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Genitourinary (Male) Cancers

Penile (Penis) Cancer
Prostate Cancer
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General Genitourinary Cancer Resources
Latest Research Publications

General Genitourinary Cancer Resources (3 links)

Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Stanzione A, Ponsiglione A, Cuocolo R, et al.
Abbreviated Protocols
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4449-4454 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) is the reference imaging modality for extraprostatic extension of disease (EPE) assessment. We aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of different abbreviated MRI protocols to the standard prostate mpMRI in the identification of EPE of PCa.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients were retrospectively enrolled. Dual-pulse (dpMRI) and biparametric (bpMRI) abbreviated protocols were obtained from mpMRI. The performance of two experienced radiologists and two radiology residents was correlated with a reference standard and compared. Inter and intra-reader agreements were evaluated.
RESULTS: All protocols were strongly correlated to the reference standard (p≤0.001). A significant difference was found between dpMRI and mpMRI (p=0.009), no differences emerged between bpMRI and mpMRI (p=0.27). All readers showed moderate agreement (ĸ=0.47, ĸ=0.50 and ĸ=0.53 for dpMRI, bpMRI and mpMRI, respectively). Intra-reader agreement was good (all ĸ values ≥0.70).
CONCLUSION: Only bpMRI showed similar diagnostic performance to mpMRI, thus appearing as a feasible alternative to the standard protocol for EPE detection.

Shiota M, Nakamura M, Yokomizo A, et al.
Therapeutic Outcome of >10 Cycles of Cabazitaxel for Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: A Multi-institutional Study.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4411-4414 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cabazitaxel use has usually been limited to up to 10 cycles in most countries according to the protocol in the TROPIC trial. Therefore, clinical data on cabazitaxel use beyond 10 cycles is limited. The aim of this study was to report the therapeutic outcome of cabazitaxel chemotherapy administered for >10 cycles.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 74 Japanese patients with prostate cancer between 2014 and 2017. Patients background, and treatment outcomes including PSA decline, progression-free survival, treatment-failure-free survival, overall survival, and adverse events were investigated, comparing patients treated with ≤10 and >10 cycles.
RESULTS: Patients characteristics were favorable as indicated by the higher number of cycles of prior docetaxel chemotherapy, absence of pain, and absence of bony and visceral metastases among men who received >10 cycles of cabazitaxel. PSA response, progression-free survival, treatment-failure-free survival and overall survival were better among patients treated with >10 cycles of cabazitaxel compared to those treated with ≤10 cycles. The incidence of severe adverse events was similar between the two groups.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, this study suggested that continuous chemotherapy with cabazitaxel beyond 10 cycles may be beneficial.

Sinha AA
Electron Microscopic Analysis of Stem Cells in Human Prostate Cancer, Including Inverted Capsule Embedding Methods for Archival Sections and Falcon Films for Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4171-4177 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Identification of prostatic stem cells in primary prostate tissue sections, organ cultures of prostate and cell lines requires a range of techniques that allows characterization of stem cells for their potential use in the treatment of patients. Isolated cells usually round-up and develop changes in shape, size and cellular characteristics. The aim of this study was to provide a range of methods for identifying prostatic stem cells and characterizing them with regard to ultrastructure, nuclear morphology, cytoplasmic organelles, and/or expression stem cell marker CD133.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prostate biopsy and prostatectomy specimens were used for studying prostatic stem cells and their known marker CD133 in tissue sections by light and/or electron microscopy. Inverted capsule embedding was used to study archival metastatic prostate in pelvic nodes and Du145 cell line in a monolayer culture.
RESULTS: Staining for CD133 positively identified stem cells that were found in benign prostatic hyperplasia, benign prostate, and prostate cancer cells. Paraffin embedded sections showed a single type of stem cells, whereas methylene blue-stained Epon sections showed both light and dark stem cells. Electron microscopy showed that both basal and stem cells were closely associated with the basement membrane (basal lamina). Stem cells had smooth plasma and nuclear membranes, a prominent nucleolus, small mitochondria, and few ribosomes. Du145 cells were separated by intercellular spaces in monolayer culture.
CONCLUSION: The inverted capsule embedding method allowed the study of metastasized prostate cancer in pelvic lymph nodes. Our approach enabled the assessment of stem cells in tissue sections by light and electron microscopy.

Cao HM, Wan Z, Wu Y, et al.
Development and internal validation of a novel model and markers to identify the candidates for lymph node metastasis in patients with prostate cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(30):e16534 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High-grade prostate cancer (PCa) has a poor prognosis, and up to 15% of patients worldwide experience lymph node invasion (LNI). To further improve the prediction lymph node invasion in prostate cancer, we adopted risk scores of the genes expression based on the nomogram in guidelines.
METHODS: We analyzed clinical data from 320 PCa patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas database. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis was used to identify the genes that were significantly associated with LNI in PCa (n = 390). Analyses using the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases were performed to identify the activated signaling pathways. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the independent risk factors for the presence of LNI.
RESULTS: We found that patients with actual LNI and predicted LNI had the worst survival outcomes. The 7 most significant genes (CTNNAL1, ENSA, MAP6D1, MBD4, PRCC, SF3B2, TREML1) were selected for further analysis. Pathways in the cell cycle, DNA replication, oocyte meiosis, and 9 other pathways were dramatically activated during LNI in PCa. Multivariate analyses identified that the risk score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05 for 1% increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.07, P < .001), serum PSA level, clinical stage, primary biopsy Gleason grade (OR = 2.52 for a grade increase, 95% CI: 1.27-5.22, P = .096), and secondary biopsy Gleason grade were independent predictors of LNI. A nomogram built using these predictive variables showed good calibration and a net clinical benefit, with an area under the curve (AUC) value of 90.2%.
CONCLUSIONS: In clinical practice, the application of our nomogram might contribute significantly to the selection of patients who are good candidates for surgery with extended pelvic lymph node dissection.

Jia J, Sun Y, Ren J, et al.
Biomarkers for detecting prostate cancer: Protocol for an umbrella review with integrated network meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(30):e16517 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is common, with it being the 2nd most prevalent cancer in men worldwide and the 6th leading cause of death in men. Screening for any type of cancer aims to increase the chances of successful treatment through early detection of the disease. There were some systematic reviews (SRs) evaluated the diagnostic value of biomarkers for the diagnosis of PCa and no studies have been conducted to analyze the quality of these SRs. We are not clear which kind of marker is the best choice. Thus, this study aims to assess the methodologic quality of the SRs and reanalyze the published data based on SRs for the biomarkers to find the optimal biomarker for the early diagnosis of PCa.
METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library and to identify relevant SRs from inception to April 2019. Diagnostic accuracy studies included any type of single biomarker or combined biomarkers aimed at evaluating the diagnostic value is considered eligible for this overview. The Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews-2 (AMSTAR-2) instrument will be used to evaluate the risk of bias of the included SRs. Standard pairwise meta-analysis and adjusted indirect comparison will be used to compare the diagnostic value of different biomarkers.
RESULTS: The results of this study will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication.
CONCLUSION: This study will reanalyze the published data based on SRs. We hope that the results will help find a biomarker with the superior diagnostic performance for the diagnosis of PCa.

Tonso VM, Yamauchi FI, Mussi TC, et al.
Comparative study between monoexponential and biexponential diffusion weighted imaging sequences in multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging.
Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2019; 17(3):eAO4615 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To compare qualitatively and quantitatively, in terms of image quality, a new biexponential diffusion sequence protocol with the standard monoexponential diffusion protocol on multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging.
METHODS: This study had a prospective data collection and cross-sectional analysis. Between August and November 2017, a total of 70 patients who underwent multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging due to clinical suspicion of prostatic neoplasia were recruited. The images obtained were evaluated by two independent readers regarding subjective/qualitative criteria (six criteria) and objective/quantitative criteria (three criteria), always comparing the monoexponential to biexponential acquisition protocols. The results were compared by statistical analysis (interobserver agreement - Gwet coefficient; analysis of the qualitative variables - Stuart-Maxwell test; and analysis of the quantitative variables - Wilcoxon test).
RESULTS: After exclusion of four patients, the final sample consisted of 66 patients. A good/excellent inter observer agreement was stablished for subjective criteria (except in one criteria). For the qualitative analysis the amount of good or excellent evaluations was higher for the monoexponential protocol (except in one category), with evidence of significant differences for three criteria (diffusion weighted imaging global quality; diffusion weighted imaging signal-to-noise ratio; and apparent diffusion coefficient signal-to-noise ratio). For the quantitative data analysis, the monoexponential protocol showed less variability of the anteroposterior diameters, meaning less distortion of the images, and better estimated signal-to-noise ratio.
CONCLUSION: In our data, the quality of the images of the monoexponential standard diffusion sequence was qualitatively and quantitatively superior to those of the biexponential diffusion weighted imaging sequence.

Hellms S, Gutberlet M, Peperhove MJ, et al.
Applicability of readout-segmented echoplanar diffusion weighted imaging for prostate MRI.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(29):e16447 [PubMed] Related Publications
To evaluate readout-segmented echoplanar (rsEPI) diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) for multiparametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate compared to the established single-shot echoplanar imaging (ssEPI) sequence.One hundred ten consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer underwent mp prostate MRI using both, the ssEPI and the rsEPI DWI sequence. For an objective assessment, delineation of the prostate shape on both DWI sequences was compared to T2-weighted images by measuring organ diameters. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, image contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were compared between the 2 sequences on a region-of-interest-based analysis. Diagnostic accuracy for quantitative ADC-values was calculated. Histopathology from MRI/ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy was used as reference standard. For a subjective assessment, 2 independent readers visually assessed image quality of both sequences using Likert-scales.Delineation of the prostate shape was more accurate with rsEPI compared to ssEPI. ADC values in target lesions were not significantly different but significantly higher in the surrounding normal prostatic tissue of the transition zone. CNR was comparable between ssEPI and rsEPI. Sensitivity and specificity were good for both sequences with 84/84% and 82/73% with a Youden selected cut-off of ADC = 0.971*10 mm/s for rsEPI and 1.017*10 mm/s for ssEPI. Anatomic artifacts were significantly less and SNR was lower on rsEPI compared to ssEPI in the subjective analysis.Delineation of the prostate shape was more accurate with rsEPI DWI than with ssEPI DWI with less anatomic artifacts and higher subjective SNR and image quality on rsEPI DW images. Diagnostic ability of quantitative ADC-values was not significantly different between the 2 sequences. Thus, rsEPI DWI might be more suitable for prostate MRI with regard to MRI-guided targeted biopsy and therapy planning.

Liang F, Li M, Yao L, et al.
Computer-aided detection for prostate cancer diagnosis based on magnetic resonance imaging: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(29):e16326 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common primary malignancies in humans and the second leading cause of cancer-specific mortality among Western males. Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems have been developed for accurate and automated PCa detection and diagnosis, but the diagnostic accuracy of different CAD systems based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for PCa remains controversial. The aim of this study is to systematically review the published evidence to investigate diagnostic accuracy of different CAD systems based on MRI for PCa.
METHODS: We will conduct the systematic review and meta-analysis according to the Preferred Reporting Items for a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies (PRISMA-DTA) guidelines. Cochrane library, PubMed, EMBASE and Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database will be systematically searched from inception for eligible articles, 2 independent reviewers will select studies on CAD-based MRI diagnosis of PCa and extract the requisite data. The quality of reporting evidence will be assessed using the quality assessment of diagnosis accuracy study (QUADAS-2) tool. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves will be calculated to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of CAD system. In addition, we will conduct subgroup analyses according to the type of classifier of CAD systems used and the different prostate zoon.
RESULTS: This study will conduct a meta-analysis of current evidence to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of CAD systems based on MRI for PCa by calculating sensitivity, specificity, and SROC curves.
CONCLUSION: The conclusion of this study will provide evidence to judge whether CAD systems based on MRI have high diagnostic accuracy for PCa.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for this systematic review as it will involve the collection and analysis of secondary data. The results of the review will be reported in international peer-reviewed journals.

Liu JB, Yan YJ, Shi J, et al.
Upregulation of microRNA-191 can serve as an independent prognostic marker for poor survival in prostate cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(29):e16193 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-191 (miR-191) has been identified as being upregulated in several types of cancers, and plays the role of oncogene. The expression of miR-191 has been found to be upregulated in prostate cancer tissues as well as cell lines. In this study, we analyzed the correlation of miR-191 expression with clinicopathologic factors and prognosis in prostate cancer.Prostate cancer tissue samples and adjacent normal prostate tissue samples were collected from 146 patients who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy between April 2013 and March 2018. Student two-tailed t-test was used for comparisons of 2 independent groups. The relationships between miR-191 expression and different clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated using the Chi-squared test. Kaplan-Meier survival plots and log-rank tests were used to assess the differences in overall survival of the different subgroups of prostate cancer patients.miR-191 expression was significantly higher in prostate cancer tissues compared with normal adjacent prostate tissues (P < .001). miR-191 expression was observed to be significantly correlated with Gleason score (P < .001), pelvic lymph node metastasis (P = .006), bone metastases (P < .001), and T stage (P = .005). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with higher levels of miR-191 had significantly poorer survival than those with lower expression of this miRNA in prostate cancer patients (log rank test, P = .011). Multivariate analysis revealed that miR-191 expression (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.311, 95% confidence interval, [CI]: 1.666-9.006; P = .027) was independently associated with the overall survival of prostate cancer patients.Our results demonstrated that miR-191 might serve as an independent prognostic indicator for prostate cancer patients.

Li Y, He S, Zhan Y, et al.
microRNA-183-3p Inhibits Progression of Human Prostate Cancer by Downregulating High-Mobility Group Nucleosome Binding Domain 5.
DNA Cell Biol. 2019; 38(8):840-848 [PubMed] Related Publications
microRNAs are a class of noncoding RNAs that play important roles in cancer progression. microRNA-183-3p (miR-183-3p) is a novel microRNA that is dysregulated in many kinds of cancers. Our previous studies found high expression and oncologic role of high-mobility group nucleosome binding domain 5 (

Büscheck F, Zub M, Heumann A, et al.
The independent prognostic impact of the GATA2 pioneering factor is restricted to ERG-negative prostate cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2019; 41(7):1010428318824815 [PubMed] Related Publications
GATA2 is a pioneering transcription factor governing androgen receptor expression and signaling in prostate cells. To understand the prognostic potential of GATA2 assessment in prostate cancer, we analyzed nuclear GATA2 expression on an annotated tissue microarray with 12,427 prostate cancer samples. Normal prostate glands were negative to weakly positive. GATA2 staining was found in almost all prostate cancers (95%). Strong GATA2 staining was linked to advanced tumor stage, high classical and quantitative Gleason grade (p < 0.0001 each), positive nodal stage (p = 0.0116), and early biochemical recurrence (p < 0.0001). GATA2 was linked to

Ruf CG, Borck S, Anheuser P, et al.
Adjuvant carboplatin therapy in patients with clinical stage 1 testicular seminoma: is long-term morbidity increased?
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(9):2335-2342 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Clinical stage (CS) 1 testicular seminoma is cured in almost 100% of cases following either retroperitoneal radiotherapy, carboplatin monotherapy, or surveillance strategies. Little is known about potential long-term effects of carboplatin. We, therefore, examined late sequelae of this drug in seminoma patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 451 patients with CS1 testicular seminoma treated between 1994 and 2014, of whom 243 underwent carboplatin therapy [median follow-up (F/U) 96 months], 81 received radiotherapy (median F/U 142 months), and 127 underwent surveillance (median F/U 40 months). Satisfaction regarding management, as well as the following events during F/U, were analysed by questionnaire: subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs), cardiovascular events, arterial hypertension, peptic ulcer, tinnitus, peripheral neuropathy, hypogonadism, and infertility. The relative frequencies of the events were analysed using descriptive statistics. The frequency of observed SMNs was compared with the expected number.
RESULTS: Patients receiving carboplatin tolerated the treatment less well (71.2%) than those under surveillance (81.9%). After carboplatin, 12 SMNs (5.0%) were noted vis-a-vis 5.0 expected. There were three cases of prostatic cancer and 3 melanomas among the SMNs. Half of these SMNs occurred early after treatment. Among the other health events, only reported hypogonadism (13.2%) appeared to be marginally increased in frequency.
CONCLUSIONS: This study found a 2.4-fold higher than expected rate of SMN-and a slightly increased rate of hypogonadism-in the long-term period following carboplatin treatment. Although further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings, these results are probably informative for clinicians caring for seminoma patients.

Nappi L, Nichols C
MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Germ Cell Tumors.
Urol Clin North Am. 2019; 46(3):449-457 [PubMed] Related Publications
Two clusters of microRNAs have been discovered highly expressed by seminoma and nonseminoma germ cell tumors. They are secreted in blood of patients with testicular germ cell tumors and can be extracted from the serum or plasma and quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction. Results have confirmed the feasibility of the technique and demonstrated that sensitivity and specificity of those microRNAs in detecting viable germ cell tumors are higher than with current methods. If operation characteristics are confirmed in larger studies, those microRNAs will be valuable to manage equivocal clinical scenarios characterized by high uncertainty and high risk of over-treatment or under-treatment.

Adra N, Abonour R
High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplant.
Urol Clin North Am. 2019; 46(3):439-448 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germ cell tumors (GCT) are the most common cancer in men between 15 and 35 years of age and the incidence has increased during the past several decades. This article reviews the current knowledge on high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and stem cell transplant for salvage treatment of patients with relapsed metastatic GCT. Furthermore, the authors attempt to dissect the controversy of using standard-dose versus high-dose therapy as initial salvage and identify patients who are most likely to benefit from HDCT and peripheral blood stem cell transplant.

Cary C, Foster RS, Masterson TA
Complications of Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection.
Urol Clin North Am. 2019; 46(3):429-437 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection is an integral part of the management of testicular cancer. Surgical approach and outcomes have improved over the past decades. Several factors influence the complexity of the operation, including numerous patient characteristics and disease-related characteristics. An important consideration lies in the fact that this is largely a vascular operation, and techniques of vascular control should be comfortable for the urologic surgeon performing the procedure. This article discusses the known surgical complications related to this operation and their relative incidence reported throughout the literature.

Hiester A, Nettersheim D, Nini A, et al.
Management, Treatment, and Molecular Background of the Growing Teratoma Syndrome.
Urol Clin North Am. 2019; 46(3):419-427 [PubMed] Related Publications
Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is a rare clinical phenomenon in patients with nonseminomatous germ cell cancer defined by growing metastatic mass during ongoing or directly after completed chemotherapy with timely decreasing tumor markers and postpubertal teratoma exclusively after resection. GTS was first described in 1982, and few reports have been published. The limited number of studies and the resulting lack of exact knowledge about development, differentiation, and treatment of GTS leaves several clinical problems regarding treatment and follow-up unsolved. This review provides an overview of clinical diagnosis and disease management and an approach to explain the molecular development of GTS.

Klaassen Z, Hamilton RJ
The Role of Robotic Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection for Testis Cancer.
Urol Clin North Am. 2019; 46(3):409-417 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is complex; however, recent advances in technology have allowed adoption of the robotic platform for highly select cases. Initial case series have shown improved cosmesis, less blood loss, and decreased length of stay compared with open RPLND. Our preference for performing robotic RPLND is via a transperitoneal approach with the patient in the supine position, thus facilitating a bilateral template dissection identical to that used in all our open procedures. Robotic RPLND should mimic the open approach with regard to oncologic principles and should only be performed by clinicians well versed in open RPLND.

Pierorazio PM, Biles MJ
Indications for Surgery in Disseminated Seminoma.
Urol Clin North Am. 2019; 46(3):399-407 [PubMed] Related Publications
Seminoma is commonly diagnosed in young men, and it has therefore become a disease of long-term survivors. As the late toxic effects of radiation and chemotherapy are better understood, it is becoming imperative to focus management advancements on reducing exposure to toxic agents. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) currently is indicated as a salvage procedure in postchemotherapy patients with residual masses. Primary RPLND currently is being further explored in patients with clinical stage IA and clinical stage IB disease in 2 prospective studies.

Ghodoussipour S, Daneshmand S
Postchemotherapy Resection of Residual Mass in Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumor.
Urol Clin North Am. 2019; 46(3):389-398 [PubMed] Related Publications
The introduction of cisplatin-based chemotherapy has revolutionized the care of patients with disseminated testicular germ cell tumors. Although a majority are cured with chemotherapy alone, surgical resection continues to play a role because one-third will have residual mass after chemotherapy. In this article, we review the current indications for postchemotherapy resection in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, including masses greater than 1 cm, resection after salvage chemotherapy, with elevated markers, after late relapse, and for growing teratoma syndrome. We also highlight technical considerations of this often-challenging surgery, including the need for adjunctive procedures, extraretroperitoneal resections, and modern techniques to minimize morbidity.

Lavoie JM, Kollmannsberger CK
Current Management of Disseminated Germ Cell Tumors.
Urol Clin North Am. 2019; 46(3):377-388 [PubMed] Related Publications
The modern treatment of disseminated germ cell tumors (GCT) relies largely on cisplatin-based regimens, particularly combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin. This article reviews the evidence supporting its use as well as common alterations based on prognostic grouping or contraindications to bleomycin. Special topics around the management of intermediate/poor prognosis choriocarcinoma and brain metastases are included. The management of residual masses for both seminoma and nonseminoma is discussed as well as long-term follow-up care of patients. Finally, the management of relapsed disseminated GCT is addressed.

Ghandour RA, Singla N, Bagrodia A
Management of Stage II Germ Cell Tumors.
Urol Clin North Am. 2019; 46(3):363-376 [PubMed] Related Publications
There are several treatment approaches for stage II germ cell tumors (GCTs), and a thorough understanding of the staging classification and histologic differences in tumor biology and therapeutic responsiveness is critical to determine an effective, multimodal management strategy that involves urologists, medical oncologists, and radiation oncologists. This article discusses contemporary management strategies for stage II GCTs, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), and surveillance. Patient selection, histology, and extent of lymphadenopathy drive management, and, as both treatment and detection strategies continue to emerge and be refined, the management of patients with stage II GCT continues to evolve.

Roth BJ
Management of Clinical Stage I Germ Cell Tumors.
Urol Clin North Am. 2019; 46(3):353-362 [PubMed] Related Publications
Experience demonstrates multiple paths to cure for patients with clinical stage I testicular cancer. Because all options should provide a long-term disease-free rate near 100%, overall survival is no longer relevant in decision making, allowing practitioners to factor in quality of life, toxicity, cost, and impact on compliance. Surveillance for clinical stage I seminoma and clinical stage I nonseminoma has become the preferred option. The contrarian view is that a risk-adapted approach should persist, with surveillance for low-risk individuals and active therapy high-risk individuals. However, results obtained in unselected patients provide a strong argument against the need for such an approach.

Sineath RC, Mehta A
Preservation of Fertility in Testis Cancer Management.
Urol Clin North Am. 2019; 46(3):341-351 [PubMed] Related Publications
The presence of cancer in the testis, as well as the therapies used to treat testis cancer, can impair fertility potential for affected men. Fertility preservation is an important aspect of survivorship care and should be offered to all patients before initiating treatment. The only established means of fertility preservation in men is cryopreservation of sperm. Methods for fertility preservation in prepubertal boys are still experimental. Physicians treating men with testicular cancer should be familiar with the available options. This article outlines testicular cancer and its treatment's effects on fertility, fertility preservation options, and barriers to accessing this specialized care.

Ghoreifi A, Djaladat H
Management of Primary Testicular Tumor.
Urol Clin North Am. 2019; 46(3):333-339 [PubMed] Related Publications
In any man with a solid testicular mass, cancer should be considered until proven otherwise. Radical inguinal orchiectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with testis mass. Placement of a testicular prosthesis is safe with a very low complication rate and should be offered to all patients undergoing radical orchiectomy. In patients with widespread or life-threatening advanced disease, delayed orchiectomy following chemotherapy is recommended. Testis-sparing surgery can be performed in highly selected patients with solitary testicle mass, bilateral testicular tumors, or strong suspicion of a benign lesion.

Thomas LJ, Brooks MA, Stephenson AJ
The Role of Imaging in the Diagnosis, Staging, Response to Treatment, and Surveillance of Patients with Germ Cell Tumors of the Testis.
Urol Clin North Am. 2019; 46(3):315-331 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) of the testis are cured with the successful integration of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy in most cases. The favorable results are a consequence of improved risk stratification, risk-adapted chemotherapy, reduced morbidity of treatment, and appropriate integration of multimodal therapy. The success of these approaches depends on accurate staging with imaging studies of the testis, retroperitoneum, and thorax. This article reviews the indications for imaging and performance characteristics of modalities in the diagnosis, staging, surveillance, and follow-up of patients with GCTs. We also highlight the current guideline recommendations for imaging in treatment of patients with GCTs.

Shen J, Zang S, Yu X, et al.
Management of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(27):e16351 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONAL: How to manage patients with prostate cancer (PCa) with biochemical recurrence (BCR) following primary curative treatment is a controversial issue. Multiple disciplinary team (MDT) mechanism may propose an appropriate treatment plan for patients and can effectively improve patient prognosis and survival, reduce patient diagnosis and treatment waiting time, and greatly improve patient satisfaction.
PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, we presented a case of a 77-year-old man with a persistently elevated serum level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), who had a history of radical prostatectomy (RP) and of 9 years endocrine therapy.
DIAGNOSES: Castration-resistant prostate cancer and locally recurrent prostate cancer.
INTERVENTIONS: Androgen-deprivation therapy was first utilized 2 months after RP, due to the consideration of BCR on May 5, 2007. And during the next 9 years, he was treated with different endocrine agents but failed to maintain serum levels of PSA stable. Finally, the MDT suggested patient to perform salvage radiation therapy (SRT). Under MDT mechanism, we avoid secondary surgery, so as to reduce the patients' mental suffering and cost of patient care.
OUTCOMES: EPIC26 scale assessment revealed leak-free urine, good urine control, no defecation abnormalities or blood in the stool, no breast tenderness and breast enlargement significantly improved. The patient now has no adjuvant therapy, including endocrine therapy. The patient achieved good prognosis through local RT.
LESSONS: Pelvic SRT for patients with locally recurrent PCa may restore the same radical effect as RP. And more importantly, MDT mechanism plays an important role in making the most appropriate decisions for patients.

Cheng S, Zheng Q, Ding G, Li G
Mediterranean dietary pattern and the risk of prostate cancer: A meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(27):e16341 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mediterranean dietary pattern has attracted great attention in terms of its effect on human health. However, whether Mediterranean dietary pattern is an independent protective factor for prostate cancer remains controversial. Our goal was to evaluate this association by conducting a meta-analysis of observational studies.
METHODS: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE database through February 2019 for relevant studies that examined the association between Mediterranean Diet and prostate cancer risk. The combined risk estimates were computed using a DerSimonian random-effects model.
RESULTS: A total of 10 eligible studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled risk estimates and 95% confidence interval (CI) in relation to Mediterranean diet pattern were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.90 to 1.01) for total prostate cancer, 0.93 (95% CI: 0.75 to 1.14) for advanced prostate cancer, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.14) for localized prostate cancer, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.76 to 1.11) for fatal prostate cancer. There was no evidence of heterogeneity for total (P = .326, I = 12.7%), localized (P = .706, I = 0.0%) and fatal prostate cancer (P = .282, I = 13.0%), but not for advanced prostate cancer (P = .018, I = 63.4%).
CONCLUSION: This large meta-analysis of observational studies suggests that Mediterranean dietary pattern has no relationship with prostate cancer risk.

Mandel-Brehm C, Dubey D, Kryzer TJ, et al.
Kelch-like Protein 11 Antibodies in Seminoma-Associated Paraneoplastic Encephalitis.
N Engl J Med. 2019; 381(1):47-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 37-year-old man with a history of seminoma presented with vertigo, ataxia, and diplopia. An autoantibody specific for kelch-like protein 11 (KLHL11) was identified with the use of programmable phage display. Immunoassays were used to identify KLHL11 IgG in 12 other men with similar neurologic features and testicular disease. Immunostaining of the patient's IgG on mouse brain tissue showed sparse but distinctive points of staining in multiple brain regions, with enrichment in perivascular and perimeningeal tissues. The onset of the neurologic syndrome preceded the diagnosis of seminoma in 9 of the 13 patients. An age-adjusted estimate of the prevalence of autoimmune KLHL11 encephalitis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, was 2.79 cases per 100,000 men. (Funded by the Rochester Epidemiology Project and others.).

Liu X, Deng L, Zhou L, Peng W
Combining Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System, Histogram Analysis, and Prostate-Specific Antigen Density to Determine the Risk of Prostate Cancer in Patients With Prostate-Specific Antigen of 4 to 20 ng/mL.
J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2019 Jul/Aug; 43(4):645-651 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To develop regression models using Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS), histogram analysis, and prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) to predict prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant PCa (CSPCa) in patients with prostate-specific antigen of 4 to 20 ng/mL.
METHODS: In total, 195 PCa and 386 noncancer patients with prostate-specific antigen of 4 to 20 ng/mL were divided into development and validation cohorts. Magnetic resonance imaging results of them were assessed by PI-RADS scores and histogram analysis-corrected PI-RADS (PI-RADSh) scores. Diagnostic efficiencies for PCa and CSPCa of these scores plus PSAD were evaluated with logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.
RESULTS: Prostate-specific antigen density + PI-RADSh score showed significantly higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for PCa (0.956) and CSPCa (0.960), which were higher than PI-RADS (0.909 and 0.926), PI-RADSh (0.921 and 0.940), and PSAD + PI-RADS (0.943 and 0.949) (all P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Incorporation of PSAD and histogram analysis raised the diagnosis efficiencies of PI-RADS for PCa and CSPCa.

Zhou X, Jiao D, Dou M, et al.
Association of glutathione-S-transferase p1 gene promoter methylation and the incidence of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(8):1939-1948 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Some studies have shown that the methylation status of the GSTP1 gene promoter is related to the incidence of prostate cancer, but this finding is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between glutathione-S-transferase p1 (GSTP1) promoter methylation and the incidence of prostate cancer.
METHODS: The Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were searched from their inception to February 22, 2019. According to the inclusion criteria, studies of the association between the methylation status of the GSTP1 gene promoter and prostate cancer were included. The difference in the incidence of GSTP1 promoter methylation in tissues, blood, or urine between patients with prostate cancer and those without prostate cancer were compared, and the results were expressed as the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The pooled OR of each study was estimated using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model to generate forest plots.
RESULTS: Ultimately, 15 studies (1540 samples) were included. The estimated effect from our meta-analysis showed that the incidence of GSTP1 promoter methylation was higher in patients with prostate cancer than in those without prostate cancer (OR 18.58, 95% CI 9.60-35.95, P = 0.000). GSTP1 promoter methylation was highly correlated with the incidence of prostate cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Methylation of the GSTP1 promoter may increase the risk of prostate cancer. This study may provide a strategic direction for prostate cancer research. Pending validation of these findings, the methylation of the GSTP1 promoter may be a potential biomarker to diagnose prostate cancer.

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