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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 63.5m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 371,700
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 324.6
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:32.0%
People dying from cancer /yr: 154,600
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)

France: Cancer Organisations
Cancer Centres and Institutes
French Cancer Journals
Latest Research Publications
Resources by Type of Cancer

France: Cancer Organisations (18 links)

Cancer Centres and Institutes (21 links)

French Cancer Journals (8 links)

See also: Oncology Journals

Latest Research Publications

Baumstarck K, Alessandrini M, Hamidou Z, et al.
Assessment of coping: a new french four-factor structure of the brief COPE inventory.
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017; 15(1):8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (Brief COPE) inventory is the most usual measure to identify the nature of coping strategies implemented by individuals and explore 14 coping strategies. The availability of a structure with fewer factors rather than the initial 14-factor structure may be of interest for both healthcare professionals and researchers. We report the validation process of a 4-factor structure of the French version of the Brief COPE in a French sample of individuals facing a singular life event, such as cancer, including patients and their caregivers.
METHODS: The cross-sectional study included cancer patients and their caregivers. Self-administered data were collected including: socio-demographic (age, gender, marital status, employment status, and education level), coping strategies using the French version of the Brief COPE, quality of life (QoL) using the French version of the short form health survey questionnaire (SF36). Construct validity, internal consistency, reliability, and external validity were tested.
RESULTS: The sample included 398 individuals. The principal component factor analysis identified a 4-factor structure. The dimensions were labeled according to their constitutive items: social support (8 items), problem solving (4), avoidance (10), and positive thinking (6). The 4-factor structure was supported by different theoretical models of coping and showed satisfactory psychometric properties.
CONCLUSION: The 4-factor structure of the French version of the Brief COPE, validated in a sample of individuals facing a singular stressful event, including cancer patients and their caregivers, makes the instrument easier to use both in clinical practice and clinical research.

Eroukhmanoff J, Tejedor I, Potorac I, et al.
MRI follow-up is unnecessary in patients with macroprolactinomas and long-term normal prolactin levels on dopamine agonist treatment.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2017; 176(3):323-328 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Both antitumor and antisecretory efficacies of dopamine agonists (DA) make them the first-line treatment of macroprolactinomas. However, there is no guideline for MRI follow-up once prolactin is controlled. The aim of our study was to determine whether a regular MRI follow-up was necessary in patients with long-term normal prolactin levels under DA.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicenter study (Marseille, Paris La Pitie Salpetriere and Nancy, France; Liege, Belgium) including patients with macroprolactinomas (largest diameter: >10 mm and baseline prolactin level: >100 ng/mL) treated by dopamine agonists, and regularly followed (pituitary MRI and prolactin levels) during at least 48 months once normal prolactin level was obtained.
RESULTS: In total, 115 patients were included (63 men and 52 women; mean age at diagnosis: 36.3 years). Mean baseline prolactin level was 2224 ± 6839 ng/mL. No significant increase of tumor volume was observed during the follow-up. Of the 21 patients (18%) who presented asymptomatic hemorrhagic changes of the macroprolactinoma on MRI, 2 had a tumor increase (2 and 7 mm in the largest size). Both were treated by cabergoline (1 mg/week) with normal prolactin levels obtained for 6 and 24 months. For both patients, no further growth was observed on MRI during follow-up at the same dose of cabergoline.
CONCLUSION: No significant increase of tumor size was observed in our patients with controlled prolactin levels on DA. MRI follow-up thus appears unnecessary in patients with biologically controlled macroprolactinomas.

Anota A, Mariet AS, Maingon P, et al.
Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the French version of the Expanded Prostate cancer Index Composite questionnaire for health-related quality of life in prostate cancer patients.
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2016; 14(1):168 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been positioned as one of the major endpoints in oncology. Thus, there is a need to validate cancer-site specific survey instruments. This study aimed to perform a transcultural adaptation of the 50-item Expanded Prostate cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaire for HRQoL in prostate cancer patients and to validate the psychometric properties of the French-language version.
METHODS: The EPIC questionnaire measures urinary, bowel, sexual and hormonal domains. The first step, corresponding to transcultural adaptation of the original English version of the EPIC was performed according to the back translation technique. The second step, comprising the validation of the psychometric properties of the EPIC questionnaire, was performed in patients under treatment for localized prostate cancer (treatment group) and in patients cured of prostate cancer (cured group). The EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25 prostate cancer module were also completed by patients to assess criterion validity. Two assessments were performed, i.e., before and at the end of treatment for the Treatment group, to assess sensitivity to change; and at 2 weeks' interval in the Cured group to assess test-retest reliability. Psychometric properties were explored according to classical test theory.
RESULTS: The first step showed overall good acceptability and understanding of the questionnaire. In the second step, 215 patients were included from January 2012 to June 2014: 125 in the Treatment group, and 90 in the Cured group. All domains exhibited good internal consistency, except the bowel domain (Cronbach's α = 0.61). No floor effect was observed. Test-retest reliability assessed in the cured group was acceptable, expect for bowel function (intraclass coefficient = 0.68). Criterion validity was good for each domain and subscale. Construct validity was not demonstrated for the hormonal and bowel domains. Sensitivity to change was exhibited for 5/8 subscales and 2/4 summary scores for patients who experienced toxicities during treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: The French EPIC questionnaire seems to have adequate psychometric properties, comparable to those exhibited by the original English-language version, except for the construct validity, which was not available in original version.

Tamalet C, Ravaux I, Dhiver C, et al.
Feasibility and Acceptability of Anal Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Screening in HIV-Infected Patients.
Intervirology. 2016; 59(2):118-122 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Anal cancer incidence is increasing among HIV-positive patients. No consensus currently exists for the screening of anal dysplasia. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of anal self-sampling and assessing the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among HIV-positive patients from Marseille University Hospitals.
METHODS: Between October 2013 and March 2014, during their regular visits for the monitoring of their HIV infection in an HIV outpatient clinical unit of Marseille University Hospitals, patients were asked to self-sample anal swabs for HPV detection. A specimen self-collection kit was provided. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using in-house protocols. The quality of self-sampling was assessed by concurrent cellular quantification in collected samples.
RESULTS: The acceptability rate of anal self-sampling was 91%, and 91% of the self-sampled specimens were appropriate for HPV screening. In addition, 76% of the samples were positive for HPV, including 54% of HPV types with oncogenic potential.
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that HPV detection and typing through anal self-sampling is a valuable strategy to screen patients at high risk for anal cancer development. This could allow earlier management of anal lesions and related cancer in patients at high risk for HPV.

Louvet C, De Bellis A, Pereira B, et al.
Time course of Graves' orbitopathy after total thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(48):e5474 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The risk of cancer is relatively higher in Graves' patients presenting simultaneously with thyroid nodules. Radioiodine (RAI) therapy recommended in high-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma may be associated with worsening of a pre-existing Graves' orbitopathy (GO) or developing a new onset. The impact of RAI therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer on the course of a pre-exisiting GO has not been specifically investigated.The aim of this study is to assess the influence of RAI treatment administered for differentiated thyroid cancer on the course of a pre-existing GO.This is a retrospective multicenter study including 35 patients from the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand (7 patients) and Lyon-Est (6 patients) in France and from a literature review published as case reports or studies (22 patients).Seven patients exhibited a worsened pre-existing GO after total thyroidectomy followed by RAI treatment for thyroid cancer. Older men, those who initially presented with a lower clinical score of GO before RAI therapy, received higher doses of I especially when prepared with recombinant thyroid-stimulating hormone, and/or not prepared with glucocorticoids during RAI are at a higher risk to worsen their GO.This study is the first and complete study collection. We describe worsening of GO in 20% of patients after RAI treatment for thyroid cancer and determine a pool of predictive factors.

Hamadou WS, Besbes S, Mani R, et al.
ARLTS1, potential candidate gene in familial aggregation of hematological malignancies.
Bull Cancer. 2017; 104(2):123-127 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Genetic predisposition to familial hematological malignancies was previously described through several epidemiological analyses, but the genetic basis remains unclear. The tumor-suppressor ARLTS1 gene was previously described in sporadic hematological malignancies and familial cancer context.
METHODS: In this study, we sequence the ARLTS1 gene in 100 patients belonging to 88 independent Tunisian and French families.
RESULTS: After gene sequencing, we report 8 genetic variations, most of which were previously reported in several cancer forms. The most common variants were W149X and C148R and were previously associated to B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and to high-risk of familial breast cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: These results emphasize the fact that ARLTS1 gene mutations can be considered as a potential predisposing factor in familial hematological malignancies and other several cancer forms.

Weeks WB, Ventelou B, Bendiane MK
Is the French palliative care policy effective everywhere? Geographic variation in changes in inpatient death rates among older patients in France, 2010-2013.
Ann Palliat Med. 2016; 5(4):242-247 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Recently, French policymakers have tried to improve care at the end-of-life, by improving access to community-based palliative care, particularly for patients with cancer and neurological diseases. If effective, these efforts should reduce the proportion of such patients who die in the hospital. In light of these policies, we sought to determine the effectiveness of these efforts on reducing inpatient deaths by conducting a retrospective, observational analysis of patients aged 65 and older who were admitted to hospitals in France between 2010 and 2013 for 1 of 3 non-surgical conditions.
METHODS: We calculated department-specific age- and sex-adjusted inpatient death rates for 3 types of nonsurgical admissions and modeled expected number of inpatient deaths had their rates for patients with cancer or neurological disease tracked those of patients with non-cancer non-neurological diseases.
RESULTS: We found that patients admitted with a cancer diagnosis experienced 20,394 (13.0%) fewer inpatient deaths that expected had non-surgical cancer diagnosis admission rates tracked those of nonsurgical non-cancer and non-neurological admission rates; patients admitted with a primary neurological disease diagnosis experienced 513 (4.5%) fewer inpatient deaths than expected. During the study period, observed-to-expected inpatient deaths fell more dramatically and consistently for patients admitted with cancer diagnoses than for those admitted with neurological diseases. Observed-to-expected ratios fell least in departments that were on the periphery of the French mainland.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that, in France, efforts to reduce inpatient death rates among patients with cancer or neurological disease diagnoses appear to be effective. However, their effectiveness varies geographically, suggesting that targeted efforts to improve lower performing departments may generate substantial performance improvements.

Cornillon P, Loiseau S, Aublet-Cuvelier B, Guastella V
Reasons for transferral to emergency departments of terminally ill patients - a French descriptive and retrospective study.
BMC Palliat Care. 2016; 15(1):87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients under palliative care and in hospital-at-home services are frequently transferred to emergency departments. We set out to identify the reasons for these presentations to determine the proportion that might be avoidable.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study by assessment of patient files. We studied admissions to four emergency departments in an area of France (Puy-de-Dôme) between September 2011 and August 2013. Reasons for transfer and diagnostic conclusion by emergency doctors were noted. We collected date of admission, time spent, investigations and treatments performed and patients' outcomes after the medical conclusions. We also determined whether patients called the hospital-at-home service before going to the emergency department. From these data we discerned potentially avoidable and unavoidable consultations.
RESULTS: We identified 52 transfers of patients from home to emergency departments. The most frequent reasons were: generalized weakness (11 cases), social isolation (8 cases) and end of life (7 cases). For 58 % of presentations, the investigations and treatments performed did not require presentation to an emergency department; 34 % of patients returned home after the visit, 41 % remained for simple observation and 20 % remained to receive special care. Two patients died in the emergency department. In 86 % of cases, presentations occurred when primary care was less readily available, and patients called home care services in only 42 % of cases before going to emergency departments.
CONCLUSIONS: Half of the transfers to emergency departments were potentially avoidable for terminally ill patients in home care. To reduce this proportion we need to promote access to primary care, educate patients in hospital-at-home service and train care-givers and doctors in palliative medicine.

Fassier P, Zelek L, Partula V, et al.
Variations of physical activity and sedentary behavior between before and after cancer diagnosis: Results from the prospective population-based NutriNet-Santé cohort.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(40):e4629 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Physical activity (PA) but also reduced sedentary behavior may be associated with better prognosis and lower risk of recurrence in cancer patients. Our aim was to quantify the variations in PA and time spent sedentary between before and after diagnosis, relying on prospective data in French adults. We also investigated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with these variations.Subjects (n = 942) were incident cancer cases diagnosed in the NutriNet-Santé cohort between 2009 and 2015. PA and sedentary behavior were prospectively collected with the 7-day short version of the IPAQ questionnaire every year since subjects' inclusion (i.e., an average of 2 year before diagnosis). All PA and sitting time points before and after diagnosis was compared by mixed model. Factors associated with decrease in PA and increase in sitting time were investigated using logistic regressions.Overall and vigorous PA decreased after diagnosis (P = 0.006, -32.8 ± 36.8 MET-hour/week on average, in those who decreased their overall PA and P = 0.005, -21.1 ± 36.8 MET-hour/week for vigorous PA, respectively), especially in prostate (-39.5 ± 36.3 MET-hour/week) and skin (-35.9 ± 38 MET-hour/week) cancers, in men (-40.8 ± 46.3MET-hour/week), and in those professionally inactive (-34.2 ± 37.1 MET-hour/week) (all P < 0.05). Patients with higher PA level before diagnosis were more likely to decrease their PA (odds ratio [OR]: 4.67 [3.21-6.81], P < 0.0001). Overweight patients more likely to decrease moderate PA (OR: 1.45 [1.11-1.89], P = 0.006) and walking (OR: 1.30 [1.10-1.70], P = 0.04). Sitting time increased (P = 0.02, +2.44 ± 2.43 hour/day on average, in those who increased their sitting time), especially in women (+2.48 ± 2.48 hour/day), older patients (+2.48 ± 2.57 hour/day), and those professionally inactive (2.41 ± 2.40 hour/day) (all P < 0.05). Patients less sedentary before diagnosis were more likely to increase their sitting time (OR: 3.29 [2.45-4.42], P < 0.0001).This large prospective study suggests that cancer diagnosis is a key period for change in PA and sedentary behavior. It provides insights to target the subgroups of patients who are at higher risk of decreasing PA and increasing sedentary behavior after cancer diagnosis.

Daudignon A, Quilichini B, Ameye G, et al.
Cytogenetics in the management of multiple myeloma: an update by the Groupe francophone de cytogénétique hématologique (GFCH).
Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2016; 74(5):588-595 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytogenetics of multiple myeloma has evolved in recent years by the emergence of Interphasic fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) performed on sorted plasma cells detecting abnormalities independently of a proliferative and infiltrative index. Cytogenetic analysis plays a major part in the risk stratification of myeloma diagnosis due to prognostic impact of various cytogenetic abnormalities as well as to the association between emerging therapeutic approaches in MM. Thus, practice guidelines now recommend interphasic FISH or alternative molecular technics as the initial analysis for multiple myeloma. The Groupe francophone de cytogénétique hématologique (GFCH) proposes in this issue an update of managing multiple myeloma cytogenetics.

Lefebvre C, Callet-Bauchu E, Chapiro E, et al.
Cytogenetics in the management of lymphomas and lymphoproliferative disorders in adults and children: an update by the Groupe francophone de cytogénétique hématologique (GFCH).
Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2016; 74(5):568-587 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and lymphoproliferative disorders include a high number of heterogeneous entities, described in the 2008 WHO classification. This classification reflects the crucial role of a multidisciplinary approach which integrates cytogenetic results both for the notion of clonality and for differential diagnosis between these entities. The prognostic impact of some cytogenetic abnormalities or genome complexity is also confirmed for many of these entities. Novel provisional entities have been described, such as BCLU (B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma) for which karyotype is critical to distinguish BCLU from Burkitt's lymphoma. The karyotype can be established from any tumour or liquid infiltrated by lymphoma cells. Recent adaptations of technics for cellular cultures according to the subtype of known (or suspected) lymphoma have significantly improved the percentage of informative karyotypes. Conventional karyotypes remain the best technical approach recommended for most of these subtypes. Interphase and/or metaphase FISH also represents a solid and rapid approach, because of the significant number of recurrent (sometimes specific) rearrangements of these entities. Next generation sequencing technologies contribute to enrich genomic data and substantially improve the understanding of oncogenic mechanisms underlying these lymphoid malignancies. Some molecular biomarkers are already part of the diagnostic process (for example, somatic mutation of MYD88 in Waldenström disease) thus reinforcing the essential principle of a multidisciplinary approach for the diagnosis of all the mature lymphoid malignancies.

Képénékian L, Cebula H, Castinetti F, et al.
Long-term outcome of macroprolactinomas.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2016; 77(6):641-648 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Management of macroprolactinomas has dramatically changed in recent decades, from surgical to medical treatment as first-line therapy, with the development of dopamine agonists (DA). But few data exist on the long-term outcome of these patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective descriptive multicenter study of patients with macroprolactinoma followed for at least 5 years between 1973 and 2008 at the University Hospitals of Strasbourg and Marseille.
RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were included with 27 men, hypopituitarism in 33.3% of all patients and mean serum prolactin (PRL) level at diagnosis 2218.2±4154.7μg/L. Among the patients, 58.3% received medical treatment, 25% had additional surgery and 12.5% surgery and radiotherapy. The mean follow-up duration was 196±100 months. At the end of follow-up, 10 patients (20.8%) were cured (i.e. normal PRL level and normal imaging, no symptoms and withdrawal of DA≥1 year), 33 (68.8%) were controlled (i.e. normal PRL level, normal or abnormal imaging, no symptoms, DA in progress) and 5 (10.4%) were uncontrolled. Uncontrolled patients had significant higher baseline PRL level (P=0.0412) and cabergoline cumulative dose (P=0.0065) compared to the controlled group. There was no increase in frequency of hypopituitarism. Clinically significant valvular heart disease was found in 2 patients but screening was not systematic.
CONCLUSIONS: Macroprolactinoma is currently most often a chronic disease controlled with DA. However, uncertainty about the adverse effects associated with high cumulative doses and the lack of data on the prognosis at very long-term should incite to revisit current strategies, including the role of surgery combined to medical treatment.

Nguyen-Khac F, Borie C, Callet-Bauchu E, et al.
Cytogenetics in the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an update by the Groupe francophone de cytogénétique hématologique (GFCH).
Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2016; 74(5):561-567 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acquired recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities are frequent in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). They can be associated with good or poor prognostic factors, and also with gene mutations. Chromosomal abnormalities could be clonal or sub-clonal. Assessing the TP53 status (deletion/mutation) is currently mandatory before treating patients. The search for 11q deletion (ATM gene) is also recommended. Finally, the prognostic value of other chromosomal abnormalities including complex karyotype is still debated.

Patrikidou A, Le Cesne A
Key messages from the BFR14 trial of the French Sarcoma Group.
Future Oncol. 2017; 13(3):273-284 [PubMed] Related Publications
The BRF14 trial is a prominent study that investigated the effect of prolonged imatinib treatment in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients. The key messages deduced from this study are as follows: imatinib drastically improved progression-free and overall survival in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients. Treatment ought to be maintained indefinitely in nonprogressing patients, as interruption entails a high risk of progression, even in patients in complete response. Imatinib rechallenge is effective, achieving new disease control in patients progressing after imatinib interruption. Rechallenge response profiles reflect the initial responses, albeit of poorer quality. Imatinib interruption does not affect the incidence of secondary resistance; however, the imatinib-free interval influences the time to secondary resistance. Specific clinical, biological and molecular characteristics seem to identify the patients who are long responders to imatinib. Surgery of residual disease after maximal imatinib response improves progression-free and overall survival.

Tensaouti F, Ducassou A, Chaltiel L, et al.
Prognostic and predictive values of diffusion and perfusion MRI in paediatric intracranial ependymomas in a large national study.
Br J Radiol. 2016; 89(1066):20160537 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived, respectively, from perfusion and diffusion pre-operative MRI of intracranial ependymomas and their predictive and prognostic values.
METHODS: Pre-operative MRI and clinical data for intracranial ependymomas diagnosed between January 2000 and December 2013 were retrospectively retrieved from a web-based national database. MRI data included diffusion (62 patients) and perfusion (20 patients) MRI. Patient age, histopathological diagnosis, tumour location, ADC, relative ADC (rADC) and rCBV were considered as potential factors in a survival analysis. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate analyses were performed using the log-rank test to compare groups. We also performed a multivariate analysis, applying the Cox proportional hazards model.
RESULTS: ADC and rADC values within hypointense regions differed significantly between grades II and III (p = 0.01). The 75th percentile of ADC within hypointense regions and the 25th percentile of rCBV within non-enhancing lesions were prognostic of disease-free survival (p = 0.004, p = 0.05). A significant correlation was found between the 75th percentile of rCBV and the 25th percentile of rADC (p = 0.01) in enhancing regions of grade-III tumours.
CONCLUSION: Pre-operative rADC and rCBV could be used as prognostic factors for clinical outcome and to predict histological grade in paediatric ependymomas.
ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Prognostic value of diffusion and perfusion MRI in paediatric ependymoma was found and may play a role in the prognostic classification of patients in order to design more tailored treatment strategies.

Luquet I, Bidet A, Cuccuini W, et al.
Cytogenetics in the management of acute myeloid leukemia: an update by the Groupe francophone de cytogénétique hématologique (GFCH).
Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2016; 74(5):535-546 [PubMed] Related Publications
The karyotype is critical for the evaluation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at diagnosis. Cytogenetic abnormalities detected in AML are one of the most powerful independent prognostic factors. It impacts on the choice of treatment in clinical trials. All chromosomes can be targeted, common chromosomal abnormalities are recurrent and may be associated with a cytological well-defined type. In 40% of the cases, the karyotype is normal and must be associated with molecular biology studies that can refine the prognosis. The usefulness of the karyotype is more limited during the follow-up of the patient due to its limited sensitivity, but it is still useful in the clinical management of relapse. Since 2001, the WHO (World Health Organization) classification of hematological malignancies integrates cytogenetic data in the classification of AML. Karyotype is therefore mandatory in the diagnosis of AML.

Gauthé M, Richard-Molard M, Fayard J, et al.
Prognostic impact of tumour burden assessed by metabolic tumour volume on FDG PET/CT in anal canal cancer.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017; 44(1):63-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to confirm the prognostic value of metabolic tumour volume (MTV) at the primary site on initial work-up FDG PET/CT in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal.
METHODS: Patients with a recent diagnosis of SCC of the anal canal without metastases undergoing PET/CT for initial work-up and treated with (chemo)radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. Computer-aided MTV and SUVmax were determined. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate prognostic variables of progression-free survival and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: The study group comprised 75 patients who had an initial work-up PET/CT. Five patients (6.7 %) had stage I disease, 22 (29.3 %) stage II disease, 20 (26.7 %) stage IIIA disease, and 28 (37.3 %) stage IIIB disease. Median follow-up was 51 months (range 10 - 117 months). Global 4-year OS was 82.7 %, ranging from 100 % in patients with stage I disease to 75 % in patients with stage IIIB disease. MTV at the primary site was significantly and independently correlated with OS (p < 0.05), as patients with MTV less than 7 cm(3) had a better prognosis. SUVmax was not correlated with survival parameters. Metabolic involvement of the inguinal lymph nodes was also correlated with a poor outcome in the univariate analysis (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: MTV at the primary site is a prognostic biomarker in anal canal cancer. Hypermetabolic inguinal lymph nodes also appear to be correlated with survival.

Dejoie T, Lakomy D, Caillon H, et al.
IFM (Intergroupe francophone du myélome) recommendations for uniform interpretation of serum and urine protein electrophoresis in multiple myeloma diagnosis and follow-up.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2016; 74(4):429-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Serum and urine proteins electrophoresis take a major place in multiple myeloma management, at time of diagnosis, during follow-up for treatment response evaluation and also in detection of relapse. The Intergroupe francophone du myélome (IFM) suggests recommendations to clinicians and biologists, to perform and interpret these biochemical analysis, with the objective of harmonizing practices between laboratories and improving patients' follow-up.

Roche-Lestienne C, Boudry-Labis E, Mozziconacci MJ
Cytogenetics in the management of "chronic myeloid leukemia": an update by the Groupe francophone de cytogénétique hématologique (GFCH).
Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2016; 74(5):511-515 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytogenetic evaluation is one the most important criteria for diagnosis and response to treatment in chronic myeloid leukemia, and recent baseline prognostic factors including particular additional clonal cytogenetic abnormalities have been established. The French cytogenetic group in hematology GFCH proposes here an updating of recommendations for cytogenetic assessment of CML in the era of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Nguyen-Khac F, Daudignon A, Eclache V, et al.
Cytogenetics in the management of hematologic malignancies: an update by the Groupe francophone de cytogénétique hématologique (GFCH).
Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2016; 74(5):509-510 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytogenetic analysis is still important in the management of many hematological malignancies, despite the new techniques available such as the high-throughput sequencing analysis, and the discovery of many acquired gene mutations in these diseases. The Groupe francophone de cytogénétique hématologique (GFCH) published in 2004 the recommendations for the cytogenetic management of hematological malignancies. It reports here the update of these recommendations, with a review of the literature for each disease.

Târcoveanu E, Moldovanu R, Bradea C, et al.
Laparoscopic Treatment of Intraabdominal Cystic Lymphangioma.
Chirurgia (Bucur). 2016 May-Jun; 111(3):236-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The abdominal cystic lymphangioma (CL) in adults is a rare benign tumor of the lymphatic system.
METHODS: We report a retrospective study from January 2002 to Decemberr 2014 concerning 18 patients who underwent surgical removal of a CL, 9 patients with laparoscopic approach included. The localization, size, and number, diagnostic, treatment and results have been reported for patients approached laparoscopically.
RESULTS: There were 8 women and 1 man with median age at diagnosis was 35,6 years (range 20-51 years). Clinically, the main symptom was an abdominal pain found in 8 patients (88.8%). Physical examination revealed an abdominal mass in 5 patients (55.5%). The CL was asymptomatic in four patients; the discovery of CL was performed preoperatively during an ultrasound for another pathology (n=3) or intraoperatively (n=1). US exam CT scan usually allow the preoperative diagnosis. The most common site was shared equally between the mesentery (n = 3; 33%) and left retroperitoneum (n = 3;33%), followed by the right retroperitoneum and the posterior cavity of the lesser omentum and great omentum, each one case. The most common procedures performed were: laparoscopic total cystectomy of a closed cyst in two patients and evacuation of larger cysts followed by total cystectomy in seven patients. No conversion, no mortalities and no morbidity was noted. Mean hospital stay was 3.4 days. No recidive after 28 months in the average after treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic approach is the gold standard in the treatment of intraabdominal CL.We recommend complete surgical excision to avoid recurrence.

Cutuli B, Wiezzane N, Palumbo I, et al.
Breast-conserving treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ: Impact of boost and tamoxifen on local recurrences.
Cancer Radiother. 2016; 20(4):292-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Ductal carcinoma in situ represents 15 to 20% of all breast cancers. Breast-conserving surgery and whole breast irradiation was performed in about 60% of the cases. This study reports local recurrence rates in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated by breast-conserving surgery and whole breast irradiation with or without boost and/or tamoxifen and compares different therapeutic options in two European countries.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1998 to 2007, 819 patients with pure ductal carcinoma in situ were collected, both in France (266) and Italy (553). Median age was 56. All underwent breast-conserving surgery and whole breast irradiation; 391 (48%) received a boost (55% in France and 45% in Italy, P=0.017) and 173 (22.5%) tamoxifen (4.5% in France and 32% in Italy, P<0.0001).
RESULTS: With a 90-month median follow-up, there were 51 local recurrences (6.2%), including 27 invasive (53%). The 5- and 10-year local recurrence rates were 4% and 8.6%. Two patients developed axillary recurrence and 12 (1.5%) metastases (seven after invasive local recurrence); 41 (5%) patients had contralateral breast cancer. In the multivariate analysis, high nuclear grade and lack of tamoxifen are the most powerful predictors of local recurrence, with 2.6 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.74-3.89, P=0.0012) and 2.85 (95% CI: 1.42-5.72, P=0.04) odds ratio (OR) estimates, respectively. Age, margin status and boost did not influence local recurrence rates.
CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the ductal carcinoma in situ treatment heterogeneity among countries and the unfavourable prognostic role of nuclear grade. Tamoxifen reduces local recurrence rates and might be considered for some subgroups of patients, but further confirmation is required. The boost usefulness still remains unclear.

Cosset JM, Flam T, Belin L, et al.
Long-term results of permanent implant prostate cancer brachytherapy: A single-institution study of 675 patients treated between 1999 and 2003.
Cancer Radiother. 2016; 20(4):261-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To analyse long-term overall survival, relapse-free survival and late toxicities in a series of 675 patients treated between 1999 and 2003, with a median follow-up of 132 months.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The cohort included low-risk patients and a selection of "favourable-intermediate" risk patients. All patients were homogeneously treated using an intraoperative dynamic planning prostate brachytherapy technique, with loose 125 iodine seeds. Hormone therapy, consisting most often of an anti-androgen alone, was given in 393 patients (58%).
RESULTS: The 10-year overall survival was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 90-94) without a significant difference between the low and the select intermediate-risk groups (P=0.17). The 10-year relapse-free survival rate for the entire cohort was 82% (95% CI: 79-85), and was significantly higher in the low-risk group than in the intermediate one (87 vs 71%; P<0.0001). Twenty-six percent of the relapses observed in this series occurred after more than 10 years of follow-up. The 10-year cumulative incidence of grade 3-4 urinary toxicity (whatever the delay and the recovery) was 5.78%. The cumulative incidence of grades 3-4 rectal toxicity in the present series was 1.65% at 10 years. As for sexual toxicity, 61% of our patients retained an erectile capacity at 10 years (with or without oral medication), with age being a major factor.
CONCLUSION: With a median follow-up of more than 11 years, this series appears to confirm the excellent long-term results of low-dose rate prostate brachytherapy, both in terms of survival and in terms of toxicity.

Rouet A, Aouba A, Damaj G, et al.
Mastocytosis among elderly patients: A multicenter retrospective French study on 53 patients.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(24):e3901 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2017 Related Publications
Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with a young median age at diagnosis. Usually indolent and self-limited in childhood, the disease can exhibit aggressive progression in mid-adulthood. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of the disease when diagnosed among elderly patients, for which rare data are available.The French Reference Center conducted a retrospective multicenter study on 53 patients with mastocytosis >69 years of age, to describe their clinical, biological, and genetic features.The median age of our cohort of patients was 75 years. Mastocytosis variants included were cutaneous (n = 1), indolent systemic (n = 5), aggressive systemic (n = 11), associated with a hematological non-mast cell disease (n = 34), and mast cell leukemia (n = 2). Clinical manifestations were predominantly mast cell activation symptoms (75.5%), poor performance status (50.9%), hepatosplenomegaly (50.9%), skin involvement (49.1%), osteoporosis (47.2%), and portal hypertension and ascites (26.4%). The main biological features were anemia (79.2%), thrombocytopenia (50.9%), leucopenia (20.8%), and liver enzyme abnormalities (32.1%). Of the 40 patients tested, 34 (85%), 2 (5%), and 4 (10%) exhibited the KIT D816V mutant, other KIT mutations and the wild-type form of the KIT gene, respectively. Additional sequencing detected significant genetic defects in 17 of 26 (65.3%) of the patients with associated hematological non-mast cell disease, including TET2, SRSF2, IDH2, and ASLX1 mutations. Death occurred in 19 (35.8%) patients, within a median delay of 9 months, despite the different treatment options available.Mastocytosis among elderly patients has a challenging early detection, rare skin involvement, and/or limited skin disease; it is heterogeneous and has often an aggressive presentation with nonfortuitous associated myeloid lineage malignant clones, and thus a poor overall prognosis.

Beauval JB, Roumiguié M, Filleron T, et al.
Biochemical recurrence-free survival and pathological outcomes after radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer.
BMC Urol. 2016; 16(1):26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We propose to improve the prognostic assessment after radical prostatectomy (RP) by dividing high-risk prostate cancer (hrPCa) (according to the d'Amico classification) into subgroups combining 1, 2 or 3 criteria of aggressiveness (cT2c-T3a, PSA >20 ng/ml, Gleason score (GS) > 7).
METHODS: Data from 4795 hrPCa patients who underwent RP in two French university hospitals from 1991 to 2013 were analyzed. Subgroups were formed to determine whether an increasing number (1, 2 or 3) of criteria of tumor aggressiveness was associated with poorer oncological results and early biochemical recurrence (BCR) (PSA > 0.2 ng/ml). These results were compared using Fisher's exact test and BCR was compared according to the Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS: Eight hundred fifteen patients were treated by RP for hrPCa (8 %). Four hundred eleven patients (79.5 %) presented 1 RF (Risk Factor), 93 (18.0 %) 2 RF and 13 (2.5 %) 3 RF. Lymph node invasion and positive margin rates were 12.4 and 44.1 %, respectively. The prognostic sub-stratification based on these 3 factors was significantly predictive for adverse pathologic features and for oncologic outcomes. BCR free survival was respectively 56.4, 27.06 and 18.46 % for 1RF, 2RF and 3RF (p < 0.0001). However, no predominant negative criterion was found.
CONCLUSION: Oncologic results after RP are heterogenous within the hrPCa risk group. Sub-stratification based on three well-defined criteria leads to a better identification of the most aggressive cancers. On the other hand, RP provides both effective cancer control and satisfactory survival rates in patients with only one risk factor.

Barkan GA, Wojcik EM, Nayar R, et al.
The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology: The Quest to Develop a Standardized Terminology.
Adv Anat Pathol. 2016; 23(4):193-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
The main purpose of urine cytology is to detect high-grade urothelial carcinoma. With this principle in mind, The Paris System (TPS) Working Group, composed of cytopathologists, surgical pathologists, and urologists, has proposed and published a standardized reporting system that includes specific diagnostic categories and cytomorphologic criteria for the reliable diagnosis of high-grade urothelial carcinoma. This paper outlines the essential elements of TPS and the process that led to the formation and rationale of the reporting system. TPS Working Group, organized at the 2013 International Congress of Cytology, conceived a standardized platform on which to base cytologic interpretation of urine samples. The widespread dissemination of this approach to cytologic examination and reporting of urologic samples and the scheme's universal acceptance by pathologists and urologists is critical for its success. For urologists, understanding the diagnostic criteria, their clinical implications, and limitations of TPS is essential if they are to utilize urine cytology and noninvasive ancillary tests in a thoughtful and practical manner. This is the first international/inclusive attempt at standardizing urinary cytology. The success of TPS will depend on the pathology and urology communities working collectively to improve this seminal paradigm shift, and optimize the impact on patient care.

Tournaire M, Epelboin S, Devouche E, et al.
Adverse health effects in children of women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES).
Therapie. 2016; 71(4):395-404 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero is associated with adverse health effects, including genital anomalies in women and men, and cancers in women. Animal studies showed birth defects and tumors in the offspring of DES exposed mice, revealing transgenerational transmission of DES effects. In humans, birth defects, such as hypospadias were observed in children of prenatally exposed women. The aim of this research was to further assess the health effects in children of prenatally exposed women.
METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, the reports of women exposed to DES in utero on their 4409 children were compared with those of unexposed women on their 6203 children. Comparisons used odd ratios (OR) between children of exposed and unexposed women and standardized incidence rate (SIR) with the general population. These cohorts were recruited on a voluntary basis to answer questionnaires.
RESULTS: There was a global increase of defects in children born to exposed women when compared with those born to unexposed (OR 2.29, 95% CI: 1.80-2.79, P<0.001) and with the general population (SIR 2.39, 95% CI: 2.11-2.68). Increased defects were observed in male genital tract, esophagus, lip or palate, musculoskeletal and circulatory systems. For female genital tract anomalies, there was no significant increase. However, this cohort being relatively young, further follow-up is needed. An increase of cerebral palsy was revealed. The incidence of cancers was not increased, in particular for breast, uterus and ovary.
CONCLUSION: Our results confirmed a transgenerational transmission of defects in male genital tract. With caution due to possible bias associated with this method, our data suggest an increase of defects for esophagus, lip or palate, musculoskeletal and circulatory system in children of exposed women.

Rondeau V, Cornet E, Moreau P, Troussard X
Prediction of patients with multiple myeloma eligible for second- or third-line treatment in France.
Ann Hematol. 2016; 95(8):1307-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is one of the most common hematological malignancies, with an estimated 4888 incident cases in France in 2012. The management of patients with MM has changed considerably in recent years. We proposed an approach to predict the number of patients with multiple myeloma eligible for second- and third-line treatment for the period 2012-2020. The input parameters of this model were incident cases of multiple myeloma from the Basse-Normandie French Regional Registry of Hematological Malignancies (RRHMBN) for the period 2000-2012 and survival rates among patients under and over age 65 from the French National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE). In addition, data on mortality rates and progression-free survival (PFS) were extracted from the literature. Our analyses showed that the total incidence of MM in France is predicted to increase by 29 % between 2012 and 2020. We used the proposed approach to predict that at least 47.8 % of first-line MM patients will be eligible for second-line treatment (and 45.6 % will be eligible for third-line treatment). Predicting the number of patients with MM eligible for a new treatment is a prerequisite to planning healthcare and calculating treatment costs.

Cassinelli G
The roots of modern oncology: from discovery of new antitumor anthracyclines to their clinical use.
Tumori. 2016; 2016(3):226-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
In May 1960, the Farmitalia CEO Dr. Bertini and the director of the Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori of Milan Prof. Bucalossi (talent scout and city's Mayor) signed a research agreement for the discovery and development up to clinical trials of new natural antitumor agents. This agreement can be considered as a pioneering and fruitful example of a translational discovery program with relevant transatlantic connections. Owing to an eclectic Streptomyces, found near Castel del Monte (Apulia), and to the skilled and motivated participants of both institutions, a new natural antitumor drug, daunomycin, was ready for clinical trials within 3 years. Patent interference by the Farmitalia French partner was overcome by the good quality of the Italian drug and by the cooperation between Prof. Di Marco, director of the Istituto Ricerche Farmitalia Research Laboratories for Microbiology and Chemotherapy, and Prof. Karnofsky, head of the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute of New York, leading to the first transatlantic clinical trials. The search for daunomycin's sister anthracyclines led to the discovery and development of adriamycin, one of the best drugs born in Milan. This was the second act prologue of the history of Italian antitumor discovery and clinical oncology, which started in July 1969 when Prof. Di Marco sent Prof. Bonadonna the first vials of adriamycin (doxorubicin) to be tested in clinical trials. This article reviews the Milan scene in the 1960s, a city admired and noted for the outstanding scientific achievements of its private and public institutions in drugs and industrial product discovery.

Hrbacek J, Mishra KK, Kacperek A, et al.
Practice Patterns Analysis of Ocular Proton Therapy Centers: The International OPTIC Survey.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016; 95(1):336-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To assess the planning, treatment, and follow-up strategies worldwide in dedicated proton therapy ocular programs.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten centers from 7 countries completed a questionnaire survey with 109 queries on the eye treatment planning system (TPS), hardware/software equipment, image acquisition/registration, patient positioning, eye surveillance, beam delivery, quality assurance (QA), clinical management, and workflow.
RESULTS: Worldwide, 28,891 eye patients were treated with protons at the 10 centers as of the end of 2014. Most centers treated a vast number of ocular patients (1729 to 6369). Three centers treated fewer than 200 ocular patients. Most commonly, the centers treated uveal melanoma (UM) and other primary ocular malignancies, benign ocular tumors, conjunctival lesions, choroidal metastases, and retinoblastomas. The UM dose fractionation was generally within a standard range, whereas dosing for other ocular conditions was not standardized. The majority (80%) of centers used in common a specific ocular TPS. Variability existed in imaging registration, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rarely being used in routine planning (20%). Increased patient to full-time equivalent ratios were observed by higher accruing centers (P=.0161). Generally, ophthalmologists followed up the post-radiation therapy patients, though in 40% of centers radiation oncologists also followed up the patients. Seven centers had a prospective outcomes database. All centers used a cyclotron to accelerate protons with dedicated horizontal beam lines only. QA checks (range, modulation) varied substantially across centers.
CONCLUSIONS: The first worldwide multi-institutional ophthalmic proton therapy survey of the clinical and technical approach shows areas of substantial overlap and areas of progress needed to achieve sustainable and systematic management. Future international efforts include research and development for imaging and planning software upgrades, increased use of MRI, development of clinical protocols, systematic patient-centered data acquisition, and publishing guidelines on QA, staffing, treatment, and follow-up parameters by dedicated ocular programs to ensure the highest level of care for ocular patients.

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