Male Breast Cancer
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Male breast cancer is uncommon, men account for approximately 1% of all breast cancer cases. Incidence in Western populations is under 1 case per 100,000 men, though rates reported in some African countries are much higher. The majority of male breast cancers are of the infiltrating ductal type, this is where the cancer has spread beyond the cells lining ducts in the breast. In many respects male breast cancer is similar to that found in women, though in general men tend to be older than women at diagnosis. Treatment tends to be the same as that for women with breast cancer of the same type and stage.

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Breast Cancer (general resources)

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Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Ottini L
Male breast cancer: a rare disease that might uncover underlying pathways of breast cancer.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2014; 14(10):643 [PubMed] Related Publications
There are similarities between breast cancers that arise in men and women but there are also differences. What can be learned from male breast cancer to gain insight into breast cancer pathogenesis?

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Kanatas A, Lowe D, Velikova G, et al.
Issues patients would like to discuss at their review consultation in breast cancer clinics--a cross-sectional survey.
Tumori. 2014 Sep-Oct; 100(5):568-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: In breast cancer (BC) there are different therapies available with different side effects affecting the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients. Here we report a novel tool, the BC-specific Patient Concerns Inventory (PCI). This work includes a survey that is part of the validation process to allow a larger cohort and comparisons with clinical characteristics. We report the concerns that BC patients would like to discuss in the outpatient clinic - using the PCI - and also their choice of multidisciplinary team members they would like to see.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We carried out a cross-sectional survey - using the BC-specific PCI, the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the EORTC BC QLQ-BR23 - of patients who had completed their initial treatment and were attending a review outpatient clinic. 249 patients were recruited from February to July 2012.
RESULTS: Survey responses were obtained from 80% (200/249). The three most frequent items were fear of cancer coming back (62%, 124), breast sensitivity/pain (46%, 92), and fatigue/tiredness and low energy levels overall (46%, 92). The most frequently selected members of the multidisciplinary team that patients wished to see were the breast care nurse (46%, 92), the medical oncologist (28%, 55) and the psychologist (20%, 40).
CONCLUSIONS: The PCI provides the opportunity for multiprofessional engagement across a range of issues specific to BC. It can identify issues relating to physical, psychological, sexual and social functioning, as well as issues relating to body image and lifestyle.

Related: Breast Cancer

Branca G, Irato E, Barresi V, et al.
A rare case of male breast cavernous-type angioleiomyoma.
Tumori. 2014 Jul-Aug; 100(4):148e-52e [PubMed] Related Publications
Cutaneous leiomyomas of the breast are extremely rare, particularly in men. Leiomyomas are categorized into three groups: angioleiomyomas, pilar leiomyomas and genital leiomyomas. Angioleiomyomas, or vascular leiomyomas, are benign tumors arising from smooth muscle cells of arterial or venous walls. We report the case of a 70-year-old man who was admitted to the surgery unit because of a painful lump in the left periareolar region. Ultrasound investigation showed a well-delimited, hyperechogenic, inhomogeneous nodular lesion. The final diagnosis was made after surgical excision and pathological evaluation of the mass. The histological features and immunohistochemical profile, characterized by positive expression of the spindle-shaped tumor cells for desmin and smooth muscle actin and by positive expression of the endothelial cells of the vascular channels for pan-endothelial markers CD34 and CD31, confirmed the diagnosis of a cavernous-type angioleiomyoma.

Gao YG, Zhang SH, Wang Y
A case of accessory mammary cancer in a male patient and a literature review.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2014; 35(4):452-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 68-year-old Chinese male patient was referred to the present hospital because of a right axillary lump in May 2011. Physical examination showed a rigid movable mass measuring 35 mm in diameter in the right axilla. No mass was palpable in either breast. Mammograms were normal. Physical and imaging examination of the head and neck region, lung, and upper and lower gastrointestinal tract also revealed no evidence of a primary tumor. Ultrasonography and resonance imaging (MRI) revealed no evidence of tumors in the bilateral mammary glands. Fine needle histological biopsy for suspected malignancy was performed, and the patient underwent tumor resection with axillary lymph node dissection on Jun 2011. Moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma in ectopic breast tissue was diagnosed based on the pathologic result, the tumor was immunohistochemically positive for ER, PR, and HER-2.

Wenhui Z, Shuo L, Dabei T, et al.
Androgen receptor expression in male breast cancer predicts inferior outcome and poor response to tamoxifen treatment.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2014; 171(4):527-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Androgen receptor (AR) plays an important role in male breast cancer (MBC). Additionally, endocrine therapy is the most important treatment in oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive advanced breast cancer. This study was aimed to investigate the role of AR in MBC treatment and prognosis and to analyse the relationship between AR and the effect of tamoxifen treatment in MBC patients.
METHODS: AR protein levels and other tumour characteristics (e.g. expression of ER (ESR1), PR (PGR), AR, HER2 (ERBB2) and Ki-67 (MKI67)) in breast cancer tissue from 102 MBC patients were determined using immunohistochemical analysis. Additionally, the relationship between AR status and clinicopathological features was analysed using the χ(2)-test. Association with survival was initially analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test, and Cox regression analysis was used to adjust for other prognostic indicators.
RESULTS: High expression of AR was not correlated with T-stage, histological grade, HER2 status and the status of other sex hormone receptors, but was associated with lymph node metastases (P=0.032). AR-positive patients showed significantly shorter 5-year overall survival (OS) rates (P=0.045) and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates (P=0.026) than AR-negative patients. By contrast, for patients who received tamoxifen therapy, AR-negative patients showed a higher clinical benefit rate than AR-positive patients (P=0.025). Additionally, the median TTP and OS were significantly different (P=0.02 for TTP; P=0.029 for OS).
CONCLUSIONS: AR expression correlates strongly with both OS and DFS in patients with MBC. AR-positive patients can predict a poorer clinical outcome than AR-negative patients after adjuvant tamoxifen therapy.

Related: MKI67 AR: androgen receptor

Park YM, Wu Y, Wei W, Yang WT
Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: clinical, imaging, and histologic features.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014; 203(2):W221-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical, imaging, and histopathologic findings of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pathology database was searched for the records of patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast who had undergone mammography, sonography, or MRI between 1984 and 2011. The imaging studies of eligible patients were retrospectively reviewed according to the BI-RADS lexicon, and clinical presentation and histopathologic characteristics were documented. Imaging characteristics were compared with historical controls of invasive mammary carcinoma.
RESULTS: Eighty-seven patients (84 women, three men; mean age, 62.9 years; range, 28-89 years) were included in the study. The mean tumor size was 3.1 cm (range, 0.6-11 cm). Sixty-five of 84 (77.4%) cancers were estrogen and progesterone receptor positive and ERBB2 negative. A palpable mass (55.8%) was a common clinical manifestation. A high-density, round or oval, or lobular mass with nonspiculated margins on mammograms and an irregular (65.4%), hypoechoic (78.4%) mass, with indistinct margins (43.5%), no or enhanced posterior acoustic features (77.9%) on sonograms were common findings. MRI revealed an irregular mass (83.3%), irregular margins (63.6%), and washout kinetics (85.7%). Neuroendocrine carcinoma presented more frequently as masses on mammograms. Calcifications were infrequent compared with their occurrence in invasive mammary cancer.
CONCLUSION: Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast has mammographic features that differ from those of invasive mammary carcinoma. A round, oval, or lobular mass with nonspiculated margins, positive estrogen and progesterone receptor results, and negative ERBB2 results should raise suspicion of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma.

Related: Breast Cancer

Grenader T, Yerushalmi R, Tokar M, et al.
The 21-gene recurrence score assay (Oncotype DX™) in estrogen receptor-positive male breast cancer: experience in an Israeli cohort.
Oncology. 2014; 87(1):1-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The 21-gene recurrence score (RS) assay has been widely adopted for use in early estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer to assess the risk for distant recurrence and the potential benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. The primary aim of this study was to assess RS distribution in Israeli male breast cancer (MBC) patients.
METHODS: The study population included 65 newly diagnosed Israeli MBC patients. Clinical and pathologic data were collected at the time of referral. Pathologic examinations were conducted at the pathology departments of the referring centers. The RS assay (Oncotype DX™) was performed on paraffin-embedded tumor samples at Genomic Health laboratories.
RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 65.1 years (range 38-88 years). Low-risk (RS<18), intermediate-risk (RS 18-30) and high-risk (RS≥31) scores were noted in 29 patients (44.6%), 27 patients (41.5%) and 9 patients (13.9%), respectively. The distribution of RS in male patients was similar to the distribution in 2,455 female patients from Israel referred during the same time period.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the distribution of Oncotype DX RS in ER-positive MBC patients is similar to that of female breast cancer patients.

Lu CS, Huang SH, Ho CL, et al.
Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast.
J BUON. 2014 Apr-Jun; 19(2):419-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (NECB) is a rare distinct type of breast carcinoma. There are only some case reports on this topic published in the past. There is still little known on the optimal treatment outcomes, while a wide variety of treatments is proposed by several authors. In this study we searched the literature on NECB in PubMed to clarify its prognosis and possible optimal therapeutic strategies.
METHODS: Eighty-six cases of primary NEC, included our case, were collected from PubMed between 1980 and 2013. Initial stage, estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)/ human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), surgical procedures, adjuvant treatment and overall survive (OS) were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS, v 16.0 ).
RESULTS: All 86 patients enrolled were eligible. Their mean age at diagnosis was 53.9 years (range 25-83) and 1 case was in a male. Overall survival (OS) at 48 months was 83.5%. Patients with enlarged tumor size (10 patients with tumor size >5.0 cm) or advanced stage (stage III 15 patients, stage IV 2 patients) had poor OS (48-month OS: 51.4 vs 97.1% with tumors >5cm vs ≤2cm, respectively and 0.0%, 68.1%, 72.9% and 95.8% in stage IV, III, II and I, respectively). Patients with positive ER, PR or HER-2 had significantly better OS than did those without (ER, p<0.001; PR, p<0.001; HER-2, p=0.082). Besides, all 60 patients with initial primary surgery and without lymph node dissection (LND) showed better OS than those with initial primary surgery without LND, the difference however being not significant (p=0.133).
CONCLUSION: Definite diagnosis and clinical stage are prerequisites in the initial approach in NECB. When detected early the disease may have a good prognosis with combined modality treatment such as chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. An appropriate therapeutic strategy for this group is also important. Our analysis showed that for patients with early localized disease only primary surgery is recommended and LND is optional. In patients with positive steroid receptors postoperative hormonotherapy is suggested.

Related: Breast Cancer

Damineni S, Rao VR, Kumar S, et al.
Germline mutations of TP53 gene in breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):9219-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germline alterations of the TP53 gene encoding the p53 protein have been observed in the majority of families with the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a rare dominantly inherited disorder with breast cancer. Genomic DNA samples of 182 breast cancer cases and 186 controls were sequenced for TP53 mutations in the exon 5-9 and intervening introns 5, 7-9. Direct sequencing was done using Applied Biosystem 3730 DNA analyzer. In the present study, we observed nine mutations in the sequenced region, of which five were novel. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was done for all the mutations; C14181T, T14201G, and G13203A have shown deviation from HWE. High linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between C14181T (rs129547788) and T14201G (rs12951053) (r (2) = 0.98.3; D' = 1.00), whereas other observed mutations do not show strong LD with any of the other mutations. None of the intronic mutations has shown significant association with the breast cancer, two exonic mutations G13203A (rs28934578) and A14572G are significantly (P = 0.04, P = 0.007) associated with breast cancer. Germline mutations observed in DNA-binding domain of the gene showed significant association with breast cancer. This study reports five novel germline mutations in the TP53 gene out of which one mutation may confer significant risk to the breast cancer. Mutations in DNA-binding domain of TP53 gene may play role in the early onset and prognosis of breast cancer. The population-based studies of germline mutations in DNA-binding domain of TP53 gene helps in identification of individuals and families who are at risk of developing cancers.

Related: Breast Cancer TP53

Helvie MA, Chang JT, Hendrick RE, Banerjee M
Reduction in late-stage breast cancer incidence in the mammography era: Implications for overdiagnosis of invasive cancer.
Cancer. 2014; 120(17):2649-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mammographic screening is expected to decrease the incidence of late-stage breast cancer. In the current study, the authors determined the decrease in late-stage cancer incidence and the changes in invasive cancer incidence that occurred in the mammographic era after adjusting for prescreening temporal trends.
METHODS: Breast cancer incidence and stage data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. The premammography period (1977-1979) was compared with the mammographic screening period (2007-2009) for women aged ≥ 40 years. The authors estimated prescreening temporal trends using 5 measures of annual percentage change (APC). Stage-specific incidence values from 1977 through 1979 (baseline) were adjusted using APC values of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.3%, and 2.0% and then compared with observed stage-specific incidence in 2007 through 2009.
RESULTS: Prescreening APC temporal trend estimates ranged from 0.8% to 2.3%. The joinpoint estimate of 1.3% for women aged ≥ 40 years approximated the 4-decade long APC trend of 1.2% noted in the Connecticut Tumor Registry. At an APC of 1.3%, late-stage breast cancer incidence decreased by 37% (56 cases per 100,000 women) with a reciprocal increase in early-stage rates noted from 1977 through 1979 to 2007 through 2009. Resulting late-stage cancer incidence decreased from 21% at an APC of 0.5% to 48% at an APC of 2.0%. Total invasive breast cancer incidence decreased by 9% (27 cases per 100,000 women) at an APC of 1.3%.
CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that a substantial reduction in late-stage breast cancer has occurred in the mammography era when appropriate adjustments are made for prescreening temporal trends. At background APC estimates of ≥ 1%, the total invasive breast cancer incidence also decreased.

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Sas-Korczynska B, Niemiec J, Harazin-Lechowska A, et al.
The biological markers and results of treatment in male breast cancer patients. The Cracow experience.
Neoplasma. 2014; 61(3):331-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Male breast cancer is a rare form of carcinoma with an incidence rate of approximately 0.5-1% compared with cases of breast carcinoma as a whole. Male breast cancer reacts effectively to endocrine therapy because of a high frequency of hormone receptor expression.The aim of the present study was the assessment of correlations between stage, grade, expression of steroid receptors, basal/mesenchymal markers and proliferation index, as well as analysis of the impact of the above-mentioned parameters on overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the group of 32 male breast cancer patients, treated at the Centre of Oncology in Cracow.We showed the significant positive correlation between MIB-1 LI and tumor stage, and hormone receptors (ER or PgR) immunonegativity, and expression of EGFR, vimentin (p<0.05) and P-cadherin (the last at statistical border). The presence of any of basal or masenchymal markers correlated with a more advanced tumor stage. Moreover tumors without vimentin expression were characterised by lower MIB-1 LI and were more frequently EGFR immunonegative.We found that hormone receptor negativity, vimentin immunopositivity and high MIB-1 LI are significant independent indicators of poor OS and DFS for male breast cancer patients (p<0.05).

Related: MKI67

Sipetic-Grujicic SB, Murtezani ZH, Neskovic-Konstatinovic ZB, et al.
Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in male breast cancer in Serbia.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(7):3233-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic and clinical characteristics of male breast cancer patients in Serbia, and furthermore to determine overall survival and predictive factors for prognosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period of 1996-2006 histopathological diagnosis of breast cancer was made in 84 males at the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia. For statistical analyses the Kaplan-Meier method, long-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used.
RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis with breast cancer was 64.3±10.5 years with a range from 35-84 years. Nearly 80% of the tumors showed ductal histology. About 44% had early tumor stages (I and II) whereas 46.4% and 9.5% of the male exhibited stages III and IV, respectively. Only 7.1% of male patients were grade one. One-fifth of all patients had tumors measuring ≤2 cm, and 14.3% larger than 5 cm. Lymph node metastasis was recorded in 40.4% patients and 47% relapse. Estrogen and progesterone receptor expression was positive in 66.7% and 58.3%, respectively. Among 14.3% of individuals tumor was HER2 positive. About two-thirds of all male patients had radical mastectomy (66.7%). Adjuvant hormonal (tamoxifene), systematic chemotherapy (CMF or FAC) and adjuvant radiotherapy were given to 59.5%, 35.7% and 29.8% patients respectively. Overall survival rates at five and ten years for male breast cancer were 55.0% and 43.9%, respectively. According to the multivariate Cox regression predictive model, a lower initial disease stage, a lower tumor grade, application of adjuvant hormone therapy and no relapse occurrence were significant independent predictors for good overall survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of the treatment would be better if disease is discovered earlier and therefore health education and screening are an imperative in solving this problem.

Corbex M, Bouzbid S, Boffetta P
Features of breast cancer in developing countries, examples from North-Africa.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(10):1808-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidemiological features of breast cancer appear to be different in developing countries compared to Western countries, with notably large proportions of young patients, male patients and aggressive forms of the disease. Using North-Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt) as an example, we document the magnitude and explore possible explanations for such patterns. Articles and reports published since the seventies were reviewed. Results show that breast cancer incidence in females is 2-4 times lower in North-Africa than in Western countries while incidence in males is similar. Consequently, the relative proportion of male breast cancer is high (≈2% of all breast cancers). Similarly, the incidence of aggressive forms of the disease, like inflammatory or triple negative breast cancer (in females), is not higher in North Africa than in Western countries, but their relative proportion in case series (up to 10% for inflammatory and 15-25% for triple negative) is significantly higher because of low incidence of other forms of the disease. In North Africa, the incidence among women aged 15-49 is lower than in Western countries, but the very low incidence among women aged more than 50, combined to the young age pyramid of North-Africa, makes the relative proportions of young patients substantially higher (50-60% versus 20% in France). Such epidemiological features result mainly from peculiar risk factor profiles, which are typical for many developing countries and include notably rapid changes in reproductive behaviours. These features have important implications for breast cancer control and treatment.

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Till JE, Beck HL, Aanenson JW, et al.
Military participants at U.S. Atmospheric nuclear weapons testing--methodology for estimating dose and uncertainty.
Radiat Res. 2014; 181(5):471-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Methods were developed to calculate individual estimates of exposure and dose with associated uncertainties for a sub-cohort (1,857) of 115,329 military veterans who participated in at least one of seven series of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests or the TRINITY shot carried out by the United States. The tests were conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds and the Nevada Test Site. Dose estimates to specific organs will be used in an epidemiological study to investigate leukemia and male breast cancer. Previous doses had been estimated for the purpose of compensation and were generally high-sided to favor the veteran's claim for compensation in accordance with public law. Recent efforts by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) to digitize the historical records supporting the veterans' compensation assessments make it possible to calculate doses and associated uncertainties. Our approach builds upon available film badge dosimetry and other measurement data recorded at the time of the tests and incorporates detailed scenarios of exposure for each veteran based on personal, unit, and other available historical records. Film badge results were available for approximately 25% of the individuals, and these results assisted greatly in reconstructing doses to unbadged persons and in developing distributions of dose among military units. This article presents the methodology developed to estimate doses for selected cancer cases and a 1% random sample of the total cohort of veterans under study.

Related: USA

Yardley DA, Tripathy D, Brufsky AM, et al.
Long-term survivor characteristics in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer from registHER.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(11):2756-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Data characterising long-term survivors (LTS) with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are limited. This analysis describes LTS using registHER observational study data.
METHODS: A latent class modelling (LCM) approach was used to identify distinct homogenous patient groups (or classes) based on progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, and complete response. Demographics, clinicopathologic factors, first-line treatment patterns, and clinical outcomes were described for each class. Class-associated factors were evaluated using logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: LCM identified two survivor groups labelled as LTS (n=244) and short-term survivors (STS; n=757). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, although LTS were more likely to be white (83.6% vs 77.8%) with oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) or progesterone receptor-positive (PgR+) disease (59.4% vs 50.9%). Median PFS in LTS was 37.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 32.9-40.5) vs 7.3 months (95% CI: 6.8-8.0) in STS. Factors associated with long-term survival included ER+ or PgR+ disease, metastasis to node/local sites, first-line trastuzumab use, and first-line taxane use.
CONCLUSIONS: Prognostic variables identified by LCM define a HER2-positive MBC patient profile and therapies that may be associated with more favourable long-term outcomes, enabling treatment selection appropriate to the patient's disease characteristics.

Related: Breast Cancer

Hong W, Dong E
The past, present and future of breast cancer research in China.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 351(1):1-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The incidence of breast cancer has increased rapidly in recent years and has now become the most common cancer in women in major cities of China. Here, we reviewed the history and progress of breast cancer research in China, including achievements that Chinese scientists have made in basic, translational and clinical research. Moreover, we evaluated the contributions of National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) in the field of breast cancer research. The number of grants funded by the NSFC for breast cancer has tripled from 87 to 274 in the past 5years, and this resulted in a dramatic increase in breast cancer publications. Despite this great progress, policy makers are continuously taking efforts to guarantee the transparency of grant competition and the effective use of NSFC finding.

Related: Breast Cancer

Soliman AA, Denewer AT, El-Sadda W, et al.
A retrospective analysis of survival and prognostic factors of male breast cancer from a single center.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:227 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Less than 1% of all breast cancer cases are found in men, who reportedly have inferior outcomes compared with matched women patients. Ethnic differences may also affect their prognosis. Here, we investigated overall survival (OS) and major prognostic factors for male breast cancer (MBC) in a cohort of Egyptian patients.
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed OS in a cohort of 69 male patients with MBC who were surgically treated at the Mansoura Cancer Center, Egypt between 2000 and 2007. We registered demographic data, age, height, weight and body mass index, tumor size, histology, number of infiltrated axillary lymph nodes, hormone receptor (HR) status and metastatic presence, and TNM staging. Patients' OS was the primary endpoint. Patients received treatment to the medical standards at the time of their diagnosis.
RESULTS: In the 69 patients who met the inclusion criteria and had complete stored patient data, tumors ranged from T1c to T3. We could gather cancer-related survival data from only 56 patients. The collective 5-year survival in this cohort was 46.4%. Only five patients had distant metastasis at diagnosis, but they showed a null percent 5-year survival, whereas those with no lymph node infiltration showed a 100% 5-year survival. Lymph node status and tumor grading were the only prognostic factors that significantly affected OS.
CONCLUSIONS: Lymph node status and tumor grade are the most important prognostic factors for overall survival of MBC in Egyptian male patients; whereas even remarkably low HR expression in MBC did not significantly affect OS. Further research is needed to understand the factors that affect this disease.

Slaoui M, Razine R, Ibrahimi A, et al.
Breast cancer in Morocco: a literature review.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(3):1067-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
In Morocco, breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women and a major public health problem. Several Moroccan studies have focused on studying this disease, but more are needed, especially at the genetic and molecular levels. It is therefore interesting to establish the genetic and molecular profile of Moroccan patients with breast cancer. In this paper, we will highlight some pertinent hypotheses that may enhance breast cancer care in Moroccan patients. This review will give a precise description of breast cancer in Morocco and propose some new markers for detection and prediction of breast cancer prognosis.

Related: Cancer Screening and Early Detection MUC1 gene RHOC

Khan HM, Saxena A, Rana S, Ahmed NU
Bayesian method for modeling male breast cancer survival data.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(2):663-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: With recent progress in health science administration, a huge amount of data has been collected from thousands of subjects. Statistical and computational techniques are very necessary to understand such data and to make valid scientific conclusions. The purpose of this paper was to develop a statistical probability model and to predict future survival times for male breast cancer patients who were diagnosed in the USA during 1973-2009.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A random sample of 500 male patients was selected from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. The survival times for the male patients were used to derive the statistical probability model. To measure the goodness of fit tests, the model building criterions: Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC), and Deviance Information Criteria (DIC) were employed. A novel Bayesian method was used to derive the posterior density function for the parameters and the predictive inference for future survival times from the exponentiated Weibull model, assuming that the observed breast cancer survival data follow such type of model. The Markov chain Monte Carlo method was used to determine the inference for the parameters.
RESULTS: The summary results of certain demographic and socio-economic variables are reported. It was found that the exponentiated Weibull model fits the male survival data. Statistical inferences of the posterior parameters are presented. Mean predictive survival times, 95% predictive intervals, predictive skewness and kurtosis were obtained.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings will hopefully be useful in treatment planning, healthcare resource allocation, and may motivate future research on breast cancer related survival issues.

Brinton LA, Cook MB, McCormack V, et al.
Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer: male breast cancer pooling project results.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(3):djt465 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly because of its relative rarity. Although genetic factors are involved, less is known regarding the role of anthropometric and hormonally related risk factors.
METHODS: In the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of 11 case-control and 10 cohort investigations involving 2405 case patients (n = 1190 from case-control and n = 1215 from cohort studies) and 52013 control subjects, individual participant data were harmonized and pooled. Unconditional logistic regression generated study design-specific (case-control/cohort) odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with exposure estimates combined using fixed effects meta-analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Risk was statistically significantly associated with weight (highest/lowest tertile: OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.18 to 1.57), height (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.38), and body mass index (BMI; OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.51), with evidence that recent rather than distant BMI was the strongest predictor. Klinefelter syndrome (OR = 24.7; 95% CI = 8.94 to 68.4) and gynecomastia (OR = 9.78; 95% CI = 7.52 to 12.7) were also statistically significantly associated with risk, relations that were independent of BMI. Diabetes also emerged as an independent risk factor (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.37). There were also suggestive relations with cryptorchidism (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 0.96 to 4.94) and orchitis (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.99). Although age at onset of puberty and histories of infertility were unrelated to risk, never having had children was statistically significantly related (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.66). Among individuals diagnosed at older ages, a history of fractures was statistically significantly related (OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.86).
CONCLUSIONS: Consistent findings across case-control and cohort investigations, complemented by pooled analyses, indicated important roles for anthropometric and hormonal risk factors in the etiology of male breast cancer. Further investigation should focus on potential roles of endogenous hormones.

Downey CL, Simpkins SA, White J, et al.
The prognostic significance of tumour-stroma ratio in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(7):1744-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A high percentage of stroma predicts poor survival in triple-negative breast cancers but is diminished in studies of unselected cases. We determined the prognostic significance of tumour-stroma ratio (TSR) in oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive male and female breast carcinomas.
METHODS: TSR was measured in haematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections (118 female and 62 male). Relationship of TSR (cutoff 49%) to overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) was analysed.
RESULTS: Tumours with ≥49% stroma were associated with better survival in female (OS P=0.008, HR=0.2-0.7; RFS P=0.006, HR=0.1-0.6) and male breast cancer (OS P=0.005, HR=0.05-0.6; RFS P=0.01, HR=0.87-5.6), confirmed in multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: High stromal content was related to better survival in ER-positive breast cancers across both genders, contrasting data in triple-negative breast cancer and highlighting the importance of considering ER status when interpreting the prognostic value of TSR.

Related: Breast Cancer

Kreiter E, Richardson A, Potter J, Yasui Y
Breast cancer: trends in international incidence in men and women.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(7):1891-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The age-standardised incidence of breast cancer varies geographically, with rates in the highest-risk countries more than five times those in the lowest-risk countries.
METHODS: We investigated the correlation between male (MBC) and female breast cancer (FBC) incidence stratified by female age-group (<50 years, and ≥50 years) and used Poisson regression to examine male incidence rate ratios according to female incidence rates.
RESULTS: Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rates for males and females share a similar geographic distribution (Spearman's correlation=0.51; P<0.0001). A correlation with male incidence rates was found for the entire female population and for women aged 50 years and over. Breast cancer incidence rates in males aged <50 years were not associated with FBC incidence, whereas those in males aged 50 years were. MBC incidence displays a small 'hook' similar to the Clemmesen's hook for FBC, but at a later age than the female hook.
INTERPRETATION: Further investigation of possible explanations for these patterns is warranted. Although the incidence of breast cancer is much lower in men than in women, it may be possible to identify a cause common to both men and women.

Related: Breast Cancer

Mnif H, Charfi S, Abid N, Sallemi-Boudawara T
Mammary myofibroblastoma with leiomyomatous differentiation: case report and literature review.
Pathologica. 2013; 105(4):142-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Myofibroblastoma of the breast (MFB) is an unusual benign tumour that belongs to the family of benign spindle cell tumours of the mammary stroma. The detection of smooth muscle cells in MFB is explained by its histogenesis from CD34+ fibroblasts of mammary stroma capable of multidirectional mesenchymal differentiation, including smooth muscle.
AIMS: The purpose of this case is to highlight characteristics of this rare neoplasm. Immunohistochemical features, in MFB with predominant leiomyomatous differentiation, are provided to offer a practical approach to a correct diagnosis.
CASE REPORT: We report a right MFB in a 60-year-old male. The tumour was unusual due to its morphological features, with predominant leiomyomatous differentiation. Immunohistochemical findings, based on the negativity of h-caldesmon, helped in reaching a diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: The detection of leiomyomatous rather than myofibrolastic features in MFB may reflect only the predominant cell types of examined area, and this is not necessarily representative of the remaining tumour which may have a different basic cellular composition. Immunohistochemical expression of h-caldesmon is a reliable marker in distinguishing smooth muscle versus myofibrolastic cellular differentiation in spindle cells lesions of the breast.

Sedighi A, Hamed EA, Mohammadian K, et al.
Clinicopathologic characteristics of male breast cancer: a report of 21 cases in radiotherapy center of hamedan, iran.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(12):7381-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Male breast cancer accounts for less than 1% of all cancer in men and only around 1% of all diagnosed breast cancer. Despite a significant raise in the last 25 years, it still remains a rare disease.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study from 2004-2011 with 21 male breast cancer patients. We aimed to analyze the epidemiologic data (age, personal and family history), tumor characteristics (size, histological type, location, TNM stage, receptors), surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy, hormonal therapy and survival (relapse, follow up, death) who reffered to our center with breast cancer.
RESULTS: The median age was 49.2±14.2 years (range 30-83 years). A family history of breast cancer was noted in four cases. The main clinical complaint was a retroareolar mass in 85.7%of patients (n=18). Histologically, 85.7% (n=18)were invasive ductal carcinoma and 4.7% (n=1) had ductal carcinoma in situ and 9.4% (n=2) had mixed histology including invasive medullary and ductal carcinoma. Hormonal therapy was delivered to 16 cases (76.1%) due to ER or PR positivity. During median follow up of 30 months (3-84 month), distant metastases were evident in 4 cases (19%). During the follow-up period, only one patient died due to metastatic disease. The mean time to recurrence detection was 30 months.
CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of cases of male breast cancer is very low compared to breast cancer in females, explaining why very few investigations have been conducted in Iran. Limited coverage in the literature make gender-specific findings difficult so future research of this entity involving multi-institutional cooperation and longer follow up is essential to provide new insights about the biological and clinical factors of this rare cancer.

Fernandes PH, Saam J, Peterson J, et al.
Comprehensive sequencing of PALB2 in patients with breast cancer suggests PALB2 mutations explain a subset of hereditary breast cancer.
Cancer. 2014; 120(7):963-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study sought to determine the prevalence of PALB2 mutations in a cohort referred for diagnostic testing for hereditary breast cancer.
METHODS: Sanger sequencing was used to analyze the entire coding region and flanking introns of PALB2 in anonymized DNA samples from 1479 patients. Samples were stratified into a "high-risk" group, 955 samples from individuals predicted to have a high probability of carrying a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 based on their personal and family history, and a "lower-risk" group consisting of 524 samples from patients with breast cancer, but fewer risk factors for being a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carrier. All patients were known to be negative for deleterious sequence mutations and large rearrangements in BRCA1 and BRCA2.
RESULTS: We identified 12 disease-associated PALB2 mutations among the 1479 patients (0.8%). The PALB2 mutations included 8 nonsense, 3 frameshift mutations and a splice-site mutation. The mutation prevalence for the high-risk population was 1.05% (95% CI = 0.5-1.92), whereas that for the lower-risk population was 0.38% (95% CI = 0.05-1.37). We identified 59 PALB2 variants of uncertain significance (VUS) among 57 of the 1479 patients (3.9%).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PALB2 mutations occur at a frequency of ~1% in patients with hereditary breast cancer.

Related: Breast Cancer PALB2

Kaczmarek K, Wiącek MP, Sulewski A, et al.
Failure and success in the treatment of breast carcinoma in men: a case report.
Pol Orthop Traumatol. 2014; 79:1-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Male breast cancer (MBC) represents a rare cause of vertebral body compression fractures along with severe pain restricting the patient's daily functioning. Limited number of cases, lack of awareness among patients and physicians leading to delayed management, further increase the average age and disease progression at presentation, resulting in a poor prognosis. Additionally, studies on MBC treatment protocols and the use of female algorithms are unavailable. The implementation of vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty often results in unsatisfactory outcome due to recurrent pain and loss of vertebral height. Stentoplasty could become an alternative procedure, as described in the following case study.
CASE REPORT: 54-yr-old male patient with history of breast carcinoma presented with pain in the vertebral column. Baseline X-ray and CT scan revealed multiple osteosclerotic and osteolytic metastatic lesions in the thoracic vertebrae along with a compression fracture at T9. Stentoplasty was performed to limit fracture progression. Intraoperative scan revealed restoration of the vertebral body shape. Following surgery, direct reduction in pain was obtained. Postoperative 1-year follow-up did not show any loss in height of the operated vertebra. Results of adjuvant chemotherapy administration and a new method of treatment of compression fractures caused by metastatic lesions were compared with previously published studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Stentoplasty with Vertebral Body Stenting-System is an innovative method that can be applied in kyphoplasty for compression fractures caused by metastatic lesions. Nevertheless, further research on the systemic treatment of MBC is needed.

Related: Cyclophosphamide Doxorubicin Fluorouracil Methotrexate

Hotko YS
Male breast cancer: clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment.
Exp Oncol. 2013; 35(4):303-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite male breast cancer is rare in occurrence, it is a serious problem. In 2012, 130 men in Ukraine got breast cancer that constituted 0.74% from all patients with mentioned pathology detected in the course of year. Every year in Ukraine approximately 100 men die from breast cancer. Still many aspects of male breast cancer remain unstudied. It occurs since information about mentioned disease is mainly based on retrospective analysis of small groups. Treatment of men, who got breast cancer, is based on knowledge, which has been obtained in treatment of women with this pathology. This article is based on the results of analysis of 168 cases of breast cancer in men, who have been examined and treated in the period from 1956 to 2012. In paper the peculiarities of clinical manifestations of male breast cancer have been determined, the optimal volume of diagnostic procedures in men with suspicion of breast cancer has been established, the mammographic signs have been detected and the possible histological variants of disease have been determined, clinical course peculiarities of male breast cancer have been defined, the most essential factors of prognosis of the disease have been fixed. Furthermore, in article optimal volume of surgical treatment of male breast cancer has been substantiated, the role and place of radiotherapy in treatment of this pathology has been determined. It has been proved that adjuvant polychemotherapy should be applied to the patients with male breast cancer independently from stage of process. Also optimal schemes of this kind of treatment have been determined. The efficacy of hormonal therapy with antiestrogen in patients with positive receptors of steroid hormones and at presence of unfavorable prognostic factors of disease has been demonstrated. The inefficiency of orchiectomy as one of the widespread kinds of hormonal therapy of male breast cancer has been defined.

Aşchie M, Bălţătescu GI, Mitroi A
Clinico-pathological and molecular subtypes of male breast carcinoma according to immunohistochemistry.
Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2013; 54(3 Suppl):749-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Male breast carcinoma is a rare condition, but with a trend of increase frequency. In our study, we investigate the clinico-pathological features and overall survival at 35 male cases of primary invasive breast carcinoma correlated with molecular subtypes defined by immunohistochemical profile.
METHODS: Based on immunohistochemical expression profiles of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) and Ki67, EGFR and CK5/6, the male breast cancers were classified into the following molecular subtypes: Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2+, triple negative and unclassified.
RESULTS: In our study, we identified 65.7% as Luminal A subtype and 28.6% as Luminal B subtype. The difference was represented by two (5.7%) cases of triple negative subtype, but due to low number of patients, no correlations or prognostic significance could be assessed in these cases. No HER2 or unclassified subtypes were identified.
CONCLUSIONS: Luminal A tumors are the most frequent subtype in MBC, with a better outcome than Luminal B subtype. We recorded high levels of ER and PR expression, which predict a better response to adjuvant hormonal therapy. At the time of diagnosis, most of the patients were aged and with an advance clinical stage, this requiring implementation of screening programs and increase education of population in order to an early detection.

Related: TP53

La Verde N, Collovà E, Lonardi S, et al.
Male breast cancer: clinical features and multimodal treatment in a retrospective survey analysis at Italian centers.
Tumori. 2013 Sep-Oct; 99(5):596-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: We report a collection of data about early breast cancer in male patients from 13 Italian institutions.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We obtained data from patient charts and performed statistical analysis. The primary end points were overall survival and disease-free survival.
RESULTS: A total of 205 men with invasive breast cancer was identified, with a median age of 66 years. Pathological characteristics were heterogeneous for T stage, N stage and HER2 status. Histological subtype was predominantly ductal infiltrating carcinoma. Most of them were hormone receptor positive. Mastectomy was the most common strategy. Postsurgical treatment was not standardized. Patients with large tumors were more likely to be treated with chemotherapy. Disease recurrence was associated with an ER+ and PR+ status.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified a correlation between relapse and hormone receptor expression, as is the case in female breast cancer.

Lee AJ, Cunningham AP, Kuchenbaecker KB, et al.
BOADICEA breast cancer risk prediction model: updates to cancer incidences, tumour pathology and web interface.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(2):535-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/01/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA) is a risk prediction model that is used to compute probabilities of carrying mutations in the high-risk breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, and to estimate the future risks of developing breast or ovarian cancer. In this paper, we describe updates to the BOADICEA model that extend its capabilities, make it easier to use in a clinical setting and yield more accurate predictions.
METHODS: We describe: (1) updates to the statistical model to include cancer incidences from multiple populations; (2) updates to the distributions of tumour pathology characteristics using new data on BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and women with breast cancer from the general population; (3) improvements to the computational efficiency of the algorithm so that risk calculations now run substantially faster; and (4) updates to the model's web interface to accommodate these new features and to make it easier to use in a clinical setting.
RESULTS: We present results derived using the updated model, and demonstrate that the changes have a significant impact on risk predictions.
CONCLUSION: All updates have been implemented in a new version of the BOADICEA web interface that is now available for general use:

Related: Breast Cancer

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