"A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors." (MeSH 2013)
Latest Research Publications
Web Resources: Bleomycin (6 links)
This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).
The Therapeutic Effect of the Combination of Intratumor Injection of Bleomycin and Electroresection/Electrocautery on the Hemangiomas in Hypopharynx and Larynx Through Suspension Laryngoscopy.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2019; 128(6):575-580 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: With patients under general anesthesia, the hemangiomas were fully exposed through suspension laryngoscopy. After intratumor injection of bleomycin, in some patients, the hemangiomas were completely resected along the bottom of the tumor pedicle by polypus-forceps electroscalpel; for other patients, the hemangiomas were pinched and held, and then the whole-tumor tissues were cauterized and coagulated by the electroscalpel. Prior to commencing the study, all participants signed informed consents, and all procedures were approved by the hospital ethical committee.
RESULTS: There was almost no bleeding during the operations, no postoperative dyspnea, and no hemorrhage. The patients were followed up for 3 years; the 3-year cure rate was 97%.
CONCLUSION: The hemangioma in the hypopharynx and larynx can be cured by a single-session treatment, using the combination of intratumor injection of bleomycin and electroresection/electrocautery through suspension laryngoscopy. Our method is reliable, affordable, and effective, and it could be widely applied in other hospitals.
Long-term follow-up in patients treated with electrochemotherapy for non-melanoma skin cancer in the head and neck area.
Acta Otolaryngol. 2019; 139(2):195-200 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term efficacy, safety and functional outcome after ECT treatment in high-risk non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) with curative intent.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients with SCC or BCC in the head and neck area were treated with ECT with intratumoral bleomycin administration.
RESULTS: Five patients were cured by ECT as a mono-modality treatment after a median 10-year follow-up period. Two patients had recurrences and/or persisting tumors after treatment that required salvage surgery and radiotherapy. In two patients, the eye was spared with no visual impairment. In another patient, full facial nerve function was spared.
CONCLUSIONS: ECT can be a curative as well as an organ and function-sparing mono modality treatment in high-risk NMSC.
SIGNIFICANCE: Today ECT is mostly used as a palliative treatment. Its curative potential should be further investigated. Randomized studies comparing ECT with standard treatment is needed. Hopefully, this small study can encourage such studies.
Urethral cavernous hemangioma: a highly misdiagnosed disease (a case report of two patients and literature review).
BMC Urol. 2019; 19(1):13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CASE PRESENTATION: The first patient was a 15-year-old male, who was admitted to the hospital for more than 1 year with repeated hematuria. UCH was diagnosed by cystoscope biopsy, and cured with local injection of pingyangmycin. The second patient was a 49-year-old male, who was admitted for repeated painless gross hematuria and intermittent urethral bleeding after penile erection for more than 20 years. The case had been misdiagnosed as seminal vesiculitis, urethritis, or prostatitis, for over 20 years, until it was diagnosed as UCH by MR examination of the penis. It was treated by injection of pingyangmycin into the hemangioma's lumen and base. A small incision in the ventral penile area was separated from the location of the hemangioma, which was injected with pingyangmycin again. A biopsy of resected tissue further confirmed the diagnosis of UCH.
CONCLUSIONS: UCH is an easily misdiagnosed disease. Intermittent painless hematuria is important characteristic of UCH. Local injection of pingyangmycin is a good option for treatment of UCH.
A case of bleomycin-induced lung toxicity.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2018; 88(3):981 [PubMed] Related Publications
Precise Small Molecule Degradation of a Noncoding RNA Identifies Cellular Binding Sites and Modulates an Oncogenic Phenotype.
ACS Chem Biol. 2018; 13(11):3065-3071 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/11/2019 Related Publications
Development of a best-practice clinical guideline for the use of bleomycin in the treatment of germ cell tumours in the UK.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 119(9):1044-1051 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/10/2019 Related Publications
First - line, non - cryopreserved autologous stem cell transplant for poor - risk germ - cell tumors: Experience in a developing country.
Int Braz J Urol. 2019 Jan-Feb; 45(1):74-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/10/2019 Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty nine consecutive patients with NSGCT who received first - line, non - cryopreserved autologous HSCT at the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, Mexico, from November 1998 to June 2016, were retrospectively analyzed.
RESULTS: The median age at transplantation was 23 (15 - 39) years. Most patients (n = 18, 62%) had testicular primary tumor, and 23 had metastases (79%). Complete response after auto - HSCT was observed in 45%. Non - relapse mortality was 0. Five - year relapse / progression free and overall survival were 67% and 69%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: This small single limited - resource institution study demonstrated that patients with poor - risk NSGCT are curable by first - line HDC plus autologous HSCT and that this procedure is feasible and affordable to perform using non - cryopreserved hematopoietic stem cells.
Clinical analysis of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced vulvar cancer: A STROBE-compliant article.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(34):e11786 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/10/2019 Related Publications
Cannabis Use and Bleomycin: An Overview and Case Study of Pulmonary Toxicity.
Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2018; 22(4):438-443 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: This article describes the effects cannabis may have on the lungs, reviews indications for cannabis use in patients with cancer, and explores an atypical case of progressive pulmonary toxicity in a young patient with a history of Hodgkin lymphoma and cannabis use.
METHODS: A review of the literature on cannabis-associated lung injury was conducted, with 32 articles selected for full review.
FINDINGS: As cannabis use in cancer care continues to gain support, further research evaluating cannabis use in patients treated with bleomycin is warranted. In addition, the pros and cons of cannabis use must be fully evaluated and discussed with the patient with cancer prior to recommending its use.
Therapeutic Outcomes in AIDS-Associated Kaposi's Sarcoma Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy Treated with Chemotherapy at Two Tertiary Hospitals in Lusaka, Zambia.
Curr HIV Res. 2018; 16(3):231-236 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine therapeutic outcomes of epidemic KS patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) after completion of six cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, and Vincristine (ABV) chemotherapy.
METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Study participants were drawn from a study database of confirmed incident KS patients seen at the Skin Clinic of the University Teaching Hospitals (UTH) during the period between August, 2015 and September, 2016.
RESULTS: Of the 38 successfully recruited study participants, a complete response was documented in 18 (47%) after 6 cycles of ABV whereas 20 (53%) experienced a partial response. KS recurrence was observed in 8 (44%) of the individuals that experienced an initial complete response. At the time of the study, clinical assessment revealed that KS lesions had completely regressed in 21 (55%) of all the patients.
CONCLUSION: ABV chemotherapy appears ineffective in long-term resolution of epidemic KS patients on ART. Recurrence rates are high after chemotherapy in patients that experience initially favorable responses to treatment. There is a need to diagnose KS earlier, and to develop more efficacious treatment options in order to reduce recurrence rates for epidemic KS.
Effects of electromagnetic field, cisplatin and morphine on cytotoxicity and expression levels of DNA repair genes.
Mol Biol Rep. 2018; 45(5):807-814 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transarterial Bleomycin-Lipiodol Embolization (B/LE) for Symptomatic Giant Hepatic Hemangioma.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2018; 41(11):1674-1682 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 23 patients (29 hemangiomas) treated between July 2011 and August 2017. Transarterial B/LE was performed using 7-15 cc of Lipiodol mixed with 30-45 IU of bleomycin by standard three-way stopcocks. All patients were followed clinically and by imaging for an average of 7.5 months. Patterns of bleomycin-lipiodol distribution in the periphery of hemangiomas were categorized into four different grades. Technical success was defined as proper delivery of bleomycin-lipiodol into the hemangioma confirmed by post-embolization computed tomography. Clinical success was defined as more than 50% reduction of hemangioma volume and symptom improvement during follow-ups.
RESULTS: Technical success and clinical success were 100 and 73.9% (17 patients), respectively. Six patients (26.08%) experienced transient post-embolization syndrome. Significant size reduction was seen in patients with grade 4 hemangioma border coverage (P = 0.042).
CONCLUSION: Transarterial B/LE is a safe and efficient alternative for controlling symptoms related to large hemangiomas.
Electrochemotherapy with cisplatin or bleomycin in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Improved effectiveness of cisplatin in HPV-positive tumors.
Bioelectrochemistry. 2018; 123:248-254 [PubMed] Related Publications
The discovery and development of microbial bleomycin analogues.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018; 102(16):6791-6798 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mechanisms Enhancing the Cytotoxic Effects of Bleomycin plus Suicide or Interferon-β Gene Lipofection in Metastatic Human Melanoma Cells.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2018; 18(9):1338-1348 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanisms enhancing the cytotoxic effects of Bleomycin (BLM), herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir Suicide Gene (SG) and human interferon-β gene (hIFNβ) lipofection in early passages of these melanoma cell lines.
METHODS: In these cell lines, we determined: cytotoxicity, bystander effect, lipofection efficiencies, apoptosis, necrosis, senescence, colony forming capacity and mitochondrial membrane depolarization after treatments.
RESULTS: The three assayed cell lines displayed sensitivity to single and combined BLM/gene treatments. BLM improved the antitumor and anti-clonogenic effects of SG and hIFNβ genes. Considering the low lipofection efficiencies (<10%), one of the main causes of the SG and hIFNβ gene effectiveness was their bystander effect. In one of these cell lines, this effect eradicated up to 60% of the cells although <1% expressed the transgene. In the three cell lines, BLM alone or combined with SG or hIFNβ gene significantly increased the percentage of cells exhibiting membrane compromise, DNA damage, and senescence. Interestingly, the strong BLM/hIFNβ gene combination was able to generate from 73% to 98% of non-viable cells. The high proportion of senescent cells induced by BLM alone or combined with genes strongly decreased the clonogenic capacity of surviving cells.
CONCLUSION: The presented results indicate that BLM improves the antitumor effects of SG and hIFNβ transgene expression. Altogether, these findings strongly support the clinical potential of these combined approaches.
The effect of iodopovidone versus bleomycin in chemical pleurodesis.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2018; 26(5):382-386 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Interaction of the Metallo-Glycopeptide Anti-Tumour Drug Bleomycin with DNA.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(5) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/10/2019 Related Publications
Prognostic impact of bleomycin pulmonary toxicity on the outcomes of patients with germ cell tumors.
Med Oncol. 2018; 35(6):80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Role of intralesional bleomycin and intralesional triamcinolone therapy in residual haemangioma following propranolol.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018; 47(7):908-912 [PubMed] Related Publications
Electrochemotherapy with bleomycin and cisplatin enhances cytotoxicity in primary and metastatic uveal melanoma cell lines in vitro.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(2):210-215 [PubMed] Related Publications
Electrochemotherapy as treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma, a prospective pilot study.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2018; 44(5):651-657 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Electrochemotherapy with bleomycin was performed on 17 hepatocellular carcinomas in 10 patients using a previously established protocol. The procedure was performed during open surgery and the patients were followed for median 20.5 months.
RESULTS: Electrochemotherapy was feasible for all 17 lesions, and no treatment-related adverse events or major post-operative complications were observed. The median size of the treated lesions was 24 mm (range 8-41 mm), located either centrally, i.e., near the major hepatic vessels, or peripherally. The complete response rate at 3-6 months was 80% per patient and 88% per treated lesion.
CONCLUSIONS: Electrochemotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma proved to be a feasible and safe treatment in all 10 patients included in this study. To evaluate the effectiveness of this method, longer observation period is needed; however the results at medium observation time of 20.5 months after treatment are encouraging, in 15 out of 17 lesions complete response was obtained. Electrochemotherapy is predominantly applicable in patients with impaired liver function due to liver cirrhosis and/or with lesions where a high-risk operation is needed to achieve curative intent, given the intra/perioperative risk for high morbidity and mortality.
Intralesional Bleomycin Injection for Propranolol-Resistant Hemangiomas.
J Craniofac Surg. 2018; 29(2):e128-e130 [PubMed] Related Publications
Assessing the outcomes of HIV-infected persons receiving treatment for Kaposi sarcoma in Conakry-Guinea.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):806 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/10/2019 Related Publications
METHODS: Retrospective survival analysis of routinely collected clinical data of HIV-infected patients with clinically diagnosed KS, receiving ART and chemotherapy consisting of a combination of bleomycin and vincristine at the Donka National Hospital in Conakry between 2012 and 2015.
RESULTS: A total of 225 patients were enrolled for KS treatment within the three-year period. Late presentation with stage T1 disease was common (82.7%). At the end of a median of 8 cycles of chemotherapy (IQR: 2-12), complete remission was observed in 65 (28.9%), partial remission in 53 (23.6%), stable disease in 15 (6.7%) and unknown response for all 92 (40.9%) patients who dropped out of care. The chances of achieving complete remission doubled after each additional cycle of chemotherapy (aOR = 2.09 95% CI: 1.44-3.01) but were reduced by about two-thirds for each additional month delay between treatment and onset of KS (aOR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.86). Treatment response was seriously compromised in patients with woody skin oedema (aOR = 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01-0.38) and those with prior chemotherapy (aOR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.05-0.80). The median survival time was 7.6 months (95% CI: 5.9-9.8). Attrition from care was reduced by 22% for every additional cycle of chemotherapy administered (aH0R = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.71-0.84) and was lower in those with complete remission compared with those with partial or no response (aHR = 0.05, 95% CI: 0.007-0.43).
CONCLUSION: There has been an increased access to KS treatment. The overall response rate is 52.4%, which is considered a satisfactory result. Poor outcomes were common and were largely due to late presentation and defaulting on treatment. Efforts towards early HIV/KS diagnosis and adherence to a full round of chemotherapy are needed for optimising outcomes. Newer drugs may be required for patients previously exposed to chemotherapy.
Electrochemotherapy of unresectable cutaneous tumours with reduced dosages of intravenous bleomycin: analysis of 57 patients from the International Network for Sharing Practices of Electrochemotherapy registry.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2018; 32(7):1147-1154 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of ECT with reduced chemotherapy dosages.
METHODS: In a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database (InspECT registry), we evaluated the outcome of patients who received ECT with reduced dosages of bleomycin (7500, 10 000 or 13 500 IU/m
RESULTS: We identified 57 patients with 147 tumours (melanoma, 38.6%; squamous cell carcinoma, 22.8%; basal cell carcinoma, 17.5%; breast cancer 7%; Kaposi sarcoma 7%; other histotypes, 7.1%). Per-tumour complete response (CR) rate at 60 days was 70.1% (partial, 16.3%); per-patient CR was 57.9% (partial, 21.1%). Local pain was the most frequently reported side-effect (n = 22 patients [39%]), mostly mild; two patients experienced flu-like symptoms, one patient nausea. We observed the same CR rate (55%) in patients with melanoma treated by reduced or conventional bleomycin dosages (P = 1.00).
CONCLUSIONS: Electrochemotherapy performed with reduced bleomycin dosages could be as effective as with currently recommended dose. Patients with impaired renal function or candidate to multiple ECT cycles could benefit from a reduced dose protocol. Our findings need prospective confirmation before being adopted in clinical practice.
European Research on Electrochemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer (EURECA) project: Results from the treatment of mucosal cancers.
Eur J Cancer. 2017; 87:172-181 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENT AND METHODS: Forty-three patients with recurrent mucosal head and neck tumours and no further curative or reasonably effective palliative treatment options were enrolled and treated with electrochemotherapy. Patients were treated in general anaesthesia using intravenous or local injection of bleomycin followed by delivery of electric pulses to the tumour area. Primary end-point was local tumour response. Secondary end-points were safety and toxicity, overall and progression free survival, and quality-of-life.
RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients were evaluable for tumour response, pain score, side-effects and quality of life questionnaires. Six patients were not evaluable due to lost follow-up, disease progression or death before evaluation. Intention to treat analysis revealed an objective response of 56% (complete response 8 (19%), partial response 16 (37%), stable disease 10 (23%), progressive disease 3 (7%), and not evaluable 6 (14%)). Three patients (7%) remained in complete response at 30, 34, and 84 months post-treatment. The treatment procedure was generally well tolerated. Swelling of the mucosa was observed in the first days after treatment. Pain and use of pain medication rose temporarily; fatigue and dysphagia were also noted in the quality of life assessment.
CONCLUSION: Electrochemotherapy can be applied to mucosal head and neck recurrent tumours accessible to the procedure with promising objective response, survival and toxicity profile. Attention should be paid to post-treatment swelling and planning of pain medication. These favourable results indicate that electrochemotherapy could play a role in patients with recurrent head and neck cancer.
Efficiency of electrochemotherapy with reduced bleomycin dose in the treatment of nonmelanoma head and neck skin cancer: Preliminary results.
Head Neck. 2018; 40(1):120-125 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Twenty-eight patients older than 65 years were prospectively treated with electrochemotherapy for nonmelanoma head and neck skin cancer. In the experimental group (n = 12 patients; 24 lesions), reduced bleomycin doses (10 000 IU/m
RESULTS: Complete tumor response at 2 months post-electrochemotherapy with the reduced bleomycin dose was 100% and with the standard bleomycin dose it was 96%. No statistically significant difference regarding skin toxicity was observed between the 2 groups (P = .20). Skin toxicity of grade 3 or less was recorded only in the control group (7% of treated lesions).
CONCLUSION: Presented results show the comparable antitumor effectiveness of electrochemotherapy when using standard or reduced bleomycin dose in elderly patients with nonmelanoma head and neck skin cancer.
Long-Term Survival of Good-Risk Germ Cell Tumor Patients After Postchemotherapy Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection: A Comparison of BEP × 3 vs. EP × 4 and Treating Institution.
Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2018; 16(2):e307-e313 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Indiana University Testis Cancer database was queried to identify IGCCCG good-risk PC-RPLND patients who received either EP × 4 or BEP × 3 induction chemotherapy. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Kaplan-Meier plots were generated for the EP × 4 and BEP × 3 groups and compared using the log rank test. Cox regression analysis was used to determine risk of mortality.
RESULTS: A total of 223 patients met inclusion criteria between 1985 and 2011. Induction chemotherapy consisted of EP × 4 in 45 (20%) patients and BEP × 3 in 178 (80%). Most patients (78%) received their chemotherapy at outside institutions and were subsequently referred for PC-RPLND. The location of treating institution did not influence outcomes significantly when similar chemotherapy regimens were compared in this good-risk cohort. The 10-year OS for the EP × 4 and BEP × 3 groups were 91% and 98%, respectively (log rank P < .01). The adjusted risk of death in the EP × 4 group showed a nonsignificant trend of 3 times greater compared with the BEP × 3 group (hazard ratio, 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-12.0; P = .10).
CONCLUSION: The regimen of BEP × 3 resulted in a trend toward improved survival, however, this did not reach statistical significance. The location of treating institution seems less important in this risk group of patients.
Bleomycin-induced chromosomal damage and shortening of telomeres in peripheral blood lymphocytes of incident cancer patients.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(2):61-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted sonoporation with microbubbles enhances therapeutic efficacy in a squamous cell carcinoma model.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(9):e0185293 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/10/2019 Related Publications
Pulmonary toxicity following bleomycin use: A single-center experience.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2017 Jul-Sep; 13(3):466-470 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective, analytical study conducted at a tertiary care center from January 1998 to December 2012. Records of all the patients who were offered bleomycin chemotherapy as an integral part of adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine or bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin regimen in Hodgkin disease (HD) or germ cell tumor (GCT) were studied for the study inclusion criteria. Twenty-two patients treated with bleomycin who had respiratory symptoms and/or abnormal high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, suggestive of bleomycin-induced lung injury were included in this study. Results and Statistical Analysis: A total of 22 patients met the inclusion criteria for the study cohort. Of 22 patients, 8 were of HD and 14 were of GCT (nonseminomatous GCT [NSGCT] = 10 and seminomatous GCT = 4). Of 22 patients, 14 had symptoms of nonproductive cough, dyspnea and showed HRCT findings of ground glass opacities, diffuse alveolar damage, extensive reticular markings, traction bronchiectasis, and/or nodular densities. Two patients had fever and pleuritic pain. Eight patients were asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients were treated with prednisone at the dose of 0.75-1 mg/kg 4-8 weeks then gradually tapered. Four patients required noninvasive ventilatory support and managed with oxygen, nebulization, and antibiotics. Two patients required mechanical ventilatory support (HD = 1 and NSGCT = 1) and developed multiorgan failure subsequently succumbed to death.
CONCLUSION: BIP is noteworthy lung toxicity as subsequent mortality ranges from 10% to 20% and shrinks survival rate in patients with highly curable malignant conditions. Physicians should be vigilant concerning this impending side effect.