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Europe: Cancer Organisations
Latest Research Publications about cancer in Europe

Europe: Cancer Organisations (31 links)

Latest Research Publications about cancer in Europe

Wegwarth O, Pashayan N, Widschwendter M, Rebitschek FG
Women's perception, attitudes, and intended behavior towards predictive epigenetic risk testing for female cancers in 5 European countries: a cross-sectional online survey.
BMC Public Health. 2019; 19(1):667 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic markers might be used for risk-stratifying cancer screening and prevention programs in the future. Although the clinical utility of consequent epigenetic tests for risk stratification is yet to be proven, successful adoption into clinical practice also requires the public's acceptance of such tests. This cross-sectional online survey study sought to learn for the first time about European women's perceptions, attitudes, and intended behavior regarding a predictive epigenetic test for female cancer (breast, ovarian, cervical, and endometrial) risks.
METHODS: 1675 women (40-75 years) from five European countries (Czech Republic, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Sweden), drawn from online panels by the survey sampling company Harris Interactive (Germany), participated in an online survey where they first received online leaflet information on a predictive epigenetic test for female cancer risks and were subsequently queried by an online questionnaire on their desire to know their female cancer risks, their perception of the benefit-to-harm ratio of an epigenetic test predicting female cancer risks, reasons in favor and disfavor of taking such a test, and their intention to take a predictive epigenetic test for female cancer risks.
RESULTS: Most women desired information on each of their female cancer risks, 56.6% (95% CI: 54.2-59.0) thought the potential benefits outweighed potential harms, and 75% (72.0-77.8) intended to take a predictive epigenetic test for female cancer risks if freely available. Results varied considerably by country with women from Germany and the Czech Republic being more reserved about this new form of testing than women from the other three European countries. The main reason cited in favor of a predictive epigenetic test for female cancer risks was its potential to guide healthcare strategies and lifestyle changes in the future, and in its disfavor was that it may increase cancer worry and coerce unintended lifestyle changes and healthcare interventions.
CONCLUSIONS: A successful introduction of predictive epigenetic tests for cancer risks will require a balanced and transparent communication of the benefit-to-harm ratio of healthcare pathways resulting from such tests in order to curb unjustified expectations and at the same time to prevent unjustified concerns.

Breza J, Subin F, Bernadic M, et al.
The use of European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer calculator as a diagnostic tool for prostate biopsy indication.
Bratisl Lek Listy. 2019; 120(5):331-335 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is a well-known fact, that too many men are having prostate biopsy performed with negative biopsy results. The decision to undertake prostate biopsy is usually based on prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and digital rectal examination (DRE). A risk-based strategy may reduce the numbers of unnecessary prostate biopsies.
METHODS: Retrospective statistical analysis of data from 195 men undergoing their initial prostate biopsy from 1.1.2015 to 31.12.2015 based on elevated PSA ≥ 4.0 ng/ml and/or abnormal DRE were included. Subsequent risk stratification using the European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer calculator (ERSPC) was used with the intent to calculate the accuracy of ERSPC with the aim to avoid unnecessary (negative) prostate biopsies.
RESULTS: The specific values of sensitivity and specificity in this cohort were 94.34 % and 24.72 %. In direct comparison of PSA and ERSPC calculator, the differences between sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and false omission rate as negative were statistically insignificant, but the positive predictive value was on the edge of statistical significance (p = 0.054), slightly in favor for ERSPC calculator.
CONCLUSION: PSA still remains the single most predictive factor for identifying men with an increased risk of prostate cancer to be detected on prostate biopsy, but using other risk factors included in ERSPC can considerably reduce the numbers of unnecessary biopsies on initial screening (Tab. 4, Fig. 2, Ref. 23).

Dolmans MM, Lambertini M, Macklon KT, et al.
EUropean REcommendations for female FERtility preservation (EU-REFER): A joint collaboration between oncologists and fertility specialists.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2019; 138:233-240 [PubMed] Related Publications
In recent years, following the improved prognosis of patients with cancer, interest and attention has grown around fertility issues in these patients. International guidelines on fertility preservation in patients with cancer recommend that physicians discuss with all patients of reproductive age (or their parents/guardians, if children) the risk of infertility arising from their cancer or its treatment. Oncofertility counselling is recommended at the earliest opportunity and prior to cancer treatment, to help patients make informed decisions on pursuing fertility preservation. Currently, however, such discussions are not being routinely held. In June 2017, an esteemed group of European oncofertility experts met to discuss current unfulfilled needs in oncofertility for female cancer patients. This expert group has produced here a number of key recommendations in order to guide oncologists, haematologists, and other involved professionals with oncofertility discussions and appropriate referrals for further fertility preservation counselling and follow-up.

Deans ZC, Butler R, Cheetham M, et al.
IQN path ASBL report from the first European cfDNA consensus meeting: expert opinion on the minimal requirements for clinical ctDNA testing.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 474(6):681-689 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Liquid biopsy testing is a new laboratory-based method that detects tumour mutations in circulating free DNA (cfDNA) derived from minimally invasive blood sampling techniques. Recognising the significance for clinical testing, in 2017, IQN Path provided external quality assessment for liquid biopsy testing. Representatives of those participating laboratories were invited to attend a workshop to discuss the findings and how to achieve quality implementation of cfDNA testing in the clinical setting, the discussion and outcomes of this consensus meeting are described below. Predictive molecular profiling using tumour tissue in order to select cancer patients eligible for targeted therapy is now routine in diagnostic pathology. If insufficient tumour tissue material is available, in some circumstances, recent European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidance recommends mutation testing with plasma cfDNA. Clinical applications of cfDNA include treatment selection based on clinically relevant mutations derived from pre-treatment samples and the detection of resistant mutations upon progression of the disease. In order to identify tumour-related mutations in amongst other nucleic acid material found in plasma samples, highly sensitive laboratory methods are needed. In the workshop, we discussed the variable approaches taken with regard to cfDNA extraction methods, the tests, and considered the impact of false-negative test results. We explored the lack of standardisation of complex testing procedures ranging from plasma collection, transport, processing and storage, cfDNA extraction, and mutation analysis, to interpretation and reporting of results. We will also address the current status of clinical validation and clinical utility, and its use in current diagnosis. This workshop revealed a need for guidelines on with standardised procedures for clinical cfDNA testing and reporting, and a requirement for cfDNA-based external quality assessment programs.

Würfel FM, Winterhalter C, Trenkwalder P, et al.
European Patent in Immunoncology: From Immunological Principles of Implantation to Cancer Treatment.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The granted European patent EP 2 561 890 describes a procedure for an immunological treatment of cancer. It is based on the principles of the HLA-supported communication of implantation and pregnancy. These principles ensure that the embryo is not rejected by the mother. In pregnancy, the placenta, more specifically the trophoblast, creates an "interface" between the embryo/fetus and the maternal immune system. Trophoblasts do not express the "original" HLA identification of the embryo/fetus (HLA-A to -DQ), but instead show the non-classical HLA groups E, F, and G. During interaction with specific receptors of NK cells (e.g., killer-immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR)) and lymphocytes (lymphocyte-immunoglobulin-like receptors (LIL-R)), the non-classical HLA groups inhibit these immunocompetent cells outside pregnancy. However, tumors are known to be able to express these non-classical HLA groups and thus make use of an immuno-communication as in pregnancies. If this occurs, the prognosis usually worsens. This patent describes, in a first step, the profiling of the non-classical HLA groups in primary tumor tissue as well as metastases and recurrent tumors. The second step comprises tailored antibody therapies, which is the subject of this patent. In this review, we analyze the underlying mechanisms and describe the currently known differences between HLA-supported communication of implantation and that of tumors.

Ortmann O, Torode J, Harrison C, et al.
Research driving innovation: what are key factors for successful integration of translational science into oncology care concepts? 5th European Roundtable Meeting (ERTM) May 4th, 2018, Berlin, Germany.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(6):1521-1525 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To identify key factors for successful integration of translational science into cancer care.
RESULTS: Organisation of the health care system matters to optimally bridge between public and private cancer research, cancer registries and routine care. Currently, there are deficits on various levels of connectivity. These hamper rapid and optimal transfer of innovation.
CONCLUSION: To overcome the deficits, strategies of data sharing and infrastructures allowing fast-track implementation of translational research findings into routine care need to be developed.

Koutras A, Tsilikis I, Syllaios A, et al.
Changes in the incidence of breast cancer due to the use of radioactive materials for warfare or nuclear and environmental accidents over the last 60 years in Europe and Asia.
J BUON. 2019 Jan-Feb; 24(1):5-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
This article investigates the possibility and the extent of breast cancer rates being higher in European and Asian countries that have been damaged by warfare or nuclear accidents and the use of chemical weapons in relation to the rest of the countries in those two continents. After a literature review, although there are gaps in the local reports of the responsible bodies as well as many economic, geopolitical, cultural and time constraints, the rates of breast cancer incidence and mortality of the citizens of those areas are significant and have been increasing over time, especially in people of older ages, who were exposed to various disease factors at each specific period of time.

Möbius S, Schenk T, Himsel D, et al.
Results of the European survey on the assessment of deep molecular response in chronic phase CML patients during tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy (EUREKA registry).
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(6):1645-1650 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapies has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommends quantification of BCR-ABL1 transcripts by real-time quantitative PCR every 3 months during TKI treatment. Since a proportion of patients in deep molecular response (DMR: MR
METHODS: Data were collected on the standardized assessment of molecular response in the context of real-life practice. BCR-ABL1 transcript levels after > 2 years of TKI therapy were evaluated for DMR by local laboratories as well as standardized EUTOS laboratories. Since standardized molecular monitoring is a prerequisite for treatment discontinuation, central surveillance of the performance of the participating laboratories was carried out.
RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2017, 3377 peripheral blood samples from 1117 CML patients were shipped to 11 standardized reference laboratories in six European countries. BCR-ABL1 transcript types were b3a2 (41.63%), b2a2 (29.99%), b2a2/b3a2 (3.58%) and atypical (0.54%). For 23.72% of the patients, the initial transcript type had not been reported. Response levels (EUTOS laboratory) were: no MMR, n = 197 (6.51%); MMR, n = 496 (16.40%); MR
CONCLUSIONS: Multicenter DMR assessment is feasible in the context of real-life clinical practice in Europe. Information on the BCR-ABL1 transcript type at diagnosis is crucial to accurately monitor patients' molecular response during or after TKI therapy.

Barret E, Ganzer R, Salomon G, et al.
Future of focal therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer- european section of urotechnology (ESUT) position.
Arch Esp Urol. 2019; 72(2):167-173 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Focal therapy (FT) is a treatment option for prostate cancer (PCa), which offers the possibility of an effective therapy in selected patients who have the localized disease, with a significant reduction in treatment related morbidity. Based on the current status of FT, our objective was to determine the most appropriate strategy to improve patient management.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature review was done performed through the PubMed database and focused on the following topics: localised prostate cancer,MRI, prostate biopsies, ablative therapy and focal therapy.
RESULTS: Indications for FT were mainly patients with a localised PCa, a single lesion at Gleason score 7 (3+4) (Grade group 2) favourable in size. Precise identification of the tumour, currently based on multiparametric MRI data and targeted biopsy, was the cornerstone of FT success. New imaging modalities such as PET/MRI and multiparametric ultrasound have proven to be effectivein detecting and targeting the tumour. Several energy sources were reported for an effective tissue ablation. Non-thermal option should be investigated to further limit the risk of side effects with the same cancer control.
CONCLUSION: Focal therapy is a new option in the armamentarium of PCa. Technological improvements and the development of novel energy sources should make it possible to treat lesions with even greater precision, while limiting the risk of side effects. In the future, we should probably be able to effectively expand the indications of this technique to include more aggressive tumours.

Giganti F, Stabile A, Moore CM
Magnetic resonance imaging and prostate cancer: Perspectives from the UK, Europe and USA.
Arch Esp Urol. 2019; 72(2):135-141 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is yet no international consensus on the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for prostate cancer diagnosis, with different uses in different health care systems around the world. In this report we will discuss the use of mpMRI in the United Kingdom, Europe and in the United States of America, comparing the most important guidelines and major papers over the last few years.

Wood R, Taylor-Stokes G
Cost burden associated with advanced non-small cell lung cancer in Europe and influence of disease stage.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):214 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although evidence suggests that stage of disease may influence costs associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), there remains a relative paucity of data on the financial burden incurred directly by patients and their informal caregivers as they progress through the disease course. As part of a large, cross-sectional study of the "real-world" humanistic and financial burden of advanced NSCLC in Europe, an analysis was conducted to quantify the cost burden of disease from a patient and caregiver perspective, and to evaluate how stage of disease impacts these costs.
METHODS: Financial data were collected (May 2015-June 2016) during a multinational (France, Germany, and Italy) cross-sectional study of adults with advanced NSCLC (stage IIIB-IV) and their informal (unpaid) caregivers. Data were obtained via medical chart reviews and patient/caregiver self-completion forms. Costs were annualized and unadjusted or adjusted for government financial support. Statistical significance was assessed using Mann-Whitney U tests.
RESULTS: One thousand thirty patients and 427 accompanying caregivers were recruited and asked to provide cost data. Mean total unadjusted direct and indirect out-of-pocket expenses were €5691 for patients and €4125 for caregivers; after adjusting for government financial support, values were €2644 and €3477. Mean wage losses were significantly higher for patients with stage IV vs IIIB NSCLC (€2282 vs €499; p = 0.0135) as were unadjusted direct out-of-pocket expenses (€4020 vs €1546; p = 0.0306). For caregivers, a similar but non-significant trend was observed. Mean total unadjusted direct and indirect out-of-pocket costs were numerically higher for stage IV vs IIIB NSCLC among patients (€5925 vs €3528) and caregivers (€4319 vs €2232); government financial support normalized patient costs, but they remained numerically higher for stage IV disease among caregivers.
CONCLUSIONS: The financial burden of advanced NSCLC is considerable and appears to be influenced by stage of disease, with direct and indirect costs increasing as the disease progresses. Government financial support programmes appear to mitigate additional cost burdens among patients, but not among caregivers.

Wood R, Taylor-Stokes G, Smith F, Chaib C
The humanistic burden of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Europe: a real-world survey linking patient clinical factors to patient and caregiver burden.
Qual Life Res. 2019; 28(7):1849-1861 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) impacts the lives of patients and their caregivers. This analysis examined the association between patient clinical characteristics and patient and caregiver humanistic burden.
METHODS: Data for patients with aNSCLC and their informal caregivers in France, Germany and Italy, were collected between May 2015 and June 2016 via chart review and patient and caregiver surveys. Patients and caregivers completed validated instruments to evaluate their health state (EuroQol-5-dimensions-3-levels [EQ-5D-3L]), work and activity impairment (Work Productivity Activity Impairment [WPAI]) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; European Organisation for Research and treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire [EORTC QLQ-C30]). Caregivers also completed the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). Univariate and regression analyses were stratified by patient Eastern Cooperative Group Performance Status (ECOG-PS 0, 1, 2 or 3/4).
RESULTS: In total, 1030 patients and 427 accompanying informal caregivers participated. Regression analyses indicated that patients reported lower EQ-5D-3L utility index, EQ-VAS and EORTC QLQ-C30 global health status and greater work and activity impairment with worsening ECOG-PS (all p < 0.05). Caregivers also reported greater activity impairment and higher ZBI scores with worsening ECOG-PS of the patient they were providing care for (all p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: As patients' functionality deteriorates as measured by the ECOG-PS, so do their outcomes related to health utility, work productivity, activity impairment and HRQoL. This deterioration is also reflected in increased caregiver burden and activity impairment. There is a need for interventions to maintain patients' physical function to relieve the humanistic burden of both patients and caregivers.

Bada M, Berardinelli F, Nyiràdy P, et al.
Adherence to the EAU guidelines on Penile Cancer Treatment: European, multicentre, retrospective study.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(4):921-926 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines for penile cancer (PC) are exclusively based on retrospective studies and have low grades of recommendation. The aim of this study was to assess the adherence to guidelines by investigating the management strategies for primary tumours and inguinal lymph nodes.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 176 PC patients who underwent surgery in eight European centres from 2010 to 2016. The stage and grade were assessed according to the 2009 AJCC-UICC TNM classification system. To assess adherence rates, we compared theoretical and practical adherence to the EAU guidelines.
RESULTS: Overall, 176 patients were enrolled. Partial amputation was the most frequent surgical approach (39%). 53.7% of tumours were stage Tis-T1b and the remaining 46.3% were stage T2-T4. Palpable lymph nodes were detected in 30.1% of patients and 45.1% underwent lymphadenectomy (LY). A sizeable group of tumours (43.2%) were N0. For primary treatment, adherence to the EAU guidelines was good (66%). In non-adherent cases, reasons for discrepancy were patient's choice (17%), surgeon's preference (36%), and other causes (47%). For LY, the guideline adherence was 70%, with either patient's or surgeon's choice or other causes accounting for discrepancy in 28, 20, and 52% of non-adherent cases, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Adherence to the EAU guidelines for PC was quite high across the eight European centres involved in the study. This notwithstanding, strategies for further improvement should be developed and evenly adopted.

Krensel M, Schäfer I, Augustin M
Cost-of-illness of melanoma in Europe - a modelling approach.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2019; 33 Suppl 2:34-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma is accounting for the vast majority of skin cancer death. The treatment and productivity loss due to morbidity or premature mortality are associated with costs for society. There are few cost-of-illness (COI) studies on malignant melanoma in European countries from societal perspective and currently there is no publication analysing the COI in all European countries.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to comparatively estimate COI of malignant melanoma in the European countries based on an identical approach.
METHODS: Cost information was obtained from results of a systematic literature research. For countries with no available cost information, a model for imputation of cost data was developed. Country-specific costs were modelled on the national gross domestic product, health expenditures, gross national income and epidemiological data. The adjustment for purchasing power parity allowed a comparison across countries.
RESULTS: Crude national costs of malignant melanoma ranged between € 1.1 million in Iceland and € 543.8 million in Germany and resulted in € 2.7 billion for all EU/EFTA states. Estimated crude costs per patient were lowest in Bulgaria (€ 6422) and highest in Luxembourg (€ 50 734). The share of direct costs varied from 3% to 26% across countries. After adjustment for the purchasing power parity costs per patient ranged between € 14 420 in Bulgaria and € 50 961 in Cyprus. Treatment expenses and morbidity costs were markedly lower for countries that entered the EU since 2004. By contrast, mortality costs were lower in countries with a high gross domestic product per capita.
CONCLUSION: In this first estimation, malignant melanoma induces relevant COI in Europe. There was large variation in the costs per patient due to different health care systems and expenses. Beyond decreasing patient burden, early intervention and prevention of melanoma could have a relevant potential to save costs across Europe.

Suppa M, Gandini S, Njimi H, et al.
Prevalence and determinants of sunbed use in thirty European countries: data from the Euromelanoma skin cancer prevention campaign.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2019; 33 Suppl 2:13-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although considered as a first-group carcinogen, indoor tanning is a common practice in Europe. Euromelanoma is a pan-European skin cancer prevention campaign.
OBJECTIVES: To compare several European countries in terms of the prevalence and determinants of sunbed use.
METHODS: Participants in the Euromelanoma campaigns filled in questionnaires containing demographics and risk factors, including type/duration of sunbed use. Multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, education, skin type and year of survey were employed to assess factors independently associated with sunbed use in each country.
RESULTS: In total, 227 888 individuals (67.4% females, median age 44, 63.4% highly educated, 71.9% skin types III-VI) from 30 countries participated. Overall, the prevalence of sunbed ever use was 10.6% (≤19-year-olds: 5.9%; 20 to 35-year-olds: 17.0%; >35-year-olds: 8.3%). Females displayed a higher prevalence than males in all countries. Balkan countries displayed the highest female/male ratios (≥4). Sunbed use was significantly more prevalent among skin type III-VI (14/30 countries) and highly educated participants (11/30 countries). Significant correlations were found between sunbed use prevalence and countries' latitude (P < 0.001) and sunshine (P = 0.002); Italy and Spain represented exceptions towards excessive exposure. Very different prevalence rates were found for Spain (19.3%) and Portugal (2.0%). Scandinavian countries ranked highest in sunbed use among ≤19-year-olds, Baltic countries among 20 to 35-year-olds.
CONCLUSIONS: Sunbed use prevalence was higher in northern, sun-deprived countries, with the exception of Italy and Spain. The main determinants of sunbed use were age (young adults) and gender (females), whereas education and skin type had a less relevant effect. Geographic particularities were found in four regions: Iberian (prevalence ten times higher in Spain than Portugal), Balkan (prevalence disproportionately higher among women), Baltic (highest prevalence among young adults) and Scandinavian (highest prevalence among adolescents). These data have public health relevance for future interventions aimed at reducing sunbed use in Europe.

Longo MI, Bulliard JL, Correia O, et al.
Sunbed use legislation in Europe: assessment of current status.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2019; 33 Suppl 2:89-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The use of UV-emitting tanning devices for cosmetic purposes is associated with an increased risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Young women are the most frequent users, therefore, there is an increasing concern about the regulation of sunbed use.
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to assess the current legislation on sunbed use among European countries.
METHODS: We developed a 30-item questionnaire to gather the most relevant information about sunbed use legislation. The questionnaire was sent to Euromelanoma coordinators and to designated coordinators out of the Euromelanoma network.
RESULTS: We obtained a response rate of 64%. More than 25% of the countries did not report any specific legislation. Roughly one-third of the countries does not have a restriction for minors. Even in countries with a specific legislation, a lack or insufficient enforcement of age limit was observed in up to 100% of the inspections based on the PROSAFE report from 2012. Self-tanning devices were reported in 50%, and almost 40% of countries do not require supervision of use. Although a warning display is required in 77% of cases, a signed informed consent is not required in 80%. In the vast majority of cases, the number of licensed or closed tanning centres is unknown.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the evidence of its harmful effects, and its frequent use by young people, many of whom are at high risk of skin cancer because of fair skin, a significant number of European countries lack a specific legislation on tanning devices. In order to limit the access of young people to sunbeds, a more strictly enforced regulation is needed, as well as regulation regarding advertisement, and location of tanning centres, in addition to health promotion campaigns that target the vulnerable population of young women seeking its use for improved cosmesis.

Del Colombo L, Vasile O
Actions taken by the European commission to address the safety of sunbeds.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2019; 33 Suppl 2:110-111 [PubMed] Related Publications
The safety of sunbed, especially when it comes to protecting young and vulnerable consumers, is a key concern that the Directorate-General for Health and Consumers has been trying to address in various ways. This document presents a brief overview of activities undertaken at European level to address the main concerns related to the use of this product.

Krensel M, Schäfer I, Augustin M
Modelling first-year cost-of-illness of melanoma attributable to sunbed use in Europe.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2019; 33 Suppl 2:46-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is a life-threatening disease of the skin with an increasing incidence of approximately 87 000 new cases treated per year in the European Union and the European Free Trade Association states resulting in considerable costs for the society. Since the use of sunbeds is known to be a risk factor, which can be easily avoided, costs of malignant melanoma attributable to sunbed use are modelled in the present study.
METHODS: Costs-of-illness of melanoma were calculated and compared for all member states of the European Union and the European Free Trade Association states using an established modelling approach. Calculations were based on a systematic literature research. For countries with no available information on cost-of-illness the gross domestic product, health expenditures and gross national income served as a basis for extrapolation of costs. International comparison was enabled by adjusting costs by the national purchasing power parity.
RESULTS: After adjusting melanoma treatment costs for the purchasing power parity, direct costs per patient vary between € 1056 in Romania and € 10 215 in Luxembourg. Costs due to morbidity range from € 102 per patient in Sweden and € 5178 in the UK resulting in total costs of € 1751-€ 12 611 per patient. Average weighted total costs per patient amount for € 6861-€ 6967 annually. In total, in 2012 approximately 4450 new cases of melanoma have been induced by sunbed use in the 31 included countries, which corresponds to 5.1% of all incident melanoma cases. National attributable melanoma costs range from € 1570 in Malta to € 11.1 million in Germany and sum up to an amount of € 32.5-€ 33.4 million for all countries.
CONCLUSION: This article provides a first estimation on costs of melanoma in Europe. It illustrates the contribution of exposure to artificial ultraviolet light in the economic burden of malignant melanoma.

Suppa M, Gandini S, Bulliard JL, et al.
Who, why, where: an overview of determinants of sunbed use in Europe.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2019; 33 Suppl 2:6-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although exposure to indoor tanning has been established as a clear risk factor for skin cancer, sunbeds are still commonly used in Europe. Understanding the determinants of sunbed use in Europe is key to plan educational interventions, behavioural strategies and legislative measures, which should be tailored to subgroups with different risk profiles. Evidences show that the typical sunbed users in Europe are young-adult women, with intermediate skin type, a current employment and a medium/high socio-economic status. Typical users display sun-seeking behaviours and other risky behaviours such as smoking. Indoor tanning seems more common in northern than southern Europe. However, sunbed use remains common in fair-skinned individuals and among adolescents/pre-adolescents. Commonly reported reasons for sunbed use in Europe include aesthetic motives (i.e. looking attractive), the pursue of a prevacation tan, the influence of peers/parents engaging in the same habit, and the treatment of health conditions. The most commonly reported places to get an artificial tan in Europe are tanning studios and beauty salons. However, sunbeds are also available in sport venues, such as swimming pools and gyms, hotels and private houses. All these factors should be taken into account when planning educational, behavioural and legislative interventions to reduce the popularity of artificial tanning in Europe.

Suppa M, Gandini S, Njimi H, et al.
Association of sunbed use with skin cancer risk factors in Europe: an investigation within the Euromelanoma skin cancer prevention campaign.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2019; 33 Suppl 2:76-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Sunbed use has been significantly associated with increased risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), but its relationship with melanoma's risk factors such as high nevus count, atypical nevi and lentigines is poorly studied. Euromelanoma is a skin cancer prevention campaign conducted all over Europe. It offers a once-a-year screening during which participants' data, including sunbed use and phenotype, are collected via questionnaires.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of sunbed use with nevus count, atypical nevi, lentigines and suspicion of skin cancer.
METHODS: To ensure reliability of the data, we defined inclusion and exclusion criteria for countries' eligibility for the risk analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models (including age, gender, education, skin type, family history of melanoma, personal history of skin cancer, any sun exposure and any sunscreen use) were used to calculate summary odds ratios (SORs) of each clinical endpoint for ever sunbed use.
RESULTS: Overall, 227 888 individuals from 30 countries completed the Euromelanoma questionnaire. After the data quality check, 16 countries were eligible for the multivariate analysis, for a total of 145 980 participants (64.8% females; median age 43 years; 62.3% highly educated; 28.5% skin type I-II; 11.0% ever sunbed use). Ever sunbed use was independently associated with nevus count >50 [SOR = 1.05 (1.01-1.10)], atypical nevi [SOR = 1.04 (1.00-1.09)], lentigines [SOR = 1.16 (1.04-1.29)] and suspicion of melanoma [SOR = 1.13 (1.00-1.27)]. Conversely, no significant association was found between ever sunbed use and suspicion of NMSC [SOR = 1.00 (0.91-1.10)].
CONCLUSIONS: Indoor tanning is significantly associated with well-recognized risk factors for melanoma (including high nevus count, presence of atypical nevi and lentigines) as well as suspicion of melanoma within the Euromelanoma screenees. In order to reduce the prevalence of melanoma risk factors, avoidance/discontinuation of sunbed use should always be encouraged, especially but not exclusively for individuals with high-risk phenotypes.

Calzavara-Pinton PG, Arisi M, Wolf P
Sunbeds and carcinogenesis: the need for new regulations and restrictions in Europe from the Euromelanoma perspective.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2019; 33 Suppl 2:104-109 [PubMed] Related Publications
Experimental investigations have definitely assessed that ultraviolet A (UVA) as well as ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation induce mutagenic DNA photoproducts and other cell damages with a carcinogenic potential. Artificial tanning increases significantly the lifetime risk for basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma particularly in subjects with fair skin type, subjects with a history of skin cancer or frequent childhood sunburn or if exposures took place at an age younger than 18 years. In addition, experimental and clinical evidence indicate that UVA exposure promotes skin photoageing. Therefore we are dealing with a recreational activity (for customers) and a profitable business (for the tanning industry) with human costs, i.e. an increase in morbidity and mortality by skin cancer, and health and social costs leading to an increased expenditure by the European national health systems. In a few European countries, legislation has recently prohibited the use of sunbeds for minors, pregnant women, people with skin cancer or a history of skin cancer and individuals who do not tan or who burn easily from sun exposure. However, this legislation seems to be insufficient from a photobiological perspective, and importantly, it is largely disregarded by consumers and tanning industry. Therefore the Euromelanoma group proposes a new, more stringent regulation for the tanning industry and restrictions for customers, particularly for those individuals with constitutional and anamnestic risk factors. Finally, we ask for an enhanced commitment to increase the awareness of the general population on the risk of artificial tanning.

Thorlacius H, Rönnow CF, Toth E
European experience of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection: a systematic review of clinical efficacy and safety.
Acta Oncol. 2019; 58(sup1):S10-S14 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an advanced method allowing en bloc resection of large and complex lesions in colon and rectum. Herein, the European experience of colorectal ESD was systematically reviewed in the medical literature to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of colorectal ESD in Europe.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed for full-text studies including more than 20 cases of colorectal ESD emanating from European centres was performed. Data were independently extracted by two authors using predefined data fields, including efficacy and safety.
RESULTS: We included 15 studies containing a total of 1404 colorectal ESD cases (41% in the colon) performed between 2007 and 2018. Lesion size was 40 mm (range 24-59 mm) and procedure time was 102 min (range 48-176 min). En bloc resection rate was 83% (range 67-93%) and R0 resection rate was 70% (range 35-91%). Perforation rate was 7% (range 0-19%) and bleeding rate was 5% (range 0-12%). The percentage of ESD cases undergoing emergency surgery was 2% (range 0-6%). Additional elective surgery was performed in 3% of all cases due to histopathological findings showing deep submucosal invasion or more advanced cancer. The recurrence rate was 4% (range 0-12%) after a median follow-up time of 12 months (range 3-24 months).
CONCLUSIONS: This review shows that ESD is effective and safe for treating large and complex colorectal lesions in Europe although there is room for improvement. Thus, it is important to develop standardized and high-quality educational programs in colorectal ESD in Europe.

Keppens C, Dufraing K, van Krieken HJ, et al.
European follow-up of incorrect biomarker results for colorectal cancer demonstrates the importance of quality improvement projects.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 475(1):25-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Biomarker analysis for colorectal cancer has been shown to be reliable in Europe with 97% of samples tested by EQA participants to be correctly classified. This study focuses on errors during the annual EQA assessment. The aim was to explore the causes and actions related to the observed errors and to provide feedback and assess any improvement between 2016 and 2017. An electronic survey was sent to all laboratories with minimum one genotyping error or technical failure on ten tumor samples. A workshop was organized based on 2016 survey responses. Improvement of performance in 2017 was assessed for returning participants (n = 76), survey respondents (n = 13) and workshop participants (n = 4). Survey respondents and workshop participants improved in terms of (maximum) analysis score, successful participation, and genotyping errors compared to all returning participants. In 2016, mostly pre- and post-analytical errors (both 25%) were observed caused by unsuitability of the tumor tissue for molecular analysis. In 2017, most errors were due to analytical problems (50.0%) caused by methodological problems. The most common actions taken (n = 58) were protocol revisions (34.5%) and staff training (15.5%). In 24.1% of issues identified no action was performed. Corrective actions were linked to an improved performance, especially if performed by the pathologist. Although biomarker testing has improved over time, error occurrence at different phases stresses the need for quality improvement throughout the test process. Participation to quality improvement projects and a close collaboration with the pathologist can have a positive influence on performance.

Maschmeyer G, De Greef J, Mellinghoff SC, et al.
Infections associated with immunotherapeutic and molecular targeted agents in hematology and oncology. A position paper by the European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL).
Leukemia. 2019; 33(4):844-862 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A multitude of new agents for the treatment of hematologic malignancies has been introduced over the past decade. Hematologists, infectious disease specialists, stem cell transplant experts, pulmonologists and radiologists have met within the framework of the European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL) to provide a critical state-of-the-art on infectious complications associated with immunotherapeutic and molecular targeted agents used in clinical routine. For brentuximab vedotin, blinatumomab, CTLA4- and PD-1/PD-L1-inhibitors as well as for ibrutinib, idelalisib, HDAC inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, ruxolitinib, and venetoclax, a detailed review of data available until August 2018 has been conducted, and specific recommendations for prophylaxis, diagnostic and differential diagnostic procedures as well as for clinical management have been developed.

Gutzmer R, Harrington KJ, Hoeller C, et al.
Practical clinical guide on the use of talimogene laherparepvec monotherapy in patients with unresectable melanoma in Europe.
Eur J Dermatol. 2018; 28(6):736-749 [PubMed] Related Publications
Talimogene laherparepvec, a herpes simplex virus type 1-based intralesional oncolytic immunotherapy, is approved in Europe for the treatment of adults with unresectable stage IIIB-IVM1a melanoma, with no bone, brain, lung or other visceral disease. It has direct oncolytic effects in injected lesions, leading to the release of tumour-derived antigens and systemic immune effects mediated by the induction of anti-tumour immunity, which is enhanced by the production of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Responses (which occur in >40% of stage IIIB-IVM1a patients) are often durable (>50% last ≥6 months) and occur in injected and uninjected lesions (in stage IIIB-IVM1c patients, 64%/34% of evaluable injected/uninjected non-visceral lesions, respectively, decreased in size by ≥50%). As with other immunotherapies, responses may be delayed or can arise after pseudoprogression. The pattern of treatment-emergent adverse events is distinct, being mostly grade 1/2, easy to manage, and rarely leading to treatment discontinuation. Systemic therapy represents the backbone of care for many metastatic melanoma patients. Nonetheless, the potential for durable locoregional control with a locally injected agent may make talimogene laherparepvec suitable for selected patients with stage IIIB/C disease, for whom surgery is not possible (e.g. with in-transit metastases, multiple melanoma lesions at different body sites, or those relapsing rapidly after repeated rounds of surgery) and slowly progressing disease. Here, we discuss which patients could be suitable for talimogene laherparepvec monotherapy based on the European indication, review the patterns/timing of response, and discuss the incidence/management of adverse events. Its potential use combined with immune checkpoint inhibitors is also discussed.

Miedl H, Lebhard J, Ehart L, Schreiber M
Association of the
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
SNP309T>G (rs2279744) and SNP285G>C (rs117039649) in the

Araya LT, Gebretekle GB, Gebremariam GT, Fenta TG
Reliability and validity of the Amharic version of European Organization for Research and Treatment of cervical Cancer module for the assessment of health related quality of life in women with cervical cancer in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2019; 17(1):13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is among the leading gynecological cancers affecting women worldwide. Maintenance and improvement of cervical cancer patients'health related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important issue. The cervical cancer specific quality of life module of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-CX24) is the most commonly used tool, however, it is not validated in Ethiopia. Hence, the present study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the tool among Ethiopian cervical cancer patients.
METHODS: Hospital based cross-sectional study was done in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from January to February, 2018. The module was translated through forward-backward translation approach and pilot tested according to the EORTC Guidelines. One hundered and seventy one patients with confirmed cervical cancer were enrolled for the study. Amharic versions of EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-CX24 were used to collect data along with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Descriptive statistics were used to assess socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients. The Psychometric properties of the EORTC QLQ-CX24 were evaluated in terms of acceptability, internal consistency, construct, concurrent and known group validity using SPSS version 22.
RESULTS: One hundred seventy one cervical cancer patients were enrolled in the study, with a mean age of 52.15 ± 10.4 years. The EORTC QLQ-CX24 was found to be acceptable with high compliance and low missing responses. The Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.70-0.84, indicating the reliability of the scales. Convergent and discriminant validity in multitrait scaling analysis was adequate. The EORTC QLQ-C30 subscales and EORTC QLQ-CX24 subscales had a weak to strong correlation, indicating concurrent validity. The scales and single-item measures were able to discriminate between subgroups of patients differing with regard to performance status, cancer stage and treatment status, indicating clinical validity.
CONCLUSION: Amharic version of the EORTC QLQ-CX24 questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool and could be used for clinical and epidemiological cancer researches to study the HRQoL of patients with cervical cancer in Ethiopia.

Rubio IT, Wyld L, Esgueva A, et al.
Variability in breast cancer surgery training across Europe: An ESSO-EUSOMA international survey.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2019; 45(4):567-572 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: At present there is a lack of standardization of training in breast cancer surgery across Europe. The aim of this survey was to assess current practice in Europe regarding training in breast cancer (BC) surgery.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: General surgeons, surgical oncologists, gynecologist, and plastic surgeons in Europe were invited to participate in this bespoke survey including 19 questions.
RESULTS: The survey was sent to 3.000 surgical oncologists across Europe. A total of 671 physicians (387 general surgeons, 152 gynecologists, 126 surgical oncologist, 31 plastic surgeons) answered the survey (23% response rate). Four hundred and sixty-eight physicians devoted between 50% -100% of their job to treating breast cancer. 45% worked in a community/University hospital within a dedicated Breast Unit. Specific additional breast surgery training was not universal: 20% had undertaken an accredited breast fellowship, 30% in a Breast Unit as a trainee, 21% had done additional courses, masters or diploma and 8% had not done any additional training. The majority (61%) of respondents worked in Units treating >150 BC cases per year, while 26% of the responders treat >120 new primary cases per year, and 23% less than 50 new cases a year. Multivariate analysis showed that breast surgeons working in a Breast Unit and treating more than 50 cases/year significantly performed oncoplastic procedures.
CONCLUSION: There is a great variability in breast cancer surgery training in Europe. It is imperative to develop quality standards for breast cancer surgery training to ensure that patients get standardized and certified surgical management regardless of the country in which they are treated.

Prendeville S, Berney DM, Bubendorf L, et al.
Handling and reporting of pelvic lymphadenectomy specimens in prostate and bladder cancer: a web-based survey by the European Network of Uropathology.
Histopathology. 2019; 74(6):844-852 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Pathological evaluation of lymphadenectomy specimens plays a pivotal role in accurate lymph node (LN) staging. Guidelines standardising the gross handling and reporting of pelvic LN dissection (PLND) in prostate (PCa) and bladder (BCa) cancer are currently lacking. This study aimed to establish current practice patterns of PLND evaluation among pathologists.
METHODS AND RESULTS: A web-based survey was circulated to all members of the European Network of Uropathology (ENUP), comprising 29 questions focusing on the macroscopic handling, LN enumeration and reporting of PLND in PCa and BCa. Two hundred and eighty responses were received from pathologists throughout 23 countries. Only LNs palpable at grossing were submitted by 58%, while 39% routinely embedded the entire specimen. Average LN yield from PLND was ≥10 LNs in 56% and <10 LNs in 44%. Serial section(s) and immunohistochemistry were routinely performed on LN blocks by 42% and <1% of respondents, respectively. To designate a LN microscopically, 91% required a capsule/subcapsular sinus. In pN+ cases, 72% reported the size of the largest metastatic deposit and 94% reported extranodal extension. Isolated tumour cells were interpreted as pN1 by 77%. Deposits identified in fat without associated lymphoid tissue were reported as tumour deposits (pN0) by 36% and replaced LNs (pN+) by 27%. LNs identified in periprostatic fat were included in the PLND LN count by 69%.
CONCLUSION: This study highlights variations in practice with respect to the gross sampling and microscopic evaluation of PLND in urological malignancies. A consensus protocol may provide a framework for more consistent and standardised reporting of PLND specimens.

Gramaticu IM, Croitoru AE
Current Management of Gastric Cancer in Europe.
Chirurgia (Bucur). 2018 Nov-Dec; 113(6):758-764 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one the most common maligancies and a considerable health problem throughout the world. Multimodal approach, encompassing both radical surgery and perioperative chemotherapy provides the best chance to cure resectable gastric cancer. Data originating from well-conducted randomized trials demonstrate that chemotherapy improves survival in patients with metastatic disease. During the last years, two targeted therapies have been approved in metastatic setting. Based on promising clinical trials results, it is expected for the near future that immunotherapy to be incorporated in the multimodal treatment of gastric cancer.

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