Male Breast Cancer
Male breast cancer is uncommon, men account for approximately 1% of all breast cancer cases. Incidence in Western populations is under 1 case per 100,000 men, though rates reported in some African countries are much higher. The majority of male breast cancers are of the infiltrating ductal type, this is where the cancer has spread beyond the cells lining ducts in the breast. In many respects male breast cancer is similar to that found in women, though in general men tend to be older than women at diagnosis. Treatment tends to be the same as that for women with breast cancer of the same type and stage.
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MeSH term: Breast Neoplasms, Male
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Lymphatic and blood vessels in male breast cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(2):1041-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 32 male breast carcinomas we evaluated the correlation between: (i) lymphatic vessel density (LVD), distribution of podoplanin-immunostained vessels (DPV), blood vessel density (BVD), infiltration of immune cells and (ii) known clinicopathological parameters.
RESULTS: Lymphatic and blood vessels were found in 77.8% and 100% of breast carcinomas, respectively. Double-negative estrogen and progesterone receptor tumors (ER-/PR-) presented significantly higher LVD than ER/PR positive cases, while high-grade tumors exhibited significantly higher DPV than low-grade carcinomas. We detected significantly higher frequency of vascular invasion in high-grade and double-negative carcinomas than in low-grade and ER/PR-positive ones, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The relationship between high number of lymphatic vessels and high tumor grade or steroid receptor negativity might confirm the hypothesis regarding the influence of lymphangiogenesis on the formation of a more aggressive phenotype in male breast cancer.
Mutational profiling of familial male breast cancers reveals similarities with luminal A female breast cancer with rare TP53 mutations.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(12):2351-60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/12/2015 Related Publications
METHODS: Using a TruSeq amplicon cancer panel, this study evaluated 48 familial MBCs (3 BRCA1 germline mutant, 17 BRCA2 germline mutant and 28 BRCAX) for hotspot somatic mutations and copy number changes in 48 common cancer genes.
RESULTS: Twelve missense mutations included nine PIK3CA mutations (seven in BRCAX patients), two TP53 mutations (both in BRCA2 patients) and one PTEN mutation. Common gains were seen in GNAS (34.1%) and losses were seen in GNAQ (36.4%), ABL1 (47.7%) and ATM (34.1%). Gains of HRAS (37.5% vs 3%, P=0.006), STK11 (25.0% vs 0%, P=0.01) and SMARCB1 (18.8% vs 0%, P=0.04) and the loss of RB1 (43.8% vs 13%, P=0.03) were specific to BRCA2 tumours.
CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to perform high-throughput somatic sequencing on familial MBCs. Overall, PIK3CA mutations are most commonly seen, with fewer TP53 and PTEN mutations, similar to the profile seen in luminal A female breast cancers. Differences in mutation profiles and patterns of gene gains/losses are seen between BRCA2 (associated with TP53/PTEN mutations, loss of RB1 and gain of HRAS, STK11 and SMARCB1) and BRCAX (associated with PIK3CA mutations) tumours, suggesting that BRCA2 and BRCAX MBCs may be distinct and arise from different tumour pathways. This has implications on potential therapies, depending on the BRCA status of MBC patients.
Flow cytometric DNA hypertetraploidy tends to be more frequent in male than in female breast cancers.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 466(2):185-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Association of the number of sentinel lymph nodes harvested with survival in breast cancer.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2015; 41(1):52-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Data of 144 517 patients with invasive T1-3M0 breast carcinoma and initial treatment with SLN biopsy were extracted from the SEER database. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.
RESULTS: The number of SLNs harvested and the completion of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) were not associated with DSS improvement for patients without metastatic nodes. After adjustment, patients with three SLNs had a better DSS than did other groups (HR of 0.73 CI 95% [0.60-0.88], p = 0.001). This result was mainly driven by the group of patients with one metastatic LN. When patients had two or more metastatic LNs, there was no difference in DSS according to the number of SLNs or to completion of ALND.
CONCLUSIONS: The number of SLN harvested was associated with DSS. According to DSS, the optimal number of SLNs harvested was three in this large series, thereby calling into question the understaging or undertreatment of SLN biopsy in which only one or two SLNs are harvested but also the therapeutic effect of completion ALND.
SWOG S0221: a phase III trial comparing chemotherapy schedules in high-risk early-stage breast cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(1):58-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to test two hypotheses: (1) that a novel continuous schedule of doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide was superior to six cycles of doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide once every 2 weeks and (2) that paclitaxel once per week was superior to six cycles of paclitaxel once every 2 weeks in patients with node-positive or high-risk node-negative early-stage breast cancer. With 3,250 patients, a disease-free survival (DFS) hazard ratio of 0.82 for each randomization could be detected with 90% power with two-sided α = .05. Overall survival (OS) was a secondary outcome.
RESULTS: Interim analyses crossed the futility boundaries for demonstrating superiority of both once-per-week regimens and once-every-2-weeks regimens. After a median follow-up of 6 years, a significant interaction developed between the two randomization factors (DFS P = .024; OS P = .010) in the 2,716 patients randomly assigned in the original design, which precluded interpretation of the two factors separately. Comparing all four arms showed a significant difference in OS (P = .040) but not in DFS (P = .11), with all treatments given once every 2 weeks associated with the highest OS. This difference in OS seemed confined to patients with hormone receptor-negative/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -negative tumors (P = .067), with no differences seen with hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative (P = .90) or HER2-positive tumors (P = .40).
CONCLUSION: Patients achieved a similar DFS with any of these regimens. Subset analysis suggests the hypothesis that once-every-2-weeks dosing may be best for patients with hormone receptor-negative/HER2-negative tumors.
Male breast carcinoma: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characterization study.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(10):6852-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
MicroRNA expression profiling in male and female familial breast cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(12):2361-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/12/2015 Related Publications
METHODS: Microarray technology was used to evaluate miRNA profile in 24 male and 43 female fBC. Key results were validated using RT-qPCR in an external samples set. In vitro studies were carried out to verify microRNA-target gene interaction.
RESULTS: Pathway enrichment analysis with the 287 differentially expressed microRNAs revealed several signalling pathways differently regulated in male and female cases. Because we previously hypothesised a peculiar involvement of RASSF1A in male fBC pathogenesis, we focussed on the MAPK and the Hippo signalling pathways that are regulated by RASSF1A. Male miR-152 and miR-497 upregulation and RASSF1A and NORE1A interacting gene downregulation were observed, confirming a possible indirect interaction between miRNAs and the two genes.
CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, a different microRNA expression pattern in male and female fBC has been shown. Moreover, the importance of RASSF1A pathway in male fBC carcinogenesis has been confirmed, highlighting a possible role for miR-152 and miR-497 in controlling MAPK and Hippo signalling pathways, regulated by RASSF1A.
Male breast cancer: a rare disease that might uncover underlying pathways of breast cancer.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2014; 14(10):643 [PubMed] Related Publications
Solid malignancies in individuals with Down syndrome: a case presentation and literature review.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2014; 12(11):1537-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Issues patients would like to discuss at their review consultation in breast cancer clinics--a cross-sectional survey.
Tumori. 2014 Sep-Oct; 100(5):568-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We carried out a cross-sectional survey - using the BC-specific PCI, the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the EORTC BC QLQ-BR23 - of patients who had completed their initial treatment and were attending a review outpatient clinic. 249 patients were recruited from February to July 2012.
RESULTS: Survey responses were obtained from 80% (200/249). The three most frequent items were fear of cancer coming back (62%, 124), breast sensitivity/pain (46%, 92), and fatigue/tiredness and low energy levels overall (46%, 92). The most frequently selected members of the multidisciplinary team that patients wished to see were the breast care nurse (46%, 92), the medical oncologist (28%, 55) and the psychologist (20%, 40).
CONCLUSIONS: The PCI provides the opportunity for multiprofessional engagement across a range of issues specific to BC. It can identify issues relating to physical, psychological, sexual and social functioning, as well as issues relating to body image and lifestyle.
A rare case of male breast cavernous-type angioleiomyoma.
Tumori. 2014 Jul-Aug; 100(4):148e-52e [PubMed] Related Publications
Invasive Paget disease of the breast: 20 years of experience at a single institution.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(12):2480-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Safety and efficacy of neratinib in combination with capecitabine in patients with metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(32):3626-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Part one was a 3 + 3 dose-escalation study in which patients with advanced solid tumors received oral neratinib once per day continuously plus capecitabine twice per day on days 1 to 14 of a 21-day cycle at predefined dose levels. In part two, patients with trastuzumab-pretreated HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer received neratinib plus capecitabine at the MTD. The primary end point in part two was objective response rate (ORR).
RESULTS: In part one (n = 33), the combination of neratinib 240 mg per day plus capecitabine 1,500 mg/m(2) per day was defined as the MTD, which was further evaluated in part 2 (n = 72). The most common drug-related adverse events were diarrhea (88%) and palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (48%). In part two, the ORR was 64% (n = 39 of 61) in patients with no prior lapatinib exposure and 57% (n = 4 of 7) in patients previously treated with lapatinib. Median progression-free survival was 40.3 and 35.9 weeks, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Neratinib in combination with capecitabine had a manageable toxicity profile and showed promising antitumor activity in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer pretreated with trastuzumab and lapatinib.
Application of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging in breast cancer margin analysis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(42):15184-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/12/2015 Related Publications
Antiandrogen therapy in metastatic male breast cancer: results from an updated analysis in an expanded case series.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 148(1):73-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
TP53 polymorphisms in sporadic North Indian breast cancer patients.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(16):6871-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We screened DNA samples of 200 sporadic breast cancer patients (197 females and 3 males) and 200 unrelated healthy, gender and age matched individuals for the polymorphisms.
RESULTS: For the p.P47S polymorphism, we observed the PP genotype in 99.5% of the patients and PS genotype in only 1 patient. All the controls had the wild type PP genotype. The frequency of RR, RP and PP genotype of p.R72P was 23.5% vs 33.5%, 51.5% vs 45.5% and 25% vs 21% in patients and controls respectively. Heterozygous (RP) genotype was increased in breast cancer patients as compared to controls (51.5 vs 45.5%) and showed 1.61 fold significantly increased risk for breast cancer (OR=1.61, 95% CI, 1.01-2.58, p=0.04). In breast cancer patients the frequencies of A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2 genotypes of PIN3 Ins16bp polymorphism were 67%, 26% and 7% respectively whereas in controls the genotype frequencies were 68.5%, 27.5% and 4% respectively, with no significant difference. For p.R213R (c.639A>G), all individuals had homozygous wild type genotype. The frequencies of GG, GA and AA genotypes of TP53 r.13494g>a polymorphism were 62 vs 67.5%, 33 vs 28% and 5 vs 4.5% in patients and controls respectively, again without significant difference. We observed that RP- A1A1 genotype combination of p.R72P and PIN3 Ins16bp and RP-GG combination of p.R72P and r.13494g>a polymorphism showed significant risk of breast cancer (OR=1.65, 95%CI: 0.98-2.78, p=0.05; OR=1.72, 95%CI: 1.01-2.92, p=0.04).
CONCLUSION: The results of present study indicated that among the five TP53 polymorphisms investigated, the p.R72P polymorphism, and the RP-A1A1 and RP-GG genotype combination contribute to breast cancer susceptibility in North Indians.
A case of accessory mammary cancer in a male patient and a literature review.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2014; 35(4):452-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aromatase inhibitors for metastatic male breast cancer: molecular, endocrine, and clinical considerations.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 147(2):227-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Detection of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow and circulating tumor cells in blood of patients with early-stage male breast cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141(1):87-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five male patients (pT2-4, pN0-2, M0) with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, and ductal primary BC (median age 70 years, range 51-73) were enrolled in a prospective study of patients with early-stage breast cancer. Here, we analyze the male subgroup. DTC in BM were analyzed before therapy and identified by immunocytochemistry using the pancytokeratin antibody A45B/B3. Blood samples (10 ml) were analyzed for CTC using the AdnaTest BreastCancer (AdnaGen AG, Langenhagen, Germany).
RESULTS: DTC were found in three out of five male patients (60%) with two DTC detected in one patient and one DTC detected in each of the other two patients. This is compared to a detection rate of 25-40% in pooled analyses of female patients. CTC were only found in one of five patients. After a median follow-up time of 3 years (range 1-10 years), all patients were still alive and free of relapse.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of DTC and CTC in male BC seems comparable with female BC. No prognostic relevance could be documented in this small population. A prospective study or at least larger cases series will be required to assess the prognostic or predictive value of DTC and CTC in this rare disease.
Androgen receptor expression in male breast cancer predicts inferior outcome and poor response to tamoxifen treatment.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2014; 171(4):527-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: AR protein levels and other tumour characteristics (e.g. expression of ER (ESR1), PR (PGR), AR, HER2 (ERBB2) and Ki-67 (MKI67)) in breast cancer tissue from 102 MBC patients were determined using immunohistochemical analysis. Additionally, the relationship between AR status and clinicopathological features was analysed using the χ(2)-test. Association with survival was initially analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test, and Cox regression analysis was used to adjust for other prognostic indicators.
RESULTS: High expression of AR was not correlated with T-stage, histological grade, HER2 status and the status of other sex hormone receptors, but was associated with lymph node metastases (P=0.032). AR-positive patients showed significantly shorter 5-year overall survival (OS) rates (P=0.045) and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates (P=0.026) than AR-negative patients. By contrast, for patients who received tamoxifen therapy, AR-negative patients showed a higher clinical benefit rate than AR-positive patients (P=0.025). Additionally, the median TTP and OS were significantly different (P=0.02 for TTP; P=0.029 for OS).
CONCLUSIONS: AR expression correlates strongly with both OS and DFS in patients with MBC. AR-positive patients can predict a poorer clinical outcome than AR-negative patients after adjuvant tamoxifen therapy.
Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: clinical, imaging, and histologic features.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014; 203(2):W221-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pathology database was searched for the records of patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast who had undergone mammography, sonography, or MRI between 1984 and 2011. The imaging studies of eligible patients were retrospectively reviewed according to the BI-RADS lexicon, and clinical presentation and histopathologic characteristics were documented. Imaging characteristics were compared with historical controls of invasive mammary carcinoma.
RESULTS: Eighty-seven patients (84 women, three men; mean age, 62.9 years; range, 28-89 years) were included in the study. The mean tumor size was 3.1 cm (range, 0.6-11 cm). Sixty-five of 84 (77.4%) cancers were estrogen and progesterone receptor positive and ERBB2 negative. A palpable mass (55.8%) was a common clinical manifestation. A high-density, round or oval, or lobular mass with nonspiculated margins on mammograms and an irregular (65.4%), hypoechoic (78.4%) mass, with indistinct margins (43.5%), no or enhanced posterior acoustic features (77.9%) on sonograms were common findings. MRI revealed an irregular mass (83.3%), irregular margins (63.6%), and washout kinetics (85.7%). Neuroendocrine carcinoma presented more frequently as masses on mammograms. Calcifications were infrequent compared with their occurrence in invasive mammary cancer.
CONCLUSION: Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast has mammographic features that differ from those of invasive mammary carcinoma. A round, oval, or lobular mass with nonspiculated margins, positive estrogen and progesterone receptor results, and negative ERBB2 results should raise suspicion of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma.
¹⁸F-FDG-PET/CT in staging, restaging, and treatment response assessment of male breast cancer.
Eur J Radiol. 2014; 83(10):1925-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We performed a systematic analysis in the database of Saint-Louis Hospital to identify male patients with BC referred for PET/CT. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT findings considered suspicious for malignancy were compared to biopsy results, further work-up and/or patient follow-up of at least 6 months. Performances of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT were compared to that of conventional imaging (CI) using the McNemar test. The impact of PET/CT on management was evaluated.
RESULTS: During 6 consecutive years, among 12,692 (18)F-FDG-PET/CT oncology studies, 30 were performed in 15 men with BC: 7 examinations for initial staging, 11 for restaging, and 12 for response assessment. Tumors profile was ER+ and one had HER2 overexpression. PET/CT sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy to detect distant metastases were 100%, 67%, 86%, 100% and 89%, respectively. PET/CT was more informative than CI in 40% of studies (p=0.03; 95% confidence interval: 3.26 - 40%). Findings from (18)F-FDG-PET/CT led to modification in the planned treatment in 13/30 cases (43%).
CONCLUSION: Although all the tumors were ER+, primary lesions and metastases were diagnosed with high sensitivity. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT seems to be a powerful imaging method to perform staging, restaging and treatment response assessment in male patients with BC.
The 21-gene recurrence score assay (Oncotype DX™) in estrogen receptor-positive male breast cancer: experience in an Israeli cohort.
Oncology. 2014; 87(1):1-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The study population included 65 newly diagnosed Israeli MBC patients. Clinical and pathologic data were collected at the time of referral. Pathologic examinations were conducted at the pathology departments of the referring centers. The RS assay (Oncotype DX™) was performed on paraffin-embedded tumor samples at Genomic Health laboratories.
RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 65.1 years (range 38-88 years). Low-risk (RS<18), intermediate-risk (RS 18-30) and high-risk (RS≥31) scores were noted in 29 patients (44.6%), 27 patients (41.5%) and 9 patients (13.9%), respectively. The distribution of RS in male patients was similar to the distribution in 2,455 female patients from Israel referred during the same time period.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the distribution of Oncotype DX RS in ER-positive MBC patients is similar to that of female breast cancer patients.
Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast.
J BUON. 2014 Apr-Jun; 19(2):419-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Eighty-six cases of primary NEC, included our case, were collected from PubMed between 1980 and 2013. Initial stage, estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)/ human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), surgical procedures, adjuvant treatment and overall survive (OS) were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS, v 16.0 ).
RESULTS: All 86 patients enrolled were eligible. Their mean age at diagnosis was 53.9 years (range 25-83) and 1 case was in a male. Overall survival (OS) at 48 months was 83.5%. Patients with enlarged tumor size (10 patients with tumor size >5.0 cm) or advanced stage (stage III 15 patients, stage IV 2 patients) had poor OS (48-month OS: 51.4 vs 97.1% with tumors >5cm vs ≤2cm, respectively and 0.0%, 68.1%, 72.9% and 95.8% in stage IV, III, II and I, respectively). Patients with positive ER, PR or HER-2 had significantly better OS than did those without (ER, p<0.001; PR, p<0.001; HER-2, p=0.082). Besides, all 60 patients with initial primary surgery and without lymph node dissection (LND) showed better OS than those with initial primary surgery without LND, the difference however being not significant (p=0.133).
CONCLUSION: Definite diagnosis and clinical stage are prerequisites in the initial approach in NECB. When detected early the disease may have a good prognosis with combined modality treatment such as chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. An appropriate therapeutic strategy for this group is also important. Our analysis showed that for patients with early localized disease only primary surgery is recommended and LND is optional. In patients with positive steroid receptors postoperative hormonotherapy is suggested.
Germline mutations of TP53 gene in breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):9219-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular profiling of male breast cancer - lost in translation?
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 53:526-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reduction in late-stage breast cancer incidence in the mammography era: Implications for overdiagnosis of invasive cancer.
Cancer. 2014; 120(17):2649-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Breast cancer incidence and stage data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. The premammography period (1977-1979) was compared with the mammographic screening period (2007-2009) for women aged ≥ 40 years. The authors estimated prescreening temporal trends using 5 measures of annual percentage change (APC). Stage-specific incidence values from 1977 through 1979 (baseline) were adjusted using APC values of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.3%, and 2.0% and then compared with observed stage-specific incidence in 2007 through 2009.
RESULTS: Prescreening APC temporal trend estimates ranged from 0.8% to 2.3%. The joinpoint estimate of 1.3% for women aged ≥ 40 years approximated the 4-decade long APC trend of 1.2% noted in the Connecticut Tumor Registry. At an APC of 1.3%, late-stage breast cancer incidence decreased by 37% (56 cases per 100,000 women) with a reciprocal increase in early-stage rates noted from 1977 through 1979 to 2007 through 2009. Resulting late-stage cancer incidence decreased from 21% at an APC of 0.5% to 48% at an APC of 2.0%. Total invasive breast cancer incidence decreased by 9% (27 cases per 100,000 women) at an APC of 1.3%.
CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that a substantial reduction in late-stage breast cancer has occurred in the mammography era when appropriate adjustments are made for prescreening temporal trends. At background APC estimates of ≥ 1%, the total invasive breast cancer incidence also decreased.
(99)mTc-3PRGD2 scintimammography in palpable and nonpalpable breast lesions.
Mol Imaging. 2014; 13 [PubMed] Related Publications
The biological markers and results of treatment in male breast cancer patients. The Cracow experience.
Neoplasma. 2014; 61(3):331-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in male breast cancer in Serbia.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(7):3233-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period of 1996-2006 histopathological diagnosis of breast cancer was made in 84 males at the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia. For statistical analyses the Kaplan-Meier method, long-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used.
RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis with breast cancer was 64.3±10.5 years with a range from 35-84 years. Nearly 80% of the tumors showed ductal histology. About 44% had early tumor stages (I and II) whereas 46.4% and 9.5% of the male exhibited stages III and IV, respectively. Only 7.1% of male patients were grade one. One-fifth of all patients had tumors measuring ≤2 cm, and 14.3% larger than 5 cm. Lymph node metastasis was recorded in 40.4% patients and 47% relapse. Estrogen and progesterone receptor expression was positive in 66.7% and 58.3%, respectively. Among 14.3% of individuals tumor was HER2 positive. About two-thirds of all male patients had radical mastectomy (66.7%). Adjuvant hormonal (tamoxifene), systematic chemotherapy (CMF or FAC) and adjuvant radiotherapy were given to 59.5%, 35.7% and 29.8% patients respectively. Overall survival rates at five and ten years for male breast cancer were 55.0% and 43.9%, respectively. According to the multivariate Cox regression predictive model, a lower initial disease stage, a lower tumor grade, application of adjuvant hormone therapy and no relapse occurrence were significant independent predictors for good overall survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of the treatment would be better if disease is discovered earlier and therefore health education and screening are an imperative in solving this problem.