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Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Nordic Countries, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, Ukraine

Europe: cancer statistics from IARC GlobalCan (2012)

Population in 2012: 741.3m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 3,442,300
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 255.4
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:25.8%
People dying from cancer /yr: 1,755,800

Menu: European Cancer Organisisations

Europe: Cancer Organisations
Latest Research Publications about cancer in Europe

Europe: Cancer Organisations (31 links)

Latest Research Publications about cancer in Europe

Tjalma WA
The ideal cervical cancer screening recommendation for Belgium, an industrialized country in Europe.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2014; 35(3):211-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer should be a historical disease, why are we not succeeding! The prophylactic vaccination will reduce cervical cancer by almost 80% in Belgium. Cervical cancer screening should therefore remain in order to prevent the remaining 20%. The current used Pap cytology test misses 50% of all clinically significant precancers and cancers at the time of testing. The test should remain but the analysis should be altered. The screening should be modified based on our knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) as causal factor. Instead of looking for a cell abnormality, one should look for the presence of HPV. Then depending on the test, only two to ten percent of all relevant lesions are missed. The introduction of the vaccination should lead to the re-introduction of the screening based on HPV. This will not only lead to a considerable reduction in morbidity and mortality, allow longer screening intervals, but it will also be more cost-effective. More for less should be the driving force in cervical cancer screening if we want to be successful.

Related: Cancer Screening and Early Detection Cervical Cancer

Schöttker B, Jorde R, Peasey A, et al.
Vitamin D and mortality: meta-analysis of individual participant data from a large consortium of cohort studies from Europe and the United States.
BMJ. 2014; 348:g3656 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (25(OH)D) and mortality in a large consortium of cohort studies paying particular attention to potential age, sex, season, and country differences.
DESIGN: Meta-analysis of individual participant data of eight prospective cohort studies from Europe and the US.
SETTING: General population.
PARTICIPANTS: 26,018 men and women aged 50-79 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality.
RESULTS: 25(OH)D concentrations varied strongly by season (higher in summer), country (higher in US and northern Europe) and sex (higher in men), but no consistent trend with age was observed. During follow-up, 6695 study participants died, among whom 2624 died of cardiovascular diseases and 2227 died of cancer. For each cohort and analysis, 25(OH)D quintiles were defined with cohort and subgroup specific cut-off values. Comparing bottom versus top quintiles resulted in a pooled risk ratio of 1.57 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.81) for all-cause mortality. Risk ratios for cardiovascular mortality were similar in magnitude to that for all-cause mortality in subjects both with and without a history of cardiovascular disease at baseline. With respect to cancer mortality, an association was only observed among subjects with a history of cancer (risk ratio, 1.70 (1.00 to 2.88)). Analyses using all quintiles suggest curvilinear, inverse, dose-response curves for the aforementioned relationships. No strong age, sex, season, or country specific differences were detected. Heterogeneity was low in most meta-analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite levels of 25(OH)D strongly varying with country, sex, and season, the association between 25(OH)D level and all-cause and cause-specific mortality was remarkably consistent. Results from a long term randomised controlled trial addressing longevity are being awaited before vitamin D supplementation can be recommended in most individuals with low 25(OH)D levels.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction USA
Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 581, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Research funded by:

Rabasseda X
A report from the 29th Annual Congress of the European Association of Urology (April 11-15 - Stockholm, Sweden).
Drugs Today (Barc). 2014; 50(5):385-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
The annual congress of the European Association of Urology in Stockholm was packed with mixed poster/oral sessions wherein innovative clinical and preclinical research aimed at improving the care of patients with urinary tract diseases was reported and open for discussion. Not everything that was reported during the meeting can be captured in a single report, but the following text will guide readers through the most significant new findings directly related with pharmacotherapy for overactive bladder, urinary tract cancer and other common medical conditions that endanger the quality of life and life expectancy of many patients worldwide.

Related: Kidney Cancer Prostate Cancer Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology
Thomson Reuters, Barcelona, Spain.

Zanetti R, Calvia M, Bordoni A, et al.
Economic evaluation of cancer registration in Europe.
J Registry Manag. 2014; 41(1):31-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Little has been reported on costs of cancer registration, and standard indicators have not yet been identified. This study investigated costs and outcomes of a sample of 18 European registries covering a population of 58.8 million inhabitants.
METHODS: Through a questionnaire, we asked registries for real cost data including personnel, information technology (IT), and infrastructure. Staff costs were grouped by professional position and by activity performed. As outcomes, besides the production of current data, we considered publications in peer-reviewed journals (last 5 years' impact factor [IF]) and characteristics of registry websites.
RESULTS: In our sample, the average cost of cancer registration per inhabitant was €0.27 at purchasing power standard (PPS) (range €0.03-€0.97), while the mean cost per case registered was €50.71 PPS (range €6-€213). Personnel costs accounted for an average of 79 percent of total resources. Resources spent in routine activities (an average of 51 percent, range 28 percent-87 percent) were predominant with respect to those allocated to research, with a few exceptions. Website quality seemed to be independent of total registry budget.
CONCLUSIONS: The variance in costs of cancer registration across Europe can be attributed mainly to the type of registry (whether national or regional), the size of the covered population, and the national economic profile, expressed as gross domestic product.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Postel-Vinay S, Collette L, Paoletti X, et al.
Towards new methods for the determination of dose limiting toxicities and the assessment of the recommended dose for further studies of molecularly targeted agents--dose-Limiting Toxicity and Toxicity Assessment Recommendation Group for Early Trials of Targeted therapies, an European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-led study.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(12):2040-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Traditional dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) definition, which uses grade (G) 3-4 toxicity data from cycle 1 (C1) only, may not be appropriate for molecularly targeted agents (MTAs) of prolonged administration, for which late or lower grade toxicities also deserve attention.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In collaboration with pharmaceutical companies and academia, an European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)-led initiative, Dose-Limiting Toxicity and Toxicity Assessment Recommendation Group for Early Trials of Targeted therapies (DLT-TARGETT), collected data from completed phase 1 trials evaluating MTAs as monotherapy. All toxicities at least possibly related to the study drugs that occurred during C1-6, their type, grade (CTCAEv3.0), and duration as well as patients' relative dose-intensity (RDI), were recorded.
RESULTS: The 54 eligible trials enrolled 2084 evaluable adult patients with solid tumours between 1999 and 2013, and evaluated small molecules (40), antibodies (seven), recombinant peptides (five) and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (two). A maximum tolerated dose was set in 43 trials. Fifteen percent of the patients received <75% of the intended RDI in C1, but only 9.1% of them presented protocol-defined DLTs. After C1, 16-19% of patients received <75% of the intended RDI. A similar proportion of G ⩾ 3 toxicities was recorded in C1 and after C1 (936 and 1087 toxicities, respectively), with the first G⩾3 toxicity occurring after C1 in 18.6% of patients.
CONCLUSION: Although protocol-defined DLT period is traditionally limited to C1, almost 20% of patients present significant reductions in RDI at any time in phase 1 trials of MTAs. Recommended phase 2 dose assessment should incorporate all available information from any cycle (notably lower grade toxicities leading to such RDI decrease), and be based on achieving >75% RDI.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction
Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, DITEP (Département d'Innovations Thérapeutiques et Essais Précoces), 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94800 Villejuif, France; Université Paris-Sud XI, 63, rue Gabriel Péri, 94276 Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France. Electronic address:
Research funded by:

Bendifallah S, Canlorbe G, Raimond E, et al.
A clue towards improving the European Society of Medical Oncology risk group classification in apparent early stage endometrial cancer? Impact of lymphovascular space invasion.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(11):2640-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 27/05/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) is one of the most important predictors of nodal involvement and recurrence in early stage endometrial cancer (EC). Despite its demonstrated prognostic value, LVSI has not been incorporated into the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) classification. The aim of this prospective multicentre database study is to investigate whether it may improve the accuracy of the ESMO classification in predicting the recurrence risk.
METHODS: Data of 496 patients with apparent early-stage EC who received primary surgical treatment between January 2001 and December 2012 were abstracted from prospective multicentre database. A modified ESMO classification including six risk groups was created after inclusion of the LVSI status in the ESMO classification. The primary end point was the recurrence accuracy comparison between the ESMO and the modified ESMO classifications with respect to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).
RESULTS: The recurrence rate in the whole population was 16.1%. The median follow-up and recurrence time were 31 (range: 1-152) and 27 (range: 1-134) months, respectively. Considering the ESMO modified classification, the recurrence rates were 8.2% (8 out of 98), 23.1% (15 out of 65), 25.9% (15 out of 58), and 45.1% (28 out of 62) for intermediate risk/LVSI-, intermediate risk/LVSI+, high risk/LVSI-, and high risk/LVSI+, respectively (P<0.001). In the low risk group, LVSI status was not discriminant as only 7.0% (14 out of 213) had LVSI+. The staging accuracy according to AUC criteria for ESMO and ESMO modified classifications were of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.68-0.74) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.71-0.77), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The current modified classification could be helpful to better define indications for nodal staging and adjuvant therapy, especially for patients with intermediate risk EC.

Related: Endometrial (Uterus) Cancer Endometrial Cancer
1] Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Tenon University Hospital, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), University Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris 6, Institut Universitaire de Cancérologie (IUC), Paris, France [2] INSERM UMR S 707, 'Epidemiology, Information Systems, Mode...

Aleksandrova K, Jenab M, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, et al.
Biomarker patterns of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are associated with risk of colorectal cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
Eur J Epidemiol. 2014; 29(4):261-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
A number of biomarkers of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are individually related to higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the association between biomarker patterns and CRC incidence has not been previously evaluated. Our study investigates the association of biomarker patterns with CRC in a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). During median follow-up time of 7.0 (3.7-9.4) years, 1,260 incident CRC cases occurred and were matched to 1,260 controls using risk-set sampling. Pre-diagnostic measurements of C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), C-reactive protein (CRP), reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), insulin-like growth factor 1, adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) were used to derive biomarker patterns from principal component analysis (PCA). The relation with CRC incidence was assessed using conditional logistic regression models. We identified four biomarker patterns 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP', 'TG/C-peptide' and 'leptin/sOB-R' to explain 60 % of the overall biomarker variance. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, the 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' patterns were associated with CRC risk [for the highest quartile vs the lowest, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.69, 95 % CI 0.51-0.93, P-trend = 0.01; IRR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.30-2.23, P-trend = 0.002; and IRR = 0.79, 95 % CI 0.58-1.07; P-trend = 0.05, respectively]. In contrast, the 'TG/C-peptide' pattern was not associated with CRC risk (IRR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.56-1.00, P-trend = 0.24). After cases within the first 2 follow-up years were excluded, the 'ROM/CRP' pattern was no longer associated with CRC risk, suggesting potential influence of preclinical disease on these associations. By application of PCA, the study identified 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' as biomarker patterns representing potentially important pathways for CRC development.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer
Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Arthur-Scheunert Allee 114-116, 14558, Nuthetal, Germany,

Smith AB, Cocks K, Taylor M, Parry D
Most domains of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 are reliable.
J Clin Epidemiol. 2014; 67(8):952-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The study's aim was to assess the internal reliability for the nine domains of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) to evaluate homogeneity across clinical studies and whether sample characteristics predict coefficient heterogeneity.
STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic literature review was undertaken. Internal reliability was assessed against Cronbach α coefficient >0.70. Reliability generalization was undertaken using fixed- and random-effects models. A weighted least squares regression model was applied to determine whether baseline sample characteristics (language, percentage of women, sample size, sample means and standard deviations, and cancer type) predicted variation in α coefficients.
RESULTS: A total of 33 studies were identified. Eight domains demonstrated good internal reliability (unweighted/weighted by sample variance). One domain, Cognitive Functioning, consistently performed poorly. In terms of moderating variables, none of the sample characteristic variables explained sample variance for the Physical or Role Functioning domains. For the other domains, language, percentage of women, and sample means and variances accounted for some of the heterogeneity observed.
CONCLUSION: Most domains on the EORTC QLQ-C30 are reliable and may therefore be used to help inform decision-making processes, such as those involving individual patients.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction
York Health Economics Consortium, University of York, Market Square, York YO10 5NH, UK; Research Innovation Office, University of York, York YO10 5DG, UK. Electronic address:

Stolberg M
Metaphors and images of cancer in early modern Europe.
Bull Hist Med. 2014; 88(1):48-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Drawing on learned medical writing about cancer and on nonmedical texts that used cancer as a metaphor for hateful cultural, social, religious, or political phenomena that warranted drastic measures, this article traces the metaphors and images that framed the perception and experience of cancer in the early modern period. It finds that cancer was closely associated with notions of impurity and a visible destruction of the body's surface and was diagnosed primarily in women, as breast and uterine cancer. Putrid, corrosive cancerous humor was thought not only to accumulate and eat its way into the surrounding flesh but also to spread, like the seeds of a plant, "infecting" the whole body. This infectious quality, the putrid secretions, and the often horrendous smell emanating from cancer victims raised fears, in turn, of contagion and were taken to justify a separation of cancer patients from the rest of society.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Croner RS, Geppert CI, Bader FG, et al.
Molecular staging of lymph node-negative colon carcinomas by one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) results in upstaging of a quarter of patients in a prospective, European, multicentre study.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(10):2544-50 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Current histopathological staging procedures in colon carcinomas depend on midline division of the lymph nodes with one section of haematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining only. By this method, tumour deposits outside this transection line may be missed and could lead to understaging of a high-risk group of stage UICC II cases, which recurs in ∼20% of cases. A new diagnostic semiautomated system, one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA), detects cytokeratin (CK) 19 mRNA in lymph node metastases and enables the investigation of the whole lymph node. The objective of this study was to assess whether histopathological pN0 patients can be upstaged to stage UICC III by OSNA.
METHODS: Lymph nodes from patients who were classified as lymph node negative after standard histopathology (single (H&E) slice) were subjected to OSNA. A result revealing a CK19 mRNA copy number >250, which makes sure to detect mainly macrometastases and not isolated tumour cells (ITC) or micrometastases only, was regarded as positive for lymph node metastases based on previous threshold investigations.
RESULTS: In total, 1594 pN0 lymph nodes from 103 colon carcinomas (median number of lymph nodes per patient: 14, range: 1-46) were analysed with OSNA. Out of 103 pN0 patients, 26 had OSNA-positive lymph nodes, resulting in an upstaging rate of 25.2%. Among these were 6/37 (16.2%) stage UICC I and 20/66 (30.3%) stage UICC II patients. Overall, 38 lymph nodes were OSNA positive: 19 patients had one, 3 had two, 3 had three, and 1 patient had four OSNA-positive lymph nodes.
CONCLUSIONS: OSNA resulted in an upstaging of over 25% of initially histopathologically lymph node-negative patients. OSNA is a standardised, observer-independent technique, allowing the analysis of the whole lymph node. Therefore, sampling bias due to missing investigation of certain lymph node tissue can be avoided, which may lead to a more accurate staging.
Department of Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

Fitzpatrick JM, Bellmunt J, Fizazi K, et al.
Optimal management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: highlights from a European Expert Consensus Panel.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(9):1617-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
The exponential growth of novel therapies for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) over the last decade has created an acute need for education and guidance of clinicians regarding optimal strategies for patient management. A multidisciplinary panel of 21 European experts in mCRPC assembled for comprehensive discussion and consensus development, seeking to move the field forward and provide guidance and perspectives on optimal selection and sequencing of therapeutic agents and monitoring of response to treatment and disease progression. A total of 110 clinically-relevant questions were addressed and a modified Delphi method was utilised to obtain a consensus. The panel reached a consensus on several important issues, providing recommendations on appropriate phase III clinical trial end-points and optimal strategies for imaging and monitoring of bone metastases. Guidance regarding selection and sequencing of therapy in patients with newly diagnosed or progressive mCRPC is emphasised, including the use of novel bone-targeted agents, chemotherapy, androgen receptor pathway-targeted agents and immunotherapy. The impact of drug resistance and prostate-specific antigen flare on treatment decisions was also addressed. Ultimately, individualised therapy for patients with mCRPC is dependent on continued refinement of clinical decision-making based on patient and disease characteristics. This consensus statement offers clinicians expert guidance on the implementation of recent advances to improve patient outcome, focusing on the future of prostate cancer care.
Irish Cancer Society and University College, Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address:

Dalpiaz O, Pichler M, Mannweiler S, et al.
Validation of the pretreatment derived neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic factor in a European cohort of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(10):2531-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The value of a combined index of neutrophil and white cell counts, named derived neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), has recently been proposed as a prognosticator of survival in various cancer types. We investigated the prognostic role of the dNLR in a large European cohort of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC).
METHODS: Data from 171 non-metastatic UTUC patients, operated between 1990 and 2012 at a single tertiary academic centre, were evaluated retrospectively. Cancer-specific- (CSS) as well as overall survival (OS) were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. To evaluate the independent prognostic significance of the dNLR, multivariate proportional Cox-regression models were applied. Additionally, the influence of the dNLR on the predictive accuracy of the multivariate model was further determined by Harrell's concordance index (c-index).
RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 31 months. An increased dNLR was statistically significantly associated with shorter CSS (log-rank P=0.004), as well as with shorter OS (log-rank P=0.002). Multivariate analysis identified dNLR as an independent predictor for CSS (hazard ratio, HR=1.16, 95% confidence interval, CI=1.01-1.35, P=0.045), as well as for OS (HR=1.21, 95% CI=1.09-1.34, P<0.001). The estimated c-index of the multivariate model for OS was 0.68 without dNLR and 0.73 when dNLR was added.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a high pretreatment dNLR could be predicted to show subsequently higher cancer-specific- as well as overall mortality after surgery for UTUC compared with those with a low pretreatment dNLR. Thus, this combined index should be considered as a potential prognostic biomarker in future.

Related: Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter Kidney Cancer
Department of Urology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 5/6, A-8036 Graz, Austria.

Hoster E, Klapper W, Hermine O, et al.
Confirmation of the mantle-cell lymphoma International Prognostic Index in randomized trials of the European Mantle-Cell Lymphoma Network.
J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(13):1338-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct B-cell lymphoma associated with poor outcome. In 2008, the MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI) was developed as the first prognostic stratification tool specifically directed to patients with MCL. External validation was planned to be performed on the cohort of the two recently completed randomized trials of the European MCL Network.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of 958 patients with MCL (median age, 65 years; range, 32 to 87 years) treated upfront in the trials MCL Younger or MCL Elderly were pooled to assess the prognostic value of MIPI with respect to overall survival (OS) and time to treatment failure (TTF).
RESULTS: Five-year OS rates in MIPI low, intermediate, and high-risk groups were 83%, 63%, and 34%, respectively. The hazard ratios for OS of intermediate versus low and high versus intermediate risk patients were 2.1 (95% CI, 1.5 to 2.9) and 2.6 (2.0 to 3.3), respectively. MIPI was similarly prognostic for TTF. All four clinical baseline characteristics constituting the MIPI, age, performance status, lactate dehydrogenase level, and WBC count, were confirmed as independent prognostic factors for OS and TTF. The validity of MIPI was independent of trial cohort and treatment strategy.
CONCLUSION: MIPI was prospectively validated in a large MCL patient cohort homogenously treated according to recognized standards. As reflected in current guidelines, MIPI represents a generally applicable prognostic tool to be used in research as well as in clinical routine, and it can help to develop risk-adapted treatment strategies to further improve clinical outcome in MCL.

Related: Cisplatin Cyclophosphamide Cytarabine Doxorubicin Mantle Cell Lymphoma Vincristine Rituximab (Mabthera)
Eva Hoster, Roswitha Forstpointner, Wolfgang Hiddemann, Martin H. Dreyling, and Michael Unterhalt, University Hospital Munich; Eva Hoster, University of Munich, Munich; Wolfram Klapper, University of Kiel; Christiane Pott, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel; Michael Hallek, Universitä...

Ozaki S, Harada T, Saitoh T, et al.
Survival of multiple myeloma patients aged 65-70 years in the era of novel agents and autologous stem cell transplantation. A multicenter retrospective collaborative study of the Japanese Society of Myeloma and the European Myeloma Network.
Acta Haematol. 2014; 132(2):211-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Novel agents such as thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib have dramatically changed the treatment paradigm of multiple myeloma (MM). However, it is not clear whether these agents improve the prognosis of elderly patients who have undergone autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT). We retrospectively analyzed the outcome of 318 newly diagnosed patients aged 65–70 years who were treated between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2009. As initial therapy, 192 patients were treated with conventional chemotherapy,88 with novel agent-containing regimens, 21 with conventional chemotherapy plus auto-SCT and the remaining 17 with novel agents plus auto-SCT. The median progression-free survival was 19.1, 24.5, 26.8 and 35.2 months, respectively, and the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 40, 62, 63 and 87%, respectively. Initial therapy with novel agents (p < 0.001) or auto-SCT (p < 0.02) significantly improved OS compared with the group without these treatment modalities. Salvage therapy with novel agents also significantly improved survival after relapse compared with conventional chemotherapy alone (p < 0.04). In a multivariate analysis, the use of novel agents was an independent prognostic factor significantly associated with extended OS(p < 0.003). These results indicate that novel agents and auto-SCT had a major impact on OS in eligible patients in this subgroup of MM.

Related: Angiogenesis Inhibitors Myeloma Myeloma - Molecular Biology Thalidomide Bortezomib Lenalidomide

Ludwig H, Aapro M, Bokemeyer C, et al.
A European patient record study on diagnosis and treatment of chemotherapy-induced anaemia.
Support Care Cancer. 2014; 22(8):2197-206 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/05/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Patients with cancer frequently experience chemotherapy-induced anaemia (CIA) and iron deficiency. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), iron supplementation and blood transfusions are available therapies. This study evaluated routine practice in CIA management.
METHODS: Medical oncologists and/or haematologists from nine European countries (n=375) were surveyed on their last five cancer patients treated for CIA (n=1,730). Information was collected on tests performed at diagnosis of anaemia, levels of haemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT), as well as applied anaemia therapies.
RESULTS: Diagnostic tests and therapies for CIA varied across Europe. Anaemia and iron status were mainly assessed by Hb (94%) and ferritin (48%) measurements. TSAT was only tested in 14%. At anaemia diagnosis, 74% of patients had Hb ≤ 10 g/dL, including 15% with severe anaemia (Hb <8 g/dL). Low-iron levels (ferritin ≤ 100 ng/mL) were detected in 42% of evaluated patients. ESA was used in 63%of patients, blood transfusions in 52 % and iron supplementation in 31% (74% oral, 26% intravenous iron). Only 30% of ESA-treated patients received a combination of ESA and iron supplementation. Blood transfusions formed part of a regular anaemia treatment regimen in 76% of transfused patients. Management practices were similar in 2009 and 2011.
CONCLUSION: Management of anaemia and iron status in patients treated for CIA varies substantially across Europe. Iron status is only assessed in half of the patients. In contrast to clinical evidence, iron treatment is under utilised and mainly based on oral iron supplementation. Implementation of guidelines needs to be increased to minimize the use of blood transfusions.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Weiderpass E, Antoine J, Bray FI, et al.
Trends in corpus uteri cancer mortality in member states of the European Union.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(9):1675-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The burden of corpus uteri cancer varies in the European Union (EU). We analysed trends in corpus uteri cancer mortality in 26 EU member states from 1970 onward.
METHODS: Population numbers and number of uterine cancer deaths were extracted from the World Health Organisation mortality database. Corpus uteri cancer mortality rates were corrected for certification problems using different reallocation rules for deaths registered as uterine cancer not otherwise specified, or using mixed disease codes. Join point regression was used to study the annual percentage change of age-standardised corpus uteri cancer mortality rates. Changes in corpus uteri cancer mortality rates by calendar period and standardised cohort mortality ratios were also estimated.
RESULTS: In 2008, 12,903 women died from corpus uteri cancer in the EU. Corrected age-standardised corpus uteri cancer mortality rates have decreased significantly over the past decades in most member states, with exception of Malta and Bulgaria, where rates increased; Greece, where rates remained low but stable; and Sweden, where rates have been stable since 1970. Original member states showed a steeper decrease than newer member states. The standardised cohort mortality ratios indicated that corpus uteri cancer mortality does not decrease further, nor does it increase, among women born after 1940, although these birth cohorts may still be too young for corpus uteri cancer incidence to be fully evaluated.
CONCLUSION: Our corrected corpus uteri cancer mortality rates showed a decrease in most EU member states among women born before 1940.
Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Folkhälsan Research Center, H...

Viprey VF, Gregory WM, Corrias MV, et al.
Neuroblastoma mRNAs predict outcome in children with stage 4 neuroblastoma: a European HR-NBL1/SIOPEN study.
J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(10):1074-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate the hypothesis that detection of neuroblastoma mRNAs by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR) in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow aspirates (BM) from children with stage 4 neuroblastoma are clinically useful biomarkers of risk.
METHODS: RTqPCR for paired-like homeobox 2b (PHOX2B), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and doublecortin (DCX) mRNA in PB and BM of children enrolled onto the High-Risk Neuroblastoma Trial-1 of the European Society of Pediatric Oncology Neuroblastoma Group (HR-NBL1/SIOPEN) was performed at diagnosis and after induction therapy.
RESULTS: High levels of TH, PHOX2B, or DCX mRNA in PB or BM at diagnosis strongly predicted for worse event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in a cohort of 290 children. After induction therapy, high levels of these mRNAs predicted worse EFS and OS in BM but not in PB. Combinations of mRNAs in BM did not add to the predictive power of any single mRNA. However, in the original (n = 182) and validation (n = 137) PB cohorts, high TH (log10TH > 0.8) or high PHOX2B (log10PHOX2B > 0.28) identify 19% of children as ultrahigh risk, with 5-year EFS and OS rates of 0%; OS rate was 25% (95% CI, 16% to 36%) and EFS rate was 38% (95% CI, 28% to 49%) in the remaining children. The magnitude of reduction in mRNA level between diagnosis and postinduction therapy in BM or PB was not of additional predictive value.
CONCLUSION: High levels of TH and PHOX2B mRNA in PB at diagnosis objectively identify children with ultrahigh-risk disease who may benefit from novel treatment approaches. The level of TH, PHOX2B, and DCX mRNA in BM and/or PB at diagnosis might contribute to an algorithm to improve stratification of children for treatment.

Related: Carboplatin Cisplatin Cyclophosphamide Etoposide Neuroblastoma Vincristine
Virginie F. Viprey and Susan A. Burchill, Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology; Walter M. Gregory, Clinical Trials Research Unit, University of Leeds, Leeds; Penelope Brock, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London; Andrew D. Pearson, Institute of Cancer Research/Royal Marsden National Health Servic...
Research funded by:

Berney DM, Algaba F, Camparo P, et al.
Variation in reporting of cancer extent and benign histology in prostate biopsies among European pathologists.
Virchows Arch. 2014; 464(5):583-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is not known how uropathologists currently report histopathological features of prostate biopsies such as core length, tumor extent, perineural invasion, and non-tumor-associated features such as inflammation and hyperplasia in needle biopsies. A web-based survey was distributed among 661 members of the European Network of Uropathology. Complete replies were received from 266 pathologists in 22 European countries. Total core lengths were reported by 64 %. The numbers of cores positive for cancer was given by 79 %. Linear cancer extent was reported by 81 %, most often given in millimeters for each core (53 %) followed by the estimation of percentage of cancer in each core (40 %). A gap of benign tissue between separate cancer foci in a single core would always be subtracted by 48 % and by 63 % if cancer foci were minute and widely separated. Perineural invasion was reported by 97 %. Fat invasion by tumor was interpreted as extraprostatic extension by 81 %. Chronic and active/acute inflammation was always reported by 32 and 56 % but only if pronounced by 54 and 39 %, respectively. While most (79 %) would never diagnose benign prostatic hyperplasia on needle biopsy, 21 % would attempt to make this diagnosis. Reporting practices for prostate biopsies are variable among European pathologists. The great variation in some methodologies used suggests a need for further international consensus, in order for retrospective data to be comparable between different institutions.

Related: Prostate Cancer
Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK,

Maffezzini M, Campodonico F, Canepa G, et al.
Intravesical mitomycin C combined with local microwave hyperthermia in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer with increased European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) score risk of recurrence and progression.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014; 73(5):925-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To assess the activity of intravesical chemotherapy and local microwave hyperthermia (ICLMH) in increasing the disease-free interval (DFI) in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and treatment toxicity.
METHODS: Forty-two patients with a diagnosis of high-risk NMIBC, according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria, were treated with an intensive schedule of ICLMH using 40 mg mitomycin C. The treatment consisted of 4 weekly sessions, followed by 6 sessions delivered every 2 weeks, and by 4 monthly sessions, for a total of 14 sessions over 8 months. The DFIs before and after treatment were compared in each patient.
RESULTS: The schedule was completed as planned by 32 patients (76.2 %). The percentage of disease-free patients the year before study was 14.9 % (95 % CI 5.5-28.8) versus 88.8 % (95 % CI 73.7-94.8) after ICLMH (p < 0.0001). Patient EORTC scores, multifocality, and tumour stage were all associated significantly and independently with a higher risk of recurrence after ICLMH treatment with HR of 41.1 (p = 0.01), 17.7 (p = 0.02), and 8.5 (p = 0.02), respectively. After a median follow-up of 38 months, 24 patients (57.1 %) did not show evidence of disease, whereas 13 patients (30.9 %) underwent disease recurrence and 5 patients (11.9 %) showed also stage progression. Toxicity consisted in grades 1 and 2 frequency, non-infectious cystitis, and haematuria.
CONCLUSIONS: ICLMH significantly increases the DFI of NMIBC patients with high EORTC score for recurrence and progression. Toxicity of the intensive treatment schedule was generally mild.

Related: Mitomycin Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology
Urology Unit, National Institute of Cancer, Milan, Italy.

Kakies Ch, Lopez-Beltran A, Comperat E, et al.
Reproducibility of histopathologic tumor grading in penile cancer--results of a European project.
Virchows Arch. 2014; 464(4):453-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since reliable molecular prognostic parameters for inguinal lymph metastases in penile cancer are not available, tumor grading is often used as a surrogate prognostic tool for the indication of inguinal lymphadenctomy and has been integrated into the current TNM classification for penile cancer. The reliability of tumor grading is under discussion. We examined interobserver grading variability in 90 primary penile carcinomas, assessed by 12 different uropathologists from five European countries. Tumor grading, following the CAP scheme, was compared, and interobserver variability was calculated using kappa statistics. The interobserver variability was high as reflected by an overall low kappa coefficient (mean k = 0.34) and reached a moderate level only in 26.4 % of the cases (range 0.02-0.67). The percentage of G1 tumors assigned ranged from 8.6 to 52.5 %, G2 tumors from 27.1 to 72.6 % and G3 tumors from 11.7 to 48.7 %. Only some observers assigned G4 with a range of 0.6-21.9 %. Subdivision into low and high grade according to UICC and EAU classifications differed significantly (P < 0.001). Low reproducibility of grading in penile carcinomas with the favored method does not allow a reliable prognostication of tumor aggressiveness. Inclusion of histological grading into the TNM classification currently seems not to be a benefit.

Related: Penile (Penis) Cancer
Institute of Pathology, University of Rostock, Strempelstraße 14, 18055, Rostock, Germany,

Key TJ
Nutrition, hormones and prostate cancer risk: results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.
Recent Results Cancer Res. 2014; 202:39-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nutritional factors may influence the risk of developing prostate cancer, but understanding of this topic is poor. This chapter discusses research on this subject, mostly from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a cohort which includes 150,000 men recruited in the 1990s in eight European countries. So far the EPIC collaborators have published analyses of the relationship of prostate cancer risk with the intake of a range of foods and nutrients, and with blood-based markers of nutritional factors, on up to nearly 3,000 incident cases of prostate cancer. Most of the results of these analyses have been null, with no clear indication that the risk for prostate cancer is related to intakes of meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, fibre, fat or alcohol or with blood levels of fatty acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, B vitamins, vitamin D, or selenium. There is some evidence from EPIC that risk may be increased in men with a high intake of protein from dairy products, and analyses of hormone levels have shown that risk is higher in men with relatively high blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). More research is needed to better describe the relationships of prostate cancer risk with IGF-I and related hormones, and to better understand whether nutritional factors may influence risk through hormones or perhaps by other mechanisms.

Related: Prostate Cancer
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7LF, United Kingdom,

Borque Á, Rubio-Briones J, Esteban LM, et al.
Implementing the use of nomograms by choosing threshold points in predictive models: 2012 updated Partin Tables vs a European predictive nomogram for organ-confined disease in prostate cancer.
BJU Int. 2014; 113(6):878-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To implement the use of nomograms in clinical practice showing how to choose thresholds in nomograms' predictions to select risk groups. To validate and compare the predictive ability and clinical utility of the Hospital Universitario 'Miguel Servet' (HUMS) and the updated Partin Tables 2012 (PT-2012) nomograms to predict organ-confined disease (OCD) after radical prostatectomy (RP).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cohort of 1285 patients with prostate cancer treated with RP at Instituto Valenciano de Oncología (IVO) between 1986 and 2011. The predictive value of the nomograms was assessed by means of calibration curves, discrimination ability (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) and probability density functions). The clinical utility was evaluated through Vickers' decision curves and thresholds were chosen through probability density functions.
RESULTS: The calibration curves showed a minimal underestimation in low probabilities (<20%), a minimal overestimation in high probabilities (>50%) in the HUMS nomogram and a regular minimal overestimation in the PT-2012. Their AUC of 0.7285 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7010-0.7559) and 0.7288 (95%CI 0.7013-0.7562) respectively, show an adequate discrimination ability for both predictive models in the IVO cohort. The decision curves show similar net benefits for both models. In this study we advocate for a threshold of 53% for the identification of OCD.
CONCLUSIONS: The HUMS-nomogram and the PT-2012 predictions of OCD confirm their utility in a contemporary cohort of patients. Patients with a probability of OCD >53% should be classified as OCD, helping physicians to better counsel their patients. A selection of adequate thresholds, as presented in this paper, makes nomograms more accessible tools.

Related: Prostate Cancer
Department of Urology, Hospital Universitario 'Miguel Servet', Zaragoza, Spain.

Kyrø C, Olsen A, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, et al.
Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.
Br J Nutr. 2014; 111(10):1881-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Whole-grain intake has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of several lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, CVD and some types of cancers. As measurement errors in self-reported whole-grain intake assessments can be substantial, dietary biomarkers are relevant to be used as complementary tools for dietary intake assessment. Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids found almost exclusively in whole-grain wheat and rye products among the commonly consumed foods and are considered as valid biomarkers of the intake of these products. In the present study, we analysed the plasma concentrations of five AR homologues in 2845 participants from ten European countries from a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. High concentrations of plasma total AR were found in participants from Scandinavia and Central Europe and lower concentrations in those from the Mediterranean countries. The geometric mean plasma total AR concentrations were between 35 and 41 nmol/l in samples drawn from fasting participants in the Central European and Scandinavian countries and below 23 nmol/l in those of participants from the Mediterranean countries. The whole-grain source (wheat or rye) could be determined using the ratio of two of the homologues. The main source was wheat in Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK, whereas rye was also consumed in considerable amounts in Germany, Denmark and Sweden. The present study demonstrates a considerable variation in the plasma concentrations of total AR and concentrations of AR homologues across ten European countries, reflecting both quantitative and qualitative differences in the intake of whole-grain wheat and rye.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Strandboulevarden 49, Copenhagen Ø 2100, Denmark.

Pichler M, Dalpiaz O, Ehrlich GC, et al.
Validation of the preoperative plasma fibrinogen level as a prognostic factor in a European cohort of patients with localized upper tract urothelial carcinoma.
J Urol. 2014; 191(4):920-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Fibrinogen is thought to have a potentially significant role in the progression and metastatic spread of different human cancers. A recent study from Asia indicated that elevated preoperative plasma fibrinogen might be associated with a worse outcome in patients with surgically treated localized upper tract urothelial carcinoma. We validated the prognostic impact of this potential biomarker in a European cohort of patients with localized upper tract urothelial carcinoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated data on 167 patients with nonmetastatic upper tract urothelial carcinoma who underwent surgery between 1990 and 2012 at a single tertiary academic center. Patients were categorized using an optimal cutoff value of preoperative plasma fibrinogen. Patient cancer specific and overall survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were performed for each end point. The influence of fibrinogen on the predictive accuracy of the multivariate model was further determined by the Harrell c-index.
RESULTS: Multivariate analysis identified increased preoperative plasma fibrinogen as an independent prognostic factor for cancer specific survival (HR 3.00, 95% CI 1.32-6.80, p = 0.008) and overall survival (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.31-4.68, p = 0.005). The estimated c-index of the multivariate model for cancer specific survival was 0.72 without fibrinogen and 0.74 when fibrinogen was added. The risk model that we developed significantly differentiated between low, intermediate and high risk groups for cancer related death (p <0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Elevated fibrinogen seems to represent a negative prognostic factor for cancer specific and overall survival in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma. This parameter should be considered an additional prognostic factor for upper tract urothelial carcinoma in the future.

Related: Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter Kidney Cancer
Division of Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Milne R, La Vecchia C, Van Steen K, et al.
EU Pancreas: an integrated European platform for pancreas cancer research--from basic science to clinical and public health interventions for a rare disease.
Public Health Genomics. 2013; 16(6):305-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Large-scale international collaboration is essential to decipher relevant information in the context of omics-scale interrogations in cancer research. This is even more important for rare and fatal diseases like pancreas cancer (PC).
METHODS: The COST Action BM1204 is a unique platform to facilitate the collaboration of a broad range of European and international PC multidisciplinary research groups in order to: (1) integrate knowledge and experience in a multidisciplinary way 'from cell to society', (2) promote the application of uniform study tools and protocols, (3) foster their optimal use by early-stage researchers, (4) enhance the mobility and training of researchers, and (5) disseminate the results produced to the broader society.
RESULTS: This Action will develop novel interdisciplinary tools for collaborative research to improve our understanding of PC and its prevention, diagnosis and treatment. It also aims to answer questions related to the etiology, early detection, evidence-based and personalized treatment, and health management for PC. Furthermore, the Action will contribute to new insights into PC personalized medicine and beyond as well as to the understanding of complex and rare diseases taking PC as a best practice example. The Action aims at attracting young scholars across a range of disciplines in collaboration with more experienced researchers and enhancing active European participation in the international scenario of PC research.
CONCLUSION: The ultimate aim is to foster PC research in Europe and to coordinate this effort with other international initiatives to reduce disease mortality.

Related: Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer
Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain.
Research funded by:

Goren A, Gilloteau I, Lees M, DaCosta Dibonaventura M
Quantifying the burden of informal caregiving for patients with cancer in Europe.
Support Care Cancer. 2014; 22(6):1637-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Informal caregivers for patients with cancer provide critical emotional and instrumental support, but this role can cause substantial burden. This study expands our understanding of cancer-related caregiving burden in Europe.
METHODS: Caregivers (n = 1,713) for patients with cancer and non-caregivers (n = 103,868) were identified through the 2010 and 2011 European Union National Health and Wellness Survey, administered via the Internet to adult populations in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Respondents completed measures of sociodemographics and health behaviors, health-related quality of life (using SF-12v2), work productivity and activity impairment (using WPAI), healthcare resource use (emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and traditional provider visits), and reported diagnosis of stress-related comorbidities (depression, anxiety, insomnia, headache, migraine, and gastrointestinal problems). Two-sided tests of means or proportions compared caregivers against non-caregivers. Multivariable regression models, comparing caregivers for patients with any cancer vs. non-caregivers on all health outcomes, adjusted for covariates (age, sex, college, income, marital status, employment, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, and Charlson comorbidity index).
RESULTS: Caregivers for patients with cancer vs. non-caregivers reported significant (P < 0.05) impairment across all health outcomes, even after adjusting for several confounds (e.g., 3.26-point lower mental health status, 0.043-point lower health utilities, 1.46 times as much work impairment, and 1.97 times the odds of anxiety).
CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers for patients with cancer experienced significant impairments. These findings reinforce the need for enhancing our understanding of the caregiving experience and developing supportive and personalized multicomponent interventions for caregivers, given their pivotal role in providing support for patients.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction
Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, 11 Madison Ave, 12th Floor, New York, NY, 10010, USA,

Heidenreich A, Bracarda S, Mason M, et al.
Safety of cabazitaxel in senior adults with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: results of the European compassionate-use programme.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(6):1090-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cabazitaxel/prednisone has been shown to prolong survival versus mitoxantrone/prednisone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) that has progressed during or after docetaxel. Subsequently, compassionate-use programmes (CUPs) and expanded-access programmes (EAPs) were established worldwide, allowing access to cabazitaxel before its commercial availability. Preliminary results of the European CUP/EAP, focusing on the elderly population (aged > or =70 years), are reported.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Enrolled patients with progressive mCRPC received cabazitaxel (25 mg/m2) plus 10mg oral prednisone/prednisolone every 3 weeks until disease progression, death, unacceptable toxicity or physician/patient decision. Safety was analysed by age group (<70, 70-74 and > or =75 years). The influence of selected variables on grade > or =3 neutropenia and/or neutropenic complications was analysed in multivariate analysis.
RESULTS: 746 men were enrolled (<70 years, n=421; 70-74, n=180, > or =75 years, n=145). Number of cabazitaxel cycles, dose reductions for any cause, dose delays possibly related to cabazitaxel adverse events, and tolerability were similar in the three age groups. Prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) use was more common in men aged > or =0 years. In multivariate analysis, age > or =75 years, treatment cycle 1, and neutrophil count <4000/mm3 before cabazitaxel injection were associated with increased risk of developing grade > or =3 neutropenia and/or neutropenic complications. Prophylactic use of G-CSF at a given cycle significantly reduced this risk by 30% (odds ratio 0.70, p=0.04).
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that cabazitaxel has a manageable safety profile in everyday clinical practice. Prophylactic use of G-CSF, especially at cycle 1 and in men aged > or =75 years, is important and improves tolerability in senior adults treated with cabazitaxel.

Related: Cabazitaxel
RWTH Aachen University, Department of Urology, Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:

Winters ZE, Balta V, Thomson HJ, et al.
Phase III development of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire module for women undergoing breast reconstruction.
Br J Surg. 2014; 101(4):371-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Comprehensive outcome assessments after breast reconstruction (BRR) require surgery-specific patient-reported outcome measures. The aims of this study were to assess the relevance, acceptability and redundancy of questions/items (phase III pretesting) of a new BRR questionnaire evaluating patients' health-related quality of life before and after BRR. Phase III occurred in collaboration with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) following earlier development phases that identified 31 items.
METHODS: The EORTC BRR subgroup applied decision-making rules to each question according to eight EORTC criteria. A total of 197 patients (from the UK, Austria, Belgium, Italy and Sweden) were recruited. Forty-seven patients completed pre- and post-BRR questionnaires prospectively, and 150 reported post-BRR questionnaires only retrospectively. Qualitative debriefing interviews were undertaken in 189 patients. Preliminary psychometric analyses were performed.
RESULTS: Thirty-one items fulfilled 'relevance', with none producing 'difficulties'. Ten items were not a priority for 10 per cent of respondents. Of these, two questions concerning muscle twitching in the affected breast and problem with donor-site swelling were deleted. Three redundant items were deleted: weakness in arm, which correlated significantly to the Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ) BR23 breast questionnaire, and shape and colour of the affected nipple. Descriptive statistics reduced the module to 26 items conceptualized into three provisional scales (disease treatment/surgery-related symptoms, sexuality and cosmetic outcome) within the newly completed questionnaire, EORTC QLQ-BRR26.
CONCLUSION: The QLQ-BRR26 is available for psychometric validation in a large-field international sample. The intended use for QLQ-BRR26 is alongside EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23, in women treated by mastectomy for breast cancer and undergoing all types of BRR.

Related: Breast Cancer
School of Clinical Sciences and Breast Reconstruction Patient Reported and Clinical Outcomes Research Group, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol and North Bristol NHS Trust, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, Departments of.

Nunes NA
The quality of life of Brazilian patients in palliative care: validation of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 PAL (EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL).
Support Care Cancer. 2014; 22(6):1595-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to validate the Brazilian version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 PAL (EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL) to be used in patients with cancer in palliative care.
METHODS: One hundred four outpatients with advanced cancer were recruited in Hospital das Clinicas--University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
RESULTS: The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that Cronbach-α is ≥0.7 except for fatigue (α = 0.58). Convergent validity was shown by the correlation observed between the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL dimensions with the EORTC QLQ-C30, Brief Pain Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory. The EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL detected significant differences in the performance status, supporting known-group validity.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL is a brief, useful, and valid tool for assessing the quality of life of Brazilian patients in palliative care.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction
University of Guarulhos-UnG, Guarulhos, SP, Brazil,

Yamamoto E, Fujisawa S, Hagihara M, et al.
European Treatment and Outcome Study score does not predict imatinib treatment response and outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(1):105-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Sokal and Hasford scores were developed in the chemotherapy and interferon era and are widely used as prognostic indicators in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Recently, a new European Treatment and Outcome Study (EUTOS) scoring system was developed. We performed a multicenter retrospective study to validate the effectiveness of each of the three scoring systems. The study cohort included 145 patients diagnosed with CML in chronic phase who were treated with imatinib. In the EUTOS low- and high-risk groups, the cumulative incidence of complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) at 18 months was 86.9% and 87.5% (P = 0.797) and the 5-year overall survival rate was 92.6% and 93.3% (P = 0.871), respectively. The cumulative incidence of CCyR at 12 months, 5-year event-free survival and 5-year progression-free survival were not predicted using the EUTOS scoring system. However, there were significant differences in both the Sokal score and Hasford score risk groups. In our retrospective validation study, the EUTOS score did not predict the prognosis of patients with CML in chronic phase treated with imatinib.

Related: Imatinib (Glivec)
Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

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