Primary liver cancer is a disease in which the cells of liver become cancerous (malignant). Primary liver cancer is different from cancer that has spread from another place in the body to the liver. The liver is found in the upper right side of the abdomen. It is an an important organ which is involved in digesting food and converting it to energy and it also filters and stores blood. Liver cancer is relatively rare, known risk factors for liver cancer are prior hepatitis B or C infections or cirrhosis of the liver. There are two main types of liver cancer in adults: hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatoblastoma is another type of liver cancer which mostly occurs in children. Some types of liver cancer produce abnormaly high levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) which can aid diagnosis.
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MeSH term: Liver Neoplasms
US National Library of Medicine
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This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).
Exploration of anti-cancer effects and mechanisms of Zuo-Jin-Wan and its alkaloid components in vitro and in orthotopic HepG2 xenograft immunocompetent mice.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):121 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Here we investigated the anti-cancer effects and mechanisms of ZJW, CC, ER, berberine, and evodiamine in cells and in intrahepatic xenograft mice.
RESULTS: Treatment of HepG2 cells with ZJW, CC, ER, berberine, and evodiamine significantly displayed cytotoxic effects in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Hierarchical cluster analysis of gene expression profiles showed that CC and ZJW shared a similar mechanism for the cytotoxic effects, suggesting that CC was the active ingredient of ZJW for anti-cancer activity. Network analysis further showed that c-myc was the likely key molecule involved in the regulation of ZJW-affected gene expression. A human hepatoma xenograft model was established by intrahepatic injection of HepG2 cells containing nuclear factor-κB-driven luciferase genes in immunocompetent mice. In vivo bioluminescence imaging showed that cells had been successfully transplanted in mouse liver. Oral administration of ZJW for 28 consecutive days led to a significant decrease in the accumulation of ascites, the ratio of tumor-to-liver, and the number of transplanted cells in livers.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our findings suggested for the first time that ZJW significantly suppressed human cancer cell growth in orthotopic HepG2 xenograft-bearing immunocompetent mice. Moreover, c-myc might play a potent role in the cytotoxic mechanisms of ZJW, CC, ER, berberine, and evodiamine.
Prescription frequency and patterns of Chinese herbal medicine for liver cancer patients in Taiwan: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health Insurance Research Database.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):118 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: We identified 73918 newly diagnosed HCC subjects from the database of Registry for Catastrophic Illness during 2002 to 2009 and to analyze the frequency and pattern of corresponding CHM prescriptions for HCC patients.
RESULTS: There were a total of 685,079 single Chinese herbal prescriptions and 553,952 Chinese herbal formula prescriptions used for 17,373 HCC subjects before 2 years of HCC diagnosis. Among the 13,093 HCC subjects who used CHMs after HCC diagnosis, there were 462,786 single Chinese herbal prescriptions and 300,153 Chinese herbal formula prescriptions were counted. By adjusting with person-year and ratio of standardized incidence rate, the top ten prescribed single herbal drugs and Chinese herbal formulas for HCC patients were described in our study. Among them, we concluded that, Oldenlandia diffusa (Chinese herbal name: Bai-Hua-She-She-Cao), Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Da Huang) and the herbal preparation of Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang and Gan-Lu-Yin, were the most obviously increased and important CHMs been used for HCC patients.
CONCLUSION: We established an accurate and validated method for the actual frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating HCC in Taiwan. We propose that these breakthrough findings may have important implications for HCC therapy, clinical trials and modernization of CHM.
In vitro and in vivo evaluation of macromolecular prodrug GC-FUA based nanoparticle for hepatocellular carcinoma chemotherapy.
Drug Deliv. 2017; 24(1):459-466 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mixed Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Liver.
Am Surg. 2016; 82(11):1121-1125 [PubMed] Related Publications
Spontaneous Hepatic Hemorrhage: A Single Institution's 16-Year Experience.
Am Surg. 2016; 82(11):1117-1120 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exceptional serological and radiological response to sorafenib in 2 patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic hepatitis C viral infection: case report and review of the literature.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2017; 17(1):30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CASE PRESENTATION: A 55 year old gentleman was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma and concomitant chronic hepatitis C viral infection. He progressed following transarterial chemoemoblisation treatment and was commenced on sorafenib treatment. His serum alphafetoprotein level normalised within 2 months of treatment and he achieved an almost complete radiological response. This response was maintained for 20 months before the patient progressed. A 75 year old lady was diagnosed with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and concomitant chronic hepatitis C viral infection. She was commenced on sorafenib treatment but required early dose reductions due to palmar plantar erythrodysesthesia, and liver decompensation. Despite this she achieved an excellent serological and radiological response that was maintained for 24 months.
CONCLUSIONS: Our two cases show that patients with HCV-associated HCC can attain excellent responses to sorafenib treatment that is durable. Furthermore, such exceptional responses can be achieved even with dose reductions and treatment breaks.
Cryptotanshinone enhances the effect of Arsenic trioxide in treating liver cancer cell by inducing apoptosis through downregulating phosphorylated- STAT3 in vitro and in vivo.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):106 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Cell viability of ATO combined with CT was assessed by (1)MTT assay. Cell apoptosis induced by ATO combined with CT was detected by Annexin V/PI staining and apoptosis-related proteins were detected by western blotting. STAT3-related proteins were analysis by western blotting analysis and Immunofluorescence assays. Efficacy evaluation of ATO combined with CT on xenograft was carried in nude mice and related proteins were analysis by Immunohistochemistry assays.
RESULTS: First we evaluated cell vitality, and our data indicated that the ATO combined with CT showed obvious growth inhibition of Bel-7404 cells compared to ATO or CT alone. Next we found that ATO combined with CT induced cell apoptosis in Bel-7404 cells and upregulated the activation of apoptosis-related proteins cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-9, and cleaved-poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in a time-dependent manner. Next, we found that ATO combined with CT not only inhibited the constitutive levels of phosphorylated-JAK2 and phosphorylated-STAT3(Tyr705) but did so in a time-dependent manner. We also found that ATO combined with CT reversed the upregulated expression of phosphorylated-STAT3(Tyr705) stimulated by interleukin-6 and downregulated STAT3 direct target genes and the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, XIAP, and survivin but obviously upregulated the promoting apoptosis proteins Bak,.In vivo studies showed that ATO combined with CT decreased tumor growth. Tumors from ATO combined with CT-treated mice showed decreased levels of phosphorylated-STAT3(Tyr705) and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 but an increased level of pro-apoptotic protein Bax.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides strong evidence that CT could enhance the efficacy of ATO in treating liver cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Downregulation of phosphorylated-STAT3 expression may play an important role in inducing apoptosis of Bel-7404 cells.
Influence of cirrhosis on long-term prognosis after surgery in patients with combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2017; 17(1):25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: A total of 144 patients who underwent curative hepatectomy for cHCC-CC were divided into two groups: cirrhotic group (n = 91) and noncirrhotic group (n = 53). Long-term postoperative outcomes were compared between the two groups.
RESULTS: Patients with cirrhosis had worse preoperative liver function, higher frequency of HBV infection, and smaller tumor size in comparison to those without cirrhosis. The 5-year overall survival rate in cirrhotic group was significantly lower than that in non-cirrhotic group (34.5% versus 54.1%, P = 0.032). The cancer recurrence-related death rate was similar between the two groups (46.2% versus 39.6%, P = 0.446), while the hepatic insufficiency-related death rate was higher in cirrhotic group (12.1% versus 1.9%, P = 0.033). Multivariate analysis indicated that cirrhosis was an independent prognostic factor of poor overall survival (hazard ratio 2.072, 95% confidence interval 1.041-4.123; P = 0.038).
CONCLUSIONS: The presence of cirrhosis is significantly associated with poor prognosis in cHCC-CC patietns after surgical resection, possibly due to decreased liver function.
Immunohistochemistry and Special Stains in Medical Liver Pathology.
Adv Anat Pathol. 2017; 24(2):99-109 [PubMed] Related Publications
Surgical Resection for Lymph Node Metastasis After Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):891-895 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The treatment modes and outcomes in patients with LN metastasis after LT (n=6) for HCC were reviewed.
RESULTS: The mean time from LT to LN recurrence was 2.0±1.3 years, and the locations of the LNs recurrences included the phrenic (n=2), common hepatic artery (n=2), inferior vena cava (n=1) and gastric (n=1) regions. Treatments included surgery alone (n=3), surgery followed by chemoradiation (n=1), radiation followed by chemotherapy (n=1), and chemotherapy, radiation and sorafenib (n=1). Although the patients receiving non-surgical treatments (n=3) died within 1.2 years, those who underwent surgical removal of the metastatic LNs survived 11.2 years, 4.5 years and 0.8 years, respectively, without any signs of re-recurrence.
CONCLUSION: Surgical resection is the only feasible and potentially curative treatment for LN metastasis after LT for HCC.
Liver Metastasis of Urothelial Carcinoma with Hepatoid Features: An Unusual Morphological Finding.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):801-804 [PubMed] Related Publications
Down-regulation of RASA1 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):781-785 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We hypothesized that RASA1 plays a crucial role in tumor pathogenesis and progression of HCC. RASA1 expression levels were analyzed in 226 cases of HCC by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: It was found that 38.68% (41/106) of the high-grade HCC samples and 54.17% (65/120) of the low-grade HCC samples expressed RASA1 protein. The difference between RASA1 expression in high-grade and low-grade HCC was statistically significant (p=0.02). Additionally, RASA1 high expression was inversely associated with larger tumor size (p<0.001). Although RASA1 is known as a tumor suppressor, its role in overall survival (OS) in HCC is unclear. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with low level of RASA1 expression correlated with a significantly poorer survival compared to those with high level of RASA1 expression.
CONCLUSION: These data support that RASA1 could serve as an independent prognostic marker for HCC patients.
Telomere Length and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Nested Case-control Study in Taiwan Cancer Screening Program Cohort.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):637-644 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case-control study which included 268 newly-diagnosed HCC cases and 536 matched controls, was conducted. Absolute TL in PBL was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR.
RESULTS: The overall median length of TL was not statistically shorter in HCC cases compared to healthy controls. However, we found a significant synergistic effect of longer TL and HCV infection to increase HCC risk with a relative excess risk of 6.86 (95% CI: 2.14-11.58). Among HCC cases, significant shorter TLs were observed for <5 years (OR=3.93, 95% CI: 2.00-7.72); 5-10 years (OR=2.16, 95% CI: 1.10-4.24) compared to >10 years prior to diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: Shorter PBL TL alone was not significantly associated with increased HCC risk. Among HCC cases, significant shorter TLs were observed for <5 years prior to diagnosis.
Selumetinib Inhibits Melanoma Metastasis to Mouse Liver via Suppression of EMT-targeted Genes.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):607-614 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Melanoma cell lines were exposed to selumetinib under different experimental conditions. We established a mouse model of liver metastasis and treated mice orally with vehicle or selumetinib and then evaluated metastasis progress.
RESULTS: Growth inhibition was observed in melanoma cells as a consequence of G1-phase cell-cycle arrest and the subsequent induction of apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Mice with established liver metastases that were treated with selumetinib exhibited significantly less tumor progression than vehicle-treated mice. c-Myc expression in metastasized liver tissues were suppressed by selumetinib. Moreover, oral treatment with selumetinib modulated expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition- and metastasis-related genes, including integrin alpha-5 (ITGA5), jagged 1 (JAG1), zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), NOTCH, and serpin peptidase inhibitor clade E (SERPINE1).
CONCLUSION: We established a mouse model of hepatic metastasis using a human melanoma cell line, such models are essential in elucidating the therapeutic effects of anti-metastatic drugs. Our data suggest the possibility that selumetinib presents a new strategy to treat liver metastasis in patients with melanoma by suppressing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related genes.
Synergistic Inhibitory Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine Astragaloside IV and Curcumin on Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis in an Orthotopic Nude-Mouse Model of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):465-473 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nude mice with orthotopic HepG2 HCC were treated with vehicle control (0.01 ml/g normal saline), cisplatinum (2 mg/kg), AS-IV (20 mg/kg), curcumin (100 mg/kg) or AS-IV plus curcumin (20 mg/kg + 100 mg/kg). Tumor inhibition in each group was evaluated by tumor weight at autopsy. The effect of AS-IV and curcumin on tumor angiogenesis was assessed by CD34 staining and expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), thrombosis-related factor tissue factor (TF) and coagulation factor VII (FVII), as well as microRNAs miR-122 and miR-221.
RESULTS: AS-IV and curcumin alone and in combination significantly reduced mean tumor weight compared to vehicle control (p<0.05). Tumor microvessel count was reduced by AS-IV and curcumin alone. Expression of FGF2, MMP2, VEGF, HGF, TF and FVII was reduced by AS-IV and curcumin alone. AS-IV and curcumin alone up-regulated expression of miR-122 and down-regulated that of miR-221. The combination of AS-IV and curcumin demonstrated significant synergistic effects on microvessel count as well as on expression of angiogenic and thrombosis-related factors and microRNAs.
CONCLUSION: The present study indicates future clinical potential of combination therapy with AS-IV and curcumin for HCC.
The Evolving Role of Local Treatments for HCC in the Third Millennium.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):389-401 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed independently by two of the authors according to the PRISMA statement guidelines. The search was limited to studies reported in English between January 2005 and June 2016.
RESULTS: The literature search yielded 238 articles; after duplicates were removed, 179 titles and abstracts were reviewed. Most relevant data and articles about radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolization, percutaneous ethanol injection, microwave ablation and radioembolization are reported and discussed.
CONCLUSION: Data in the literature are confusing and difficult to compare due to the lack of prospective studies. Multidisciplinary and tailored approaches for each patient are key features, considering both guideline indications and patient-specific characteristics, and enhance hospital-specific best practice.
Chemosaturation With Percutaneous Hepatic Perfusion in Unresectable Hepatic Metastases.
Cancer Control. 2017; 24(1):96-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Relevant medical literature was summarized with regard to the outcomes and limitations of chemosaturation with percutaneous hepatic perfusion.
RESULTS: Six articles were identified that contained data on 91 individuals who received chemosaturation with percutaneous hepatic perfusion. More than 60% of these study patients were diagnosed with ocular melanoma. The overall response rate was 48% and the rate of disease control was 90%. Chemosaturation with percutaneous hepatic perfusion improved the rates of overall and hepatic progression-free survival (PFS). The data are limited but suggest that the rate of PFS was improved in study patients with isolated melanoma hepatic metastases who received chemosaturation with percutaneous hepatic perfusion compared with those assigned to standard care.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that chemosaturation with percutaneous hepatic perfusion produces favorable tumor response rates in select individuals with unresectable hepatic metastases from multiple primary cancers, particularly ocular and cutaneous melanomas. Data from a single randomized clinical trial have also shown that chemosaturation with percutaneous hepatic perfusion can affect hepatic PFS in certain patients.
Liver-Directed Embolization for the Long-Term Control of Hypercalcemia of Malignancy in Metastatic Breast Cancer.
Cancer Control. 2017; 24(1):57-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
DEB TACE for Intermediate and advanced HCC - Initial Experience in a Brazilian Cancer Center.
Cancer Imaging. 2017; 17(1):5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: This is a prospective, single-center study, which evaluated 21 patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting microspheres. The follow up period was 2 years. Inclusion criteria was Child-Pugh A or B liver disease patients, intermediate or advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and performance status equal or below 2. Transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting microspheres was performed at 2-month intervals during the first two sessions. The third and subsequent sessions were performed according to the image findings on follow-up, on a "demand schedule". Tumor response and time to progression were evaluated along the two-year follow up period.
RESULTS: Of the 21 patients 90% presented with liver cirrhosis, 62% had Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B and 38% had Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C hepatocellular carcinoma. Average tumor size was 6.9 cm. The average number of Transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting microspheres procedures was 3 with a total of 64 sessions. The predominant toxicity was mild. Liver function was not significantly affected in most patients. Two deaths occurred within 90 days after Transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting microspheres (ischemic hepatitis and hydropic decompensation). Technical success was achieved in 63 of 64 procedures. The mean hospital stay was 1.5 days. The progression free and overall survival at 1 and 2 years were 73.0% and 37.1%, 73.7% and 41.6%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting microspheres is able to deliver significant tumor response and progression free survival rate with acceptable toxicity. Larger studies are needed to identify exactly which subset of advanced hepatocellular patients may benefit from this treatment.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: study ID ISRCTN16295622. Registered October 14th 2016. Retrospectively registered. Website registration: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN16295622.
Rectal Neuroendocrine Tumor G1 with a Solitary Hepatic Metastatic Lesion.
Intern Med. 2017; 56(3):289-293 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Serum Oxidative/Anti-oxidative Stress Balance Becomes Dysregulated in Patients with Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis Associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Intern Med. 2017; 56(3):243-251 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clinicopathological characteristics of TERT promoter mutation and telomere length in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(5):e5766 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immune Checkpoint Inhibition in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Basics and Ongoing Clinical Trials.
Oncology. 2017; 92 Suppl 1:50-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Development of Semiautomated Module for Preparation of (131)I Labeled Lipiodol for Liver Cancer Therapy.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2017; 32(1):33-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Totally laparoscopic anatomical liver resection for centrally located tumors: A single center experience.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(4):e5560 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
SESN2 correlates with advantageous prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Diagn Pathol. 2017; 12(1):13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: One-step quantitative reverse transcription PCR, Western blotting analysis in 15 fresh HCC tissues, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis in a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 100 HCC cases were performed to examine SESN2 expression. Survival analyses by Cox regression method and Kaplan-Meier curve were performed to describe the overall survival of 100 HCC patients.
RESULTS: The SESN2 expression in HCC tissues declined dramatically compared with the corresponding noncancerous tissues, and SESN2 expression was remarkably associated with HBV infection (p = 0.019), HCV infection (p = 0.001), and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.033). Survival analysis further demonstrated that SESN2 expression could serve as an independent prognostic biomarker for overall survival in univariate (p = 0.001) and multivariate analyses (p = 0.003).
CONCLUSION: The data are the first to indicate that SESN2 might be a novel prognostic marker for HCC and that elevated SESN2 expression predicts advantageous outcomes in HCC patients.
Novel phyto-derivative BRM270 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cells proliferation by inducing G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in xenograft mice model.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 87:741-754 [PubMed] Related Publications
Design and synthesis of novel tetrandrine derivatives as potential anti-tumor agents against human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Eur J Med Chem. 2017; 127:554-566 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatoepigenetic Alterations in Viral and Nonviral-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:3956485 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sinularin induces DNA damage, G2/M phase arrest, and apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17(1):62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: TheMTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl- tetrazolium bromide) method was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of sinularin on HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines. Furthermore, the cell cycle distribution assay, apoptosis assay, and western blot analysis in vitro were used to explore the possible mechanisms of action.
RESULTS: From the results of our study, cell viability was obviously inhibited by sinularin in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, our results suggested that sinularin triggered DNA damage and subsequently induced cell cycle G2/M arrest associated with up-regulation of p-ATM (Ser(1981)), p-Chk2 (Tyr(68)), p-cdc2 (Tyr(15)), and p53 coupled with increased expression of downstream proteins p21 and down-regulation of p-cdc25 (Ser(216)). Moreover, the results of the apoptosis assay and western blot analysis indicated that the cytotoxic activity could be related to mitochondrial apoptosis, characterized by decrease of Bcl-2 expression, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, and sequential activation of caspases and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP).
CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals for the first time the anti-HCC activities of sinularin, the active compound isolated from the cultured soft coral Sinularia flexibilis. We believe that our results warrant further evaluation of sinularin as a new anti-HCC chemotherapeutic agent.