There are a diverse range of cancers that can arise in the eyes. The two most common types are intraocular melanoma and retinoblastoma.
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MeSH term: Eye Neoplasms
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Long non-coding RNA CCAT1 promotes human retinoblastoma SO-RB50 and Y79 cells through negative regulation of miR-218-5p.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 87:683-691 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The lncRNA profile in RB tissues were analyzed by microarray and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). One of the identified lncRNAs (LncRNA CCAT1) was selected for further experiments. SO-RB50 and Y79 cells were transfected with negative control, siRNA targeting lncRNA CCAT1 (si-CCAT1) and si-CCAT1+miR218-5p inhibitor, respectively. lncRNA CCAT1 expression was measured by qRT-PCR. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were detected by CCK8, wound scratching, and transwell assay, respectively. Apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were assessed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis- (cle-caspase-3, cle-caspase-9, Bax and Bcl-2) and cell cycle-related protein expression (cyclin B1, CDC2 and p-CDC2 (Thr161)) were analyzed by Western blot.
RESULTS: lncRNA CCAT1 expression in SO-RB50 and Y79 cells was significantly inhibited after si-CCAT1 transfection (P<0.01). Both RB cells exhibited significantly reduced proliferation, migration and invasion abilities, but markedly increased apoptosis at 48h after si-CCAT1 transfection (P<0.05 or 0.01). RB cells in si-CCAT1+miR218-5p inhibitor group had significantly higher proliferation, migration and invasion, but notably lower apoptosis compared with si-CCAT1 group at 24 and 48h after transfection (all P<0.05 or 0.01). si-CCAT1 significantly increased the expression of cle-caspase-3, cle-caspase-9, Bax, but decreased Bcl-2 expression (P<0.01). The proportion of G2/M SO-RB50 and Y79 cells in siCCAT1 group was significantly increased compared with negative control group (P<0.01). LncRNA CCAT1 interference significantly reduced the expression of cyclin B1, CDC2 and p-CDC2 (Thr161) (P<0.01).
CONCLUSION: LncRNA CCAT1 promotes the proliferation migration and invasion, and reduces cell apoptosis of SO-RB50 and Y79 cells, probably through negative modulation of miR-218-5p. Our study suggested lncRNA CCAT1 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for RB.
18F-FDG and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in von Hippel-Lindau Disease-Associated Retinal Hemangioblastoma.
Clin Nucl Med. 2017; 42(3):189-190 [PubMed] Related Publications
Binocular indirect ophthalmo microscope-assistant gas-perfused pars plana vitrectomy: A novel technique for vitreous sample acquisition.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(49):e5503 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BRAF V600E-dependent role of autophagy in uveal melanoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(3):447-455 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Two human uveal melanoma cell lines, OCM1A, which harbors the BRAF mutation V600E and Mel 290, which is BRAF wild type, were studied. Autophagy levels were determined by Western blot assay with/without the addition of autophagic flux inhibitor (bafilomycin A1). Cell proliferation was assessed by an MTT assay.
RESULTS: Starvation triggered autophagy in BRAF V600E-mutant OCM1A cells but not in BRAF wild-type Mel 290 cells. Enhanced autophagy helped the OCM1A cells survive under stressed conditions. The BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib upregulated autophagy through suppression of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6 K pathway in BRAF V600E-mutant uveal melanoma cells. Autophagy inhibition impaired the treatment efficacy of vemurafenib in BRAF V600E-mutant uveal melanoma cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that starvation-trigged autophagy, which is BRAF V600E dependent, promotes cancer cell survival in uveal melanoma. Vemurafenib induces autophagic cell death rather than adaptive cell survival in BRAF V600E-mutant melanoma.
Relationship between physician-adjudicated adverse events and patient-reported health-related quality of life in a phase II clinical trial (NCT01143402) of patients with metastatic uveal melanoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(3):439-445 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2018 Related Publications
METHODS: Data from a phase II trial (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01143402) where patients with metastatic uveal melanoma were randomized to receive selumetinib, an oral MEK inhibitor, or chemotherapy were analyzed. Patients reported HRQoL at baseline, after 1 month, and end of treatment (n = 118), whereas physicians adjudicated AEs via CTCAE. Mean HRQoL scores were compared between patient randomization arms, as well as between those patients who did/did not receive dose modifications.
RESULTS: Ninety-four percent had a CTCAE grade ≥1 for at least one treatment-associated AE, with 18% undergoing dose modification due to toxicity. Mean HRQoL scores did not significantly differ at each of the three time points. Patient and physician-adjudicated reports of nausea were significantly correlated at the start (r = 0.31, p < 0.01) and end of treatment (r = 0.42, p < 0.05). There were no significant correlations between need for dose modification and HRQoL scores.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high rate of physician-adjudicated AEs and need for dose modifications with selumetinib, patient-reported HRQoL was not impacted by treatment. Since HRQoL did not differ in the subgroup of patients who received dosage reductions due to AEs, patients may be willing to tolerate select AEs without dose modification (if medically appropriate). More research is needed to determine how to best integrate HRQoL data into clinical trial conduct.
Erlotinib has tumor inhibitory effect in human retinoblastoma cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 85:479-485 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHOD: RB cell lines, Y79 and WERI cells were treated with various concentrations of erlotinib in vitro to assess their cytotoxic profiles. In vitro proliferation, cell-cycle transition and migration were compared between RB cells treated with erlotinib and cells without erlotinib treatment. In in vivo tumorigenicity assay, mice were injected with Y79 cells and orally fed with erlotinib for 28days. The effect of erlotinib on in vivo tumor grafts was then assessed. Western blot analysis on EGFR, ERK, AKT proteins and their phosphorylated proteins was also performed to assess molecular signaling pathways of associated with erlotinib in RB cells.
RESULTS: In vitro erlotinib treatment induced cytotoxicity in Y79 and WERI cells in dose-dependent manner. While Y79 and WERI cells were treated with erlotinib close to EC50 concentrations for 3days, RB proliferation, cell-cycle transition and migration were all significantly inhibited. In in vivo tumorigenicity assay, oral induction of erlotinib also dramatically reduced the growth of Y79 tumor grafts. Western blot demonstrated that, in in vitro RB cells, erlotinib did not alter the protein expression levels of EGFR, ERK or AKT, but significantly reduced the expressions of phosphorylated EGFR, ERK and AKT proteins.
CONCLUSION: Erlotinib was shown to have tumor suppressive effect on RB growth in vitro and in vivo, possibly through the inhibition on EGFR, ERG/AKT signaling pathways.
Elucidating the role of the FoxO3a transcription factor in the IGF-1-induced migration and invasion of uveal melanoma cancer cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1538-1550 [PubMed] Related Publications
Isolated Nonsyndromic Intraneural Neuroma of the Eyelid Skin.
Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 Nov/Dec; 32(6):e147-e149 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thyroid malignancy presenting with visual loss: an unusual case of paraneoplastic retinopathy.
BMJ Case Rep. 2016; 2016 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-dose methotrexate following intravitreal methotrexate administration in preventing central nervous system involvement of primary intraocular lymphoma.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(10):1458-1464 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2018 Related Publications
HIC1 modulates uveal melanoma progression by activating lncRNA-numb.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12779-12789 [PubMed] Related Publications
Steatocystoma simplex of the lacrimal caruncle: a case report.
BMC Ophthalmol. 2016; 16(1):183 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2018 Related Publications
CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old male presented with a history of a slowly progressing mass in the right lacrimal caruncle since several years before his initial visit. At the first examination, a yellowish, relatively smooth surface mass was observed in the right lacrimal caruncle. The caruncular mass was completely removed under local anesthesia. The pathological findings of this mass were consistent with a steatocystoma. At the 6-month follow-up, there was no sign of recurrence or development of the steatocystoma or any other masses.
CONCLUSION: Although steatocystoma simplex rarely occurs in the lacrimal caruncle, it needs to be considered as a possible diagnosis for patients with a mass lesion in the caruncle.
Clinical presentation and treatment outcome of retinoblastoma in children of South Western China.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(42):e5204 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2018 Related Publications
Treatment of orbital solitary fibrous tumour with gamma knife radiosurgery and systematic review of literature.
BMJ Case Rep. 2016; 2016 [PubMed] Related Publications
Superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy in the primary management of advanced intra-ocular retinoblastoma: first 4-year experience from a single institution in Turkey.
Acta Ophthalmol. 2016; 94(7):e644-e651 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: From October 2011 to September 2015, 26 group D eyes of 24 treatment-naïve retinoblastoma patients managed primarily with IAC were evaluated in this prospective study.
RESULTS: Of 76 procedures, ophthalmic artery cannulation failed in two patients with unilateral involvement. In the remaining 22 patients (24 eyes), the mean age at diagnosis was 18 months (range, 6-55 months). Each eye received a mean of 3 IAC sessions/eye (range, 2-5 sessions). After a median follow-up of 29 months (range, 6-55 months), complete regression of the main tumour was achieved in 23 of 24 eyes. One eye with partial regression required enucleation due to ciliary body involvement by the tumour. Overall, 16 eyes (66.6%) were salvaged with primary IAC with or without additional local treatments, and eight (33.3%) required enucleation. The main IAC-related periocular complications included transient eyelid oedema (n = 13), ptosis (n = 6) and forehead hyperpigmentation (n = 3), each resolving in 2 weeks to 4 months. Intra-ocular complications included chorioretinal atrophy (n = 9), newly noted retinal detachment (n = 5) and vitreous haemorrhage (n = 1). Kaplan-Meier eye estimates of enucleation-free survival rates were 83.3% (95% CI, 68.4-98.1%), 69.1% (95% CI, 49.8-88.3%) and 62.9 (95% CI, 41.9-83.8%) at 6 months, 1 and 2 years, respectively, and stable thereafter.
CONCLUSION: Our first 4-year experience in Turkey showed that enucleation or external-beam radiotherapy could be avoided in two-thirds of eyes with advanced intra-ocular retinoblastoma managed primarily with IAC.
Clinical and histopathological features of adenomas of the ciliary pigment epithelium.
Acta Ophthalmol. 2016; 94(7):e637-e643 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The retrospective hospital-based case series study included all patients who were consecutively operated for CPE adenomas.
RESULTS: Of the 110 patients treated for ciliary body tumours, five patients (4.5%) had a CPE adenoma. Mean age was 59.0 ± 9.9 years (range: 46-72 years). Mean tumour apical thickness was 6.6 ± 1.7 mm. Tumour colour was mostly homogenously brown to black, and the tumour surface was smooth. The tumour masses pushed the iris tissue forward without infiltrating iris or anterior chamber angle. Sonography revealed an irregular echogram with sharp lesion borders and signs of blood flow in Color Doppler flow imaging. Ultrasonographic biomicroscopy demonstrated medium-low internal reflectivity and acoustic attenuation. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the tumours as compared to brain were hyperintense on T1-weighted images and hypointense on T2-weighted images. Tumour tissue consisted of cords and nests of pigment epithelium cells separated by septa of vascularized fibrous connective tissue, leading to a pseudo-glandular appearance. The melanin granules in the cytoplasm were large and mostly spherical in shape. In four patients, the tumours were hyperpigmented. Tumour cells were large with round or oval nuclei and clearly detectable nucleoli.
CONCLUSIONS: These clinical characteristics of CPE adenomas, such as homogenous dark brown colour, smooth surface, iris dislocation and anterior chamber angle narrowing but no iris infiltration, segmental cataract, pigment dispersion, and, as compared to brain tissue, hypointensity and, as compared to extraocular muscles or lacrimal gland, hyperintensity on T2-weighted MRI images, may be helpful for the differentiation from ciliary body malignant melanomas.
Choroidal melanoma and pregnancy.
Acta Ophthalmol. 2016; 94(7):e652-e660 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We conducted a single-centre retrospective study at the Institut Curie on the population of women of childbearing age who were diagnosed with choroidal melanoma between June 1980 and October 2013. We took a particular interest in the prognosis of those who were pregnant at the time of diagnosis and in the prognosis of those who chose to get pregnant after the treatment.
RESULTS: We found 27 pregnant patients at the time of diagnosis and 13 patients who became pregnant after the treatment. There was no difference in the survival between these two groups of patients and the group of other women of childbearing age diagnosed with choroidal melanoma (p = 0.52). There was also no difference in metastasis-free survival (p = 0.91). Most women were able to carry their pregnancies to term (67% had a term pregnancy, and only 7% had an abortion). For women who were pregnant when they were diagnosed with choroidal melanoma, a conservative treatment was chosen in 85% of cases, and proton beam therapy was the most widely used treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Survival in women of childbearing age does not appear to be influenced by pregnancy. We show that proton beam therapy can be used to treat women who are pregnant at the time of choroidal melanoma diagnosis.
Can Interim 18F-FDG PET or Diffusion-Weighted MRI Predict End-of-Treatment Outcome in FDG-Avid MALT Lymphoma After Rituximab-Based Therapy?: A Preliminary Study in 15 Patients.
Clin Nucl Med. 2016; 41(11):837-843 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with untreated MALT lymphoma prospectively underwent whole-body F-FDG PET/CT and DWI before treatment (baseline), and after three cycles (interim) of rituximab-based immunotherapy. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax, SUVmean), and minimum and mean apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCmin, ADCmean), were measured for up to three target lesions per patient. Rates of change between baseline and interim examinations (ΔSUVmax, ΔSUVmean, ΔADCmin, and ΔADCmean) were compared, using ANOVAs, between the four end-of-treatment (EOT, after six cycles of immunotherapy) outcomes: complete remission (CR), partial remission (PR), stable disease (SD), or progressive disease (PD).
RESULTS: Fifteen patients with 25 lesions were included. Lesion-based post hoc tests showed significant differences between CR and PR for ΔSUVmax (P < 0.001), ΔSUVmean (P < 0.001), and ΔADCmin (P = 0.044), and between CR and SD for ΔSUVmax (P < 0.001), ΔSUVmean (P < 0.001), ΔADCmin (P = 0.021), and ΔADCmean (P = 0.022). No lesion showed PD at EOT.
CONCLUSIONS: Both quantitative interim F-FDG PET and interim DWI may possibly be useful to predict complete remission at end-of-treatment in MALT lymphoma patients after immunotherapy.
Natural Killer T-Cell Lymphoma of the Orbit: An Evidence-Based Approach.
Semin Ophthalmol. 2017; 32(1):116-124 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fine needle aspiration in intraocular metastasis from pleuropulmonary blastoma. A case report and a review of the literature.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2017; 45(2):156-160 [PubMed] Related Publications
Atypical presentation of primary intraocular lymphoma.
BMC Ophthalmol. 2016; 16(1):171 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2018 Related Publications
CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old female initially visited another hospital with a chief complaint of acute reduced vision in the right eye. Funduscopic examination of the right eye showed a yellowish retinal lesion at the fovea with vitreous haze and retinal foci scattered in the peripheral region. Spectral-domain optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT) revealed a hyperreflective subretinal debris above the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) at the fovea, suggesting vitelliform submaculopathy. Vitrectomy was performed to improve visualization of the retinal lesions and for examination of PIOL. Vitreous cytology was class III and cytokine analysis of vitreous fluid showed increased IL-10 and an IL-10/IL-6 ratio >1, suggesting PIOL. Thereafter, there was a sub-RPE infiltration of presumed lymphoma in the nasal retina, and PCR analysis of anterior chamber fluid indicated IgH gene rearrangement, leading to diagnosis of PIOL. Three months later, there was complete disappearance of the vitelliform submacular lesion, with resultant disruption and thinning of the outer retinal layers on SD-OCT images.
CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should be aware of atypical manifestations of PIOL such as vitelliform submaculopathy and peripheral retinal foci with vitreous haze. The patient's unusual funduscopic changes are findings that have not reported in patients with PIOL.
Aggressive esthesioneuroblastoma with divergent differentiation: A taxonomic dilemma.
Orbit. 2016; 35(6):357-359 [PubMed] Related Publications
Orbital medulloepithelioma in an adult patient: Radiation-induced second neoplasia?
Orbit. 2016; 35(6):313-316 [PubMed] Related Publications
Early surgical treatment of retinal hemangioblastomas.
Acta Ophthalmol. 2017; 95(1):97-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Interventional case series of four eyes (four patients) with a peripheral RH that had not yet been treated by laser or cryotherapy prior to surgery. All eyes underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy with lesion excision. One patient underwent ligation of the feeder vessel prior to lesion excision. Best-corrected visual acuity and clinical course were assessed during a follow-up period of at least 4 years.
RESULTS: Four patients (mean age 27.3 years; range 19-32) were included, of whom two had von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Visual acuity improved in three patients (mean 4.8 lines; range 3-10) and remained stable at 0.0 logMAR in one patient. There were no intraoperative complications. Postoperative complications included transient mild vitreous haemorrhage (n = 2), and local epiretinal membrane formation at the excision location (n = 1). At 4 years postoperatively, there were no long-term complications. There was one case of a new lesion, which was effectively treated with laser.
CONCLUSION: Vitrectomy with RH excision seems to be an effective approach for larger RHs and could be considered an early treatment option in selected cases. Postoperative complications were limited in scope of this case series. Important points to consider during vitrectomy are effective closure of feeder and draining vessels as well as complete removal of posterior hyaloid and epiretinal membranes in order to avoid postoperative vitreous haemorrhage and proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
Ocular manifestation in myeloid/NK cell precursor acute leukemia: a case report. Diagnosed by flow cytometry and PCR from aqueous humor.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(38):e4967 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2018 Related Publications
METHODS AND RESULTS: A 13-year-old boy diagnosed with MNKL developed left eye pain 3 months after starting treatment. Examination of the left eye revealed a visual acuity of counting fingers at 20 cm, ciliary hyperemia, small corneal keratic precipitates, hypopyon, grade 4 vitreous opacities, and an obscured fundus. The differential diagnosis was between an opportunistic infection associated with immunodeficiency and an intraocular leukemic cell infiltrate. Therefore, a sample of aqueous humor was aspirated. Multiplex PCR/broad-range PCR of the aqueous humor was below detection limits for viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Flow cytometry (FCM) detected NK-related CD56-positive cells, thus leading to a diagnosis of ocular infiltrates due to MNKL. With treatment of the ocular infiltrates by consolidation systemic chemotherapy including intrathecal methotrexate (MTX), there was clearing of the vitreous opacities; and optic disc swelling, retinal hemorrhages, exudates, and protuberant lesions were now seen. With the addition of local radiation therapy to the eye, there was a dramatic treatment response, with regression of the optic disc findings and retinal lesions, and an improved visual acuity of 1.5.
CONCLUSION: We encountered the first case of MNKL in which ocular infiltrates developed during follow-up. Multiplex PCR and FCM of the aqueous humor were useful in rapidly distinguishing leukemic cell infiltrates from an opportunistic infection. This case highlights the usefulness of intrathecal MTX and local radiotherapy in treating ocular infiltrates in patients with MNKL.
Surgical resection of invasive adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland and wound closure using a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flap.
BMJ Case Rep. 2016; 2016 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clinicopathologic Assessment of Ocular Adnexal Lymphoproliferative Lesions at a Tertiary Eye Hospital in Iran.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(8):3727-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective case series, from 2002 to 2013 at Farabi Eye Center, 110 patients with ocular lymphoproliferative disease were enrolled. Prevalence, anatomical locations, mean age at diagnosis and the nal diagnosis of the disease with IHC were assessed. Comparison between previous pathologic diagnoses and results of IHC was made. Immunoglobulin light chains and B-cell and T-cell markers and other immuno-phenotyping markers including CD20, CD3, CD5, CD23, CD10, CYCLIND1 and BCL2 were evaluated to determine the most accurate diagnosis. The lymphomas were categorized based on revised European-American lymphoma (REAL) classi cation.
RESULTS: Mean age±SD (years) of the patients was 55.6 ±19.3 and 61% were male. Patients with follicular lymphoma, large B-cell lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small cell lymphoma (CLL/SLL) tended to be older. Nine patients with previous diagnoses of low grade B-cell lymphoma were re-evaluated by IHC and the new diagnoses were as follows: extranodal marginal zone lymphoma(EMZL) (n=1), SLL(n=1), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) (n=3), reactive lymphoid hyperplasia RLH (n=2). Two cases were excluded due to poor blocks. Flow cytometry reports in these seven patients revealed SLL with positive CD5 and CD23, MCL with positive CD5 and CyclinD1 and negative CD23, EMZL with negative CD5,CD23 and CD10. One RLH patient was negative for Kappa/Lambda and positive for CD3 and CD20 and the other was positive for all of the light chains, CD3 and CD20. Orbit (49.1%), conjunctiva (16.1%) and lacrimal glands (16.1%) were the most common sites of involvement.
CONCLUSIONS: Accurate pathological classi cation of lesions is crucial to determine proper therapeutic approaches. This can be achieved through precise histologic and IHC analyses by expert pathologists.
Epigenetic regulation of human retinoblastoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14427-14441 [PubMed] Related Publications
3D turbo field echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation technique (DSDE-TFE) versus echo planar imaging in evaluation of diffusivity of retinoblastoma.
Br J Radiol. 2016; 89(1067):20160074 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2017 Related Publications
METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review boards. Eight patients with retinoblastomas (five males and three females; age range 0-87 months; median 21 months) were studied. For the DSDE-TFE, motion-probing gradients (MPGs) were conducted at one direction with b-values of 0 and 500 s mm(-2) and a voxel size of 1.5 × 1.5 × 1.5 mm(3). For the EP imaging, MPGs were conducted at three directions with b-values of 0 and 1000 s mm(-2) and a voxel size of 1.4 × 1.8 × 3 mm(3). The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of each lesion were measured. Statistical analyses were performed with Pearson R and linear correlation coefficients.
RESULTS: Intraocular lesions were clearly visualized on the DSDE-TFE without obvious geometrical distortion, whereas all showed deformity on EP images. On the DSDE-TFE, the ADCs of the lesions ranged from 0.83 × 10(-3) to 2.93 × 10(-3) mm(2) s(-1) (mean ± standard deviation 1.73 ± 0.73 × 10(-3) mm(2) s(-1)). On the EP images, the ADCs ranged from 0.53 × 10(-3) to 2.03 × 10(-3) mm(2) s(-1) (0.93 ± 0.53 × 10(-3) mm(2) s(-1)). There was a significant correlation in ADC measurement between the DSDE-TFE and EP imaging (r = 0.81, p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: With its insensitivity to field inhomogeneity and high spatial resolution, the 3D DSDE-TFE technique enabled us to assess diffusivity in retinoblastomas. Advances in knowledge: DSDE-TFE could enable us to assess the ADC of retinoblastomas without obvious geometrical distortion.
Update on Ophthalmic Oncology 2014: Retinoblastoma and Uveal Melanoma.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila). 2016 Sep-Oct; 5(5):368-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
DESIGN: This study is a literature review.
METHODS: The terms retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma were used in a MEDLINE literature search. Abstracts were studied, and the most relevant articles were selected for inclusion and further in-depth review.
RESULTS: In retinoblastoma, more eyes are being salvaged due to intravitreal melphalan. The year 2014 marks a deepening in our understanding of the biological basis of the disease and the cell of origin. Knowledge on the genetic underpinnings of uveal melanoma has broadened to include other pathways, interactions, and potential therapeutic targets.
CONCLUSIONS: In 2014, there were valuable advancements in our knowledge of retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma. Some of these resulted in improved patient management.