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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 63.5m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 371,700
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 324.6
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:32.0%
People dying from cancer /yr: 154,600
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)

France: Cancer Organisations
Cancer Centres and Institutes
French Cancer Journals
Latest Research Publications
Resources by Type of Cancer

France: Cancer Organisations (18 links)

Cancer Centres and Institutes (21 links)

French Cancer Journals (8 links)

See also: Oncology Journals

Latest Research Publications

Grumet P, Kerever S, Gilbert T, et al.
Clinical and etiologic characteristics of de novo uveitis in patients aged 60 years and above: experience of a French tertiary center.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2019; 257(9):1971-1979 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To describe the characteristics of de novo uveitis in patients ≥ 60 years old.
METHODS: Retrospective review of patients with uveitis followed in our tertiary center over a 14-year period. Patients aged 60-70 years and patients aged > 70 years were compared.
RESULTS: A total of 283/1044 (27.1%) patients with uveitis were ≥ 60 years of age. Idiopathic uveitis (36.1%) and sarcoidosis (31.5%) were the most frequent etiologies. Sarcoidosis was significantly more frequent (31.5% vs. 13.7%, p < 0.0001) after the age of 60 years. Intraocular lymphoma (5.0% vs. 1.1%) and herpes virus infection (5.0% vs. 0.9%) were also more common in this age group, unlike HLA B27-related uveitis and spondyloarthritis (4.6% vs. 14.9%). Pure ophthalmologic entities: birdshot retinochoroidopathy (2.8%) or Fuchs uveitis (0.4%), were rare in patients ≥ 60 years of age and Posner Scholssman, Pars planitis, White dots syndrome, Behçet's disease, and Multiple Sclerosis were never reported. In patients > 70 years old, idiopathic uveitis (41.1% vs. 31.7%) and presumed sarcoidosis (56.5% vs. 25.6%) were more frequent than in the 60-70-year age group.
CONCLUSION: In our center, sarcoidosis is the leading cause of non-idiopathic uveitis in older patients. Idiopathic uveitis and other entities account for less than two-thirds of cases. Ophthalmologic entities are rare after 60 years of age. We also report for the first time the characteristics of uveitis after 70 years of age.

Ghiringhelli F, Vincent J, Bengrine L, et al.
Hepatic arterial chemotherapy with raltitrexed and oxaliplatin versus standard chemotherapy in unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer after conventional chemotherapy failure (HEARTO): a randomized phase-II study.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(9):2357-2363 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of chemotherapy could be used in patients with liver-only metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) to fight against chemoresistance. We previously reported the efficacy of raltitrexed plus oxaliplatin (HAI) in a retrospective series. We performed a randomized two-stage phase-II study to evaluate the efficacy of HAI of the combination of raltitrexed and oxaliplatin in refractory mCRC with only liver metastases in comparison with standard of care.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had unresectable mCRC and were refractory or intolerant to fluoropyrimidine, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, anti-VEGF therapy, and anti-EGFR therapy (for tumors with wild-type KRAS). Patients were randomized between HAI raltitrexed (3 mg/m
RESULTS: After inclusion of 27 patients, the trial was terminated due to insufficient accrual. In the experimental arm, 11 and 4 patients experienced grade 3 and 4 toxicities, respectively. The most frequent grade 3-4 toxicities were neutropenia, liver toxicity, and abdominal pain. Median progression-free survival was 6.7 months (95% Confidence Interval; 3.9-7.2) in the HAI group and 2.2 months (95% CI 1.2-4.3) with standard of care [HR 0.32 (95% CI 0.14-0.76), p = 0.01]. Median overall survival did not differ between the two groups, at 11.2 months (95% CI 4.8-17.6) for the HAI group and 11.9 months (95% CI 2.8-14.3) for standard of care [HR 0.86 (95% CI 0.36-2.04), p = 0.73].
CONCLUSION: Although stopped prematurely, this randomized trial provides evidence for the benefit and safety of HAI of a combination of raltitrexed and oxaliplatin in liver-only mCRC with chemoresistant disease.

Pivot X, Romieu G, Debled M, et al.
6 months versus 12 months of adjuvant trastuzumab in early breast cancer (PHARE): final analysis of a multicentre, open-label, phase 3 randomised trial.
Lancet. 2019; 393(10191):2591-2598 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In 2013, the interim analysis of the Protocol for Herceptin as Adjuvant therapy with Reduced Exposure (PHARE) trial could not show that 6 months of adjuvant trastuzumab was non-inferior to 12 months. Here, we report the planned final analysis based on the prespecified number of occurring events.
METHODS: PHARE is an open-label, phase 3, non-inferiority randomised trial of patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer comparing 6 months versus 12 months of trastuzumab treatment concomitant with or following standard neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. The study was undertaken in 156 centres in France. Eligible patients were women aged 18 years or older with non-metastatic, operable, histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the breast and either positive axillary nodes or negative axillary nodes but a tumour of at least 10 mm. Participants must have received at least four cycles of a chemotherapy for this breast cancer and have started receiving adjuvant trastuzumab-treatment. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to either 6 months or 12 months of trastuzumab therapy duration between the third and sixth months of adjuvant trastuzumab. The randomisation was stratified by concomitant or sequential treatment with chemotherapy, oestrogen receptor status, and centre. The primary objective was non-inferiority in the intention-to-treat population in the 6-month group in terms of disease-free survival with a prespecified hazard margin of 1·15. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00381901.
FINDINGS: 3384 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to either 12 months (n=1691) or 6 months (n=1693) of adjuvant trastuzumab. One patient in the 12-month group and three patients in the 6-month group were excluded, so 1690 patients in each group were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At a median follow-up of 7·5 years (IQR 5·3-8·8), 704 events relevant to disease-free survival were observed (345 [20·4%] in the 12-month group and 359 [21·2%] in the 6-month group). The adjusted hazard ratio for disease-free survival in the 12-month group versus the 6-month group was 1·08 (95% CI 0·93-1·25; p=0·39). The non-inferiority margin was included in the 95% CI. No differences in effects pertaining to trastuzumab duration were found in any of the subgroups. After the completion of trastuzumab treatment, rare adverse events occurred over time and the safety analysis remained similar to the previously published report. In particular, we found no change in the cardiac safety comparison, and only three additional cases in which the left ventricular ejection fraction decreased to less than 50% have been reported in the 12-month group.
INTERPRETATION: The PHARE study did not show the non-inferiority of 6 months versus 12 months of adjuvant trastuzumab. Hence, adjuvant trastuzumab standard duration should remain 12 months.
FUNDING: The French National Cancer Institute.

Gras M, Vallard A, Brosse C, et al.
Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicines among Cancer Patients: A Single-Center Study.
Oncology. 2019; 97(1):18-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: It is usual for cancer patients to use complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) and yet the literature evaluating their efficacy in cancer patients is very limited. The objective of the present study was to report on the nature, frequency of use, and patient-reported outcome of CAMs in a single-center study.
METHODS: All the consecutive patients treated between November 2017 and June 2018 at the Lucien Neuwirth Cancer Institute (France) were screened. Their reasons for using CAMs and their usage habits were collected. Patients evaluated their benefit.
RESULTS: Of the 209 patients screened, 200 patients were included. CAMs ranged from osteopathy, homeopathy, acupuncture, healing touch, magnetism, naturopathy, suction cups, Chinese medicine, reflexology, to hypnosis. CAMs were widely used (n = 166, 83%), the first being osteopathy (n = 99, 49.5%), the second homeopathy (n = 78, 39.0%), and finally acupuncture (n = 76, 38.0%). Whatever the CAM, high satisfaction rates were reported (median satisfaction: 61-81%). CAMs were mainly used to prevent/treat side effects of anticancer treatments (81.2% for healing touch), increase well-being (55.4% for naturopathy), improve the immune system (16.9% for homeopathy), and treat cancer (n = 3, 5.1% for homeopathy). Patients could easily consider using CAMs, as up to 50.8% would have accepted a consultation.
CONCLUSIONS: The reasons for using CAMs differed among patients. They praised CAMs and kept asking for more information although there is limited evidence about their efficacy in the literature. Thus, prospective randomized controlled trials exploring the safety and efficacy of CAMs in cancer patients are needed.

Cornillon J, Daguenet E, Bay JO, et al.
BAM conditioning before autologous transplantation for lymphoma: a study on behalf of the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC).
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(8):1973-1980 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-dose chemotherapy before autologous transplantation is a therapeutic option as consolidation in primary or relapsed lymphoma. Even if BEAM conditioning is generally used, alternative conditioning regimens have been published. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of 177 adult patients with lymphoma whose conditioning treatment included a BAM (busulfan, aracytine, and melphalan) regimen. With a median follow-up of 17.4 months, 2-year estimates of overall survival and progression-free survival for the entire group were 87% and 70.5%, respectively. Mucositis was the main reported complications and infectious episodes were described in 80.2% of patients. According to multivariate analysis, high performance status and age at diagnosis were adverse factors for survival and increased the risk of disease relapse and death. Despite its limitations, this retrospective study suggests that BAM combination is a valid conditioning regimen in lymphoma patients, with an acceptable rate of toxicity.

De Oliveira Mota J, Boué G, Guillou S, et al.
Estimation of the burden of disease attributable to red meat consumption in France: Influence on colorectal cancer and cardiovascular diseases.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2019; 130:174-186 [PubMed] Related Publications
The consumption of red meat has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide. The objective of this study was to assess quantitatively the burden of disease of CRC and CVD due to the consumption of red meat in France. A probabilistic risk assessment model quantifying the risk, deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALY) of both outcomes was built. In the model, uncertainty and variability were propagated separately. The model used data on current CRC and CVD incidence and red meat consumption in France, as well as dose-response from epidemiological studies. Results were given by age class and gender. A total of 19 [95% CI = 8-33] DALY per 100,000 people per year for CRC associated with red meat consumption was estimated. For CVD, 21 [95% CI = 12-32] DALY per 100,000 people per year was estimated. The uncertainty was mainly due to the dose-response, as revealed by a sensitivity analysis. A scenario analysis, performed on red meat intake, highlighted that consumption of less than 65 g per day could limit the risk of CRC and CVD in the most affected sub-populations.

Vergnolle I, Rieu JB, Avet-Loiseau H, et al.
Multiple myeloma immunophenotyping: method validation.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2019; 77(2):197-217 [PubMed] Related Publications
Flow cytometric immunophenotyping has become essential for management of multiple myeloma (assessment of clonality, prognostic information on the risk of progression in gammopathy of undetermined significance, minimal residual disease monitoring). Immunophenotyping of bone marrow plasma cells is routinely used in the haematology laboratory of the University Hospital of Toulouse. To guarantee the reliability of this technique, the laboratory decided to check this method in compliance with the NF ISO EN 15189, standard for medical laboratories requirements. As expected, the method showed good technical performances. However, this initiative has demonstrated the importance of the sample quality and of the control of the preanalytical and analytical conditions. This process led us to maximize our professional pratices.

Fontenil A, Bigot P, Bernhard JC, et al.
Who is dying after nephrectomy for cancer? Study of risk factors and causes of death after analyzing morbidity and mortality reviews (UroCCR-33 study).
Prog Urol. 2019; 29(5):282-287 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Nephrectomy is the treatment for renal cell cancer from T1-4 tumors but remains at risk. To determine the thirty-day mortality rate after nephrectomy for cancer and to identify causes and risk factors of death in order to find clinical applications. From 2014 to 2017, we performed a retrospective multicentric analysis of prospectively collected data study involving the French network for research on kidney cancer (UroCCR). All patients who died after nephrectomy for cancer during the first thirty days were identified. Patients' characteristics, causes of death and morbidity and mortality reviews reports were analyzed for each death.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: In total, 2578 patients underwent nephrectomy and 35 deaths occurred. The thirty-day mortality rate was 1.4%. In univariate analysis, symptoms at diagnosis (P=0.006, OR=2.56 IC (1.3-5.03)), c stage superior to cT1 (P<0.0001, OR=6.13 IC (2.8-13.2)), cT stage superior to cT2 (P<0.0001, OR=8.8 IC (4.39-17.8)), nodal invasion (P<0.0001, OR=4.6 IC (1.9-10.7)), distant metastasis (P=0.001, OR=4.01 IC (1.7-8.9)), open surgery (P<0.0001, OR=0.272 IC (0.13-0.54)) and radical nephrectomy (P=0.007, OR=2.737 IC (1.3-5.7)) were risk factors of thirty-day mortality. In a multivariable model, only cT stage superior to T2 (P=0.015, OR=3.55 IC (1.27-10.01)) was a risk factor of thirty-day mortality. The main cause of postoperative death was pulmonary (n=15; 43%). The second cause was postoperative digestive sepsis for 7 patients (20%). Only 2 morbidity and mortality reviews had been done for the 35 deaths. Limitations are related to the thirty-day mortality criteria and descriptive study design.
CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic patients, stage cTNM and type and techniques of surgery are determinants of thirty-day mortality after nephrectomy for cancer. The first cause of postoperative death is pulmonary. Morbidity and mortality reviews should be considered to better understand causes of death and to reduce early mortality after nephrectomy for cancer.

Mignot S, Ringa V, Vigoureux S, et al.
Pap tests for cervical cancer screening test and contraception: analysis of data from the CONSTANCES cohort study.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):317 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In France, a Pap test for cervical cancer screening is recommended every three years for all sexually active women aged 25 to 65 years. Modes of contraception (any or no contraception, with or without a visit to a physician, and with or without a gynecological examination) may influence adhesion to screening: women who use intrauterine device (IUD) should be more up to date with their cervical cancer screening more often than those using other means of contraception. Our objectives were to analyze the association between modes of contraception and Pap tests for screening.
METHODS: This cross sectional study is based on the CONSTANCES cohort enabled us to include 16,764 women aged 25-50 years. The factors associated with adhesion to cervical cancer screening (defined by a report of a Pap test within the previous 3 years) was modeled by logistic regression. Missing data were imputed by using multiple imputations. The multivariate analyses were adjusted for sex life, social and demographic characteristics, and health status.
RESULTS: Overall, 11.2% (1875) of the women reported that they were overdue for Pap test screening. In the multivariate analysis there was no significant difference between women using an IUD and those pills or implant of pap test overdue ORa:0.9 CI
CONCLUSION: Women seeing medical professionals for contraception are more likely to have Pap tests.

Bathily T, Borget I, Rivin Del Campo E, et al.
Partial versus whole breast irradiation: Side effects, patient satisfaction and costs.
Cancer Radiother. 2019; 23(2):83-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Since accelerated partial breast irradiation has demonstrated non-inferiority to whole breast irradiation regarding recurrence rate in patients with early stage breast cancer, our objective was to compare its impact on short-term adverse events, patient satisfaction and costs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with early stage breast cancer treated by breast-conserving surgery between 2007 and 2012 were included: 48 women who received three-dimensional conformal accelerated partial breast irradiation in a multicentre phase-II trial were paired with 48 patients prospectively treated with whole breast irradiation. Adverse events, and patients' opinions concerning cosmesis, satisfaction and pain, were gathered 1 month after treatment. Direct and indirect costs were collected from the French National Health Insurance System perspective until the end of radiotherapy.
RESULTS: When comparing its impact, skin reactions occurred in 37% of patients receiving three-dimensional conformal accelerated partial breast radiotherapy and 60% of patients receiving whole breast irradiation (P=0.07); 98% were very satisfied in the group three-dimensional conformal accelerated partial breast radiotherapy versus 46% in the group treated with whole breast irradiation (P<0.001); direct costs were significantly lower in the group treated with partial breast irradiation (mean cost: 2510€ versus 5479€/patient), due to less radiation sessions.
CONCLUSION: In patients with early-stage breast cancer, partial irradiation offered a good alternative to whole breast irradiation, as it was less expensive and satisfactory. These, and the clinical safety and tolerance results, need to be confirmed by long-term accelerated partial breast irradiation results in on-going phase III trials.

Radoï L, Sylla F, Matrat M, et al.
Head and neck cancer and occupational exposure to leather dust: results from the ICARE study, a French case-control study.
Environ Health. 2019; 18(1):27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Leather dust is an established carcinogen of the sinonasal cavities; however, evidence is lacking regarding its association with other head and neck cancers (HNC). To date, few studies have been conducted on the association between occupational leather dust exposure and the risk of oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the risk of HNC and occupational exposure to leather dust.
METHODS: Lifestyle habits and occupational history were collected for 2161 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx, and 3555 controls, using a standardized questionnaire. Occupational exposure to leather dust was assessed using a job-exposure matrix. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for HNC globally and by subsite were estimated using multivariate unconditional, and polytomous logistic regressions, respectively.
RESULTS: Cumulative lifetime exposure to leather dust < 6 mg/m
CONCLUSION: Our study did not provide enough evidence for an increased risk of HNC related to occupational exposure to leather dust. Further studies are needed to understand the risks of specific tasks in the leather industry.

Balaya V, Mathevet P, Magaud L, et al.
Predictive factors of severe perioperative morbidity of radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy in early-stage cervical cancer: A French prospective multicentric cohort of 248 patients.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2019; 45(4):650-658 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the postoperative morbidity after radical hysterectomy (RH) for early-stage cervical cancer and to determine risk factors of severe perioperative morbidity.
METHODS: Data of two prospective trials on sentinel node biopsy for cervical cancer (SENTICOL I & II) were analysed. Patients having a radical hysterectomy were included between 2005 and 2012 from 25 French oncologic centers. Postoperative complications were prospectively recorded in a pre-specified analysis.
RESULTS: 248 patients met the inclusion criteria. The median age was 44.5 years [25-85]. 88.7% of patients had a stage IB1 disease. There were 71.4% epidermoid carcinomas and 25% adenocarcinomas. 125 patients (50.4%) had a laparoscopic-assisted vaginal RH, 88 patients (35.5%) had a total laparoscopic RH, 26 patients (10.5%) had an open RH and 9 patients (3.6%) had a robotic-assisted RH. Sixteen patients (6.4%) had intraoperative complications. On a multivariate analysis, intraoperative complications were significantly associated with BMI >30 kg/m
CONCLUSIONS: This study based on prospective data showed that RH has low severe postoperative complications. The main complications were urinary infections and lower limb lymphedema. Patients with early-stage cervical cancer should be referred to expert center to ensure best surgical outcomes.

Smith-Palmer J, Takizawa C, Valentine W
Literature review of the burden of prostate cancer in Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Canada.
BMC Urol. 2019; 19(1):19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most frequently reported cancer in males in Europe, and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The aim of the current review was to characterize the clinical, economic and humanistic burden of disease associated with prostate cancer in France, Germany, the UK and Canada.
METHODS: Literature searches were conducted using the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases to identify studies reporting incidence and/or mortality rates, costs and health state utilities associated with prostate cancer in the settings of interest. For inclusion, studies were required to be published in English in full-text form from 2006 onwards.
RESULTS: Incidence studies showed that in all settings the incidence of prostate cancer has increased substantially over the past two decades, driven in part by increased uptake of prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening leading to earlier identification of tumors, but which has also led to over-treatment, compounding the economic burden of disease. Mortality rates have declined over the same time frame, driven by earlier detection and improvements in treatment. Both prostate cancer itself, as well as treatment and treatment-related complications, are associated with reduced quality of life.
CONCLUSIONS: Prostate cancer is associated with a significant clinical and economic burden, whilst earlier detection and aggressive treatment is associated with improved survival, over-treatment of men with indolent tumors compounds the already significant burden of disease and treatment can lead to long-term side effects including impotence and impaired urinary and/or bowel function. There is currently an unmet clinical need for diagnostic and/or prognostic tools that facilitate personalized prostate cancer treatment, and potentially reduce the clinical, economic and humanistic burden of invasive cancer treatment.

Jooste V, Bouvier AM, Bossard N, et al.
Trends in probabilities of death owing to cancer and owing to other causes in patients with colon cancer.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019; 31(5):570-576 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is of interest to both the clinicians and patients to estimate the probability of death owing to cancer in the presence of other causes as time elapses since diagnosis. The objective of this study was to depict for patients diagnosed with colon cancer between 1990 and 2010 in France, the probability of surviving up to 10 years after diagnosis and to disentangle the probability of death owing to cancer from that of death owing to other causes.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Individuals with cancer were described, up to 10 years after diagnosis, as belonging to one of three categories: those who died owing to a cause related to cancer, those who died owing to another cause and those who survived. Net survival, crude probabilities of death related to colon cancer, death related to another cause and survival were estimated by modeling excess mortality hazard.
RESULTS: In women of all ages, 5 and 10-year net survival improved over calendar time. The 10-year probability of survival decreased when age increased in both sexes. It was higher in women than in men, and this difference increased with age. Crude probabilities of death related to colon cancer decreased between 1990 and 2010 for men and women, although this was not observed in the eldest men.
CONCLUSION: Crude probability of death related to colon cancer is an important indicator for patients and health policy makers. Results of cancer screening should be faced to trends in probability of death related to colorectal cancer.

Mas S, Le Bonniec A, Cousson-Gélie F
Why do women fast during breast cancer chemotherapy? A qualitative study of the patient experience.
Br J Health Psychol. 2019; 24(2):381-395 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Why do patients practice fasting? The effects of fasting before treatment with chemotherapy for cancer in humans are currently unknown. However, there is an apparent enthusiasm for fasting among cancer patients. This qualitative study provides data on the motivations to fast and the experience of fasting among a population of women with breast cancer.
METHOD: Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted, and two researchers independently performed a thematic analysis. To ensure the internal validity of the study, patients had the possibility to rate their agreement with the study results through a satisfaction questionnaire.
RESULTS: Six main themes were identified in this study: main reasons to fast, alternative authorities to the oncologist, adapting the fast to social and lifestyle constraints, fasting effects felt during chemotherapy, barriers and facilitators of fasting during chemotherapy, and seeking for a more integrative medicine. Patients' primary motivation to fast was to lower the negative side effects of chemotherapy. Fasting was also reported as a coping strategy to give them a greater sense of control over their treatment and to reduce their anxiety.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Results from the study suggest that, if discouraged from fasting, patients may turn to complementary health care practitioners for support. Medical professionals may thus not know of patients' fasting practice. Health psychologists could play a key role fostering the dialogue between different health professionals and the patient. They could also help to meet patients' needs during cancer treatment to reduce treatment anxiety. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Fasting diet in cancer treatment has become an important topic since Raffaghello et al. published their study on mice in 2008. While the (positive) effects of fasting in humans remain to be proven, there has been a significant enthusiasm for this practice among patients in the last few years. However, patients' motivations to fast remain unclear to the scientific community and clinicians. What does this study add? This study is the first to investigate patients' motivations to fast and patients' experience of fasting in a cancer population. Patients' primary motivation to fast was to lower the side effects of chemotherapy. Fasting acts as an active coping strategy that helps to reduce anxiety. Unsupported patients may turn to complementary health care practitioners.

Wood R, Taylor-Stokes G, Smith F, Chaib C
The humanistic burden of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Europe: a real-world survey linking patient clinical factors to patient and caregiver burden.
Qual Life Res. 2019; 28(7):1849-1861 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) impacts the lives of patients and their caregivers. This analysis examined the association between patient clinical characteristics and patient and caregiver humanistic burden.
METHODS: Data for patients with aNSCLC and their informal caregivers in France, Germany and Italy, were collected between May 2015 and June 2016 via chart review and patient and caregiver surveys. Patients and caregivers completed validated instruments to evaluate their health state (EuroQol-5-dimensions-3-levels [EQ-5D-3L]), work and activity impairment (Work Productivity Activity Impairment [WPAI]) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; European Organisation for Research and treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire [EORTC QLQ-C30]). Caregivers also completed the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). Univariate and regression analyses were stratified by patient Eastern Cooperative Group Performance Status (ECOG-PS 0, 1, 2 or 3/4).
RESULTS: In total, 1030 patients and 427 accompanying informal caregivers participated. Regression analyses indicated that patients reported lower EQ-5D-3L utility index, EQ-VAS and EORTC QLQ-C30 global health status and greater work and activity impairment with worsening ECOG-PS (all p < 0.05). Caregivers also reported greater activity impairment and higher ZBI scores with worsening ECOG-PS of the patient they were providing care for (all p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: As patients' functionality deteriorates as measured by the ECOG-PS, so do their outcomes related to health utility, work productivity, activity impairment and HRQoL. This deterioration is also reflected in increased caregiver burden and activity impairment. There is a need for interventions to maintain patients' physical function to relieve the humanistic burden of both patients and caregivers.

Gouy S, Saidani M, Maulard A, et al.
Characteristics and Prognosis of Stage I Ovarian Mucinous Tumors According to Expansile or Infiltrative Type.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2018; 28(3):493-499 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The present study retrospectively determined the outcomes and prognoses in stage I mucinous ovarian carcinoma according to histological type (ie, expansile or infiltrative).
METHODS: A centralized pathologic review of tumors in patients treated from 1976 to 2016 for ovarian mucinous carcinoma was performed by 2 expert pathologists according to the 2014 World Health Organization classification. Only patients with stage I disease were analyzed. Tumors were typed as expansile or infiltrative and oncological issues analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 114 cases were reviewed. Fifty were excluded (stage > I in 30 cases and no accessibility to a pathological review for 20 cases). Thus, 64 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 29 had expansile-type and 35 infiltrative-type disease. The characteristics of both groups of patients were comparable, except the use of nodal staging surgery, which was more frequent in patients with infiltrative type. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages in expansile and infiltrative types were as follows: IA in 13 (45%) and 20 (57%), and IC in 16 (55%) and 15 (43%), respectively. Recurrence occurred in 3 patients with expansile type and 6 patients with infiltrative type. Two cases of expansile recurrence had pelvic recurrence and were salvaged after secondary surgery and chemotherapy, whereas 5 cases of infiltrative recurrence had extrapelvic spread and died from disease or were alive with progressive disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Recurrence occurred in both types of stage I mucinous ovarian cancer. However, lethal recurrences were observed mainly in infiltrative type.

Bonin L, Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Golfier F
Clinicopathological characteristics of patients with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: A retrospective study of 21 cases.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod. 2019; 48(5):319-327 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Few studies in the literature take into account the WHO's 2014 redefinition of the characteristics of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of a group of these patients.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study of patients diagnosed between 1 January 2005 and 31 May 2016 in three hospitals in Lyon, France. All the cases of cervical adenocarcinoma were reanalysed by an expert in gynaecological pathology to retain the mucinous subtypes as defined in the 2014 WHO classification. We analysed their clinical and pathological characteristics.
RESULTS: Among the 82 cases of cervical adenocarcinoma, 21 (26%) were diagnosed as mucinous. Ten were gastric type, of which four were in the extremely well differentiated form of minimal deviation adenocarcinomas, six were intestinal type, two were signet-ring cell type, and three were not otherwise specified. The patients' mean age was 42 years and 18 patients were premenopausal. The revealing symptom was metrorrhagia in eight cases (38%) and mucinous vaginal discharge in four (19%). Fifteen (72%) of the cervical smear were abnormal. Five (31%) of the 16 patients with gastric or intestinal type adenocarcinoma had a specific radiological presentation: multiple cysts of the uterine isthmus, visible on ultrasound and with T2 hyperintensity on MRI.
CONCLUSION: Mucinous adenocarcinoma is a rare form of cervical cancer that can be confused with other pathological types. It can be detected using cervical smears and should be suspected in cases of mucinous discharge and characteristic MRI features.

Debieuvre D, Locher C, Asselain B, et al.
Evidence of slight improvement in five-year survival in non-small-cell lung cancer over the last 10 years: Results of the French KBP-CPHG real-world studies.
Bull Cancer. 2019; 106(4):283-292 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although improved during the last decades, the prognosis of lung cancer is poor. In 2000, the French College of general hospital respiratory physicians, conducted KBP-2000-CPHG, a prospective multicenter epidemiological study including all volunteer adult patients diagnosed for primary lung cancer; with the five-year survival as primary endpoint. The primary objective of KBP-2010-CPHG was to compare overall five-year survival data with KBP-2000-CPHG ones.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: All consecutive patients≥18 years of age with primary lung cancer diagnosed between 1st January and 31st December 2010 were included. The KBP-2010-CPHG protocol was approved by the advisory committee on research information processing in the health field (CCTIRS) on November 19, 2009.
RESULTS: Respectively, 5667 and 7051 patients were included in KBP-2000-CPHG and KBP-2010-CPHG. Five-year survival was improved: 12.7% [11.9%-13.5%] in 2010 versus 10.0% [9.2%-10.9%] in 2000 (P<0.001). Non-small-cell lung cancer showed improvement (13.8% [13.0%-14.8%] in 2010 versus 11.4% [10.5%-12.4%] in 2000; P<0.001); but not small-cell lung cancer (5.7% [4.4%-7.4%] in 2010 versus 3.3% [2.3%-4.7%] in 2000; P=0.56). The KBP-2010-CPHG study showed an overall 6% reduction in risk of death (HR=0.94 [0.89-0.98]; P=0.004).
CONCLUSIONS: Survival of patients with lung cancer improved over a 10-year period. This improvement was slight and limited to non-small-cell lung cancer, possibly partly because of 2010 advances in diagnosis and targeted therapy.

Ruiz A, Sebagh M, Saffroy R, et al.
Chronological occurrence of PI3KCA mutations in breast cancer liver metastases after repeat partial liver resection.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):169 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Liver metastases of breast cancer are frequent and can recur even after "complete/R0" resection in combination with systemic and hormonal treatments. The aim of this study was to analyze throughout repeat hepatectomies for liver metastases the evolution of PI3KCA gene mutational status.
METHODS: All liver metastases nodules (n = 70) from 19 women who underwent at least 2 liver resections were reexamined. DNA extraction from archived tumoral tissue was performed and the major 'hot spot' mutations in the helical and catalytic domains of PI3KCA have been analyzed using Massarray platform (Agena Bioscience) based on allelic discrimination PCR amplification followed by sensitive mass spectrometry detection.
RESULTS: The two major somatic hot spot PI3KCA mutations were found in 27 (38.6%) nodules corresponding to 8 of the 19 patients (42%). The frequency of women whose breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) carries PI3KCA mutations increased from the first to the third hepatectomy. Tumors carrying PI3KCA mutations are significantly larger and more frequently observed when resections were R0 compared to patients with no PI3KCA mutation.
CONCLUSION: PI3KCA mutations are frequently observed in BCLM and persist along with the recurrence. Their identification in circulating tumor cells should become a useful biomarker in the routine practice of breast cancer management to prevent tumor recurrence and overcome the problems of intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity of the current biomarkers.

Carrat F, Fontaine H, Dorival C, et al.
Clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C after direct-acting antiviral treatment: a prospective cohort study.
Lancet. 2019; 393(10179):1453-1464 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although direct-acting antivirals have been used extensively to treat patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, their clinical effectiveness has not been well reported. We compared the incidence of death, hepatocellular carcinoma, and decompensated cirrhosis between patients treated with direct-acting antivirals and those untreated, in the French ANRS CO22 Hepather cohort.
METHODS: We did a prospective study in adult patients with chronic HCV infection enrolled from 32 expert hepatology centres in France. We excluded patients with chronic hepatitis B, those with a history of decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, or liver transplantation, and patients who were treated with interferon-ribavirin with or without first-generation protease inhibitors. Co-primary study outcomes were incidence of all-cause mortality, hepatocellular carcinoma, and decompensated cirrhosis. The association between direct-acting antivirals and these outcomes was quantified using time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01953458.
FINDINGS: Between Aug 6, 2012, and Dec 31, 2015, 10 166 patients were eligible for the study. 9895 (97%) patients had available follow-up information and were included in analyses. Median follow-up was 33·4 months (IQR 24·0-40·7). Treatment with direct-acting antivirals was initiated during follow-up in 7344 patients, and 2551 patients remained untreated at the final follow-up visit. During follow-up, 218 patients died (129 treated, 89 untreated), 258 reported hepatocellular carcinoma (187 treated, 71 untreated), and 106 had decompensated cirrhosis (74 treated, 32 untreated). Exposure to direct-acting antivirals was associated with increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2·77, 95% CI 2·07-3·71) and decompensated cirrhosis (3·83, 2·29-6·42). After adjustment for variables (age, sex, body-mass index, geographical origin, infection route, fibrosis score, HCV treatment-naive, HCV genotype, alcohol consumption, diabetes, arterial hypertension, biological variables, and model for end-stage liver disease score in patients with cirrhosis), exposure to direct-acting antivirals was associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 0·48, 95% CI 0·33-0·70) and hepatocellular carcinoma (0·66, 0·46-0·93), and was not associated with decompensated cirrhosis (1·14, 0·57-2·27).
INTERPRETATION: Treatment with direct-acting antivirals is associated with reduced risk for mortality and hepatocellular carcinoma and should be considered in all patients with chronic HCV infection.
FUNDING: INSERM-ANRS (France Recherche Nord & Sud Sida-HIV Hépatites), ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche), DGS (Direction Générale de la Santé), MSD, Janssen, Gilead, AbbVie, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Roche.

Petitjean A, Smith-Palmer J, Valentine W, et al.
Cost-effectiveness of bevacizumab plus paclitaxel versus paclitaxel for the first-line treatment of HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer in specialist oncology centers in France.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):140 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Evidence from clinical trials suggests that the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer improves progression-free survival (PFS) but not overall survival (OS). However, a retrospective analysis of real-world data from the French Comprehensive Cancer Centers (FCCC) through the Epidemiological Strategy and Medical Economics (ESME) Research Program, suggested that in this setting, the addition of bevacizumab may confer a significant benefit in terms of both PFS and OS. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to determine the cost-effectiveness of bevacizumab plus paclitaxel versus paclitaxel alone in the first-line treatment of HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer at specialist oncology centers in France.
METHODS: The analysis was performed using a three-state Markov model and clinical input data from N = 3426 HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer patients treated with bevacizumab plus paclitaxel or paclitaxel alone. The analysis was performed from a third party payer perspective over a 10-year time horizon; future costs and clinical outcomes were discounted at 4% per annum.
RESULTS: In the overall population, the addition of bevacizumab to paclitaxel led to incremental gain of 0.72 life years and 0.48 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) relative to paclitaxel alone. The incremental lifetime cost of the addition of bevacizumab was EUR 27,390, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of EUR 56,721 per QALY gained for bevacizumab plus paclitaxel versus paclitaxel alone. In a subgroup of triple negative patients the ICER was EUR 66,874 per QALY gained.
CONCLUSIONS: The analysis indicated that the combination of bevacizumab plus paclitaxel is likely to be cost-effective compared with paclitaxel alone for the first-line treatment of HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer in specialized oncology centers in France.

Hoang DH, Pagnier A, Cousin E, et al.
Anatomo-functional study of the cerebellum in working memory in children treated for medulloblastoma.
J Neuroradiol. 2019; 46(3):207-213 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant cerebral tumor during childhood, arising in the posterior fossa. Children treated for medulloblastoma often experience working memory (WM) deficits, affecting their quality of life and school performance. The aim of the present study undertaken to describe the cerebellar involvement in WM deficits observed in these children.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: 23 healthy children and 11 children treated for medulloblastoma were included into study. All subjects performed a detailed neuropsychological examination, an anatomical and functional MRI. Stimuli were presented to the participants with alternating sensory modality and nature of communication in a block design during functional magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions. Non-parametric tests were used for analyzing neuropsychological and behavioral data. SPM8 and SUIT (Spatially Unbiased Atlas Template) were used for anatomical and functional MRI data analyses.
RESULTS: Patients had cerebellar resections mainly located in the left posterior lobe. Patients had significantly reduced intelligence quotient, central executive and visuospatial WM. In healthy children group, fMRI showed activations for non-verbal and visuospatial WM in the left posterior cerebellar lobe.
CONCLUSION: This study provides further evidence that left posterior cerebellar lobe plays a critical role in WM. Indeed, lesions of left posterior cerebellar lobe were associated with WM impairment in children treated for cerebellar medulloblastoma. Additionally, fMRI using WM tasks showed activation in the left posterior cerebellar lobe in healthy children. Taken together, these findings may help for improving treatment and rehabilitation of children referred for cerebellar tumor.

Boutanos C, Capdepont M, Svrcek M, et al.
National multicentric evaluation of quality of pathology reports for rectal cancer in France in 2016.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 474(5):561-568 [PubMed] Related Publications
The quality of pathologic assessment of rectal cancer specimens is crucial for treatment efficiency and survival. The Royal College of Pathologists (RCP) recommends evaluating the quality of the pathology report in routine practice using three quality indicators (QIs): the number of lymph nodes (LNs) analyzed (≥ 12), the rate of venous invasion (VI ≥ 30%), and peritoneal involvement (pT4a ≥ 10%). In this study, we evaluated the three QIs of the French national pathology reports and compared them with British guidelines and assessed the influence of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy on QIs. From January 1 to December 31, 2016, all pathology reports for rectal adenocarcinoma were collected from French departments. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy included long-course radiotherapy with concomitant 5-FU-based chemotherapy. A total of 983 rectal cancer pathology reports were evaluated. A median of 15 LNs were analyzed and 81% of centers had ≥ 12 LNs. The rate of VI was 30% and 41% of centers had ≥ 30% VI. The rate of pT4a was 4% and 18% of centers reported ≥ 10% pT4a. None of the centers reached the threshold for the three QIs. All three QIs were lower after radiochemotherapy compared to surgery alone. In conclusion, in French routine practice, the values of two of the three QIs (LNs analyzed and VI) were globally in line with RCP guidelines. However, the rate of pT4a was very low, particularly after radiochemotherapy, suggesting its low value in rectal cancer.

Ouldamer L, Bendifallah S, Body G, et al.
Incidence, patterns and prognosis of first distant recurrence after surgically treated early stage endometrial cancer: Results from the multicentre FRANCOGYN study group.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2019; 45(4):672-678 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patterns of distant metastatic failure of endometrial cancer (EC) by specific anatomic site are not well described in the literature. In this manuscript, we evaluated the metastatic patterns of EC cancer and analysed the potential distribution of metastatic disease in this malignancy.
METHODS: A total of 1444 women with EC were identified. Of which we extracted women with locoregional and distant recurrence or with distant recurrence alone. Women were scored based on first site of metastasis: multiple versus one site: bone, brain, lung, liver or sus diaphragmatic lymph nodes.
RESULTS: 110 women developed distant metastatic disease with (n = 37(33.6%)) or without (n = 73(66.4%)) locoregional recurrence, including 39 women with exclusive first site of metastatic disease and 34 women with multiple sites of metastatic disease. When considering all women, the most common exclusive first site of metastasis was lung (42.8%). The median time to develop distant metastases was shorter after the completion of treatment for exclusive brain metastatic disease compared with other sites of metastatic- disease (7 months vs, 9 for lung, 10 for liver, 19 for bone and 27 months for sus-diaphragmatic LN; P = 0.004). The rate of 3-year overall survival was higher in the sus-diaphragmatic LN metastase group (83.3% vs 50.6% for lung, 37.3% for bone, 16.7% for brain and 0% for liver; P = 0.0059).
CONCLUSION: The present study has demonstrated the site-specific patterns of metastases. These data support current clinical practice of screening for site-specific metastatic disease after initial treatment of early stage EC based on concerning women-specific signs or symptoms.

Rézig S, Mao RL, Couturaud F, et al.
Incidence of Cancer after a Second Unprovoked Venous Thromboembolic Event.
Thromb Haemost. 2019; 119(3):490-495 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patients with two unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) events could be at high risk for cancer diagnosis and may therefore benefit from extended cancer screening strategies. However, accurate data on the incidence of cancer in this population is lacking. In a prospective cohort study, we followed-up with all patients who experienced two unprovoked symptomatic VTE events that occurred in less than 2 years apart. We estimated the 1-year incidence rate of cancer following the second unprovoked VTE event using the Kaplan-Meier method. Potential predictors for cancer diagnosis were assessed using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. Between May 2000 and December 2013, we included 197 patients with two episodes of symptomatic unprovoked VTE that occurred in less than 2 years apart. Their mean age was 66.2 ± 16.3 years, and 122 (51.8%) were male. Seventeen patients were diagnosed with cancer during the year following the second episode of unprovoked VTE, corresponding to a cumulative incidence rate of 9.19% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.81-14.37). The 1-year cumulative incidence rate of cancer was 35.88% (95% CI: 19.75-59.25) in patients with VTE recurrence on anticoagulation, 5.51% (95% CI: 2.9-10.32) among patients with a second episode of unprovoked VTE occurring after stopping anticoagulation and 1.15% (95% CI: 0.16-7.88) when time elapsed between the first and recurrent VTE was > 1 year. Our study suggests that the incidence of cancer in patients with a second episode of unprovoked VTE that occurs off anticoagulation, or > 1 year after the first event, is similar to that of patients with a first unprovoked VTE event.

Rizk M, Guilloteau A, Mouillot T, et al.
Dietary components modulate the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients.
Nutr Res. 2019; 61:82-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Eighty percent of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases occur after cirrhosis from various etiologies. The association between diet and cancer is well accepted, but the links with cirrhosis progression and HCC risk have been poorly investigated. However, we hypothesized that diet could be a modifiable preventive factor for HCC. Thus, the aim of our study was to explore the relationships between dietary factors and the risk of HCC in a population of cirrhotic patients. A total of 582 cirrhotic patients were studied: 401 without HCC (controls) and 181 with HCC (cases). These patients were recruited between 2008 and 2012 for the "CiRCE" case-control study conducted in six French university hospitals. Information about the consumption of 208 food items and 23 nutrients were collected through a diet history questionnaire. Unconditional multivariate logistic regressions were performed for each residual food group and nutrients in tertiles. HCC patients were more often men, diabetic and older than controls. After adjustment, a significant positive association was found between HCC risk and carbonated beverages (OR

Bachelet D, Verner MA, Neri M, et al.
Breast Cancer and Exposure to Organochlorines in the CECILE Study: Associations with Plasma Levels Measured at the Time of Diagnosis and Estimated during Adolescence.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019; 16(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Exposure to environmental chemicals with hormonal effects, such as organochlorine compounds (OCs), during developmental periods of breast cells may have an impact on the incidence of breast cancer later in life. However, the assessment of exposure to these chemicals that occurred in early life at the time of breast cancer development in adult women is a difficult challenge in epidemiological studies. Plasma levels of the OCs p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB153) were measured in 695 cases and 1055 controls of a population-based case-control study conducted in France (CECILE study). Based on these values, we used a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to estimate PCB153 levels at age 11⁻20 years when the women were adolescents. Overall, there was no clear association between breast cancer risk and measured levels of DDE and PCB153 at the time of diagnosis, but there was a trend of decreasing odds ratios of breast cancer with increasing DDE and PCB153 levels in women aged 50 years and over. The PBPK model revealed that PCB153 concentrations estimated during adolescence were highest in the youngest women born after 1960 who reached adolescence at a time when environmental contamination was maximum, and very low in the oldest women who attained adolescence before the contamination peak. Negative associations between breast cancer and PCB153 estimates during adolescence were also found. The negative associations between DDE and PCB153 levels measured at the time of diagnosis or estimated during adolescence in our study were unexplained. Further investigations are needed to clarify whether this finding is real or related to study artifacts. However, this study suggests that using PBPK models in epidemiological studies to back-estimate OC exposures during early life stages may be useful to address critical questions on cancer development.

Caula A, Boukhris M, Guerlain J, et al.
Correlation between the duration of locoregional control and survival in T1-T2 oropharyngeal cancer patients.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2019; 276(4):1161-1166 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between the time to locoregional recurrence and survival in T1-T2 oropharyngeal squamous-cell carcinoma (OPSCC) patients.
METHODS: A retrospective, single-site study of patients with T1-T2 OPSCC treated with curative intent between 2000 and 2015 who had a locoregional recurrence without distant metastases. Patients without a disease-free interval (i.e., persistent macroscopic disease after the end of treatment and a time to locoregional recurrence of less than 3 months) were excluded. The endpoint considered was overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: Out of 602 T1-T2 OPSCC patients, 121 patients had a locoregional recurrence and they were, hence, analyzed. All of the patients were heavy-smokers, with a consumption of more than 20 pack-years. The recurrence was local in 59.5%, regional in 27.3%, and both local and regional in 13.2% of the patients. The median time to locoregional recurrence and median OS was 15 months and 44 months, respectively. The time to locoregional recurrence was correlated with OS (p < 0.0001). In multivariate analyses, factors associated with survival were an initial N0-N2a versus N2b-N3 nodal staging and a 12-month threshold for the time to locoregional recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS: Locoregional control in T1-T2 OPSCC is not only a qualitative prognostic factor but also a quantitative prognostic factor of survival. A time to locoregional recurrence of less than 12 months was correlated with an unfavorable prognosis.

Danjou AMN, Coudon T, Praud D, et al.
Long-term airborne dioxin exposure and breast cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the French E3N prospective cohort.
Environ Int. 2019; 124:236-248 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dioxins, Group 1 carcinogens, are emitted by industrial chlorinated combustion processes and suspected to increase breast cancer risk through receptor-mediated pathways.
OBJECTIVES: We estimated breast cancer risk associated with airborne dioxin exposure, using geographic information system (GIS) methods and historical exposure data.
METHODS: We designed a case-control study (429 breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1990 and 2008, matched to 716 controls) nested within the E3N (Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale) cohort. Airborne dioxin exposure was assessed using a GIS-based metric including participants' residential history, technical characteristics of 222 dioxin sources, residential proximity to dioxin sources, exposure duration and wind direction. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with quintiles of cumulative exposure were estimated using multivariate logistic regression models.
RESULTS: We observed no increased risk of breast cancer for higher dioxin exposure levels overall and according to hormone-receptor status. We however observed a statistically significant OR for Q2 versus Q1 overall (1.612, 95% CI: 1.042-2.493) and for estrogen-receptor (ER) positive breast cancer (1.843, 95% CI: 1.033-3.292).
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, as well as according to hormone-receptor status, no increased risk was observed for higher airborne dioxin exposure. The increased risk for low exposure levels might be compatible with non-monotonic dose-response relationship. Confirmation of our findings is required. Our GIS-based metric may provide an alternative in absence of ambient dioxin monitoring and may allow assessing exposure to other pollutants.

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