Liver Cancer
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Primary liver cancer is a disease in which the cells of liver become cancerous (malignant). Primary liver cancer is different from cancer that has spread from another place in the body to the liver. The liver is found in the upper right side of the abdomen. It is an an important organ which is involved in digesting food and converting it to energy and it also filters and stores blood. Liver cancer is relatively rare, known risk factors for liver cancer are prior hepatitis B or C infections or cirrhosis of the liver. There are two main types of liver cancer in adults: hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatoblastoma is another type of liver cancer which mostly occurs in children. Some types of liver cancer produce abnormaly high levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) which can aid diagnosis.

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Menu: Liver Cancer

Information for Patients and the Public
Information for Health Professionals / Researchers
Latest Research Publications
Childhood Liver Cancer

Information Patients and the Public (12 links)

Information for Health Professionals / Researchers (13 links)

Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Lv Y, Liang R, Hu X, et al.
Combination of oxaliplatin and S-1 versus sorafenib alone in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.
Pharmazie. 2014; 69(10):759-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sorafenib and conventional systemic cytotoxicity chemotherapy are currently being used in parallel for the patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While sorafenib has been proven to improve the prognosis in patients with this malignant disease, however, the outcome of other newly developed systemic chemotherapeutic regimens remains controversial. We evaluated the outcome and safety of patients treated with the SOX regimen (oxaliplatin + S-1) and those treated with sorafenib in a single-center cohort. This retrospective study involved a total of 46 patients with advanced HCC, 22 of which were treated with SOX regimen (oxaliplatin [130 mg/m2] on day 1 and S-1 [80 mg/m2/day] on day 1-14, every 3 weeks), and 24 were daily treated with sorafenib (400 mg, b.i.d.). The median progression-free survival was 3.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 5.6) with SOX and 1.7 months (95% CI, 1.5 to 1.9) with sorafenib, respectively (P = 0.444). The median overall survival in SOX and sorafenib group was 7.6 months (95% CI, 4.3 to 10.9) and 4.7 months (95% CI, 2.7 to 7.3), respectively (P = 0.246). Response rate was 22.2% with SOX and 5.6% with sorafenib, respectively (P = 0.154). The frequent side effects in SOX-treated patients were thrombocytopenia, elevation of transaminase levels and neuropathy, whereas hand-foot syndrome, diarrhea and pruritus were common in sorafenib-treated patients. These preliminary results suggest that the SOX regimen may serve as an effective treatment for patients with advanced HCC, and the treatment-related toxicities were generally well-tolerated.

Related: Tegafur-uracil Oxaliplatin Sorafenib (Nexavar)

Chaouki W, Meddah B, Hmamouchi M
Antiproliferative and apoptotic potential of Daphne gnidium L. root extract on lung cancer and hepatoma cells.
Pharmazie. 2015; 70(3):205-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Daphne gnidium L. (Thymeleacees) is a famous Moroccan plant with cancer-related ethnobotanical use. Previously, we demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of D. gnidium had antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic potential on human breast tumor MCF-7 cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the antiproliferative effect of this extract was similar for different human cancer cell lines such as A549 lung cancer and SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells. Moreover, this work essentially focused on the intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide on A549 and SMMC-7721 cells. The characterization of the mechanisms involved in this effect was determined by lactate dehydrogenase test, apoptosis assays and western blot analyses. Our present study has shown that this extract strongly inhibited proliferation of A549 (IC50: 213 ± 15 μg/ml) and SMMC-7721 (IC50: 170 ± 13 μLg/ml) cells. The characterization of antiproliferative effect demonstrated that this extract was an apoptosis inducer in both cell lines tested. The results of western blot analyses have shown in SMMC-7721 cells that this extract activated caspase signaling triggered by the modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. These findings suggest that this natural extract-induced effects may have novel therapeutic applications for the treatment of different cancer types.

Related: Apoptosis Lung Cancer Mitochondrial Mutations in Cancer

Techathuvanan K, Srisajjakul S, Pongpaibul A, et al.
Comparison between disease free survival of hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatic resection in chronic hepatitis B patients with or without cirrhosis.
J Med Assoc Thai. 2015; 98(4):334-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients can develop in those with cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic liver Not only impairment of liver status, but also the extension of tumor and difference of pathogenesis may also affect characteristics of patient and tumor including survival and recurrence.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disease free survival, prognostic factors and features of HCC after hepatic resection in CHB patients with and without cirrhosis.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: Two hundred fifteen HBV-related HCC patients underwent hepatic resection and were analyzed. Cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic groups were compared for differences inpatient and tumor characteristics, disease-free survival including prognostic factors.
RESULTS: In comparison with cirrhotic patients, non-cirrhotic patients had more family history of HCC, more preserved liver function, were less HBeAg positive, and had lower HBV viral load. HCC characteristics in non-cirrhotic groups showed significantly larger (5.8 ± 3.7 vs. 4.9 ± 3.9 cm, p = 0.036) and operative data revealed that non-cirrhotic patients underwent more major surgery (50.7 vs. 18.3%, p < 0.001), and had shorter hospital stay (10.8 ± 8.9 vs. 8.1 ± 4.3 days, p = 0.006) than cirrhotic ones. Operative time, blood loss and requirement of PRC transfusion were similar in both groups. Pathological profiles of HCC and liver parenchyma were comparable in both cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients. The disease-free survival of non-cirrhotic patients was longer than cirrhotic patients (Median disease free survival were 21 and 11 months respectively, p = 0.022). The independent predictive factor of lower disease-free survival of non-cirrhotic CHB patients who underwent hepatic resection was lymph node involvement (Hazard ratio (HR), 4.598. 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-19.212; p = 0.037) while of cirrhotic patients, factors were age > 50 years old (HR, 2.998; 95% CI, 1.298-6.925; p = 0.01), multifocal tumor (HR, 5.835; 95% CI, 1.122-30.342; p = 0.036) andportal vein involvement (HR, 3.722; 95% CI, 1.121-12.353; p = 0.032). HBV treatment after HCC diagnosis was a significant predictor in the cirrhotic group by univariate analysis (p = 0.04).
CONCLUSION: Imaging and histological findings of HCC in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic CHB patients were not different, except for larger tumor size in non-cirrhotic patients. Lymph node involvement is the predictor of HCC recurrence in non- cirrhotic CHB patients. Age > 50 year old and multifocal tumor and portal vein involvement are the predictors of HCC recurrence in cirrhotic CHB patients. These groups may need surveillance that is more intensive after hepatic resection. Antiviral therapy may lower the risk of HCC recurrence among CHB cirrhotic patients.

Hirokawa F, Hayashi M, Miyamoto Y, et al.
Predictors of poor prognosis by recurrence patterns after curative hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma in Child-Pugh classification A.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):164-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prevention of recurrence is important for improving long-term outcome for HCC. To identify candidates for postoperative adjuvant therapy after curative hepatectomy for HCC in Child-Pugh classification A (Child A).
METHODOLOGY: Of 157 patients who underwent initial hepatectomy for Child A HCC, 93 had recurrence and were divided into 2 groups: group A, ≤2 tumors, each <3 cm in size at the time of intrahepatic recurrence; group B, ≥3 tumors or tumor ≥3 cm in size at the time of intrahepatic recurrence and/or extrahepatic recurrence. Clinicopathological and survival data were analyzed retrospectively in each group to identify poor prognostic factors.
RESULTS: The 1-year recurrence rate was 50%, and the time to recurrence was shorter in group B (10 months) than in group A (20 months) Overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were poorer in group B (83%, 52%, and 35% respectively; p < 0.001) than in group A (100%, 96%, and 71% respectively) Cancer spread (vascular invasion and/or intrahepatic metastasis) was significantly affecting the recurrence pattern of Group B (p=0.0238) on multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Systemic adjuvant chemotherapy af ter curative hepatectomy for HCC in Child A should be given to patients with microscopic vascular invasion and/or intrahepatic metastasis.

Tsujita E, Maeda T, Kayashima H, et al.
Effect of sustained virological response to interferon therapy for hepatitis C to the hepatectomy for primary hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):157-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Interferon (IFN) therapy improves the prognosis of the patients with HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the effects of IFN therapy for hepatectomy (Hx) for primary HCC have not been established. Several published reports investigating the effects of IFN therapy on survival and tumor recurrence after curative resection of HCC have been inconclusive.
METHODOLOGY: Subjects included 470 patients who underwent Hx for HCV related primary HCC. One hundred and fifty nine patients received IFN therapy past or postoperatively of the first Hx. Seventy-four of those patients attained a sustained viral response (SVR group). The other 396 patients, including 85 were no responders (NR) and 311 patients who had not received IFN therapy (non-IFN) were classified as the control group.
RESULTS: Overall survival (SVR group vs. control group: 5-yr, 93.2 vs. 61.9%; p<0.0001) and disease-free survival (SVR group vs. control group: 5-yr, 56.0 vs. 27.4%; p<0.0001) rates were significantly different. By multivariate analysis, NR/non-IFN was the independent risk factor for overall survival (p=0.0002) and disease-free survival (p=0.0053) after Hx.
CONCLUSIONS: SVR achieved past or postoperatively to the Hx of HCV-related HCC significantly inhibits recurrence and consequently improves patient survival after Hx for HCC.

Wang XB, Yu QM, Yu PF, et al.
Surgical treatment of huge hepatocarcinoma with invasion or severe adhesion of diaphragm using the technique of orthotopic liver resection.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):153-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To explore the clinical application and significance of the technique of orthotopic liver resection.
METHODOLOGY: From January 2004 to December 2011, five patients with huge hepatocellular carcinoma with invasion or severe adhesion of diaphragm were undergone right semi-liver resection using the technique of orthotopic liver resection. The right hemi-liver was isolated from the first liver portal, second liver portal and third liver portal, then isolated from the normal liver, finally the tumor and the invaded diaphragm were resected or removed from the severe adhesion. The approach to hepatic resection involved routine use of Peng's multifunctional operative dissector, selective control of in and out-flow of liver, control of inferior vena cava (IVC) and liver hanging maneuver, anterior approach, etc.
RESULTS: The operations were successfully performed in 5 patients. Operative time was 120, 180, 150, 150 and 160 min, respectively. The amount of blood loss were 350, 350, 400, 450, 600 ml, respectively. Postoperative complications were pleural effusion in 3 cases, and other 2 cases recovered without complications.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the technique of orthotopic liver resection has a high technical requirement for surgeons, it provides a surgical method and operative opportunity for the patients whose tumor has invaded diaphragm or has been severe adhesion with diaphragm and conventional liver resection cannot be performed.

Chen L, Wang K, Chen Z, et al.
High intensity focused ultrasound ablation for patients with inoperable liver cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):140-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To analyses the feasibility and efficacy of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment in patients with inoperable liver cancer.
METHODOLOGY: 187 patients were treated with HIFU, of all these patients 116 cases were Primary Liver Cancer (PLC) and 71 cases were Metastatic Liver Cancer (MLC). According to some parameters, such as clinical symptoms, the basis of main organs functional tests, imaging examinations, and progression-free survival (PFS) time to assess the safety and efficacy of HIFU in the treatment of liver cancer.
RESULTS: 55 patients (29.4%) achieved CR and 73 patients (39.0%) achieved PR, 32 patients (17.1%) had responses of SD, and 27 patients (14.4%) were PD, respectively. Response rates were 90.5% (32 CR + 6 PR/42) in left lobe cancer and 64.1% (22 CR + 62 PR/131) in right lobe cancer. The median PFS for those CR case was 7 months, of PLC was 8 months, of MLC was 5 months.
CONCLUSIONS: HIFU is effective and feasible in the treatment of liver cancer. It offer a significant noninvasive therapy for local treatment of liver cancer. For those right lobe liver cancers or with poor ultrasonic window, increasing treatment time or repeated treatment may improve the efficiency of HIFU ablation.

Huang SX, Wu YL, Tang CW, et al.
Prophylactic hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy improved survival after curative resection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):122-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To explore the effect of prophylactic hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) on survival probability after curative resection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODOLOGY: 85 patients with HCC were randomly assigned to HAIC group (42 cases) and control group (43 patients), all the database of two groups had no significant difference. Patients in HAIC groups underwent hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (5-FU 1000 mg/m2 on day 1, Oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 on day 1 and Gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on day 1 and 8) starting 3 weeks after operation with intervals of 4 weeks. All patients were followed up for 3 years and intrahepatic recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival rate and overall survival rate were recorded.
RESULTS: Intrahepatic recurrence rate of HAIC group and the control group was respectively 19.05% and 39.53%, P < 0.05. Disease-free survival rate was respectively 57.14% and 44.19%, P < 0.05. Overall survival rate was 66.67% and 46.51%, P < 0.05. All patients in HAIC group tolerated the therapy. No adverse effect above grade 3 was reported in HAIC group.
CONCLUSION: HAIC effectively and safely prevents intrahepatic recurrence and improves the prognosis of patients with HCC after curative resection.

Related: Oxaliplatin Gemcitabine

Wang R, Chen XZ, Zhang MG, et al.
Incidence and mortality of liver cancer in mainland China: changes in first decade of 21st century.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):118-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To longitudinally analyze changes of primary liver cancer incidence and mortality in mainland China during the first decade of 21st century.
METHODOLOGY: Available data of crude incidence and mortality of primary liver cancer from annual reports of the National Central Cancer Registry in mainland China were retrieved and analyzed.
RESULTS: Either the incidence or mortality of primary liver cancer in mainland China kept increasing and didn't reach peaks during the first decade of the 21st century, particularly among the female population with great incremental rates of incidence (8.76%) and mortality (11.99%) at 2007-2008 and 2009-2010, respectively. The crude incidence increased from 26.18/100,000 persons at 2004 to 29.00/100,000 persons at 2010, while the crude mortality from 25.08/100,000 persons to 28.10/100,000 persons (r=0.857, p=0.014). The incidence and mortality in males kept 2.5-2.9 folds to those in females. The incidence and mortality in rural region were always higher than those in urban regions, but among males both tended to decline in rural region, while in contrast increased in urban region.
CONCLUSIONS: Liver cancer still has high incidence and mortality in mainland China, and further effort is required to prevent and control liver cancer, particularly for male and rural population.

Komeda K, Hayashi M, Inoue Y, et al.
A new strategy with a grading system for liver metastases from colorectal cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):111-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The optimal indications, including timing, for resection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRCLM) remain controversial. The Japanese Society of Cancer of the Colon and Rectum has proposed "H-classification" based on the maximum size and number of CRCLM, and has advocated the "CRCLM-grade system", which involves adding the presence of primary lymph node metastasis status to H-classification. We evaluated clinicopathological factors in order to elucidate the optimal indications for and timing of hepatectomy.
METHODOLOGY: Ninety-six patients who underwent initial hepatectomy for CRCLM between August 1995 and May 2009 were retrospectively analyzed with respect to characteristics of primary colorectal metastatic hepatic tumors, operation details and prognosis.
RESULTS: Multivariate analysis identified depth of invasion in primary colorectal cancer (within sub-serosal (non-se) vs. beyond serosal (se)) and CRCLM-grade as independent risk factors. We then performed analyses using the combination of non-se/se and CRCLM-grade. Kaplan-Meier analysis identified significant differences between non-se+gradeA and se+gradeA, between non-se+gradeB and se+gradeB, and between non-se+gradeC and se+gradeC groups.
CONCLUSIONS: We could retrospectively predict survival in CRCLM patients by adopting this new simple classification. This method may allow more precise assessment of operative indications and timing for both operations and perioperative adjuvant treatment.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Engstrand J, Nilsson H, Jansson A, et al.
Fate of necrotic volume after microwave ablation of multiple liver metastases.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):108-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to find the rate of shrinkage of necrosis and time of peak ablation volume after multiple microwave ablations in the treatment of multiple liver metastases of colorectal cancer. These factors are not known and are important in evaluation of treatment and identification of local recurrence, as microwave treatment is becoming more used thanks to improved technology in diagnostics and interventional therapy.
METHODOLOGY: A retrospective analysis of non-cirrhotic patients with multiple liver only metastases of colorectal cancer, not suited for resection for this reason. Patients were selected for palliative microwave treatment at a liver multidisciplinary team conference. 68 ablations were made in six patients. Ablation volume was analysed with repeated imaging and computer analyses.
RESULTS: The ablation volume peeks after 5-7 days where after reduction of the necrosis in the liver occurs logarithmically with a 60% reduction of ablation volume after 100 days and 80% after a year.
DISCUSSION: Liver regeneration after microwave ablations occurs at a constant logarithmic rate after an initial expansion of the ablation volume during the first five days. Evaluation of ablation volume in comparison to tumour volume must take this into account so that follow-up imaging is properly timed.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Sturesson C, Hoekstra L, Andersson R, van Gulik TM
Importance of thrombocytes for the hypertrophy response after portal vein embolization.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):98-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Thrombocytes have proved to be important for liver regeneration after liver resection in the experimental setting. The aim of our study is to examine the effects of thrombocytes on liver hypertrophy after portal vein embolization (PVE).
METHODOLOGY: This retrospective cohort study comprised 75 patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer subjected to PVE in preparation for major liver resection. Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on if chemotherapy was given within 6 weeks before PVE or not.
RESULTS: The chemotherapy group showed lower levels of thrombocytes (p=0.003) and lower degree of hypertrophy (p=0.030) as compared to the group without chemotherapy. No correlation within groups between level of thrombocytes and degree of hypertrophy was found. However, in the chemotherapy group, a positive linear correlation between the degree of hypertrophy and the difference in thrombocytes between the time points of PVE and 2 months preceding PVE was found (p=0.0006).
DISCUSSION: Preprocedural chemotherapy results in decreased hypertrophy of the liver after PVE and lower levels of thrombocytes at the time for PVE. The absolute number of thrombocytes does not influence liver regeneration after PVE. For patients receiving preprocedural chemotherapy, PVE performed at a time when thrombocytes are decreasing is associated with a reduced regeneration.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Hefaiedh R, Sabbegh M, Ennaifer R, et al.
Percutaneous treatment versus hepatic resection for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma.
Tunis Med. 2014; 92(12):711-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is the first liver tumor worldwide. Therefore, it is a matter of debate whether surgical treatment or percutaneous treatment should be preferred for the treatment of patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of our study was to compare the long-term outcome and the survival between surgically and percutaneously treated small hepatocellular carcinomas.
METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in the department of hepatology during a period of 2009-2012. The study included all patients carrying small hepatocellular carcinoma which were divided in: group 1 including patients who underwent surgical treatment, and group 2 including patients who underwent percutaneous treatment.
RESULTS: Among the 63 patients who were diagnosed for hepatocellular carcinoma, 28 carried a small hepatocellular carcinoma with a mean age of 63 years and sex-ratio of 0.64. Etiology of cirrhosis was viral in 96% cases. Surgical treatment (hepatic resection) was performed in 53.5% cases while percutaneous treatment was proposed for 46.5%: radiofrequency ablation in 69% and alcoholic injection in 31%. No major complications for both surgical and percutaneous treatment occurred in our study. Overall survival was significantly lower in the surgical resection group. The corresponding 6 months and 1-year overall survival rates for the surgical resection group and the percutaneous treatment group were 100%, 100%, 20%, and 52%, respectively (p=0,04). The disease free survival were not significantly different.
CONCLUSION: Our results showed the efficacy and safety of percutaneous ablation treatments which were better than those of surgical treatment in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma.

Liao W, Mao Y, Ge P, et al.
Value of quantitative and qualitative analyses of circulating cell-free DNA as diagnostic tools for hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(14):e722 [PubMed] Related Publications
Qualitative and quantitative analyses of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) are potential methods for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Many studies have evaluated these approaches, but the results have been variable. This meta-analysis is the first to synthesize these published results and evaluate the use of circulating cfDNA values for HCC diagnosis. All articles that met our inclusion criteria were assessed using QUADAS guidelines after the literature research. We also investigated 3 subgroups in this meta-analysis: qualitative analysis of abnormal concentrations of circulating cfDNA; qualitative analysis of single-gene methylation alterations; and multiple analyses combined with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Statistical analyses were performed using the software Stata 12.0. We synthesized these published results and calculated accuracy measures (pooled sensitivity and specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratios [PLRs/NLRs], diagnostic odds ratios [DORs], and corresponding 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]). Data were pooled using bivariate generalized linear mixed model. Furthermore, summary receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC) were used to summarize overall test performance. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also examined. A total of 2424 subjects included 1280 HCC patients in 22 studies were recruited in this meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity and specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, AUC, and CIs of quantitative analysis were 0.741 (95% CI: 0.610-0.840), 0.851 (95% CI: 0.718-0.927), 4.970 (95% CI: 2.694-9.169), 0.304 (95% CI: 0.205-0.451), 16.347 (95% CI: 8.250-32.388), and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83-0.89), respectively. For qualitative analysis, the values were 0.538 (95% CI: 0.401-0.669), 0.944 (95% CI: 0.889-0.972), 9.545 (95% CI: 5.298-17.196), 0.490 (95% CI: 0.372-0.646), 19.491 (95% CI: 10.458-36.329), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.84-0.90), respectively. After combining with AFP assay, the values were 0.818 (95% CI: 0.676-0.906), 0.960 (95% CI: 0.873-0.988), 20.195 (95% CI: 5.973-68.282), 0.190 (95% CI: 0.100-0.359), 106.270 (95% CI: 22.317-506.055), and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94-0.97), respectively. The results in this meta-analysis suggest that circulating cfDNA have potential value for HCC diagnosis. However, it would not be recommended for using independently, which is based on the nonrobust results. After combining with AFP, the diagnostic performance will be improved. Further investigation with more data is needed.

Lee IC, Chen YT, Chao Y, et al.
Determinants of survival after sorafenib failure in patients with BCLC-C hepatocellular carcinoma in real-world practice.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(14):e688 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sorafenib may improve progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the survival benefit is short lived and survivals after progressive disease (PD) have not been well characterized. This study aimed to evaluate the survival predictors of OS and postprogression survival (PPS) in advanced HCC patients receiving sorafenib treatment. Consecutive 149 HCC patients receiving sorafenib under National Health Insurance were retrospectively enrolled. All patients fulfilled the reimbursement criteria: Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C HCC with macroscopic vascular invasion or extrahepatic metastasis (Mets), and Child-Pugh class A. Radiologic assessment was performed at a 2-month interval using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Patients who maintained Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ≤2 and Child-Pugh class A at PD were assumed to be candidates for second-line treatment. During the median follow-up period of 7.5 months (range, 1.1-18.5), PD developed in 120 (80.5%) patients and 96 (64.4%) deaths occurred. The median PFS, OS, and PPS were 2.5, 8.0, and 4.6 months, respectively. In general, patients with Mets only had better OS and PPS than those with portal vein invasion. Independent predictors of OS include baseline performance status (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.956), tumor size (HR = 1.597), alpha-fetoprotein (HR = 1.869), discontinuation of sorafenib due to liver function deterioration (LD) (HR = 6.142), or concurrent PD and LD (HR = 2.661) and PD within 4 months (HR = 5.164). Independent predictors of PPS include deteriorated performance status (HR = 7.680), deteriorated liver functions (HR = 5.603), bilirubin (HR = 2.114), early PD (HR = 6.109), and new extrahepatic lesion (HR = 1.804). In 46 candidates for second-line trials, development of new extrahepatic lesion independently predicts poorer PPS (HR = 3.669). In conclusion performance status, liver functions, early disease progression, and progression pattern are important determinants of survival after sorafenib failure. These factors should be considered in clinical practice and second-line trial designs for patients with sorafenib failure.

Related: Sorafenib (Nexavar)

Qin L, Meng J, Lang Q, et al.
Pattern characteristics in patients with primary liver cancer in different clinical stages.
J Tradit Chin Med. 2015; 35(1):47-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristics of primary liver cancer in terms of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) by analyzing the variations of the patterns along with the clinical stages.
METHODS: The patients who were hospitalized in the Changhai Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine dated from March 1999 to December 2008 were included in this retrospective study. The patients were grouped according to their cancer stages, and their patterns were judged and quantified according to the "Standard diagnosis and quantitative criteria of the common patterns in primary liver cancer" formulated by the Changhai Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Statistics methods included ANOVA and nonparametric test, among others.
RESULTS: The data of the 398 newly diagnosed pa- tients showed that Qi Stagnation, Blood Stasis, and Dampness patterns were more frequent than the other basic patterns with relatively high scores; patterns of Liver Qi Stagnation, Liver Blood Stasis, and Dampness Heat were more than the other complex patterns and scored relatively high. Scores of Dampness and Liver Qi Stagnation patterns varied among the groups at different stages and the differences were statistically significant (P(Dnampness) = 0.002, P(Liver Qi Stagnation) = 0.020). The highest scores of Dampness pattern and Liver Qi Stagnation pattern corresponded with Stage IIIb, and Stage IIIa, respectively. Dampness pattern frequency was higher (P = 0.001) in the Stage IIIb group than in other groups.
CONCLUSION: Pattern characteristics in patients with primary liver cancer of different clinical stages might manifest in the variations of the Dampness pattern along the process of the disease and the major pathogenic factor of primary liver cancer might be Dampness.

Liu Y, Xie L, Zhao J, et al.
Association between catalase gene polymorphisms and risk of chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in Guangxi population: a case-control study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(13):e702 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play critical roles in hepatocarcinogenesis. The catalase (CAT) enzyme is involved in the repair of ROS. Therefore, we investigate the association between CAT gene polymorphisms and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 715 subjects were divided into 4 groups: 111 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, 90 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cirrhosis (LC) patients, 266 HBV-HCC patients, and 248 healthy controls. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism strategy was used to detect CAT gene rs1001179, rs769217, and rs7943316 polymorphisms. Binary logistic regression analyses adjusting for sex, age, ethnicity, smoking and alcohol consumption, and body mass index suggested that subjects carrying the rs769217 T allele were at marginally increased risk of CHB, LC, and HCC, with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-2.20, P = 0.029), 1.48 (95% CI = 1.03-2.14, P = 0.035), and 1.51 (95% CI = 1.14-1.98, P = 0.004), respectively. Similarly, those individuals carrying the rs769217 TT genotype had a moderately increased risk of CHB, LC, and HCC, with adjusted ORs of 2.11 (95% CI = 1.05-4.22, P = 0.035), 2.00 (95% CI, 1.01-3.95, P = 0.047), and 1.93 (95% CI = 1.14-3.28, P = 0.015), respectively. Moreover, subjects carrying the rs769217 CT genotype and at least 1 copy of the T allele (dominant model) were 1.78 times and 1.83 times more likely to develop HCC, respectively (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.16-2.73, P = 0.009 and OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.23-2.71, P = 0.003). This association between CAT rs769217 T alleles and HCC risk is significantly strengthened among men, nonsmokers, nondrinkers, and among individuals <50 years of age. Furthermore, we found 1 high-risk haplotype GTA for CHB (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.05-2.01) and 1 protective haplotype GCA for HCC risk (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.52-0.87). We did not found any significant difference in CAT rs1001179 and rs7943316 polymorphisms between controls and cases. Our findings suggest that the CAT rs769217 T allele is associated with increased risk of CHB, HBV-LC, and HBV-HCC in Guangxi population.

Fernandes AT, Apisarnthanarax S, Yin L, et al.
Comparative assessment of liver tumor motion using cine-magnetic resonance imaging versus 4-dimensional computed tomography.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 91(5):1034-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To compare the extent of tumor motion between 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) and cine-MRI in patients with hepatic tumors treated with radiation therapy.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with liver tumors who underwent 4DCT and 2-dimensional biplanar cine-MRI scans during simulation were retrospectively reviewed to determine the extent of target motion in the superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and lateral directions. Cine-MRI was performed over 5 minutes. Tumor motion from MRI was determined by tracking the centroid of the gross tumor volume using deformable image registration. Motion estimates from 4DCT were performed by evaluation of the fiducial, residual contrast (or liver contour) positions in each CT phase.
RESULTS: Sixteen patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (n=11), cholangiocarcinoma (n=3), and liver metastasis (n=2) were reviewed. Cine-MRI motion was larger than 4DCT for the superior-inferior direction in 50% of patients by a median of 3.0 mm (range, 1.5-7 mm), the anterior-posterior direction in 44% of patients by a median of 2.5 mm (range, 1-5.5 mm), and laterally in 63% of patients by a median of 1.1 mm (range, 0.2-4.5 mm).
CONCLUSIONS: Cine-MRI frequently detects larger differences in hepatic intrafraction tumor motion when compared with 4DCT most notably in the superior-inferior direction, and may be useful when assessing the need for or treating without respiratory management, particularly in patients with unreliable 4DCT imaging. Margins wider than the internal target volume as defined by 4DCT were required to encompass nearly all the motion detected by cine-MRI for some of the patients in this study.

Karadas S, Dulger AC, Gonullu H, et al.
Coexistence of hepatocelluler carcinoma and cyst hydatid disease of the liver.
J Pak Med Assoc. 2014; 64(9):1075-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The evidence suggests that both delta hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cyst hydatid disease (CHD) are frequently seen separately in people who live in the rural areas of Asia. However, there are still a few case reports about coexistence of these different diseases in the same liver. The current case illustrates a number of clinical problems that physicians face in the diagnosis of patients with basically different liver masses.

Fan W, Du F, Liu X
Effects of hepatitis C virus gene NS2 on the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax in HepG2 cells.
J Pak Med Assoc. 2014; 64(10):1127-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of hepatitis C virus gene nonstructural protein 2 on the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax in liver hepatocellular cells.
METHOD: The study was conducted at the Department of Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China, from March 2012 to April 2013. Negative controls pEGFP-C3-NS2, pEGFP-C3-C and pEGFP-C3 were transiently transfected into liver hepatocellular cells and expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by Western blot 24 h post-transfection. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis.
RESULTS: After transfected with NS2 gene, expression of Bcl-2 in liver hepatocellular cells was slightly higher than the non-transfected cells, and the expression of Bax was significantly higher than the non-transfected cells.
CONCLUSION: Hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 2 gene plays a role in adjusting the proto-oncogene Bcl-2 and tumour suppressor gene Bax.

Eefsen RL, Vermeulen PB, Christensen IJ, et al.
Growth pattern of colorectal liver metastasis as a marker of recurrence risk.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2015; 32(4):369-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite improved therapy of advanced colorectal cancer, the median overall survival (OS) is still low. A surgical removal has significantly improved survival, if lesions are entirely removed. The purpose of this retrospective explorative study was to evaluate the prognostic value of histological growth patterns (GP) in chemonaive and patients receiving neo-adjuvant therapy. Two-hundred-fifty-four patients who underwent liver resection of colorectal liver metastases between 2007 and 2011 were included in the study. Clinicopathological data and information on neo-adjuvant treatment were retrieved from patient and pathology records. Histological GP were evaluated and related to recurrence free and OS. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank test and Cox regression analysis were used. The 5-year OS was 41.8% (95% CI 33.8-49.8%). Growth pattern evaluation of the largest liver metastasis was possible in 224 cases, with the following distribution: desmoplastic 63 patients (28.1%); pushing 77 patients (34.4%); replacement 28 patients (12.5%); mixed 56 patients (25.0%). The Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated that patients resected for liver metastases with desmoplastic growth pattern had a longer recurrence free survival (RFS) than patients resected for non-desmoplastic liver metastases (p=0.05). When patients were stratified according to neo-adjuvant treatment in the multivariate Cox regression model, hazard ratios for RFS compared to desmoplastic were: pushing (HR=1.37, 95% CI 0.93-2.02, p=0.116), replacement (HR=2.16, 95% CI 1.29-3.62, p=0.003) and mixed (HR=1.70, 95% CI 1.12-2.59, p=0.013). This was true for chemonaive patients as well as for patients who received neo-adjuvant treatment.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor

Zhang W, Jiang R, Hou J, Sun B
Clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of young patients with surgically treated liver cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(12):e684 [PubMed] Related Publications
This article compares the clinical characteristics and prognosis of young patients in different age groups with liver cancer (LC). In this retrospective study, we searched the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based database and identified 2641 patients who had been diagnosed with LC between 1988 and 2005. These patients were categorized into 2 different age ranges: Group 1 (≤35 years) and Group 2 (36-45 years). Five-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier methods and multivariable Cox regression models were used to analyze the long-term survival outcomes and risk factors. There were significant differences between the age groups for stage and tumor size (P < 0.001). The 5-year liver CSS rate was 20.4% and 14.5%, respectively (P < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate analysis also confirmed the difference (P < 0.001). Further analysis showed that this significant difference existed in localized, regional, and distant-stage patients. Young patients with LC of age 18 to 45 years are inherently heterogeneous. Patients aged ≤35 years have better CSS than those aged 36 to 45 years, despite exhibiting unfavorable clinicopathological characteristics.

Related: USA

Kow AW, Kwon CH, Song S, et al.
Clinicopathological factors and long-term outcome comparing between lung and peritoneal metastasectomy after hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma in a tertiary institution.
Surgery. 2015; 157(4):645-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recurrence after liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is common. Resection of extrahepatic recurrences such as lung metastasectomy (LM) has been well documented. Conversely, reports on the long-term outcomes of peritoneal metastasectomy (PM) are lacking. In this study, we compared the outcome of lung and peritoneal metastasectomy after hepatectomies for HCC in a tertiary institution.
METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively the data of 1,222 patients who underwent hepatectomies for HCC in Samsung Medical Center in Korea from January 2006 to August 2010. We studied the clinicopathologic factors between resected lung metastasis (LM) and peritoneal metastases (PM) and the long-term outcome of patient survival. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to study the survival outcome.
RESULTS: The recurrence rate of resected HCC in this cohort was 41.6% (n = 508). Thirty-two patients with lung metastasis (23% of all lung metastasis) underwent LM whereas 13 patients (36% of all peritoneal metastasis) with peritoneal metastasis underwent PM. Two patients underwent PM and LM sequentially. Demographic and clinical data between the LM and PM groups were comparable. The mean prehepatectomy PIVKA-II level was greater in the LM group compared with the PM group (P = .029). On univariate analysis of pathologic factors, the median tumor size (P = .005), proportion of patients with tumor >75 mm (P = .005) and rate of microvascular invasion (P = .047) were greater in the LM group. The median time-to-recurrence in the LM group was 12 (4-45) months compared with 18 (1-102) months in the PM group (P = .896). The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year overall survival of patients in the LM group was 92%, 55%, 55% (4-year) whereas that in the PM group was 90%, 75%, and 75%, respectively. The mean overall survival in the LM was comparable with that in the PM group (P = .578).
CONCLUSION: Twenty-three percent of patients with lung metastasis and 36.1% of patients with peritoneal metastasis could be considered for metastasectomy. The long-term survival of patients with PM and LM was comparable in this study. Although resection of LM improves survival in patients with resected HCC, we demonstrated favorable outcomes for PM as well, which in the past would have been considered palliative.

Gao F, Li X, Geng M, et al.
Pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio: an independent predictor of survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(11):e639 [PubMed] Related Publications
The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to be associated with prognosis in various types of cancer. We evaluated pretreatment NLR as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and we compared the prognostic value of NLR with other prognostic scores.We retrospectively analyzed 825 patients diagnosed with HCC between October 2008 and May 2012. Baseline data, including the NLR and the Child-Pugh class or Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, were recorded before treatment. The relationships between overall survival (OS) and the study variables were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The prognostic value of NLR was assessed using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and compared with that of the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) and Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) staging.The NLR, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, α-fetoprotein ≥ 400 ng/mL, tumor number ≥ 3, tumor size ≥ 5 cm, lymph node metastasis, portal vein involvement, and Child-Pugh class were significantly associated with OS. The NLR demonstrated the strongest prognostic value (area under ROC curve = 0.811). An NLR ≥ 2.7 was a significant predictor of poor OS (P < 0.0001), and the survival period of patients with an NLR ≥ 2.7 decreased with more advanced BCLC and TNM stage.Pretreatment NLR is a useful prognostic biomarker in HCC patients. The prognostic value of NLR ≥ 2.7 is superior to that of MELD stage or Child-Pugh class, and correlates with that of BCLC and TNM staging scores.

Soni A, Ren Z, Hameed O, et al.
Breast cancer subtypes predispose the site of distant metastases.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2015; 143(4):471-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The distant organs to which breast cancer preferentially metastasizes are of significant clinical importance.
METHODS: We explored the relationship between the clinicopathologic factors and the common sites of distant metastasis in 531 consecutive patients with advanced breast cancer.
RESULTS: Breast cancer subtype as a variable was significantly associated with all five common sites of relapse by multivariate analysis. The luminal tumors were remarkable for their significant bone-seeking phenotype and were less frequently observed in lung, brain, and pleural metastases and less likely to be associated with multiorgan relapse. The HER2 subtype demonstrated a significant liver-homing characteristic. African Americans were significantly less likely to have brain-only metastasis in patients with brain relapse.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings further articulate that breast cancer subtypes differ not only in tumor characteristics but also in their metastatic behavior, thus raising the possibility that this knowledge could potentially be used in determining the appropriate strategy for follow-up of patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer.

Related: Breast Cancer

Sun H, Deng Q, Pan Y, et al.
Association between estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) genetic variations and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
J BUON. 2015 Jan-Feb; 20(1):296-308 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Emerging published reports on the association between estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) genetic variation and cancer susceptibility are inconsistent. This review and meta- analysis was performed to achieve a more precise evaluation of this relationship.
METHODS: A literature search of PubMed database was conducted from the inception of this study through April 1st 2014. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to assess the association.
RESULTS: 87 studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that PvuII (T>C) polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and prostate cancer, in contrast with the decreased risk of gallbladder cancer. No significant association was found in Asian and Caucasian populations. Furthermore, XbaI (A>G) genetic variation was only associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, but was not related with race. In addition, T594T (G>A) polymorphisms were significantly associated with an increased risk of cancer, especially in Asian populations.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis indicated that PvuII (T>C) genetic variation may be risk factor for HCC, prostate cancer and gallbladder cancer. Meanwhile, XbaI (A>G) polymorphism may be potential prognostic factor for prostate cancer. Furthermore, T594T (G>A) was closely related with cancer susceptibility, especially in Asian populations.

Related: Gallbladder Cancer Polymorphisms Prostate Cancer ESR1

Zhang CS, Zhang JL, Li XH, et al.
Is radiofrequency ablation equal to surgical re-resection for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma meeting the Milan criteria? A meta-analysis.
J BUON. 2015 Jan-Feb; 20(1):223-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with surgical re-resection (SRR) in patients with postoperative recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (RHCC) meeting the Milan criteria.
METHODS: A literature search was performed to identify comparative studies addressing outcomes of both RFA and SRR for RHCC meeting the Milan criteria. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using either the fixed effects model or the random effects model.
RESULTS: Five nonrandomized controlled trials were included in the analysis. These studies included a total of 543 patients: 243 treated with RFA and 300 treated with SRR. The SRR group had a better 3-year recurrence-free survival rate compared with RFA group (OR 0.44, 95%CI 0.25-0.77, p=0.004). However, there were no obvious differences between RFA and SRR group in overall survival (OS) rates, re-recurrence rate and OS rates with tumors ≤ 3cm. What's more, the RFA group had a safety advantage with less complications of Clavien classification grade II or higher compared with SRR group (OR 0.21, 95%CI 0.05-0.94, p=0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: RFA seemed to be superior to SRR in the treatment of patients with RHCC meeting the Milan criteria on account of clinical safety. However, these findings have to be carefully interpreted due to the lower level of evidence.

Zhang CZ, Wang XD, Wang HW, et al.
Sorafenib inhibits liver cancer growth by decreasing mTOR, AKT, and PI3K expression.
J BUON. 2015 Jan-Feb; 20(1):218-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of sorafenib on PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and to further define its mechanism for treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Human SMMC-7721 hepatic carcinoma cells were treated with or without 4 μmoL/L sorafenib. SMMC- 7721 cells were harvested at various time points (0-48 hrs) and assessed for changes in PI3K, mTOR, and AKT protein and mRNA levels.
RESULTS: Human SMMC-7721 hepatic tumor cells exposed to sorafenib had decreased expression of PI3K/mTOR/AKT.
CONCLUSION: Sorafenib appears to inhibit hepatic tumor growth by downregulating PI3k/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

Related: AKT1 Signal Transduction Sorafenib (Nexavar) MTOR

Siyar Ekinci A, Demirci U, Cakmak Oksuzoglu B, et al.
KRAS discordance between primary and metastatic tumor in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma.
J BUON. 2015 Jan-Feb; 20(1):128-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Adding targeted therapies to chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) improves response rates and survival. KRAS is a predictive indicator for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) treatments. The most important reasons for KRAS discordance are intratumoral heterogeneity and incorrect mutation analysis. Evaluating the status of KRAS in primary and metastatic lesions becomes even more crucial to ensure efficient usage of anti-EGFR treatments.
METHODS: Patients with metastatic CRC, whose primary disease and liver and/or lung metastases were operated, were retrospectively evaluated, and KRAS assessment was performed on 31 patients who were suitable for DNA analysis. Pyrosequencing with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for KRAS analysis.
RESULTS: The median age of 31 patients diagnosed with rectal cancer (N=13) and colon cancer (N=18) was 63 years (range 33-73). Metastasectomy locations included the liver (N=27), lung (N=3), and both lung and liver (N=1). KRAS discordance was detected in 22% (7/31) of the patients. While 3 patients with detected discordance had mutated KRAS in the primary material, wild type KRAS was detected in their liver or lung lesions. On the other hand, while 4 patients had wild type KRAS in the primary material, mutated KRAS was determined in their liver or lung lesions. The McNemar test revealed no significant discordance between primary and metastatic disease (p=1.00). No progression free survival (PFS) difference was detected between patients with determined discordance and patients with undetermined discordance (10.6 vs 14.7 months, p=0.719).
CONCLUSION: This is the first study to evaluate KRAS discordance between primary and metastasis in CRC patients, who underwent metastasectomy, together with survival data. In the literature and recent studies with large patient numbers in which modern KRAS tests were used, the KRAS discordance rate varies between 3-12%. In our study, a higher KRAS discordance (22%) was detected, and no survival difference was determined between patients with or without discordance. In recent years, the rising interest in borderline resectable disease may bring forward discussions related to which material the KRAS status should be analyzed.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer KRAS gene

Parau A, Todor N, Vlad L
Determinants of survival after liver resection for metastatic colorectal carcinoma.
J BUON. 2015 Jan-Feb; 20(1):68-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Prognostic factors for survival after liver resection for metastatic colorectal cancer identified up to date are quite inconsistent with a great inter-study variability. In this study we aimed to identify predictors of outcome in our patient population.
METHODS: A series of 70 consecutive patients from the oncological hepatobiliary database, who had undergone curative hepatic surgical resection for hepatic metastases of colorectal origin, operated between 2006 and 2011, were identified. At 44.6 months (range 13.7-73), 30 of 70 patients (42.85%) were alive. Patient demographics, primary tumor and liver tumor factors, operative factors, pathologic findings, recurrence patterns, disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were analyzed. Clinicopathologic variables were tested using univariate and multivariate analyses.
RESULTS: The 3-year CSS after first hepatic resection was 54%. Median CSS survival after first hepatic resection was 40.2 months. Median CSS after second hepatic resection was 24.2 months. The 3-year DFS after first hepatic resection was 14%. Median disease free survival after first hepatic resection was 18 months. The 3-year DFS after second hepatic resection was 27% and median DFS after second hepatic resection 12 months. The 30-day mortality and morbidity rate after first hepatic resection was 5.71% and 12.78%, respectively. In univariate analysis CSS was significantly reduced for the following factors: age >53 years, advanced T stage of primary tumor, moderately- poorly differentiated tumor, positive and narrow resection margin, preoperative CEA level >30 ng/ml, DFS <18 months. Perioperative chemotherapy related to metastasectomy showed a trend in improving CSS (p=0.07). Perioperative chemotherapy improved DFS in a statistically significant way (p=0.03). Perioperative chemotherapy and achievement of resection margins beyond 1 mm were the major determinants of both CSS and DFS after first liver resection in multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: In our series predictors of outcome in multivariate analysis were resection margins beyond 1mm and perioperative chemotherapy. Studies on larger population and analyses of additional clinicopathologic factors like genetic markers could contribute to development of clinical scoring models to assess the risk of relapse and survival.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

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