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Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Nordic Countries, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, Ukraine

Europe: cancer statistics from IARC GlobalCan (2012)

Population in 2012: 741.3m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 3,442,300
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 255.4
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:25.8%
People dying from cancer /yr: 1,755,800

European Cancer Organisisations

Europe: Cancer Organisations
Latest Research Publications about cancer in Europe

Europe: Cancer Organisations (31 links)

Latest Research Publications about cancer in Europe

Baccarani M, Castagnetti F, Gugliotta G, Rosti G
A review of the European LeukemiaNet recommendations for the management of CML.
Ann Hematol. 2015; 94 Suppl 2:S141-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several guidelines and recommendations on the management of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have been prepared by several scientific societies. The European LeukemiaNet (ELN) appointed a panel of experts who submitted their recommendations to peer-reviewed scientific journals in 2006, 2009, and 2013. Here, we make a critical review of the last, 2013, ELN recommendations, concerning the use of the five available tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), the evaluation of cytogenetic and molecular response, and the strategy of treatment. Three TKIs (imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib) are recommended first-line. Bosutinib and ponatinib are available second-line; ponatinib is particularly indicated in case of the T315I mutation. Achieving an optimal response, not only for survival but also for a deeper, stable, treatment-free remission, requires a BCR-ABL transcripts level ≤ 10 % at 3 months, ≤ 1 % at 6 months, ≤ 0.1 % at 1 year, and ≤ 0.01 % later on. Molecular monitoring must include mutational analysis in every case of failure. A successful treatment of accelerated and blastic phase requires TKIs, and in many cases also allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Bamia C, Lagiou P, Jenab M, et al.
Fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a multi-centre, European cohort study.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(7):1273-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 31/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vegetable and/or fruit intakes in association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been investigated in case-control studies conducted in specific European countries and cohort studies conducted in Asia, with inconclusive results. No multi-centre European cohort has investigated the indicated associations.
METHODS: In 486,799 men/women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition, we identified 201 HCC cases after 11 years median follow-up. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence for sex-specific quintiles and per 100 g d(-1) increments of vegetable/fruit intakes.
RESULTS: Higher vegetable intake was associated with a statistically significant, monotonic reduction of HCC risk: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71-0.98. This association was consistent in sensitivity analyses with no apparent heterogeneity across strata of HCC risk factors. Fruit intake was not associated with HCC incidence: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92-1.11.
CONCLUSIONS: Vegetable, but not fruit, intake is associated with lower HCC risk with no evidence for heterogeneity of this association in strata of important HCC risk factors. Mechanistic studies should clarify pathways underlying this association. Given that HCC prognosis is poor and that vegetables are practically universally accessible, our results may be important, especially for those at high risk for the disease.

Li K, Hüsing A, Fortner RT, et al.
An epidemiologic risk prediction model for ovarian cancer in Europe: the EPIC study.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(7):1257-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 31/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer has a high case-fatality ratio, largely due to late diagnosis. Epidemiologic risk prediction models could help identify women at increased risk who may benefit from targeted prevention measures, such as screening or chemopreventive agents.
METHODS: We built an ovarian cancer risk prediction model with epidemiologic risk factors from 202,206 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.
RESULTS: Older age at menopause, longer duration of hormone replacement therapy, and higher body mass index were included as increasing ovarian cancer risk, whereas unilateral ovariectomy, longer duration of oral contraceptive use, and higher number of full-term pregnancies were decreasing risk. The discriminatory power (overall concordance index) of this model, as examined with five-fold cross-validation, was 0.64 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57, 0.70). The ratio of the expected to observed number of ovarian cancer cases occurring in the first 5 years of follow-up was 0.90 (293 out of 324, 95% CI: 0.81-1.01), in general there was no evidence for miscalibration.
CONCLUSION: Our ovarian cancer risk model containing only epidemiological data showed modest discriminatory power for a Western European population. Future studies should consider adding informative biomarkers to possibly improve the predictive ability of the model.

Costas L, Infante-Rivard C, Zock JP, et al.
Occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors and lymphoma risk in a multi-centric European study.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(7):1251-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 31/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Incidence rates of lymphoma are usually higher in men than in women, and oestrogens may protect against lymphoma.
METHODS: We evaluated occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) among 2457 controls and 2178 incident lymphoma cases and subtypes from the European Epilymph study.
RESULTS: Over 30 years of exposure to EDCs compared to no exposure was associated with a 24% increased risk of mature B-cell neoplasms (P-trend=0.02). Associations were observed among men, but not women.
CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors seems to be moderately associated with some lymphoma subtypes.

Lista G, Buffi NM, Lughezzani G, et al.
Margin, ischemia, and complications system to report perioperative outcomes of robotic partial nephrectomy: a European Multicenter Observational Study (EMOS project).
Urology. 2015; 85(3):589-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore the margin, ischemia, and complications (MIC) system achievement rate within a population of patients who were treated with robotic partial nephrectomy (RAPN), at 3 different tertiary care centers, and to determine the factors predicting MIC achievement.
METHODS: The study population consisted of 339 patients who underwent RAPN for cT1 renal tumors at 3 centers. Cancer control was defined as the absence of positive surgical margin. Ideal threshold of warm ischemia time (WIT) was considered ≤20 minutes. Safety was defined as the absence of major complications. The achievement of MIC was considered as the fulfillment of all these 3 outcomes. The primary endpoint was to determine the MIC rate in our study population; the secondary endpoint was to detect factors affecting its achievement.
RESULTS: The overall MIC rate was 67%. Median WIT was 17 minutes (range, 7-51 minutes). In 88 cases (26%), WIT was >20 minutes. Positive surgical margins were found in 22 patients (6.5%). Overall postoperative and major complication rates were 14.5% (n = 49) and 3.8% (n = 13). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, continuously coded and categorically coded preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical scores were an independent predictor of MIC achievement (odds ratio, 0.636; confidence interval, 0.436-0.928; P = .019 and odds ratio, 0.098; confidence interval, 0.030-0.326; P <.001).
CONCLUSION: The MIC binary system may represent a useful tool to summarize the achievement of optimal perioperative outcomes of RAPN. In the current population, tumor complexity was significantly associated with MIC achievement.

Santoro R, Mancini P, Carboni F, et al.
Subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer: long term outcomes of Billroth I reconstruction at a single European institute.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2014 Nov-Dec; 61(136):2448-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The role of Billroth I (BI) subtotal gastrectomy (SG) for gastric cancer (GC) remains controversial in Western countries. The aim of the study is to critically analyze the long term outcomes of this procedure in a large single-institution experience.
METHODOLOGY: Between 1990 and 2004, 158 patients underwent BI SG for GC at the Regina Elena Cancer Institute of Rome. Evaluation focused on cancer recurrence of the gastric stump, functional outcome and endoscopic findings.
RESULTS: Actuarial survival rate 10 years after resection in stage I-II was 70.7 per cent. After curative resection, primary cancer of the gastric stump occurred in one patient seven years after resection (0.7 per cent), whereas two patients had early recurrence (1.4 per cent) one and three years postoperatively. There were no oesophageal cancers. In survivors, Visick grades I and II achieved 95 per cent, and postoperative endoscopy showed no evidence of mucosal changes in 85 per cent of the patients. Twelve per cent of the patients took acid blocker regularly, however, the incidence of functional failure was 5 per cent.
CONCLUSIONS: In selected patients, Billroth I subtotal gastrectomy is a safe and effective procedure that provides long-term survival and very good functional outcome.

Kreimer AR, Brennan P, Lang Kuhs KA, et al.
Human papillomavirus antibodies and future risk of anogenital cancer: a nested case-control study in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(8):877-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/03/2016 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) causes cancer at several anatomic sites. In the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study, HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before oropharyngeal cancer diagnosis and was nearly absent in controls. The current study sought to evaluate the extent to which HPV16 E6 antibodies are present before diagnosis of anogenital cancers within the same cohort.
METHODS: Four hundred incident anogenital cancers (273 cervical, 24 anal, 67 vulvar, 12 vaginal, and 24 penile cancers) with prediagnostic blood samples (collected on average 3 and 8 years before diagnosis for cervix and noncervix cancers, respectively) and 718 matched controls were included. Plasma was analyzed for antibodies against HPV16 E6 and multiple other HPV proteins and genotypes and evaluated in relation to risk using unconditional logistic regression.
RESULTS: HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in 29.2% of individuals (seven of 24 individuals) who later developed anal cancer compared with 0.6% of controls (four of 718 controls) who remained cancer free (odds ratio [OR], 75.9; 95% CI, 17.9 to 321). HPV16 E6 seropositivity was less common for cancers of the cervix (3.3%), vagina (8.3%), vulva (1.5%), and penis (8.3%). No associations were seen for non-type 16 HPV E6 antibodies, apart from anti-HPV58 E6 and anal cancer (OR, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 33.1). HPV16 E6 seropositivity tended to increase in blood samples drawn closer in time to cancer diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: HPV16 E6 seropositivity is relatively common before diagnosis of anal cancer but rare for other HPV-related anogenital cancers.

Bach T, Muschter R, Herrmann TR, et al.
Technical solutions to improve the management of non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma: summary of a European Association of Urology Section for Uro-Technology (ESUT) and Section for Uro-Oncology (ESOU) expert meeting and current and future perspectives.
BJU Int. 2015; 115(1):14-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present review was to compare state-of-the-art care and future perspectives for the detection and treatment of non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. We provide a summary of the third expert meeting on 'Optimising the management of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, organized by the European Association of Urology Section for Uro-Technology (ESUT) in collaboration with the Section for Uro-Oncology (ESOU), including a systematic literature review. The article includes a detailed discussion on the current and future perspectives for TCC, including photodynamic diagnosis, optical coherence tomography, narrow band imaging, the Storz Professional Image Enhancement system, magnification and high definition techniques. We also provide a detailed discussion of future surgical treatment options, including en bloc resection and tumour enucleation. Intensive research has been conducted to improve tumour detection and there are promising future perspectives, that require proven clinical efficacy. En bloc resection of bladder tumours may be advantageous, but is currently considered to be experimental.

Tinhofer I, Jöhrens K, Keilholz U, et al.
Contribution of human papilloma virus to the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in a European population with high smoking prevalence.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(4):514-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increases in incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in countries with falling tobacco use have been attributed to a growing role of human papilloma virus (HPV) in the carcinogenesis. Trends of HPV prevalence in populations with persistently high portions of smokers are poorly characterised.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Registry data from East Germany were used to determine incidence trends between 1998 and 2011. Data from patients treated at the Charité University Medicine Berlin between 2004 and 2013 (cohort 1, N=436) were used for estimation of trends in HPV prevalence, smoking and survival. HPV prevalence was prospectively confirmed in cohort 2 (N=213) comprising all primary HNSCC cases at the Charité in 2013.
RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2011 incidence of both OPSCC and non-OPSCC increased. An increase in HPV prevalence (% of HPV+ cases in 2004-2006 versus 2012-2013: 27% versus 59%, P=0.0004) accompanied by a moderate decrease in the portion of current smokers was observed in OPSCC but not in non-OPSCC. The change in disease epidemiology in OPSCC was associated with significant improvement in overall survival. Increased HPV prevalence in OPSCC (48%) compared to non-OPSCC (11%) was confirmed in cohort 2.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite clear differences to the United States in terms of tobacco use, the increase in OPSCC incidence in a European population was also mainly attributed to HPV, and the HPV status significantly affected prognosis. For clinical trial design it is important to consider the large group of smokers within HPV-induced OPSCC.

Frezza AM, Cesari M, Baumhoer D, et al.
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma: prognostic factors and outcome in 113 patients. A European Musculoskeletal Oncology Society study.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(3):374-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (MCS) is a distinct, very rare sarcoma with little evidence supporting treatment recommendations.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Specialist centres collaborated to report prognostic factors and outcome for 113 patients.
RESULTS: Median age was 30 years (range: 11-80), male/female ratio 1.1. Primary sites were extremities (40%), trunk (47%) and head and neck (13%), 41 arising primarily in soft tissue. Seventeen patients had metastases at diagnosis. Mean follow-up was 14.9 years (range: 1-34), median overall survival (OS) 17 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.3-28.6). Ninety-five of 96 patients with localised disease underwent surgery, 54 additionally received combination chemotherapy. Sixty-five of 95 patients are alive and 45 progression-free (5 local recurrence, 34 distant metastases, 11 combined). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and OS were 7 (95% CI: 3.03-10.96) and 20 (95% CI: 12.63-27.36) years respectively. Chemotherapy administration in patients with localised disease was associated with reduced risk of recurrence (P=0.046; hazard ratio (HR)=0.482 95% CI: 0.213-0.996) and death (P=0.004; HR=0.445 95% CI: 0.256-0.774). Clear resection margins predicted less frequent local recurrence (2% versus 27%; P=0.002). Primary site and origin did not influence survival. The absence of metastases at diagnosis was associated with a significantly better outcome (P<0.0001). Data on radiotherapy indications, dose and fractionation were insufficiently complete, to allow comment of its impact on outcomes. Median OS for patients with metastases at presentation was 3 years (95% CI: 0-4.25).
CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis in MCS varies considerably. Metastatic disease at diagnosis has the strongest impact on survival. Complete resection and adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered as standard of care for localised disease.

Schneider DT, Orbach D, Cecchetto G, et al.
Ovarian Sertoli Leydig cell tumours in children and adolescents: an analysis of the European Cooperative Study Group on Pediatric Rare Tumors (EXPeRT).
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(4):543-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To analyse ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours (SLCTs) for potential prognostic markers and their use for treatment stratification.
PATIENTS: Forty-four patients were included. Patients were prospectively reported to the German MAKEI (Maligne Keimzelltumoren) studies (n=23), French TGM protocols (n=10), Italian Rare Tumour Project (TREP) registry (n=6), and the Polish Pediatric Rare Tumour Study group (n=5). Tumours were classified according to World Health Organisation (WHO) and staged according to International Federation of Gynecological Oncology (FIGO).
RESULTS: Median age was 13.9 (0.5-17.4) years. All patients underwent resection by tumour enucleation (n=8), ovariectomy (n=17), adenectomy isolated (n=18) or with hysterectomy (n=1). FIGO-stage: Ia 24pts., Ic 17pts., II/III 3pts. One patient had bilateral tumours. Four patients (stage Ia: 3, stage Ic: 1) developed a metachronous contralateral tumour. Otherwise, all stage Ia patients remained in complete remission. Among 20 patients with incomplete resection or tumour spread (stage Ic-III), eight relapsed, and five patients died. Eleven patients were initially treated with two to sixcycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Of these, seven patients are in continuous remission. Poor histological differentiation was associated with higher relapse rate (5/13) compared to intermediate (3/18) and high differentiation (0/4). Tumours with retiform pattern or heterologous elements showed a high relapse rate, too (5/11). After a median follow-up of 62 months, event-free survival is 0.70±0.07, relapse-free survival 0.81±0.06 and overall survival 0.87±0.05.
CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis of SLCTs is determined by stage and histopathologic differentiation. Complete resection with careful avoidance of spillage is a prerequisite of cure. The impact of chemotherapy in incompletely resected and advanced stage tumours remains to be evaluated.

de Batlle J, Ferrari P, Chajes V, et al.
Dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk: European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(1):367 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the association between dietary folate intake and the risk of breast cancer (BC) by hormone receptor expression in the tumors. We investigated the relationship between dietary folate and BC risk using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
METHODS: A total of 367993 women age 35 to 70 years were recruited in 10 European countries. During a median follow-up of 11.5 years, 11575 women with BC were identified. Dietary folate intake was estimated from country-specific dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to quantify the association between dietary variables and BC risk. BC tumors were classified by receptor status. Subgroup analyses were performed by menopausal status and alcohol intake. Intake of other B vitamins was considered. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: A borderline inverse association was observed between dietary folate and BC risk (hazard ratio comparing top vs bottom quintile [HRQ5-Q1] = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.83 to 1.01, P trend = .037). In premenopausal women, we observed a statistically significant trend towards lower risk in estrogen receptor-negative BC (HRQ5-Q1 = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.45 to 0.96, P trend = .042) and progesterone receptor-negative BC (HRQ5-Q1 = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.97, P trend = .021). No associations were found in postmenopausal women. A 14% reduction in BC risk was observed when comparing the highest with the lowest dietary folate tertiles in women having a high (>12 alcoholic drinks/week) alcohol intake (HRT3-T1 = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75 to 0.98, P interaction = .035).
CONCLUSIONS: Higher dietary folate intake may be associated with a lower risk of sex hormone receptor-negative BC in premenopausal women.

Anttila A, Lönnberg S, Ponti A, et al.
Towards better implementation of cancer screening in Europe through improved monitoring and evaluation and greater engagement of cancer registries.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(2):241-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Proposals to improve implementation, monitoring and evaluation of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes have been developed in a European project involving scientists and professionals experienced in cancer registration (EUROCOURSE). They call for a clear and more active role for cancer registries through better interfaces with cancer screening programmes and adapting data contents of cancer registries for evaluation purposes. Cancer registries are recognised as essential for adequate evaluation of cancer screening programmes, but they are not involved in screening evaluation in several European countries. This is a key barrier to improving the effectiveness of programmes across Europe. The variation in Europe in the implementation of cancer screening offers a unique opportunity to learn from best practices in collaboration between cancer registries and screening programmes. Population-based cancer registries have experience and tools in collecting and analysing relevant data, e.g. for diagnostic and therapeutic determinants of mortality. In order to accelerate improvements in cancer control we argue that cancer registries should take co-responsibility in promoting effective screening evaluation in Europe. Additional investments are vital to further development of infrastructures and activities for screening evaluation and monitoring in the national settings and also at the pan-European level. The EUROCOURSE project also aimed to harmonise implementation of the European quality assurance guidelines for cancer screening programmes across Europe through standardising routine data collection and analysis, and definitions for key performance indicators for screening registers. Data linkage between cancer and screening registers and other repositories of demographic data and cause of death and where available clinical registers is key to implementing the European screening standards and thereby reducing the burden of disease through early detection. Greater engagement of cancer registries in this collaborative effort is also essential to develop adequate evaluation of innovations in cancer prevention and care.

Young RJ, Natukunda A, Litière S, et al.
First-line anthracycline-based chemotherapy for angiosarcoma and other soft tissue sarcoma subtypes: pooled analysis of eleven European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group trials.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(18):3178-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Angiosarcoma is a rare subtype of soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Doxorubicinis the standard first-line chemotherapy for advanced STS. It is not known whether angiosarcoma response to anthracycline-based chemotherapy is different to other STS subtypes.
METHODS: Pooled data were analysed from 11 prospective randomised and non-randomized European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) clinical trials of first-line anthracycline-based chemotherapy for advanced STS. Baseline patient characteristics, chemotherapy response, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of angiosarcoma patients were compared with other STS patients. Analysis was performed to identify factors prognostic for angiosarcoma response to chemotherapy, PFS and OS.
RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 4.2 years, data from 108 locally advanced and metastatic angiosarcoma patients and 2557 patients with other STS histologies were analysed. 25% of angiosarcoma patients had a complete or partial response to chemotherapy compared to 21% for other STS histotypes. The median PFS was 4.9 months and OS 9.9 months, which were not significantly different from other STS histotypes. In univariate analysis, bone metastases were an adverse prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio (HR) 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–2.67; p = 0.036). Tumour grade was as an adverse prognostic factor for PFS (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.01–2.92; p = 0.044) and OS (HR 2.03; 95% CI 1.16–3.56; p = 0.011). Compared to single agent anthracyclines, doxorubicin + ifosfamide was associated with improved PFS (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.33–0.86; p = 0.010) and OS (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32–0.90; p = 0.018).
CONCLUSIONS: Angiosarcoma response and survival following first-line anthracycline-based chemotherapy was similar to other STS histotypes. Our analysis provides a useful measure of angiosarcoma response to chemotherapy for comparison with future clinical trials.

Bergmann L, Maute L, Heil G, et al.
A prospective randomised phase-II trial with gemcitabine versus gemcitabine plus sunitinib in advanced pancreatic cancer: a study of the CESAR Central European Society for Anticancer Drug Research-EWIV.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(1):27-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most common malignant tumours and is still associated with a poor prognosis in advanced disease. To improve the standard therapy with gemcitabine, we initiated a prospective randomised phase-II trial with gemcitabine (GEM) versus gemcitabine plus sunitinib (SUNGEM) based on data of in vitro trials and phase-I data for the combination treatment. The rational of adding sunitinib was its putative antiangiogenic mechanism of action.
METHODS: A total of 106 eligible patients with locally advanced, unresectable or metastatic PDAC without previous system therapy were randomised to receive GEM at a dosage of 1.000mg/m(2) d1, 8, 15 q28 versus a combination of SUNGEM at a dosage of GEM 1.000mg/m(2) d1+8 and sunitinib 50mg p.o. d1-14, q21d. The primary end-point was progression free survival (PFS), secondary end-points were overall survival (OS), toxicity and overall response rate (ORR).
RESULTS: The confirmatory analysis of PFS was based on the intend-to-treat (ITT) population (N=106). The median PFS was 13.3 weeks (95% confidence interval (95%-CI): 10.4-18.1 weeks) for GEM and 11.6 weeks for SUNGEM (95%-CI: 7.0-18.0 weeks; p=0.78 one-sided log-rank). The ORR was 6.1% (95%-CI: 0.7-20.2%) for GEM and for 7.1% (95%-CI: 0.9-23.5%) for SUNGEM (p=0.87). The median time to progression (TTP) was 14.0 weeks (95%-CI: 12.4-22.3 weeks) for GEM and 18.0 weeks (95%-CI: 11.3-19.3 weeks) for SUNGEM (p=0.60; two-sided log-rank). The median OS was 36.7 weeks (95%-CI: 20.6-49.0 weeks) for the GEM arm and 30.4 weeks (95%-CI: 18.1-37.6 weeks) for the SUNGEM (p=0.78, one-sided log-rank). In regard to toxicities, suspected SAEs were reported in 53.7% in the GEM arm and 71.2% in the SUNGEM arm. Grade 3 and 4 neutropenia was statistically significantly higher in the SUNGEM arm with 48.1% versus 27.8% in the GEM arm (p=0.045, two sided log-rank).
CONCLUSIONS: The combination SUNGEM was not sufficient superior in locally advanced or metastatic PDAC compared to GEM alone in regard to efficacy but was associated with more toxicity.

Wong CK, Chen J, Yu CL, et al.
Systematic review recommends the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer colorectal cancer-specific module for measuring quality of life in colorectal cancer patients.
J Clin Epidemiol. 2015; 68(3):266-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To critically appraise the measurement properties of standardized health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and to provide recommendations on the choice of HRQOL instruments.
STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review of English language literature published between January 1985 and May 2014 identified through a database search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Ovid MEDLINE. HRQOL instruments were rated on methodological quality and overall levels of evidence using a Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instrument checklist.
RESULTS: Internal consistency and hypothesis testing were evaluated most frequently in 63 studies identified. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C) was the most extensively evaluated. The highest number of positive ratings in the overall level of evidence was found in the CRC-specific quality of life questionnaire module (QLQ-CR38) in European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) module, followed by the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Bowel instrument, FACT-C, and Quick-FLIC. The EORTC QLQ-CR38 had the most positive ratings on measurement property and was recommended.
CONCLUSION: The EORTC QLQ-CR38 was recommended to assess HRQOL in patients with CRC, regardless of disease stage and primary tumor site.

Stoffel EM, Mangu PB, Gruber SB, et al.
Hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline endorsement of the familial risk-colorectal cancer: European Society for Medical Oncology Clinical Practice Guidelines.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(2):209-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To provide recommendations on prevention, screening, genetics, treatment, and management for people at risk for hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) syndromes. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations.
METHODS: The Familial Risk-Colorectal Cancer: European Society for Medical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline published in 2013 on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Guidelines Working Group in Annals of Oncology was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists, with content and recommendations reviewed by an ASCO endorsement panel.
RESULTS: The ASCO endorsement panel determined that the recommendations of the ESMO guidelines are clear, thorough, and based on the most relevant scientific evidence. The ASCO panel endorsed the ESMO guidelines and added a few qualifying statements.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Approximately 5% to 6% of patient cases of CRC are associated with germline mutations that confer an inherited predisposition for cancer. The possibility of a hereditary cancer syndrome should be assessed for every patient at the time of CRC diagnosis. A diagnosis of Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, or another genetic syndrome can influence clinical management for patients with CRC and their family members. Screening for hereditary cancer syndromes in patients with CRC should include review of personal and family histories and testing of tumors for DNA mismatch repair deficiency and/or microsatellite instability. Formal genetic evaluation is recommended for individuals who meet defined criteria.

Ades F, Senterre C, Zardavas D, et al.
An exploratory analysis of the factors leading to delays in cancer drug reimbursement in the European Union: the trastuzumab case.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(18):3089-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The European Union (EU) has adopted a common procedure for granting marketing authorisation for cancer drugs. Nevertheless, pricing and reimbursement decisions are a competency of EU national governments, and their policies are diverse. We aimed to evaluate the time for trastuzumab reimbursement approval and its association to health expenditure, to health policy performance, to the availability of cost-effectiveness studies and to breast cancer outcome.
METHODS: Breast cancer outcome was estimated by the mortality/incidence (M/I) ratio. Trastuzumab reimbursement approval dates were provided by Roche. Spearman's rank correlation and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to evaluate associations and/or differences between the variables studied. Additional analyses were made by grouping countries according to compliance to the 180 day timeframe stipulated in the EU 89/105/EEC Directive for drug pricing and reimbursement.
RESULTS: A statistically significant inverse and strong correlation between breast cancer M/I ratio and health expenditure (r(s)=-0.730, p<0.001) and health policy performance (r(s)=-0.711, p<0.001) was found, meaning the better the score and the higher the expenditure, the fewer patients died after a breast cancer diagnosis. Factors associated with trastuzumab faster reimbursement and compliance to the 89/105/EEC Directive were better health policy score, higher health expenditure and availability of cost-effectiveness studies.
CONCLUSION: Higher health policy scores and health expenditure are associated with faster reimbursement of trastuzumab and better breast cancer outcome. Although the study design does not allow inference of causal associations, a marked difference is observed between Eastern and Western Europe, with long delays and increased breast cancer mortality identified in Eastern European countries.

Kasper B, Baumgarten C, Bonvalot S, et al.
Management of sporadic desmoid-type fibromatosis: a European consensus approach based on patients' and professionals' expertise - a sarcoma patients EuroNet and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group initiative.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(2):127-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) is a rare monoclonal, fibroblastic proliferation characterised by a variable and often unpredictable clinical course. It may affect nearly all parts of the body including extremities, trunk and abdomen. Considering the variable clinical presentations, anatomic locations and biological behaviours, an individualised treatment approach is required. No established or evidence-based approach for the treatment of this neoplasm is available as of today. Therefore, we propose a consensus treatment algorithm based on a round table meeting bringing together sarcoma experts from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (STBSG) with patient advocates from Sarcoma Patients EuroNet (SPAEN). The aim of the meeting was to develop - for the first time ever - a consensus approach based on professionals' AND patients' expertise. As a fundamental prerequisite, all patients should be discussed in a multidisciplinary setting in centres or professional networks with a specific expertise in the disease.

Ilic D
Appraising the European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer: what do the results mean?
Asian J Androl. 2015 Mar-Apr; 17(2):221-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
The value of screening for prostate cancer has been a contentious issue within the medical literature for several decades. At the crux of the matter lies a judgment call of whether the potential benefits of screening, a reduction in prostate cancer and all-cause mortality, outweigh the limitations, overdiagnosis and overtreatment. The study by Schrφder et al. reports 9, 11 and 13-year follow-up data on men participating in the European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer (ERSPC). While the authors report a significant reduction in prostate cancer mortality, they conclude that potential harms associated with screening currently circumvent any recommendation for a population-based approach to screening for prostate cancer.

Baron F, Labopin M, Peniket A, et al.
Reduced-intensity conditioning with fludarabine and busulfan versus fludarabine and melphalan for patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Cancer. 2015; 121(7):1048-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fludarabine plus busulfan (FB) and fludarabine plus melphalan (FM) are 2 widely used reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT).
METHODS: The current survey compared transplantation outcomes for a cohort of 394 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients given bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings after FB (n = 218) or FM (n = 176). Patients given manipulated grafts and those given T-cell-depleting agents (anti-thymocyte globulins or alemtuzumab) were not included.
RESULTS: At the time of transplantation, 266 patients (68%) were experiencing their first complete remission (CR), 69 (18%) were experiencing a later CR, and 59 (15%) had advanced disease. The incidences of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were similar in the 2 groups of patients. The 2-year relapse incidence (RI), nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rate, leukemia-free survival (LFS) rate, and overall survival (OS) rate were 31% ± 3%, 18% ± 3%, 51% ± 4%, and 54% ± 4%, respectively, for FB patients and 20% ± 3% (P = .007), 20% ± 3% (P = .4), 60% ± 4% (P = .08), and 62% ± 4% (P = .2), respectively, for FM patients. Among FB patients given intravenous busulfan (n = 81), the 2-year RI, NRM, LFS, and OS rates were 26% ± 5% (P = .43 vs FM patients), 25% ± 6% (P = .18), 49% ± 7% (P = .07), and 54% ± 7% (P = .13), respectively. In multivariate analyses, FM was associated with a lower RI (hazard ratio [HR], 0.5; P = .01) and a trend toward higher NRM (HR, 1.6; P = .1) with similar LFS (HR, 0.8; P = .2) and OS (HR, 0.9; P = .6).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that although FM provides better AML control than FB as an RIC regimen for allo-SCT, the 2 regimens provide similar survival. Multicenter randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Riemens A, Bromberg J, Touitou V, et al.
Treatment strategies in primary vitreoretinal lymphoma: a 17-center European collaborative study.
JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015; 133(2):191-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
IMPORTANCE: The best treatment option for primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) without signs of central nervous system lymphoma (CNSL) involvement determined on magnetic resonance imaging or in cerebrospinal fluid is unknown.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes of treatment regimens used for PVRL in the prevention of subsequent CNSL.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at 17 referral ophthalmologic centers in Europe. We reviewed clinical, laboratory, and imaging data on 78 patients with PVRL who did not have CNSL on presentation between January 1, 1991, and December 31, 2012, with a focus on the incidence of CNS manifestations during the follow-up period.
INTERVENTIONS: The term extensive treatment was used for various combinations of systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy, whole-brain radiotherapy, and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Therapy to prevent CNSL included ocular radiotherapy and/or ocular chemotherapy (group A, 31 patients), extensive systemic treatment (group B, 21 patients), and a combination of ocular and extensive treatment (group C, 23 patients); 3 patients did not receive treatment. A total of 40 patients received systemic chemotherapy.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Development of CNSL following the diagnosis of PVRL relative to the use or nonuse of systemic chemotherapy and other treatment regimens.
RESULTS: Overall, CNSL developed in 28 of 78 patients (36%) at a median follow-up of 49 months. Specifically, CNSL developed in 10 of 31 (32%) in group A, 9 of 21 (43%) in group B, and 9 of 23 (39%) in group C. The 5-year cumulative survival rate was lower in patients with CNSL (35% [95% CI, 50% to 86%]) than in patients without CNSL (68% [95% CI, 19% to 51%]; P = .003) and was similar among all treatment groups (P = .10). Adverse systemic effects occurred in 9 of 40 (23%) patients receiving systemic chemotherapy; the most common of these effects was acute renal failure.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In the present series of patients with isolated PVRL, the use of systemic chemotherapy was not proven to prevent CNSL and was associated with more severe adverse effects compared with local treatment.

Weinberg OK, Seetharam M, Ren L, et al.
Mixed phenotype acute leukemia: A study of 61 cases using World Health Organization and European Group for the Immunological Classification of Leukaemias criteria.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2014; 142(6):803-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification system grouped bilineal and biphenotypic acute leukemias together under a new heading of mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL). The lineage-specific marker criteria have also changed for a diagnosis of MPAL. The goal of this study was to characterize clinical significance of this new group.
METHODS: Sixty-one patients diagnosed with MPAL using either European Group for the Immunological Classification of Leukaemias (EGIL) criteria or 2008 WHO criteria were included in this study.
RESULTS: Sixteen patients (26%) diagnosed with acute biphenotypic leukemia using EGIL criteria did not fulfill 2008 WHO criteria for MPAL. Cytogenetic data were available for 32 patients, and the most common abnormality was t(9;22) (five of 32 cases). Clinical outcome data suggested that younger patients with MPAL (≤21 years) had better overall survival (OS) in both the EGIL and WHO groups (EGIL, P = .0403; WHO, P = .0601). Compared with 177 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), MPAL patients had better OS (P = .0003) and progression-free survival (P = .0001). However, no difference in OS between MPAL and 387 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia was present (P = .599).
CONCLUSIONS: As defined by the 2008 WHO classification, fewer patients are now classified as having MPAL than with the EGIL criteria. In this study, patients with MPAL have a better clinical outcome compared with patients with AML.

McKenzie F, Ferrari P, Freisling H, et al.
Healthy lifestyle and risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort study.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(11):2640-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and prevention strategies are needed to reduce incidence worldwide. A healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) was generated to investigate the joint effect of modifiable lifestyle factors on postmenopausal breast cancer risk. The study included 242,918 postmenopausal women from the multinational European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, with detailed information on diet and lifestyle assessed at baseline. The HLIS was constructed from five factors (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0-4 to categories of each component, for which higher values indicate healthier behaviours. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional regression models. During 10.9 years of median follow-up, 7,756 incident breast cancer cases were identified. There was a 3% lower risk of breast cancer per point increase of the HLIS. Breast cancer risk was inversely associated with a high HLIS when fourth versus second (reference) categories were compared [adjusted HR = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.83]. The fourth versus the second category of the HLIS was associated with a lower risk for hormone receptor double positive (adjusted HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.98) and hormone receptor double negative breast cancer (adjusted HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.90). Findings suggest having a high score on an index of combined healthy behaviours reduces the risk of developing breast cancer among postmenopausal women. Programmes which engage women in long term health behaviours should be supported.

Gronnier C, Tréchot B, Duhamel A, et al.
Impact of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy on postoperative outcomes after esophageal cancer resection: results of a European multicenter study.
Ann Surg. 2014; 260(5):764-70; discussion 770-1 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) on anastomotic leakage (AL) and other postoperative outcomes after esophageal cancer (EC) resection.
BACKGROUND: Conflicting data have emerged from randomized studies regarding the impact of NCRT on AL.
METHODS: Among 2944 consecutive patients operated on for EC between 2000 and 2010 in 30 European centers, patients treated by NCRT after surgery (n=593) were compared with those treated by primary surgery (n=1487). Multivariable analyses and propensity score matching were used to compensate for the differences in some baseline characteristics.
RESULTS: Patients in the NCRT group were younger, with a higher prevalence of male sex, malnutrition, advanced tumor stage, squamous cell carcinoma, and surgery after 2005 when compared with the primary surgery group. Postoperative AL rates were 8.8% versus 10.6% (P=0.220), and 90-day postoperative mortality and morbidity rates were 9.3% versus 7.2% (P=0.110) and 33.4% versus 32.1% (P=0.564), respectively. Pulmonary complication rates did not differ between groups (24.6% vs 22.5%; P=0.291), whereas chylothorax (2.5% vs 1.2%; P=0.020), cardiovascular complications (8.6% vs 0.1%; P=0.037), and thromboembolic events (8.6% vs 6.0%; P=0.037) were higher in the NCRT group. After propensity score matching, AL rates were 8.8% versus 11.3% (P=0.228), with more chylothorax (2.5% vs 0.7%; P=0.030) and trend toward more cardiovascular and thromboembolic events in the NCRT group (P=0.069). Predictors of AL were high American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, supracarinal tumoral location, and cervical anastomosis, but not NCRT.
CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy does not have an impact on the AL rate after EC resection (NCT 01927016).

Engeset D, Braaten T, Teucher B, et al.
Fish consumption and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.
Eur J Epidemiol. 2015; 30(1):57-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/03/2016 Related Publications
Fish is a source of important nutrients and may play a role in preventing heart diseases and other health outcomes. However, studies of overall mortality and cause-specific mortality related to fish consumption are inconclusive. We examined the rate of overall mortality, as well as mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cancer in relation to the intake of total fish, lean fish, and fatty fish in a large prospective cohort including ten European countries. More than 500,000 men and women completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-1999 and were followed up for mortality until the end of 2010. 32,587 persons were reported dead since enrolment. Hazard ratios and their 99% confidence interval were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Fish consumption was examined using quintiles based on reported consumption, using moderate fish consumption (third quintile) as reference, and as continuous variables, using increments of 10 g/day. All analyses were adjusted for possible confounders. No association was seen for fish consumption and overall or cause-specific mortality for both the categorical and the continuous analyses, but there seemed to be a U-shaped trend (p < 0.000) with fatty fish consumption and total mortality and with total fish consumption and cancer mortality (p = 0.046).

Mangili G, Lorusso D, Brown J, et al.
Trophoblastic disease review for diagnosis and management: a joint report from the International Society for the Study of Trophoblastic Disease, European Organisation for the Treatment of Trophoblastic Disease, and the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2014; 24(9 Suppl 3):S109-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to provide a consensus review on gestational trophoblastic disease diagnosis and management from the combined International Society for the Study of Trophoblastic Disease, European Organisation for the Treatment of Trophoblastic Disease, and the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup.
METHODS: A joint committee representing various groups reviewed the literature obtained from PubMed searches.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Guidelines were constructed on the basis of literature review. After initial diagnosis in local centers, centralization of pathology review and ongoing care is recommended to achieve the best outcomes.

Garcia-Gil M, Elorza JM, Banque M, et al.
Linking of primary care records to census data to study the association between socioeconomic status and cancer incidence in Southern Europe: a nation-wide ecological study.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e109706 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Area-based measures of economic deprivation are seldom applied to large medical records databases to establish population-scale associations between deprivation and disease.
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between deprivation and incidence of common cancer types in a Southern European region.
METHODS: Retrospective ecological study using the SIDIAP (Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care) database of longitudinal electronic medical records for a representative population of Catalonia (Spain) and the MEDEA index based on urban socioeconomic indicators in the Spanish census. Study outcomes were incident cervical, breast, colorectal, prostate, and lung cancer in 2009-2012. The completeness of SIDIAP cancer recording was evaluated through linkage of a geographic data subset to a hospital cancer registry. Associations between MEDEA quintiles and cancer incidence was evaluated using zero-inflated Poisson regression adjusted for sex, age, smoking, alcoholism, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes.
RESULTS: SIDIAP sensitivity was 63% to 92% for the five cancers studied. There was direct association between deprivation and lung, colorectal, and cervical cancer: incidence rate ratios (IRR) 1.82 [1.64-2.01], IRR 1.60 [1.34-1.90], IRR 1.22 [1.07-1.38], respectively, comparing the most deprived to most affluent areas. In wealthy areas, prostate and breast cancers were more common: IRR 0.92 [0.80-1.00], IRR 0.91 [0.78-1.06]. Adjustment for confounders attenuated the association with lung cancer risk (fully adjusted IRR 1.16 [1.08-1.25]), reversed the direction of the association with colorectal cancer (IRR 0.90 [0.84-0.95]), and did not modify the associations with cervical (IRR 1.27 [1.11-1.45]), prostate (0.74 [0.69-0.80]), and breast (0.76 [0.71-0.81]) cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Deprivation is associated differently with the occurrence of various cancer types. These results provide evidence that MEDEA is a useful, area-based deprivation index for analyses of the SIDIAP database. This information will be useful to improve screening programs, cancer prevention and management strategies, to reach patients more effectively, particularly in deprived urban areas.

Filosso PL, Yao X, Ahmad U, et al.
Outcome of primary neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus: a joint analysis of the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group and the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons databases.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2015; 149(1):103-9.e2 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus (TNET) are exceedingly rare. We studied a large series of TNET identified through the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group and the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons databases.
METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter study of patients undergoing operation for TNET between 1984 and 2012. Outcome measures were: overall survival (OS) and cumulative incidence of recurrences (CIR). OS was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and CIR was analyzed using competing risk analysis. Associations with clinical and prognostic factors for OS and CIR were evaluated using the log rank test and Gray test.
RESULTS: Two hundred five patients with TNET were treated: 25 patients received induction therapy (19 chemotherapy [CT] and 6 radiotherapy [RT]). Data about resection status were available in 47% of cases: complete resection was performed in 52 patients (54%). Masaoka-Koga stages I, II, III, and IV were observed in 12, 33, 56, and 47 patients, respectively. Atypical carcinoid was the commonest histologic subtype (71 cases; 40%). One hundred one patients with TNET received adjuvant treatment; 52 patients died and 36 experienced a recurrence. The median OS was 7.5 years; 5-year OS was 68%, and 5-year CIR was 39%. OS was significantly influenced by Masaoka-Koga stage (P = .02) and completeness of resection (P = .03). CIR significantly increased in high Masaoka-Koga stages (P = .04). Histologic subtype was not associated with either OS or CIR.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the high biologic aggressiveness of these rare neoplasms; pathologic stage and completeness of resection were demonstrated to be strong prognostic factors, whereas histology did not influence patients outcome.

Nieters A, Łuczyńska A, Becker S, et al.
Prediagnostic immunoglobulin E levels and risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, other lymphomas and multiple myeloma-results of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(12):2716-22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Previous epidemiological studies suggest an inverse association between allergies, marked by elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. The evidence, however, is inconsistent and prospective data are sparse. We examined the association between prediagnostic total (low: <20; intermediate: 20-100; high >100 kU/l) and specific IgE (negative: <0.35; positive ≥0.35 kU/I) concentrations against inhalant antigens and lymphoma risk in a study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. A total of 1021 incident cases and matched controls of NHL, multiple myeloma (MM) and Hodgkin lymphoma with a mean follow-up time of 7 years were investigated. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Specific IgE was not associated with the risk of MM, B-cell NHL and B-cell NHL subtypes. In contrast, total IgE levels were inversely associated with the risk of MM [high level: OR = 0.40 (95% CI = 0.21-0.79)] and B-cell NHL [intermediate level: OR = 0.68 (95% CI = 0.53-0.88); high level: OR = 0.62 (95% CI = 0.44-0.86)], largely on the basis of a strong inverse association with chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL; intermediate level: OR = 0.49 (95% CI = 0.30-0.80); high level: OR = 0.13 (95% CI = 0.05-0.35)] risk. The inverse relationship for CLL remained significant for those diagnosed 5 years after baseline. The findings of this large prospective study demonstrated significantly lower prediagnostic total IgE levels among CLL and MM cases compared with matched controls. This corresponds to the clinical immunodeficiency state often observed in CLL patients prior to diagnosis. No support for an inverse association between prediagnostic levels of specific IgE and NHL risk was found.

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