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Europe: Cancer Organisations
Latest Research Publications about cancer in Europe

Europe: Cancer Organisations (31 links)


Latest Research Publications about cancer in Europe

Woehrer A, Kristensen BW, Vital A, Hainfellner JA
Patterns of diagnostic marker assessment in adult diffuse glioma: a survey of the European Confederation of Neuropathological Societies (Euro-CNS).
Clin Neuropathol. 2017 Jan/Feb; 36 (2017)(1):5-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
The 2016 update of the WHO classification has introduced an integrated diagnostic approach that incorporates both tumor morphology and molecular information. This conceptual change has far-reaching implications, especially for neuropathologists who are in the forefront of translating molecular markers to routine diagnostic use. Adult diffuse glioma is a prototypic example for a group of tumors that underwent substantial regrouping, and it represents a major workload for surgical neuropathologists. Hence, we conducted a survey among members of the European Confederation of Neuropathological Societies (Euro-CNS) in order to assess 1) the extent to which molecular markers have already been incorporated in glioma diagnoses, 2) which molecular techniques are in daily use, and 3) to set a baseline for future surveys in this field. Based on 130 responses from participants across 40 nations neuropathologists uniformly rate molecular marker testing as highly relevant and already incorporate molecular information in their diagnostic assessments. At the same time however, the survey documents substantial differences in access to crucial biomarkers and molecular techniques across geographic regions and within individual countries. Concerns are raised concerning the validity of test assays with MGMT, 1p19q, and ATRX; being perceived as most problematic. Neuropathologists advocate the need for international harmonization of standards and consensus guidelines, and the majority is willing to actively engage in interlaboratory trials aiming at quality control (Figure 1).
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Hemmati PG, Vuong LG, Terwey TH, et al.
Predictive significance of the European LeukemiaNet classification of genetic aberrations in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Eur J Haematol. 2017; 98(2):160-168 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive capacity of the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) classification of genetic risk in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT).
METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 274 patients transplanted at our centre between 2004 and 2014.
RESULTS: The ELN grouping is comparable to the Southwest Oncology Group/Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (SWOG/ECOG) stratification in predicting the outcome after alloSCT [overall P = 0.0064 for disease-free survival (DFS), overall P = 0.003 for relapse]. Patients with an intermediate-1 profile have a significantly elevated 5-yr relapse incidence as compared to favourable risk patients, that is 40% vs. 15%, [hazard ratio (HR) 2.58, P = 0.048]. An intermediate-1 risk profile is an independent predictor for relapse as determined by multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR 3.05, P = 0.023). In intermediate-1 patients, the presence of an FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) is associated with a significantly increased relapse incidence (P = 0.0323), and a lower DFS (P = 0.0465). FLT3-ITD is an independent predictor for overall survival, DFS and relapse incidence in the intermediate-1 subgroup.
CONCLUSIONS: The ELN stratification of genetic risk predicts the outcome of patients with AML undergoing alloSCT. Patients with an intermediate-1 profile have a high risk for treatment failure due to relapse, which prompts the development of alternative treatment strategies.

Castellsagué X, Mena M, Alemany L
Epidemiology of HPV-Positive Tumors in Europe and in the World.
Recent Results Cancer Res. 2017; 206:27-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Strong evidence has accumulated in the last 15 years showing that infection by certain human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is etiologically involved in a subset of head and neck cancers (HNCs). In this chapter, epidemiologic-related topics on HNCs are reviewed: (i) HPV-attributable fractions and HPV-type distributions by different anatomical HNC sites, using not only HPV DNA but other more specific markers of causality; (ii) an update of the HPV-related HNCs burden worldwide and by regions; and finally, (iii) the determinants for HPV positivity in HNCs, focussing on gender, age, smoking habits, sexual behavior, and other related factors such as tonsillectomy performance. This information is essential in order to understand the burden of the disease and its dynamics and changing patterns, as well as for planning and assessment of the potential impact of HPV-based preventive strategies for HNCs.

Guillem V, Camps C, Carrato A, et al.
European edition of the NCCN clinical practice guidelines: relevance of the translation and adaptation into Spanish.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2017; 19(3):288-290 [PubMed] Related Publications
The NCCN-evidence-based oncology guidelines are consensus-based management documents, to ensure that all patients receive the most appropriate diagnosis, treatment and support services to achieve the best results. However, the use of these guidelines for decision-making by physicians in Spain is sometimes controversial, as treatments or diagnostic procedures are recommended which might not be authorised in our country, or other management options may exist. In March 2015, the ECO Foundation reached an agreement to translate and adapt the NCCN's clinical practice guidelines in oncology for the Spanish sector. Consequently, ECO is the first European organization to reach an agreement of this type with the NCCN. This agreement will allow all agents involved in managing the cancer patients to have available guidelines that are adapted to the specific needs of Spain.

Sali L, Regge D
CT colonography for population screening of colorectal cancer: hints from European trials.
Br J Radiol. 2016; 89(1068):20160517 [PubMed] Related Publications
CT colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive radiological investigation of the colon. Robust evidence indicates that CTC is safe, well tolerated and highly accurate for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) and large polyps, which are the targets of screening. Randomized controlled trials were carried out in Europe to evaluate CTC as the primary test for population screening of CRC in comparison with faecal immunochemical test (FIT), sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. Main outcomes were participation rate and detection rate. Participation rate for screening CTC was in the range of 25-34%, whereas the detection rate of CTC for CRC and advanced adenoma was in the range of 5.1-6.1%. Participation for CTC screening was lower than that for FIT, similar to that for sigmoidoscopy and higher than that for colonoscopy. The detection rate of CTC was higher than that of one FIT round, similar to that of sigmoidoscopy and lower than that of colonoscopy. However, owing to the higher participation rate in CTC screening with respect to colonoscopy screening, the detection rates per invitee of CTC and colonoscopy would be comparable. These results justify consideration of CTC in organized screening programmes for CRC. However, assessment of other factors such as polyp size threshold for colonoscopy referral, management of extracolonic findings and, most importantly, the forthcoming results of cost-effectiveness analyses are crucial to define the role of CTC in primary screening.

Bosilkovski M, Dimzova M, Stevanović M, et al.
Fever of unknown origin--diagnostic methods in a European developing country.
Vojnosanit Pregl. 2016; 73(6):553-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Fewer of unknown origin (FUO) remains amongst the most difficult diagnostic dilemmas in contemporary medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the causes of FU and to identify the methods of diagnosis in patients with FUO in a tertiary care setting in the Republic of Macedonia.
METHODS: Retrospectively histories of 123 immunocompetent patients older than 14 years with classical FUO that had been examined at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases and Febrile Conditions in the city of Skopje, during the period 2006-2012 were evaluated. FUO was defined as axillary fever of ≥ 37.5 °C on several occasions, fever duration of more than 21 days and failure to reach the diagnosis after the initial diagnostic workup comprised of several defined basic investigations.
RESULTS: Infections were the cause of FUO in 51 (41.5%) of the patients, followed by non-infective inflammatory disorders (NIID) in 28 (22.8%), miscellaneous in 12 (9.7%) and neoplasm in 11 (8.9%) of the patients. Twenty one of the patients (17.1%) remained undiagnosed. The most common causes for FUO were visceral leishmaniasis, abscesses, urinary tract infections, subacute endocarditis, polymyalgia rheumatica and adult onset of Still disease. The final diagnosis was reached with histology in 24 (23.5%), imaging and endoscopic procedures in 21 (20.6%), clinical course and empiric therapy response in 20 (19.6%), serology in 18 (17.6%) and cultures in 16 (15.7%) of the cases.
CONCLUSION: In the Republic of Macedonia infections are the leading cause of FUO, predominately visceral leishmaniasis. In the future in patients with prolonged fever, physicians should think more often of this disease, as well as of the possibility of atypical presentation of the common classical causes of FUO.

Kim YW, Joo J, Yoon HM, et al.
Different survival outcomes after curative R0-resection for Eastern Asian and European gastric cancer: Results from a propensity score matched analysis comparing a Korean and a German specialized center.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(28):e4261 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several retrospective analyses on patients who underwent gastric cancer (GC) surgery revealed different survival outcomes between Eastern (Korean, Japanese) and Western (USA, Europe) countries due to potential ethnical and biological differences. This study investigates treatment outcomes between specialized institution for GC in Korea and Germany.The prospectively documented databases of the Gastric Cancer Center of the National Cancer Center, Korea (NCCK) and the Department of Surgery of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Germany were screened for patients who underwent primary surgical resection for GC between 2002 and 2008. Baseline characteristics were compared using χ testing, and 2 cohorts were matched using a propensity score matching (PSM) method. Patients' survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was used for comparison.Three thousand seven hundred ninety-five patients were included in the final analysis, 3542 from Korea and 253 from Germany. Baseline characteristics revealed statistically significant differences for age, tumor location, pT stage, grading, lymphatic vessel infiltration (LVI), comorbidities, number of dissected lymph nodes (LN), postoperative complications, lymph-node ratio stage, and application of adjuvant chemotherapy. After PSM, 171 patients in TUM were matched to NCCK patients, and baseline characteristics for both cohorts were well balanced. Patients in Korea had significantly longer survival than those in Germany both before and after PSM. When the analysis was performed for each UICC stage separately, same trend was found over all UICC stages before PSM. However, significant difference in survival was observed only for UICC I after PSM.This analysis demonstrates different survival outcomes after surgical treatment of GC on different continents in specialized centers after balancing of baseline characteristics by PSM.

Siouta N, Van Beek K, van der Eerden ME, et al.
Integrated palliative care in Europe: a qualitative systematic literature review of empirically-tested models in cancer and chronic disease.
BMC Palliat Care. 2016; 15:56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Integrated Palliative Care (PC) strategies are often implemented following models, namely standardized designs that provide frameworks for the organization of care for people with a progressive life-threatening illness and/or for their (in)formal caregivers. The aim of this qualitative systematic review is to identify empirically-evaluated models of PC in cancer and chronic disease in Europe. Further, develop a generic framework that will consist of the basis for the design of future models for integrated PC in Europe.
METHODS: Cochrane, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, BNI, Web of Science, NHS Evidence. Five journals and references from included studies were hand-searched. Two reviewers screened the search results. Studies with adult patients with advanced cancer/chronic disease from 1995 to 2013 in Europe, in English, French, German, Dutch, Hungarian or Spanish were included. A narrative synthesis was used.
RESULTS: 14 studies were included, 7 models for chronic disease, 4 for integrated care in oncology, 2 for both cancer and chronic disease and 2 for end-of-life pathways. The results show a strong agreement on the benefits of the involvement of a PC multidisciplinary team: better symptom control, less caregiver burden, improvement in continuity and coordination of care, fewer admissions, cost effectiveness and patients dying in their preferred place.
CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, a generic framework for integrated PC in cancer and chronic disease is proposed. This framework fosters integration of PC in the disease trajectory concurrently with treatment and identifies the importance of employing a PC-trained multidisciplinary team with a threefold focus: treatment, consulting and training.

Fassnacht M, Arlt W, Bancos I, et al.
Management of adrenal incidentalomas: European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guideline in collaboration with the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2016; 175(2):G1-G34 [PubMed] Related Publications
: By definition, an adrenal incidentaloma is an asymptomatic adrenal mass detected on imaging not performed for suspected adrenal disease. In most cases, adrenal incidentalomas are nonfunctioning adrenocortical adenomas, but may also represent conditions requiring therapeutic intervention (e.g. adrenocortical carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, hormone-producing adenoma or metastasis). The purpose of this guideline is to provide clinicians with best possible evidence-based recommendations for clinical management of patients with adrenal incidentalomas based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. We predefined four main clinical questions crucial for the management of adrenal incidentaloma patients, addressing these four with systematic literature searches: (A) How to assess risk of malignancy?; (B) How to define and manage low-level autonomous cortisol secretion, formerly called 'subclinical' Cushing's syndrome?; (C) Who should have surgical treatment and how should it be performed?; (D) What follow-up is indicated if the adrenal incidentaloma is not surgically removed? SELECTED RECOMMENDATIONS: (i) At the time of initial detection of an adrenal mass establishing whether the mass is benign or malignant is an important aim to avoid cumbersome and expensive follow-up imaging in those with benign disease. (ii) To exclude cortisol excess, a 1mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test should be performed (applying a cut-off value of serum cortisol ≤50nmol/L (1.8µg/dL)). (iii) For patients without clinical signs of overt Cushing's syndrome but serum cortisol levels post 1mg dexamethasone >138nmol/L (>5µg/dL), we propose the term 'autonomous cortisol secretion'. (iv) All patients with '(possible) autonomous cortisol' secretion should be screened for hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus, to ensure these are appropriately treated. (v) Surgical treatment should be considered in an individualized approach in patients with 'autonomous cortisol secretion' who also have comorbidities that are potentially related to cortisol excess. (vi) In principle, the appropriateness of surgical intervention should be guided by the likelihood of malignancy, the presence and degree of hormone excess, age, general health and patient preference. (vii) Surgery is not usually indicated in patients with an asymptomatic, nonfunctioning unilateral adrenal mass and obvious benign features on imaging studies. We provide guidance on which surgical approach should be considered for adrenal masses with radiological findings suspicious of malignancy. Furthermore, we offer recommendations for the follow-up of patients with adrenal incidentaloma who do not undergo adrenal surgery, for those with bilateral incidentalomas, for patients with extra-adrenal malignancy and adrenal masses and for young and elderly patients with adrenal incidentalomas.

Miki-Rosário N, Garcia Filho RJ, Garcia JG, et al.
Translation into Portuguese, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of "The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life Questionnaire-Bone Metastases-22".
Ann Palliat Med. 2016; 5(3):190-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to conduct a cross-cultural adaptation (with translation into Brazilian Portuguese) and validation of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life Questionnaire-Bone Metastases-22 (EORTC QLQ-BM22).
METHODS: Ninety-five bone metastasis patients (31 men and 64 women, mean age 58.36±8.90 years) took part in the investigation. The translation guide of the EORTC was used to translate from English into Brazilian Portuguese and adapt the instrument culturally. The reliability and the face, content and construct validities were tested.
RESULTS: Internal consistency was estimated using Cronbach's alpha for the total score, pain and functional subscales of the EORTC QLQ-BM22 (0.93, 0.86, 0.90). Reliability was analyzed by Pearson's correlation and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The correlations were higher than the recommended value of 0.75, which indicated good test-retest reliability. Construct validity was demonstrated by correlation with the questionnaire medical outcome study questionnaire 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36). It showed significant correlation between the fields of QLQ-BM22 and the SF-36 (P≤0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The EORTC QLQ-BM22 was translated into Brazilian Portuguese, was culturally adapted and was proven to be reliable, with face, content and construct validity.

Hermine O, Hoster E, Walewski J, et al.
Addition of high-dose cytarabine to immunochemotherapy before autologous stem-cell transplantation in patients aged 65 years or younger with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL Younger): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial of the European Mantle Cell Lymphoma Network.
Lancet. 2016; 388(10044):565-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mantle cell lymphoma is characterised by a poor long-term prognosis. The European Mantle Cell Lymphoma Network aimed to investigate whether the introduction of high-dose cytarabine to immunochemotherapy before autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) improves outcome.
METHODS: This randomised, open-label, parallel-group, phase 3 trial was done in 128 haemato-oncological hospital departments or private practices in Germany, France, Belgium, and Poland. Patients aged 65 years or younger with untreated stage II-IV mantle cell lymphoma were centrally randomised (1:1), with computer-assisted random block selection, to receive either six courses of R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) followed by myeloablative radiochemotherapy and ASCT (control group), or six courses of alternating R-CHOP or R-DHAP (rituximab plus dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin) followed by a high-dose cytarabine-containing conditioning regimen and ASCT (cytarabine group). Patients were stratified by study group and international prognostic index. The primary outcome was time to treatment failure from randomisation to stable disease after at least four induction cycles, progression, or death from any cause. Patients with stage II-IV mantle cell lymphoma were included in the primary analysis if treatment was started according to randomisation. For safety analyses, patients were assessed according to the treatment actually started. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00209222.
FINDINGS: Of 497 patients (median age 55 years [IQR 49-60]) randomised from July 20, 2004, to March 18, 2010, 234 of 249 in the control group and 232 of 248 in the cytarabine group were included in the primary analysis. After a median follow-up of 6.1 years (95% CI 5.4-6.4), time to treatment failure was significantly longer in the cytarabine group (median 9.1 years [95% CI 6.3-not reached], 5 year rate 65% [95% CI 57-71]) than in the control group (3.9 years [3.2-4.4], 40% [33-46]; hazard ratio 0.56; p=0.038). During induction immunochemotherapy, patients who received high-dose cytarabine had increased grade 3 or 4 haematological toxicity (haemoglobin 71 [29%] of 241m vs 19 [8%] of 227 controls; platelets 176 [73%] of 240 vs 21 [9%] of 225), grade 3 or 4 febrile neutropenia (39 [17%] of 230 vs 19 [8%] of 224), and grade 1 or 2 renal toxicity (creatinine 102 [43%] of 236 vs 22 [10%] of 224). The number of ASCT-related deaths was similar (eight [3.4%]) in both groups.
INTERPRETATION: Immunochemotherapy containing high-dose cytarabine followed by ASCT should be considered standard of care in patients aged 65 years or younger with mantle cell lymphoma.
FUNDING: European Commission, Lymphoma Research Foundation, and Roche.

Filosso PL, Guerrera F, Thomas P, et al.
Management of bronchial carcinoids: international practice survey among the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons.
Future Oncol. 2016; 12(17):1985-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the international practice of management of bronchial carcinoids.
MATERIALS & METHODS: A survey designed by the Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung Working Group, was conducted among the members of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons.
RESULTS: A total of 172 centers worldwide replied to the questionnaire. General agreement was observed concerning the use of anatomic resections and parenchyma-sparing surgery, the importance of lymphadenectomy, the adjuvant regimens in N(+) atypical carcinoids and the role of surgery for local recurrences. Controversies emerged in the use of nuclear medicine imaging and measurement of serum markers and on the timing of follow-up.
CONCLUSION: This survey provides the largest international overview of the current practice in the management of bronchial carcinoids and identifies discrepancies that could be the focus of future investigations.

Lu Y, Cross AJ, Murphy N, et al.
Comparison of abdominal adiposity and overall obesity in relation to risk of small intestinal cancer in a European Prospective Cohort.
Cancer Causes Control. 2016; 27(7):919-27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The etiology of small intestinal cancer (SIC) is largely unknown, and there are very few epidemiological studies published to date. No studies have investigated abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC.
METHODS: We investigated overall obesity and abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a large prospective cohort of approximately half a million men and women from ten European countries. Overall obesity and abdominal obesity were assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Stratified analyses were conducted by sex, BMI, and smoking status.
RESULTS: During an average of 13.9 years of follow-up, 131 incident cases of SIC (including 41 adenocarcinomas, 44 malignant carcinoid tumors, 15 sarcomas and 10 lymphomas, and 21 unknown histology) were identified. WC was positively associated with SIC in a crude model that also included BMI (HR per 5-cm increase = 1.20, 95 % CI 1.04, 1.39), but this association attenuated in the multivariable model (HR 1.18, 95 % CI 0.98, 1.42). However, the association between WC and SIC was strengthened when the analysis was restricted to adenocarcinoma of the small intestine (multivariable HR adjusted for BMI = 1.56, 95 % CI 1.11, 2.17). There were no other significant associations.
CONCLUSION: WC, rather than BMI, may be positively associated with adenocarcinomas but not carcinoid tumors of the small intestine.
IMPACT: Abdominal obesity is a potential risk factor for adenocarcinoma in the small intestine.

Richtig E, Trapp M, Kapfhammer HP, et al.
The Importance of a Biopsychosocial Approach in Melanoma ResearchExperiences from a Single-center Multidisciplinary Melanoma Working Group in Middle-Europe.
Acta Derm Venereol. 2016; 96(217):51-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
The biopsychosocial model represents a very important theoretical framework developed in the 21th century. According to a body mind unity theory, it postulates that research must focus not only on biomedical but also on other aspects in order to understand complex interactions occurring on different system levels. With regard to the occurrence of melanoma, both immunologic surveillance and a lack of cancerogenic factors are crucial in the suppression of tumor development. In addition, a reduction in mental stress (employing effective strategies for coping with stress) in cases of malignant disease seems to prolong life. Focusing on these theories, examples of studies that followed an interdisciplinary, biopsychosocial approach to melanoma research conducted at one center are given to emphasize the multi-dimensional and interdisciplinary aspects of the biopsychosocial model.

Yoon JW, Kim S, Kim SW, et al.
PET/CT Response Criteria (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer) Predict Survival Better Than Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation.
Clin Nucl Med. 2016; 41(9):677-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate whether the ratio of SUVs measured with F-FDG PET/CT between pretreatment and posttreatment has prognostic value in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with primary chemoradiation therapy.
METHODS: Cases of locally advanced cervical cancer (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IB1 to IVA) treated with a nonsurgical curative modality (172 cases including chemoradiation or radiation therapy) were reviewed. F-FDG PET/CT parameters, including SUVmax and SUVmean, were evaluated by F-FDG PET/CT performed prior to treatment and 6 weeks after the end of treatment. Metabolic response was evaluated according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines and was compared with radiologic response measured according to the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours (RECIST).
RESULTS: In total, 142 patients receiving chemoradiation showed radiologic responses (median 56% decrease in maximal diameter), whereas 160 and 146 patients showed metabolic responses measured with SUVmax and SUVmean, respectively (73% decrease in SUVmax; 48% decrease in SUVmean). Radiologic response and metabolic response were significantly correlated for SUVmax and SUVmean (P = 0.0009; P = 0.0457, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed significant differences in overall survival and progression-free survival between the responder and nonresponder groups, based on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria (both P < 0.001), whereas no significant difference was found when using RECIST criteria (P = 0.058, P = 0.088, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: F-FDG PET/CT parameters are good prognostic markers for the response of cervical cancer patients to concurrent chemoradiation therapy, as compared with the RECIST criteria.

Babaei M, Balavarca Y, Jansen L, et al.
Minimally Invasive Colorectal Cancer Surgery in Europe: Implementation and Outcomes.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(22):e3812 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) of colorectal cancer (CRC) was first introduced over 20 years ago and recently has gained increasing acceptance and usage beyond clinical trials. However, data on dissemination of the method across countries and on long-term outcomes are still sparse.In the context of a European collaborative study, a total of 112,023 CRC cases from 3 population-based (N = 109,695) and 4 institute-based clinical cancer registries (N = 2328) were studied and compared on the utilization of MIS versus open surgery. Cox regression models were applied to study associations between surgery type and survival of patients from the population-based registries. The study considered adjustment for potential confounders.The percentage of CRC patients undergoing MIS differed substantially between centers and generally increased over time. MIS was significantly less often used in stage II to IV colon cancer compared with stage I in most centers. MIS tended to be less often used in older (70+) than in younger colon cancer patients. MIS tended to be more often used in women than in men with rectal cancer. MIS was associated with significantly reduced mortality among colon cancer patients in the Netherlands (hazard ratio [HR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] (0.63-0.69), Sweden (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.60-0.76), and Norway (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.67-0.79). Likewise, MIS was associated with reduced mortality of rectal cancer patients in the Netherlands (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.68-0.80) and Sweden (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.66-0.90).Utilization of MIS in CRC resection is increasing, but large variation between European countries and clinical centers prevails. Our results support association of MIS with substantially enhanced survival among colon cancer patients. Further studies controlling for selection bias and residual confounding are needed to establish role of MIS in survival of patients.

Tan WS, Rodney S, Lamb B, et al.
Management of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: A comprehensive analysis of guidelines from the United States, Europe and Asia.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2016; 47:22-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bladder cancer is the 8th most common cancer with 74,000 new cases in the United States in 2015. Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) accounts for 75% of all bladder cancer cases. Transurethral resection and intravesical treatments remain the main treatment modality. Up to 31-78% of cases recur, hence the need for intensive treatment and surveillance protocols which makes bladder cancer one of the most expensive cancers to manage. The purpose of this review is to compare contemporary guidelines from Europe, (European Association of Urology), the United States (National Comprehensive Cancer Network), the United Kingdom (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence), Japan (Japanese Urological Association) and the International Consultation on Bladder Cancer (ICUD). We compare and contrast the different guidelines and the evidence on which their recommendations are based.

Guerreiro CB, Horálek J, de Leeuw F, Couvidat F
Benzo(a)pyrene in Europe: Ambient air concentrations, population exposure and health effects.
Environ Pollut. 2016; 214:657-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study estimated current benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentration levels, population exposure and potential health impacts of exposure to ambient air BaP in Europe. These estimates were done by combining the best available information from observations and chemical transport models through the use of spatial interpolation methods. Results show large exceedances of the European target value for BaP in 2012 over large areas, particularly in central-eastern Europe. Results also show large uncertainties in the concentration estimates in regions with a few or no measurement stations. The estimation of the population exposure to BaP concentrations and its health impacts was limited to 60% of the European population, covering only the modelled areas which met the data quality requirement for modelling of BaP concentrations set by the European directive 2004/107/EC. The population exposure estimate shows that 20% of the European population is exposed to BaP background ambient concentrations above the EU target value and only 7% live in areas with concentrations under the estimated acceptable risk level of 0.12 ng m(-3). This exposure leads to an estimated 370 lung cancer incidences per year, for the 60% of the European population included in the estimation. Emissions of BaP have increased in the last decade with the increase in emissions from household combustion of biomass. At the same time, climate mitigation policies are promoting the use of biomass burning for domestic heating. The current study shows that there is a need for more BaP measurements in areas of low measurement density, particularly where high concentrations are expected, e.g. in Romania, Bulgaria, and other Balkan states. Furthermore, this study shows that the health risk posed by PAH exposure calls for better coordination between air quality and climate mitigation policies in Europe.

Sobiecki JG, Appleby PN, Bradbury KE, Key TJ
High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study.
Nutr Res. 2016; 36(5):464-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk.

McKenzie F, Biessy C, Ferrari P, et al.
Healthy Lifestyle and Risk of Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort Study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(16):e2850 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It has been estimated that at least a third of the most common cancers are related to lifestyle and as such are preventable. Key modifiable lifestyle factors have been individually associated with cancer risk; however, less is known about the combined effects of these factors. This study generated a healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) to investigate the joint effect of modifiable factors on the risk of overall cancers, alcohol-related cancers, tobacco-related cancers, obesity-related cancers, and reproductive-related cancers. The study included 391,608 men and women from the multinational European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The HLIS was constructed from 5 factors assessed at baseline (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0 to 4 to categories of each factor, for which higher values indicate healthier behaviors. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional regression and population attributable fractions (PAFs) estimated from the adjusted models. There was a 5% lower risk (adjusted HR 0.952, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.946, 0.958) of all cancers per point score of the index for men and 4% (adjusted HR 0.961, 95% CI: 0.956, 0.966) for women. The fourth versus the second category of the HLIS was associated with a 28% and 24% lower risk for men and women respectively across all cancers, 41% and 33% for alcohol-related, 49% and 46% for tobacco-related, 41% and 26% for obesity-related, and 21% for female reproductive cancers. Findings suggest simple behavior modifications could have a sizeable impact on cancer prevention, especially for men.

Deriu PL, Basso S, Mastrilli F, Orecchia R
OECI accreditation of the European Institute of Oncology of Milan: strengths and weaknesses.
Tumori. 2015; 101 Suppl 1:S21-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
The European Institute of Oncology began the process to reach the accreditation promoted by the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) in 2012. This accreditation integrates the quality and safety path started in 2001 with accreditation by the Joint Commission International. Despite the presence of diversified accreditations and certifications and the clear need of time, effort, and commitment, the models are complementary. Each model is not to be considered as an end but as a tool for improvement: e.g., mixing accreditation standards led to an improvement in the quality and safety of processes. The present article details the OECI accreditation experience of the European Institute of Oncology, in particular the following strengths of OECI standards: collaboration among several involved parties (patient, volunteer, patient's general practitioner) in the clinical and quality/safety processes; a larger involvement of support personnel (psycho-oncologists, dieticians, physical therapists); and the development of clinical/translational research and innovation in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment to guarantee the best available practice in diagnosis and treatment. The OECI accreditation is specific to oncology and therefore its standards are tailored to a cancer center, both in terms of language used in the standards manual and in terms of patient needs. The OECI accreditation system puts an auditor team with a standards manual in charge of verifying quality and confirms the definition of IEO as a Comprehensive Cancer Center.

Lacalamita R, Quaranta A, Trisorio Liuzzi MP, et al.
The European accreditation of Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II of Bari.
Tumori. 2015; 101 Suppl 1:S14-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The National Cancer Institute of Bari (Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, IRCCS) has been involved since the conception of the project of the Italian Ministry for Health aimed to validate the applicability of the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) accreditation and designation (A&D) model to the Network of Italian Cancer Centers, IRCCS, of Alleanza Contro il Cancro. The self-assessment phase of the Institute started in September 2013 and ended in June 2014. All documents and tools were transferred to the OECI A&D Board in June 2014 and a 2-day peer review visit was conducted in October 2014 by an international qualified audit team. The Institute received its final designation and certification in June 2015. The OECI A&D Board, in its final report, came to the conclusion that Istituto Tumori "Giovanni Paolo II" of Bari has a strong research component with some essential elements of comprehensive cancer care still under development; the lack of a system for using outcome data for the strategic management approach to decision-making and missing a regular internal audit system eventually helping further quality improvement were reported as examples of areas with opportunities for improvement. The OECI A&D process represented a great opportunity for the cancer center to benchmark the quality of its performance according to standard parameters in comparison with other international centers and to further develop a participatory group identity. The common goal of accreditation was real and participatory with long-lasting positive effects. We agree with the OECI comments about the next areas of work in which the Institute could produce future further efforts: the use of its powerful IT system as a means for outcome analysis and empowerment projects for its cancer patients.

Tartaglione G, Stoeckli SJ, de Bree R, et al.
Sentinel Node in Oral Cancer: The Nuclear Medicine Aspects. A Survey from the Sentinel European Node Trial.
Clin Nucl Med. 2016; 41(7):534-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Nuclear imaging plays a crucial role in lymphatic mapping of oral cancer. This evaluation represents a subanalysis of the original multicenter SENT trial data set, involving 434 patients with T1-T2, N0, and M0 oral squamous cell carcinoma. The impact of acquisition techniques, tracer injection timing relative to surgery, and causes of false-negative rate were assessed.
METHODS: Three to 24 hours before surgery, all patients received a dose of Tc-nanocolloid (10-175 MBq), followed by lymphoscintigraphy. According to institutional protocols, all patients underwent preoperative dynamic/static scan and/or SPECT/CT.
RESULTS: Lymphoscintigraphy identified 723 lymphatic basins. 1398 sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) were biopsied (3.2 SN per patient; range, 1-10). Dynamic scan allowed the differentiation of sentinel nodes from second tier lymph nodes. SPECT/CT allowed more accurate anatomical localization and estimated SN depth more efficiently. After pathological examination, 9.9% of the SN excised (138 of 1398 SNs) showed metastases. The first neck level (NL) containing SN+ was NL I in 28.6%, NL IIa in 44.8%, NL IIb in 2.8%, NL III in 17.1%, and NL IV in 6.7% of positive patients. Approximately 96% of positive SNs were localized in the first and second lymphatic basin visualized using lymphoscintigraphy. After neck dissection, the SN+ was the only lymph node containing metastasis in approximately 80% of patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Best results were observed using a dynamic scan in combination with SPECT/CT. A shorter interval between tracer injection, imaging, and surgery resulted in a lower false-negative rate. At least 2 NLs have to be harvested, as this may increase the detection of lymphatic metastases.

Zhao Z, Wen W, Michailidou K, et al.
Association of genetic susceptibility variants for type 2 diabetes with breast cancer risk in women of European ancestry.
Cancer Causes Control. 2016; 27(5):679-93 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been reported to be associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer. It is unclear, however, whether this association is due to shared genetic factors.
METHODS: We constructed a genetic risk score (GRS) using risk variants from 33 known independent T2D susceptibility loci and evaluated its relation to breast cancer risk using the data from two consortia, including 62,328 breast cancer patients and 83,817 controls of European ancestry. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to derive adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) to measure the association of breast cancer risk with T2D GRS or T2D-associated genetic risk variants. Meta-analyses were conducted to obtain summary ORs across all studies.
RESULTS: The T2D GRS was not found to be associated with breast cancer risk, overall, by menopausal status, or for estrogen receptor positive or negative breast cancer. Three T2D associated risk variants were individually associated with breast cancer risk after adjustment for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method (at p < 0.001), rs9939609 (FTO) (OR 0.94, 95 % CI = 0.92-0.95, p = 4.13E-13), rs7903146 (TCF7L2) (OR 1.04, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.06, p = 1.26E-05), and rs8042680 (PRC1) (OR 0.97, 95 % CI = 0.95-0.99, p = 8.05E-04).
CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that several genetic risk variants were associated with the risk of both T2D and breast cancer. However, overall genetic susceptibility to T2D may not be related to breast cancer risk.

Gusev A, Shi H, Kichaev G, et al.
Atlas of prostate cancer heritability in European and African-American men pinpoints tissue-specific regulation.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:10979 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic architecture from common variation underlying PrCa risk. Our findings showcase the power of integrating functional annotation with genetic data to understand the genetic basis of PrCa.

Plouin PF, Amar L, Dekkers OM, et al.
European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guideline for long-term follow-up of patients operated on for a phaeochromocytoma or a paraganglioma.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2016; 174(5):G1-G10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumours. Standard treatment is surgical resection. Following complete resection of the primary tumour, patients with PPGL are at risk of developing new tumoural events. The present guideline aims to propose standardised clinical care of long-term follow-up in patients operated on for a PPGL. The guideline has been developed by The European Society of Endocrinology and based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) principles. We performed a systematic review of the literature and analysed the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours (ENS@T) database. The risk of new events persisted in the long term and was higher for patients with genetic or syndromic diseases. Follow-up in the published cohorts and in the ENS@T database was neither standardised nor exhaustive, resulting in a risk of follow-up bias and in low statistical power beyond 10 years after complete surgery. To inform patients and care providers in this context of low-quality evidence, the Guideline Working Group therefore prepared recommendations on the basis of expert consensus. Key recommendations are the following: we recommend that all patients with PPGL be considered for genetic testing; we recommend assaying plasma or urinary metanephrines every year to screen for local or metastatic recurrences or new tumours; and we suggest follow-up for at least 10 years in all patients operated on for a PPGL. High-risk patients (young patients and those with a genetic disease, a large tumour and/or a paraganglioma) should be offered lifelong annual follow-up.

Murphy N, Cross AJ, Abubakar M, et al.
A Nested Case-Control Study of Metabolically Defined Body Size Phenotypes and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
PLoS Med. 2016; 13(4):e1001988 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia) have been suggested to be at lower risk of cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic) overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body size phenotypes and colorectal cancer risk is unknown.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with colorectal cancer was investigated in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Metabolic health/body size phenotypes were defined according to hyperinsulinaemia status using serum concentrations of C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion. A total of 737 incident colorectal cancer cases and 737 matched controls were divided into tertiles based on the distribution of C-peptide concentration amongst the control population, and participants were classified as metabolically healthy if below the first tertile of C-peptide and metabolically unhealthy if above the first tertile. These metabolic health definitions were then combined with body mass index (BMI) measurements to create four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories: (1) metabolically healthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), (2) metabolically healthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), (3) metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), and (4) metabolically unhealthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Additionally, in separate models, waist circumference measurements (using the International Diabetes Federation cut-points [≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men]) were used (instead of BMI) to create the four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories. Statistical tests used in the analysis were all two-sided, and a p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. In multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models with BMI used to define adiposity, compared with metabolically healthy/normal weight individuals, we observed a higher colorectal cancer risk among metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (odds ratio [OR] = 1.59, 95% CI 1.10-2.28) and metabolically unhealthy/overweight (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.01-1.94) participants, but not among metabolically healthy/overweight individuals (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.65-1.42). Among the overweight individuals, lower colorectal cancer risk was observed for metabolically healthy/overweight individuals compared with metabolically unhealthy/overweight individuals (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.96). These associations were generally consistent when waist circumference was used as the measure of adiposity. To our knowledge, there is no universally accepted clinical definition for using C-peptide level as an indication of hyperinsulinaemia. Therefore, a possible limitation of our analysis was that the classification of individuals as being hyperinsulinaemic-based on their C-peptide level-was arbitrary. However, when we used quartiles or the median of C-peptide, instead of tertiles, as the cut-point of hyperinsulinaemia, a similar pattern of associations was observed.
CONCLUSIONS: These results support the idea that individuals with the metabolically healthy/overweight phenotype (with normal insulin levels) are at lower colorectal cancer risk than those with hyperinsulinaemia. The combination of anthropometric measures with metabolic parameters, such as C-peptide, may be useful for defining strata of the population at greater risk of colorectal cancer.

O'Dowd EL, Lüchtenborg M, Baldwin DR, et al.
Predicting death from surgery for lung cancer: A comparison of two scoring systems in two European countries.
Lung Cancer. 2016; 95:88-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Current British guidelines advocate the use of risk prediction scores such as Thoracoscore to estimate mortality prior to radical surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A recent publication used the National Lung Cancer Audit (NLCA) to produce a score to predict 90 day mortality (NLCA score). The aim of this study is to validate the NLCA score, and compare its performance with Thoracoscore.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an internal validation using 2858 surgical patients from NLCA and an external validation using 3191 surgical patients from the Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR). We calculated the proportion that died within 90 days of surgery. The discriminatory power of both scores was assessed by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and an area under the curve (AUC) calculation.
RESULTS: Ninety day mortality was 5% in both groups. AUC values for internal and external validation of NLCA score and validation of Thoracoscore were 0.68 (95% CI 0.63-0.72), 0.60 (95% CI 0.56-0.65) and 0.60 (95% CI 0.54-0.66) respectively. Post-hoc analysis was performed using NLCA records on 15554 surgical patients to derive summary tables for 30 and 90 day mortality, stratified by procedure type, age and performance status.
CONCLUSIONS: Neither score performs well enough to be advocated for individual risk stratification prior to lung cancer surgery. It may be that additional physiological parameters are required; however this is a further project. In the interim we propose the use of our summary tables that provide the real-life range of mortality for lobectomy and pneumonectomy.

Kypreou KP, Stefanaki I, Antonopoulou K, et al.
Prediction of Melanoma Risk in a Southern European Population Based on a Weighted Genetic Risk Score.
J Invest Dermatol. 2016; 136(3):690-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been described as putative risk factors for melanoma. The aim of our study was to validate the most prominent genetic risk loci in an independent Greek melanoma case-control dataset and to assess their cumulative effect solely or combined with established phenotypic risk factors on individualized risk prediction. We genotyped 59 SNPs in 800 patients and 800 controls and tested their association with melanoma using logistic regression analyses. We constructed a weighted genetic risk score (GRSGWS) based on SNPs that showed genome-wide significant (GWS) association with melanoma in previous studies and assessed their impact on risk prediction. Fifteen independent SNPs from 12 loci were significantly associated with melanoma (P < 0.05). Risk score analysis yielded an odds ratio of 1.36 per standard deviation increase of the GRSGWS (P = 1.1 × 10(-7)). Individuals in the highest 20% of the GRSGWS had a 1.88-fold increase in melanoma risk compared with those in the middle quintile. By adding the GRSGWS to a phenotypic risk model, the C-statistic increased from 0.764 to 0.775 (P = 0.007). In summary, the GRSGWS is associated with melanoma risk and achieves a modest improvement in risk prediction when added to a phenotypic risk model.

Sartor H, Lång K, Rosso A, et al.
Measuring mammographic density: comparing a fully automated volumetric assessment versus European radiologists' qualitative classification.
Eur Radiol. 2016; 26(12):4354-4360 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) mammographic density categories are associated with considerable interobserver variability. Automated methods of measuring volumetric breast density may reduce variability and be valuable in risk and mammographic screening stratification. Our objective was to assess agreement of mammographic density by a volumetric method with the radiologists' classification.
METHODS: Eight thousand seven hundred and eighty-two examinations from the Malmö Breast Tomosynthesis Screening Trial were classified according to BI-RADS, 4th Edition. Volumetric breast density was assessed using automated software for 8433 examinations. Agreement between volumetric breast density and BI-RADS was descriptively analyzed. Agreement between radiologists and between categorical volumetric density and BI-RADS was calculated, rendering kappa values.
RESULTS: The observed agreement between BI-RADS scores of different radiologists was 80.9 % [kappa 0.77 (0.76-0.79)]. A spread of volumetric breast density for each BI-RADS category was seen. The observed agreement between categorical volumetric density and BI-RADS scores was 57.1 % [kappa 0.55 (0.53-0.56)].
CONCLUSIONS: There was moderate agreement between volumetric density and BI-RADS scores from European radiologists indicating that radiologists evaluate mammographic density differently than software. The automated method may be a robust and valuable tool; however, differences in interpretation between radiologists and software require further investigation.
KEY POINTS: • Agreement between qualitative and software density measurements has not been frequently studied. • There was substantial agreement between different radiologists´ qualitative density assessments. • There was moderate agreement between software and radiologists' density assessments. • Differences in interpretation between software and radiologists require further investigation.

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