and trans target gene transcription by increasing serine-2 phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II-Ser2p). We define an HIV-1 TAR RNA-like (TAR-L) motif in PSA eRNA that is required for CYCLIN T1 binding. Using TALEN-mediated gene editing we further demonstrate that this motif is essential for increased Pol II-Ser2p occupancy levels and CRPC cell growth. We have uncovered a P-TEFb activation mechanism and reveal altered eRNA expression that is related to abnormal AR function and may potentially be a therapeutic target in CRPC.

Leapman MS, Nguyen HG, Cooperberg MR
Clinical Utility of Biomarkers in Localized Prostate Cancer.
Curr Oncol Rep. 2016; 18(5):30 [PubMed] Related Publications
A new generation of prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers has emerged, including diagnostic serum and urine markers aimed at refining the identification high-grade tumors and tissue-based gene expression assays offering prognostic and predictive clinical information. Such tests seek to improve treatment-related decisions at multiple decision points, including initial diagnosis and following initial primary therapy. In this review, we aim to contextualize the body of evidence surrounding these emerging tests, with attention on studies addressing clinical utility.

Song J, Tao ZH, Liu XY, et al.
Relationship between CYP17 gene polymorphisms and risk of prostate cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(1):15017866 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytochrome P450 17a-hydroxylase (CYP17) plays a critical role in androgen biosynthesis. Polymorphisms of the CYP17 promoter have been proposed as risk factors for prostate cancer; however, some studies have produced inconclusive or controversial results. We investigated the relationship between polymorphisms of the CYP17 gene and the risk of prostate cancer. A total of 176 patients with prostate cancer were enrolled in the study, and 168 healthy individuals acted as the control group. The participants were divided into those <71 years old and those ≥71 years old. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the genotype of CYP17 in the samples. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations were also measured in all subjects. When T/C and C/C were compared with T/T, the ORs were 0.478 (P = 0.489) and 0.814 (P = 0.367), respectively. There was no significant difference in PSA concentration among the three genotypes in the <71 group, whereas there were statistically significant differences in the ≥71 group (P = 0.003 and 0.012, respectively). There was no significant difference in free PSA and total PSA levels between the three groups and the control group. The T/C and C/C genotypes were not associated with the risk of prostate cancer, and there were no significant differences between them. In the ≥71 group, the T/C and C/C genotypes were closely associated with prostate cancer, which suggests that the CYP17 gene might be a risk factor for prostate cancer in males of advanced age.

Škereňová M, Mikulová V, Čapoun O, Zima T
The characterization of four gene expression analysis in circulating tumor cells made by Multiplex-PCR from the AdnaTest kit on the lab-on-a-chip Agilent DNA 1000 platform.
Biochem Med (Zagreb). 2016; 26(1):103-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Nowadays, on-a-chip capillary electrophoresis is a routine method for the detection of PCR fragments. The Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer was one of the first commercial devices in this field. Our project was designed to study the characteristics of Agilent DNA 1000 kit in PCR fragment analysis as a part of circulating tumour cell (CTC) detection technique. Despite the common use of this kit a complex analysis of the results from a long-term project is still missing.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A commercially available Agilent DNA 1000 kit was used as a final step in the CTC detection (AdnaTest) for the determination of the presence of PCR fragments generated by Multiplex PCR. Data from 30 prostate cancer patients obtained during two years of research were analyzed to determine the trueness and precision of the PCR fragment size determination. Additional experiments were performed to demonstrate the precision (repeatability, reproducibility) and robustness of PCR fragment concentration determination.
RESULTS: The trueness and precision of the size determination was below 3% and 2% respectively. The repeatability of the concentration determination was below 15%. The difference in concentration determination increases when Multiplex-PCR/storage step is added between the two measurements of one sample.
CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics established in our study are in concordance with the manufacturer's specifications established for a ladder as a sample. However, the concentration determination may vary depending on chip preparation, sample storage and concentration. The 15% variation of concentration determination repeatability was shown to be partly proportional and can be suppressed by proper normalization.

Varinot J, Furudoï A, Drouin S, et al.
HOXB13 protein expression in metastatic lesions is a promising marker for prostate origin.
Virchows Arch. 2016; 468(5):619-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
The HOXB13 gene is a member of the homeobox gene family, and prostate development depends on HOXB13 function. HOXB13 is a very sensitive and specific marker of prostate tissue and prostate cancer. When the origin of a tumor in a resection specimen or in biopsy material is unclear, it allows determining the prostate as the primary. Our aim was to determine whether HOXB13 has similar sensitivity for determining prostate origin of lymph node and bone metastases. We retrieved cases of lymph node and bone metastases of histologically confirmed prostate cancer (PCa) and selected lymph node metastases of urothelial carcinoma (UCa). A panel of antibodies against HOXB13, PSA, ERG, Androgen receptors, p504S, p63, GATA-3, CK7, and Uroplakin 2 and 3 was tested on these tissue samples. Two pathologists analysed and scored staining as either 0 (negative) or + (positive). The selected cohort consisted of 74 cases of lymph node and 15 of bone metastases of PCa and 15 of lymph node metastases of UCa. HOXB13 was expressed in 93 % of lymph node and in 33 % of bone metastases of PCa. All lymph node metastases of UCa were negative. Sensitivity of HOXB13 as a marker for prostate origin in lymph node metastases was 93 % and for bone metastases 33 %. Inter-observer variability in assessment of staining was good, as only two (1.9 %) of lymph node metastasis of PCa were discordant. HOXB13 is a useful marker for prostate origin when doubt exists regarding the site of the primary of a metastatic lesion. On bone metastases, HOXB13 immunohistochemistry performed less well, probably due to the use of tissue decalcification.

Mikhaylenko DS, Perepechin DV, Grigoryeva MV, et al.
Urologiia. 2015 Sep-Oct; (5):46-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Morphological analysis of the biopsies for prostate cancer (PCa) often is a difficult task due to heterogeneity and multifocality of tumors. At the same time, a lot of data exist about the potential molecular genetic markers of PCa. The aim of our study is to determine of PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG genes expression in benign hyperplasia (BPH), low and high grade intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), PCa for revealing of diagnostic value of those genes expression in benign and precancerous changes in prostate. Total RNA was isolated from 53 biopsies, reverse transcription was performed, gene expression was determined by real time PCR (RT-PCR) then deltaCt index was determined as Ct(PCA3)--Ct(KLK3). Average deltaCt and its SD in BPH were 8.28 ± 3.13, low PIN--8.56 ± 2.64, high PIN--8.98 ±1.69, PCa--1.08 ± 2.36. We have demonstarted that deltaCt did not differ in patients with BPH, low and high grade PIN, whereas significantly increased in PCa relative to any of the three groups listed above (p < 0.0001). Expression of TMPRSS2:ERG was absent in BPH, PIN, but it was detected in 40% (4/10) of PCa cases. ROC-analysis showed that the AUC (area under ROC-curve with 95% CI, p < 0.0001) was 0.98 ± 0.02 in the analysis of a combination of overexpression of PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG. Thus, the expression analysis of the PCA3 and chimeric oncogene TMPRSS2:ERG in biopsy cannot be used for differential diagnosis of BPH, low and high grade PIN. However, overexpression of PCA3 and expression of TMPRSS2:ERG are characteristic in PCa. Expression analysis of these genes by the proposed RT-PCR modification at the threshold level deltaCt 3,22 has diagnostic accuracy 90% to detect PCa in biopsy specimens.

Mengual L, Lozano JJ, Ingelmo-Torres M, et al.
Using gene expression from urine sediment to diagnose prostate cancer: development of a new multiplex mRNA urine test and validation of current biomarkers.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Additional accurate non-invasive biomarkers are needed in the clinical setting to improve prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis. Here we have developed a new and improved multiplex mRNA urine test to detect prostate cancer (PCa). Furthermore, we have validated the PCA3 urinary transcript and some panels of urinary transcripts previously reported as useful diagnostic biomarkers for PCa in our cohort.
METHODS: Post-prostatic massage urine samples were prospectively collected from PCa patients and controls. Expression levels of 42 target genes selected from our previous studies and from the literature were studied in 224 post-prostatic massage urine sediments by quantitative PCR. Univariate logistic regression was used to identify individual PCa predictors. A variable selection method was used to develop a multiplex biomarker model. Discrimination was measured by ROC curve AUC for both, our model and the previously published biomarkers.
RESULTS: Seven of the 42 genes evaluated (PCA3, ELF3, HIST1H2BG, MYO6, GALNT3, PHF12 and GDF15) were found to be independent predictors for discriminating patients with PCa from controls. We developed a four-gene expression signature (HIST1H2BG, SPP1, ELF3 and PCA3) with a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 67% (AUC = 0.763) for discriminating between tumor and control urines. The accuracy of PCA3 and previously reported panels of biomarkers is roughly maintained in our cohort.
CONCLUSIONS: Our four-gene expression signature outperforms PCA3 as well as previously reported panels of biomarkers to predict PCa risk. This study suggests that a urinary biomarker panel could improve PCa detection. However, the accuracy of the panels of urinary transcripts developed to date, including our signature, is not high enough to warrant using them routinely in a clinical setting.

Qiu LX, Cheng L, He J, et al.
PSCA polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility in an eastern Chinese population.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(8):9420-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
The prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene, which encodes a prostate-specific antigen (PSA), was identified as a gene involved in cell adhesion and proliferation. The associations between the PSCA rs2294008 and rs2976392 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gastric cancer (GCa) susceptibility were still controversial. To derive a more precise estimation of the associations, we conducted a case-control study of 1,124 cases and 1,192 controls in an eastern Chinese population. We found that the rs2294008T variant genotypes were associated with an increased GCa risk in this study population (CT vs CC, OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.33-1.89 and CT+TT vs CC, OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.17-1.62). For SNP rs2976392, the variant A genotypes were also associated with an increased GCa risk (AG vs GG, OR=1.61, 95% CI=1.35-1.91 and AG+AA vs GG, OR=1.47, 95% CI=1.25-1.74). The results were further validated by a meta-analysis. In conclusion, the results indicated that the PSCA rs2294008 T and rs2976392 A alleles were low-penetrate risk factors for GCa in this study population. However, large and well-designed studies are warranted to validate our findings.

Liu BD, Feng QQ, Gu X, et al.
[Effects of triptolide on the expression of androgen receptor in human prostate LNCaP cells and its mechanism of action].
Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2015; 50(10):1246-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
To study the regulation of androgen receptor (AR) expression in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells by triptolide (TP) and the possible mechanism, by using qRT-PCR and Western blot, the AR mRNA and protein levels in TP treated LNCaP cells were detected, and the AR protein level in TP and NF-κB inhibitor treated LNCaP cells was also detected; a series of pGL3-AR promoter reporter gene vectors were built using restriction-free cloning method, and the vectors were employed to investigate the effects of TP on the transcriptional activity of AR promoter in LNCaP cells; the upstream proteins which may play regulatory roles were detected using western blot assay. After treated LNCaP cells with TP for 48 h, AR mRNA and protein expressions decreased with increasing TP concentration. The expression of AR target gene PART1 and prostate specific antigen (PSA) was also downregulated by TP treatment; a series of pGL3-AR promoter reporter vectors were constructed and validated by sequencing and luciferase activity; the results of dual luciferase reporter assay showed that TP downregulated AR at the transcriptional level; PI3K/AKT/NF-κB pathway which is associated with AR promoter activity was drowregulated by TP. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the transcriptional activity of AR in LNCAP cells was downregulated by TP, and PI3K/AKT/NF-κB pathway may be involved in the regulation mechanism.

Tan SJ, Xu LW, Xu Z, et al.
[The value of PHI/PCA3 in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2016; 96(2):100-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of prostate health index (PHI) and prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa).
METHODS: A total of 190 patients with abnormal serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) or abnormal digital rectal examination were enrolled. They were all underwent initial biopsy and 11 of them were also underwent repeated biopsy. In addition, 25 healthy cases (with normal digital rectal examination and PSA<4 ng/ml) were the control group.The PHI and PCA3 were detected by using immunofluorescence and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP). The sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis were determined by ROC curve.In addition, the relationship between PHI/PSA and the Gleason score and clinical stage were analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 89 patients were confirmed PCa by Pathological diagnosis. The other 101 patients were diagnosed as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The sensitivity and specificity of PCA3 test were 85.4% was 92.1%. Area under curve (AUC) of PHI is higher than AUC of PSA (0.727>0.699). The PHI in peripheral blood was positively correlated with Gleason score and clinical stage.
CONCLUSIONS: The detection of PCA3 and PHI shows excellent detecting effectiveness. Compared with single PSA, the combined detection of PHI and PCA3 improved the diagnostic specificity. It can provide a new method for the early diagnosis in prostate cancer and avoid unnecessary biopsies.

Meng FD, Wang S, Jiang YH, Sui CG
Antitumor effect of dendritic cells transfected with prostate-specific membrane antigen recombinant adenovirus on prostate cancer: An in vitro study.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(3):2124-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to construct a dendritic cell (DC) vaccine transfected with a prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) recombinant adenovirus and to observe the ability of the recombinant DCs in eliciting a PSMA-directed T‑cell response to prostate cancer (PCa) in vitro. Replication‑defective adenoviral vectors, were constructed using the Adxsi system. The virus titer was measured by TCID50 assay, and the expression of the PSMA gene was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) generation of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) derived DCs in vitro. In addition, a PE‑7AAD apoptosis and necrosis kit was applied to detect the survival of DCs at different MOI values to determine the optimal MOI. Morphological changes of DC were observed under a fluorescence microscope, expression of the PSMA protein was detected by western blotting 48 h after transfection, the expression of DC markers prior to and following transfection was detected by direct immunofluorescence, and the interleukin (IL)-12 concentration in the culture supernatant of the three groups was measured by ELISA. The antitumor effect of DC-stimulated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) on different PCa cell lines was analyzed using a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay. The optimal MOI value was determined to be 200. The PSMA protein was expressed in DCs, and the recombinant adenovirus did not impact the maturation and morphological changes of the DCs. The expression levels of the co-stimulatory molecules, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA‑DR, were significantly higher in the Ad‑PSMA‑DC group than in the other two groups (P<0.05). The concentration of IL‑12 in the supernatant of the Ad‑PSMA‑DC group (79.51±1.60 pg) was comparable with that of the Ad‑GFP‑DC group (not significantly different), and the two were significantly higher than the non‑transfection group (P<0.05). The optimal effector to target (E:T) ratio was determined to be 40:1. However, at the same E:T ratio, the cytotoxic activity of PSMA‑DC‑T against the LNCap cells was markedly stronger than its activity against the other target cells (DU145 and 22RV; P<0.05); furthermore, the the cytotoxic activity of PSMA-DC-T against the LNCap cells was significantly higher than the anti‑LNCap effect of DC‑T cells in other groups (P<0.05). In vitro experiments indicated that mature DCs transfected with Ad‑PSMA secreted high concentrations of IL‑12 and elicited potent antitumor immune responses targeting PSMA‑expressing cells by stimulating the cytotoxic activity of CTLs.

Sanguedolce F, Cormio A, Brunelli M, et al.
Urine TMPRSS2: ERG Fusion Transcript as a Biomarker for Prostate Cancer: Literature Review.
Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2016; 14(2):117-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common male malignancies. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is one of the most valuable biomarkers in tumor biology and remains the standard marker in detecting and monitoring PCa. However, the high number of serum PSA false positive and false negative results make the identification of novel biomarkers extremely welcome to improve our diagnostic accuracy in detecting PCa and distinguishing the aggressive from the indolent ones. In this study, we analyzed the current role of urinary gene fusion transcripts involving v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog, commonly known as ERG, and the androgen-regulated gene transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2), as a biomarker for PCa. Used as a single marker, urinary TMPRSS2:ERG has low sensitivity but high specificity. However, its combination with the other urinary marker PCa antigen 3 (PCA3) has been reported to provide high specificity and sensitivity. Finally, a commercially available assay combining serum PSA with urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG provides a 90% specificity and 80% sensitivity in diagnosing PCa. Urinary TMPRSS2:ERG also seems to be indicative of PCa aggressiveness upon biopsy. Should these findings be confirmed in larger studies, urinary TMPRSS2:ERG might become a valuable test not only for diagnosing PCa but also for distinguishing the aggressive tumors from the indolent ones.

Jinga V, Csiki IE, Manolescu A, et al.
Replication study of 34 common SNPs associated with prostate cancer in the Romanian population.
J Cell Mol Med. 2016; 20(4):594-600 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the third-most common form of cancer in men in Romania. The Romanian unscreened population represents a good sample to study common genetic risk variants. However, a comprehensive analysis has not been conducted yet. Here, we report our replication efforts in a Romanian population of 979 cases and 1027 controls, for potential association of 34 literature-reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with prostate cancer. We also examined whether any SNP was differentially associated with tumour grade or stage at diagnosis, with disease aggressiveness, and with the levels of PSA (prostate specific antigen). In the allelic analysis, we replicated the previously reported risk for 19 loci on 4q24, 6q25.3, 7p15.2, 8q24.21, 10q11.23, 10q26.13, 11p15.5, 11q13.2, 11q13.3. Statistically significant associations were replicated for other six SNPs only with a particular disease phenotype: low-grade tumour and low PSA levels (rs1512268), high PSA levels (rs401681 and rs11649743), less aggressive cancers (rs1465618, rs721048, rs17021918). The strongest association of our tested SNP's with PSA in controls was for rs2735839, with 29% increase for each copy of the major allele G, consistent with previous results. Our results suggest that rs4962416, previously associated only with prostate cancer, is also associated with PSA levels, with 12% increase for each copy of the minor allele C. The study enabled the replication of the effect for the majority of previously reported genetic variants in a set of clinically relevant prostate cancers. This is the first replication study on these loci, known to associate with prostate cancer, in a Romanian population.

Hwang JE, Joung JY, Shin SP, et al.
Ad5/35E1aPSESE4: A novel approach to marking circulating prostate tumor cells with a replication competent adenovirus controlled by PSA/PSMA transcription regulatory elements.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 372(1):57-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Circulating tumor cells serve as useful biomarkers with which to identify disease status associated with survival, metastasis and drug sensitivity. Here, we established a novel application for detecting PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells circulating in peripheral blood employing an adenovirus called Ad5/35E1aPSESE4. Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 utilized PSES, a chimeric enhancer derived from PSA/PSMA promoters that is highly active with and without androgen. A fluorescence signal mediated by GFP expression upon Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection was selectively amplified in PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, for the in vivo model, blood drawn from TRAMP was tested for CTCs with Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection and was positive for CTCs at week 16. Validation was performed on patient blood at various clinical stages and found out 1-100 CTCs expressing GFP upon Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection. Interestingly, CTC from one patient was confirmed to be sensitive to docetaxel chemotherapeutic reagent and to abundantly express metastasis-related genes like MMP9, Cofilin1, and FCER1G through RNA-seq. Our study established that the usage of Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 is effective in marking PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells in patient blood to improve the efficacy of utilizing CTCs as a biomarker.

Yong W, Jiao C, Jianhui W, et al.
Mono-2-ethyhexyl phthalate advancing the progression of prostate cancer through activating the hedgehog pathway in LNCaP cells.
Toxicol In Vitro. 2016; 32:86-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hedgehog (Hh) pathway plays a critical role in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in male adults. Studies showed that di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) could interference with the Hh pathway. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), the congener of DBP, is the major plasticizer used in plastic materials that are inevitably exposed by patients with PCa. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate whether mono-2-ethyhexyl phthalate (MEHP, the active metabolite of DEHP) could activate the Hh pathway of LNCaP cells. Results showed that the expression of the critical gene of Hh pathway PTCH and androgen-regulated gene KLK3 was significantly decreased on 3, 6 and 9 days with Hh pathway inhibitor cyclopamine's treatment. MEHP notably up-regulated the expression of PTCH with a dose-response relationship in the presence of cyclopamine, which indicate that MEHP might target on the downstream components of Hh pathway and advance the progression of PCa through activating the Hh pathway.

Ben-Eltriki M, Deb S, Adomat H, Tomlinson Guns ES
Calcitriol and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol synergistically inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016; 158:207-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
The potential cancer preventive roles of calcitriol, the dihydroxylated metabolite of Vitamin D3, as well as 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (aPPD), the aglycone of the protopanaxadiol family of ginsenosides, have gained much attention in recent years for the prevention/treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). In the present study, we evaluated the anticancer and chemosensitization effects of calcitriol at clinically relevant concentrations and aPPD, either alone or in combination, in two well-characterized human PCa cell lines: androgen-sensitive non-metastatic LNCaP cells and androgen-independent metastatic C4-2 cells. The effects of the treatments on PCa cell viability and proliferation rates were evaluated by MTS and Brdu assays, respectively. Combination Indices (CI) and Dose Reduction Indices (DRI) were estimated to assess synergistic anticancer activity using Calcusyn software (Biosoft, Cambridge, UK). Then, we determined the potential Pharmacodynamic interaction mechanisms as follows: The protein expression levels of the genes those are known to control cell cycle (cyclin D1 and cdk2); apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, and Capspases 3), androgen receptor and Vitamin D receptors were examined upon combinational treatment. The cell viability assay data show that addition of 10nM calcitriol to aPPD significantly lowered its IC50 values from the range of 41-53μM to 13-23μM, in LNCaP and C4-2 prostate cancer cells. The cell proliferation rate was significantly lower for combination treatments compared to the cells treated with aPPD alone. Similarly, Western blot results indicate that aPPD significantly upregulated Vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, while calcitriol further enhanced the ability of aPPD to induce pro-apoptotic BAX, increased cleaved caspase-3 and downregulate cdk2 protein levels. Thus, the pharmacodynamic interaction between aPPD and calcitriol in impacting growth inhibition and apoptosis appears to be synergistic in nature. In conclusion, calcitriol sensitizes PCa cells to aPPD-mediated anticancer effects by enhancing its ability to induce apoptosis and reduce cell proliferation, and this synergism may limit calcitriol toxicity by facilitating the use of lower calcitriol doses. The associated increase in VDR expression and calcitriol half-life may be mechanistically associated with this sensitization effect.

Uotani T, Sugimoto M, Ichikawa H, et al.
Prostate stem cell antigen gene TT genotype and development of intestinal metaplasia in Helicobacter pylori infection.
J Dig Dis. 2016; 17(1):20-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Gastric cancer is etiologically related to interactions between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, environmental and host factors. Gastric carcinoma is associated with a cascade of increasing atrophic gastric mucosal damage. Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) polymorphisms have been associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. We aimed to examine the interaction between PSCA polymorphisms and H. pylori in the progression of H. pylori-related gastritis.
METHODS: The genotypes (TT, TC and CC) of PSCA single nucleotide polymorphism rs2294008 among H. pylori infected and uninfected Bhutanese were compared with the severity of H. pylori-related gastritis [neutrophils, monocytes, atrophy scores, H. pylori density, and the presence and extent of intestinal metaplasia (IM)] using the updated Sydney system.
RESULTS: Biopsies from 339 participants were included. The proportion of biopsies with IM was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in those with the TT genotype than in either those with the CT or CC genotype. Although no significant differences were found in inflammation or H. pylori density scores, the scores for IM at both gastric corpus and antrum among participants infected by H. pylori with the TT genotype was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than in the C allele carriers.
CONCLUSION: PSCA TT genotype is associated with a more than a threefold increase in the prevalence and the extent of gastric mucosal IM compared to C allele carriers among H. pylori-infected Bhutanese.

Tian B, Huo N, Li M, et al.
let-7a and its target, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, are differentially expressed in recurrent prostate cancer.
Int J Mol Med. 2015; 36(5):1409-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in males worldwide. Approximately 30% of those patients who received radical prostatectomy developed clinical recurrence accompanied by elevated serum prostate‑specific antigen levels. Although knowledge regarding the development of PCa has been significantly improved, the molecular mechanism underlying recurrence remains largely unknown. The objective of the present study was to identify the differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) in recurrent PCa to explore the possible involvement of miRNAs in the relapse. The expression of 6 miRs that have been previously reported to be downregulated in PCa stem cells were examined in a total of 32 recurrent and 36 non‑recurrent PCa samples, and let‑7a was substantially decreased in the recurrent PCa. Using the online prediction tools, let‑7a was identified to virtually target insulin‑like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R). IGF1R as a target of let‑7a was subsequently validated using the luciferase assay. Exogenous expression of let‑7a suppressed the expression of IGF1R, and reduced the proliferation of PCa cells by introducing apoptosis to the cells. In conclusion, the present data demonstrated a possible involvement of let‑7a in the pathogenesis of recurrent PCa, and it may be a potential target of the disease.

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