"A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors." (MeSH 2013)
Latest Research Publications
Web Resources: Bleomycin (6 links)
This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).
Bleomycin Suppresses the Proliferation and the Mobility of Human Gastric Cancer Cells Through the Smad Signaling Pathway.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 40(6):1401-1409 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The effects of different concentrations of BLM on the proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, and invasion on gastric cancer cell lines MKN45 and AGS were assayed by using CCK-8 assay, Annexin V/PI double staining, PI staining, and transwell assay. Western blot and Immunohistochemistry were applied to analyze the potential mechanism(s).
RESULTS: BLM treatment resulted in a low proliferation, high apoptosis, low migration and invasion in MKN45 and AGS cells. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms underlying that Smad3 activity could be changed after binding with BLM, and subsequently the Smad signaling pathway had a cascade response.
CONCLUSION: These results highlight BLM as an exciting theme for gastric cancer treatment, which may represent an effective clinical therapeutic reagent for gastric cancer patients.
The combination of bleomycin with suicide or interferon-β gene transfer is able to efficiently eliminate human melanoma tumor initiating cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 83:290-301 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intracystic bleomycin for cystic craniopharyngiomas in children.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016; 7:CD008890 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harmful effects of intracystic bleomycin in children from birth to 18 years with cystic craniopharyngioma when compared to placebo (no treatment), surgical treatment (with or without adjuvant radiotherapy) or other intracystic treatments.
SEARCH METHODS: We searched the electronic databases CENTRAL (2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE/PubMed (from 1966 to February 2016) and EMBASE/Ovid (from 1980 to February 2016) with pre-specified terms. In addition, we searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews, conference proceedings (International Society for Paediatric Oncology 2005-2015) and ongoing trial databases (Register of the National Institute of Health and International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) register) in February 2016.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised trials or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing intracystic bleomycin and other treatments for cystic craniopharyngiomas in children (from birth to 18 years).
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently performed the study selection, data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessment. We used risk ratio (RR) for binary data and mean difference (MD) for continuous data. If one of the treatment groups experienced no events and there was only one study available for the outcome, we used the Fischer's exact test. We performed analysis according to the guidelines in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic reviews of Interventions.
MAIN RESULTS: We could not identify any studies in which the only difference between the treatment groups was the use of intracystic bleomycin. We did identify a RCT comparing intracystic bleomycin with intracystic phosphorus(32) ((32)P) (seven children). In this update we identified no additional studies. The included study had a high risk of bias. Survival could not be evaluated. There was no clear evidence of a difference between the treatment groups in cyst reduction (MD -0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.69 to 0.39, P value = 0.59, very low quality of evidence), neurological status (Fisher's exact P value = 0.429, very low quality of evidence), third nerve paralysis (Fischer's exact P value = 1.00, very low quality of evidence), fever (RR 2.92, 95% CI 0.73 to 11.70, P value = 0.13, very low quality of evidence) or total adverse effects (RR 1.75, 95% CI 0.68 to 4.53, P value = 0.25, very low quality of evidence). There was a significant difference in favour of the (32)P group for the occurrence of headache and vomiting (Fischer's exact P value = 0.029, very low quality of evidence for both outcomes).
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Since we identified no RCTs, quasi-randomised trials or CCTs of the treatment of cystic craniopharyngiomas in children in which only the use of intracystic bleomycin differed between the treatment groups, no definitive conclusions could be made about the effects of intracystic bleomycin in these patients. Only one low-power RCT comparing intracystic bleomycin with intracystic (32)P treatment was available, but no definitive conclusions can be made about the effectiveness of these agents in children with cystic craniopharyngiomas. Based on the currently available evidence, we are not able to give recommendations for the use of intracystic bleomycin in the treatment of cystic craniopharyngiomas in children. High-quality RCTs are needed.
Adapted Treatment Guided by Interim PET-CT Scan in Advanced Hodgkin's Lymphoma.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 374(25):2419-29 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed advanced classic Hodgkin's lymphoma underwent a baseline PET-CT scan, received two cycles of ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) chemotherapy, and then underwent an interim PET-CT scan. Images were centrally reviewed with the use of a 5-point scale for PET findings. Patients with negative PET findings after two cycles were randomly assigned to continue ABVD (ABVD group) or omit bleomycin (AVD group) in cycles 3 through 6. Those with positive PET findings after two cycles received BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone). Radiotherapy was not recommended for patients with negative findings on interim scans. The primary outcome was the difference in the 3-year progression-free survival rate between randomized groups, a noninferiority comparison to exclude a difference of 5 or more percentage points.
RESULTS: A total of 1214 patients were registered; 937 of the 1119 patients (83.7%) who underwent an interim PET-CT scan according to protocol had negative findings. With a median follow-up of 41 months, the 3-year progression-free survival rate and overall survival rate in the ABVD group were 85.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.1 to 88.6) and 97.2% (95% CI, 95.1 to 98.4), respectively; the corresponding rates in the AVD group were 84.4% (95% CI, 80.7 to 87.5) and 97.6% (95% CI, 95.6 to 98.7). The absolute difference in the 3-year progression-free survival rate (ABVD minus AVD) was 1.6 percentage points (95% CI, -3.2 to 5.3). Respiratory adverse events were more severe in the ABVD group than in the AVD group. BEACOPP was given to the 172 patients with positive findings on the interim scan, and 74.4% had negative findings on a third PET-CT scan; the 3-year progression-free survival rate was 67.5% and the overall survival rate 87.8%. A total of 62 patients died during the trial (24 from Hodgkin's lymphoma), for a 3-year progression-free survival rate of 82.6% and an overall survival rate of 95.8%.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the results fall just short of the specified noninferiority margin, the omission of bleomycin from the ABVD regimen after negative findings on interim PET resulted in a lower incidence of pulmonary toxic effects than with continued ABVD but not significantly lower efficacy. (Funded by Cancer Research UK and Others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00678327.).
A Case of Massive Pleural Effusion: Pleurodesis by Bleomycin.
Mymensingh Med J. 2016; 25(2):374-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Local treatment with electrochemotherapy of superficial angiosarcomas: Efficacy and safety results from a multi-institutional retrospective study.
J Surg Oncol. 2016; 114(2):246-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: This multicenter retrospective analysis reviewed patients who underwent electrochemotherapy from 2007 to 2014 for superficial advanced angiosarcomas. Bleomycin was administered intravenously and delivered within tumors by means of percutaneously applied electric pulses, according to the European Standard Operating Procedures for Electrochemotherapy. Tumor assessment was performed using RECIST (version 1.1). Toxicity (CTCAE, v4.0) and local progression-free survival (LPFS) were also evaluated.
RESULTS: Nineteen patients (13 with locally advanced and 6 with metastatic angiosarcomas) were treated. Tumor sites were: scalp (n = 5), breast (n = 8), other skin sites (n = 3), and soft tissue (n = 3). Target lesions (n = 54) ranged in size from 1.5 to 2.5 cm (median, 2 cm). Treatment was well tolerated. After 2 months, an objective response was observed in 12/19 (63%) patients, complete in 8 (42%). One-year LPFS within treatment field was 68%. Local symptom improvement included palliation of bleeding (5/19 patients) and pain relief (6/19 patients).
CONCLUSIONS: Electrochemotherapy may represent a new locoregional treatment for selected patients with superficial angiosarcomas. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:246-253. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Prolonged Drainage and Intrapericardial Bleomycin Administration for Cardiac Tamponade Secondary to Cancer-Related Pericardial Effusion.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(15):e3273 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia: a rare histopathological variant of chemotherapy-induced lung injury.
BMJ Case Rep. 2016; 2016 [PubMed] Related Publications
Comparison of efficacy of different embolic agents on uterine leiomyoma.
Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 43(1):114-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bleomycin pharmacokinetics of bolus bleomycin dose in elderly cancer patients treated with electrochemotherapy.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(5):939-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: In prospective clinical study in the treatment of tumors with electrochemotherapy, blood samples of patients older than 65 years were collected after the bolus intravenous injection of bleomycin (15,000 IU/m(2)). In serum samples, quantitative analysis was performed with liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Based on the data, the pharmacokinetic parameters of bleomycin elimination were determined.
RESULTS: Pharmacokinetic analysis of the data revealed a monophasic serum clearance curve, which demonstrates slow elimination of bleomycin, being less than 500 ml/min and a half-time of 30 min.
CONCLUSIONS: Slow monophasic elimination of bleomycin from serum in elderly patients implies on the longer therapeutic window, from 8 to up to 40 min or even longer post-bleomycin injection for electrochemotherapy. However, prolonged therapeutic bleomycin serum concentrations may also affect the possible adverse effects, such as lung fibrosis and extensive necrosis of tumors due to the uptake of toxic bleomycin concentrations into the tumors. This may imply on lowering of bleomycin dosage, in particular in the elderly patients.
Outcomes of Bleomycin-based electrochemotherapy in patients with repeated loco-regional recurrences of vulvar cancer.
Acta Oncol. 2016; 55(5):619-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Synergistic anticancer activity of dietary tea polyphenols and bleomycin hydrochloride in human cervical cancer cell: Caspase-dependent and independent apoptotic pathways.
Chem Biol Interact. 2016; 247:1-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lowered Cisplatin Dose and No Bleomycin in the Treatment of Pediatric Germ Cell Tumors: Results of the GCT-99 Protocol From the Brazilian Germ Cell Pediatric Oncology Cooperative Group.
J Clin Oncol. 2016; 34(6):603-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: From May 1999 to October 2009, 579 participants were enrolled in the Brazilian GCT-99 study. Treatment, defined as specific chemotherapy regimen and number of cycles, was allocated by means of risk-group assignment at diagnosis with consideration for stage and primary tumor site. Patients at low risk received no chemotherapy. Patients at intermediate risk (IR) with a good response (GR) received four cycles of platinum and etoposide (PE), for total doses of platinum 420 mg/m(2) and etoposide 2,040 mg/m(2). Patients at IR with a partial response (PR) received three cycles of PE plus three cycles of ifosfamide, vinblastine, and bleomycin. Patients at high risk (HR) with a GR received four cycles of PE and ifosfamide (PEI) at total doses of platinum 420 mg/m(2), etoposide 1,200 mg/m(2), and ifosfamide 30 g/m(2). Patients at HR with a PR received six cycles of PEI.
RESULTS: The risk-group distribution was 213 LR, 138 IR, and 129 HR for 480 evaluable patients. Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates at 10 years were, respectively, 90% and 88.6% in the IR-GR group (n = 126) and 74.1% and 74.1% in the IR-PR group (n = 12). Ten-year rates for the HR-GR group (n = 86) were an OS of 66.8% and an EFS of 62.5%. The HR-PR group (n = 43) had an OS of 74.8% and an EFS of 73.4%. In univariable and multivariable analysis, increased serum lactate dehydrogenase level and histology for a metastatic immature teratoma were prognostic of a worsened outcome.
CONCLUSION: Reduction of therapy to two drugs did not compromise survival outcomes for patients in the IR-GR group, and escalation of therapy with PEI did not significantly improve OS and EFS in patients at HR.
Intralesional Bleomycin as an Adjunct Therapeutic Modality in Eyelid and Extraocular Malignancies and Tumors.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2015 Oct-Dec; 22(4):410-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Effects of bleomycin and antioxidants on the fatty acid profile of testicular cancer cell membranes.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1858(2):434-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Electrochemotherapy as palliative treatment in patients with thyroid papillary carcinoma.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 May-Jun; 82(3):285-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of ECT in patients with local progression of PTC.
METHODS: Four patients with local progression of PTC were treated with ECT based on Bleomycin, and evaluated according to tumor response, local pain and side effects.
RESULTS: In all cases, some grade of tumor response was observed, lasting 6, 7, 12 and 8 months, respectively. Also, reduction of local pain and anxiety was registered in all patients. Tumor infiltrated skin necrosis was the only collateral effect of the treatment. ECT induced a tumor response in all PTC patients with improvement of symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS: ECT may be an option for local palliative treatment in PTC patients with local tumor progression.
Electrochemotherapy - Evidence for Cell-type Selectivity In Vitro.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(11):5813-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells were electroporated using two bleomycin concentrations. The survival rate was assessed 1, 2, 3 and 4 days after treatment, by two different assays.
RESULTS: The survival rate of the fibroblasts was statistically significantly higher than the other cell lines at day 4. The HUVEC survival rate was statistically significantly lower than the other cell types at day 1 after electroporation-alone.
CONCLUSION: A selective survival effect after ECT was observed in vitro, supporting the anti-vascular effect seen in vivo.
The chemotherapeutic drug boanmycin induces cell senescence and senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors, thus acquiring the potential to remodel the tumor microenvironment.
Anticancer Drugs. 2016; 27(2):84-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bleomycin-associated Lung Toxicity in Childhood Cancer Survivors.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2015; 37(8):e447-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bleomycin-Induced Pneumonitis in the Treatment of Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2015; 25(9):1593-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review of all studies of bleomycin therapy for SCSTs that were referenced in MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and published from 1986 to 2014.
RESULTS: Eight studies totaling 221 patients were included. Rates of pneumonitis (7.7%; 95% confidence interval, 4.2-11.2) and mortality (1.8%; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-3.6) related to bleomycin were significant. However, these results were very similar to those reported for men who were treated with bleomycin for a male germ cell tumor, suggesting that women with ovarian SCSTs are not particularly vulnerable to bleomycin lung toxicity. The main risk factors of bleomycin-induced pneumonitis are high cumulative bleomycin dose (>400 U or mg), age older than 40 years, and impaired renal function. Whether granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is a risk factor remains controversial.
CONCLUSIONS: Bleomycin-induced pneumonitis frequently occurs in patients with SCSTs and lacks effective treatment. Prevention lies in limiting cumulative bleomycin dose, monitoring pulmonary function during treatment, discontinuing bleomycin at the onset of pulmonary symptoms or if pulmonary function is impaired, and avoiding bleomycin in older patients.
Bleomycin pulmonary toxicity in adult Saudi patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Future Oncol. 2015; 11(15):2149-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODOLOGY: We reviewed the records of 164 consecutive HL patients.
RESULTS: BPT was observed in 24 of 164 patients (15%). Older age and history of concomitant lung disease were significantly associated with approximately threefold (odds ratio: 3.38; 95% CI: 1.25-9.13; p = 0.02) and sevenfold (odds ratio: 7.19; 95% CI: 2.64-19.54; p < 0.0001) increase in BPT risk, respectively. The actuarial 5-year progression-free and overall survival for BPT and non-BPT groups, were not significantly different.
CONCLUSION: In Saudi Arabian HL patients, the risk of BPT and its effect on survival outcome were comparable to that reported from developed countries.
Bleomycin-induced pneumonitis in three patients treated with chemotherapy for primary advanced seminoma.
J BUON. 2015 May-Jun; 20(3):928-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Pre-and post-treatment clinical, biochemical (including specific tumor markers) and radiological response assessment of 26 patients with primary advanced seminoma (AS) who were referred to our hospital for platinum-based chemotherapy between 1989-2010 are described.
RESULTS: All patients were assessable for evaluation and all achieved long-term complete remission. Side effects were mild and manageable. Three patients developed bleomycin pulmonary toxicity after reaching cumulative doses of 180-240 units. All three patients presented with classical symptoms of non-productive cough, exertional dyspnea, and low-grade fever. Radiologically, the patients presented in the first months following completion of chemotherapy with initial bilateral interstitial and alveolar infiltrates, which worsened and progressed into consolidation and then regressed until total disappearance. All patients were treated with high-dose steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics.
CONCLUSION: AS is a very chemotherapy-responsive and sensitive disease, and approximately 90% of the patients enjoy complete regression of tumor masses and durable and sustained long-term survival with no evidence of disease. BIP may be a dangerous acute and chronic side effect, even in doses lower than 360 units. Considering the favorable clinical outcome of our patients, prompt diagnosis should be made and rapid medical intervention should be implemented.
Impact of Bleomycin and Vincristine Dose Reductions in Patients With Advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma Treated With BEACOPP: An Analysis of the German Hodgkin Study Group HD12 and HD15 Trials.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(22):2430-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Characteristics and outcome of patients were analyzed with respect to discontinuation of bleomycin and/or vincristine.
RESULTS: With 3,309 patients with HL analyzed, bleomycin was discontinued in 17.6% and vincristine in 32.6%. A total of 157 patients (4.7%) received ≤ four cycles of bleomycin, and 218 (6.6%) received ≤ three cycles of vincristine; these were compared with patients receiving > four cycles of bleomycin or > three cycles of vincristine, respectively. After a median follow-up of 59 and 67 months for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), respectively, there was no significant difference in PFS or OS in patients receiving ≤ or > four cycles of bleomycin (5-year PFS difference, 1.7%; 95% CI, -4.2% to 7.6%; 5-year OS difference, 1.5%; 95% CI, -2.6% to 5.5%). Similarly, there was no significant difference in patients receiving ≤ or > three cycles of vincristine (5-year PFS difference, -1.3%; 95% CI, -5.6% to 3.1%; 5-year OS difference, -0.1%; 95% CI, -3.1% to 2.9%).
CONCLUSION: Bleomycin and vincristine discontinuation because of drug-specific adverse effects does not affect the efficacy of treatment in this setting.
Electrochemotherapy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer: Preliminary results.
Int J Surg. 2015; 18:230-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients were enrolled in an ongoing clinical phase I/II study approved by Ethical Committee of National Cancer Institute G. Pascale Foundation - IRCCS of Naples. ECT with bleomycin was performed during open surgery. All patients underwent US and CT scan, before and after ECT treatment; 7 patients were evaluated using morphological and functional (dynamic contrast enhancement-DCE and diffusion weighted- DW) parameters in MR; 5 patients underwent CEUS. RECIST criteria were used to evaluate ECT response on US, CT and MR images. Functional parameters were also used to evaluate ECT response on MR images.
RESULTS: No acute (intraoperative) and/or postoperative serious adverse events related to electrochemotherapy were observed; no clinically significant electrocardiographic, hemodynamic, or serum biologic changes were noted. No clinically relevant elevation of amylase or lipase levels was observed and no bleeding or damage to surrounding viscera occurred. In three patients had seen splenic infarction without thrombosis of the splenic vessels.
CONCLUSION: Electrochemotherapy is feasible and safe treatment modality in patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Dynamic and diffusion MR imaging in comparison to MR morphological sequence alone and to UC and CT imaging is more suitable to assess ECT treatment response. CEUS is not indicated in follow up after ECT.
Mitochondrial DNA damage by bleomycin induces AML cell death.
Apoptosis. 2015; 20(6):811-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Immunomodulatory effects of peplomycin on immunosuppressive and cytotoxic cells in the lesional skin of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
Dermatology. 2015; 230(3):250-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE/METHODS: In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of PEP on the tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells and tumor-associated macrophages as well as CD8(+)TIA-1(+) cytotoxic T cells in the lesional skin of 5 patients with SCC on the lips.
RESULTS: Our data suggest that, in addition to the direct antitumor effects, PEP decreased immunosuppressive cells and increased cytotoxic T lymphocytes at the tumor sites, which might maintain antitumor immune response against SCC.
Eighteen cases of soft tissue atrophy after intralesional bleomycin a5 injections for the treatment of infantile hemangiomas: a long-term follow-up.
Pediatr Dermatol. 2015 Mar-Apr; 32(2):188-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Predicting patients at risk for pain associated with electrochemotherapy.
Acta Oncol. 2015; 54(3):298-306 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Seven cancer centres in the International Network for Sharing Practices on Electrochemotherapy (INSPECT) consecutively and prospectively reported to a common database. Electrochemotherapy consisted of intratumoural or intravenous injection of bleomycin, followed by delivery of electric pulses in local or general anesthesia.
RESULTS: Of 121 patients 39% had metastatic melanoma, 18% squamous cell carcinoma, 16% breast cancer, 13% basal-cell carcinoma, and 14% other malignancies. Median size of the largest nodules was 2.3 cm (range 0.3-40 cm). A majority of patients presented with low pain scores, and this continued through follow-up (74%). A subset of patients had moderate (13%) or severe pain (13%) after treatment. Post-procedure pain was statistically significantly associated with: 1) moderate or severe pain before treatment (p<0.0001); 2) size of the largest treated lesion (p<0.01); 3) previous irradiation (p<0.02); and 4) high treatment current value (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSION: The majority of patients had no or mild pain after electrochemotherapy. Patients at risk for post-procedure pain could be identified at the pre-treatment visit, and/or at the time of treatment, enabling a pain management strategy for this group.
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) plasma levels increase during bleomycin- and cisplatin-based treatment of testicular cancer patients and relate to endothelial damage.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(1):e0115372 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Human micro-vascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were exposed to bleomycin or cisplatin with untreated samples as control. 18k cDNA microarrays were used. Gene expression differences were analysed at single gene level and in gene sets clustered in biological pathways and validated by qRT-PCR. Protein levels of a candidate biomarker were measured in testicular cancer patient plasma before, during and after bleomycin-etoposide-cisplatin chemotherapy, and related to endothelial damage biomarkers (von Willebrand Factor (vWF), high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP)).
RESULTS: Microarray data identified several genes with highly differential expression; e.g. Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15), Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3) and Amphiregulin (AREG). Pathway analysis revealed strong associations with 'p53' and 'Diabetes Mellitus' gene sets. Based on known function, we measured GDF-15 protein levels in 41 testicular patients during clinical follow-up. Pre-chemotherapy GDF-15 levels equalled controls. Throughout chemotherapy GDF-15, vWF and hsCRP levels increased, and were correlated at different time-points.
CONCLUSION: An unbiased approach in a preclinical model revealed genes related to chemotherapy-induced endothelial damage, like GDF-15. The increases in plasma GDF-15 levels in testicular cancer patients during chemotherapy and its association with vWF and hsCRP suggest that GDF-15 is a potentially useful biomarker related to endothelial damage.
Omission of dacarbazine or bleomycin, or both, from the ABVD regimen in treatment of early-stage favourable Hodgkin's lymphoma (GHSG HD13): an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial.
Lancet. 2015; 385(9976):1418-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, multicentre trial (HD13) we compared two cycles of ABVD with two cycles of the reduced-intensity regimen variants ABV (doxorubicin, bleomycin, and vinblastine), AVD (doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine), and AV (doxorubicin and vinblastine), in patients with newly diagnosed, histologically proven, classic or nodular, lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma. In each treatment group, 30 Gy involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) was given after both cycles of chemotherapy were completed. From Jan 28, 2003, patients were centrally randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) with a minimisation method to the four groups. Because of high event rates, assignment to the AV and ABV groups stopped early, on Sept 30, 2005, and Feb 10, 2006; assignment to ABVD and AVD continued (1:1) until Sept 30, 2009. Our primary objective was to show non-inferiority of the experimental variants compared with ABVD in terms of freedom from treatment failure (FFTF), by excluding a difference of 6% after 5 years corresponding to a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.72, via a 95% CI. Analyses reported here include qualified patients only, and between-group comparisons include only patients recruited during the same period. The trial was registered, number ISRCTN63474366.
FINDINGS: Of 1502 qualified patients, 566, 198, 571, and 167 were randomly assigned to receive ABVD, ABV, AVD, or AV, respectively. 5 year FFTF was 93.1%, 81.4%, 89.2%, and 77.1% with ABVD, ABV, AVD, and AV, respectively. Compared with ABVD, inferiority of the dacarbazine-deleted variants was detected with 5 year differences of -11.5% (95% CI -18.3 to -4.7; HR 2.06 [1.21 to 3.52]) for ABV and -15.2% (-23.0 to -7.4; HR 2.57 [1.51 to 4.40]) for AV. Non-inferiority of AVD compared with ABVD could also not be detected (5 year difference -3.9%, -7.7 to -0·1; HR 1.50, 1.00 to 2.26). 178 (33%) of 544 patients given ABVD had WHO grade III or IV toxicity, compared with 53 (28%) of 187 given ABV, 142 (26%) of 539 given AVD, and 40 (26%) of 151 given AV. Leucopenia was the most common event, and highest in the groups given bleomycin.
INTERPRETATION: Dacarbazine cannot be omitted from ABVD without a substantial loss of efficacy. With respect to our predefined non-inferiority margin, bleomycin cannot be safely omitted either, and the standard of care for patients with early-stage favourable Hodgkin's lymphoma should remain ABVD followed by IFRT.
FUNDING: Deutsche Krebshilfe and Swiss State Secretariat for Education and Research.