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Europe: Cancer Organisations
Latest Research Publications about cancer in Europe

Europe: Cancer Organisations (31 links)

Latest Research Publications about cancer in Europe

Rietbergen MM, Witte BI, Velazquez ER, et al.
Different prognostic models for different patient populations: validation of a new prognostic model for patients with oropharyngeal cancer in Western Europe.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(11):1733-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is a major determinant in prognostic risk modelling. Recently, a prognostic model was proposed in which HPV status, comorbidity and nodal stage were the most important prognostic factors to determine high-, intermediate- and low-risk survival groups. Here, we report on the validation of this model using an independent single-institutional cohort.
METHODS: A total number of 235 patients curatively treated for OPSCC in the period 2000-2011 at the MUMC (Maastricht University Medical Center, The Netherlands) were included. The presence of an oncogenic HPV infection was determined by p16 immunostaining, followed by a high-risk HPV DNA PCR on the p16-positive cases. The model variables included were HPV status, comorbidity and nodal stage. As a measure of model performance, the Harrell's Concordance index (Harrell's C-index) was used.
RESULTS: The 5-year overall survival (OS) estimates were 84.6%, 54.5% and 28.7% in the low-, intermediate- and high-risk group, respectively. The difference between the survival curves was highly significant (P<0.001). The Harrell's C-index was 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63-0.75).
CONCLUSION: In this study a previously developed prognostic risk model was validated. This model will help to personalise treatment in OPSCC patients. This model is publicly available at www.predictcancer.org.

Elfström KM, Arnheim-Dahlström L, von Karsa L, Dillner J
Cervical cancer screening in Europe: Quality assurance and organisation of programmes.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(8):950-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cervical screening programmes have reduced cervical cancer incidence and mortality but the level of success is highly variable between countries. Organisation of programmes is essential for equity and cost-effectiveness. However, there are differences in effectiveness, also among organised programmes. In order to identify the key organisational components that determine effectiveness, we performed a Europe-wide survey on the current status of organisation and organised quality assurance (QA) measures in cervical cancer prevention programmes, as well as organisation-associated costs.
METHODS: A comprehensive questionnaire was developed through systematic review of literature and existing guidelines. The survey was sent to programme organisers, Ministries of Health and experts in 34 European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Agreement (EFTA) countries. Detailed aspects of programme organisation, quality assurance, monitoring, evaluation and corresponding line-item costs were recorded. Documentation of programme guidelines, protocols and publications was requested.
RESULTS: Twenty-nine of 34 countries responded. The results showed that organised efforts for QA, monitoring and evaluation were carried out to a differing extent and were not standardised, making it difficult to compare the cost-effectiveness of organisation and QA strategies. Most countries found it hard to estimate the costs associated with launching and operating the organised programme.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first questionnaire to request detailed information on the actual organisation and QA of programmes. The results of this survey can be used as a basis for further development of standardised guidelines on organisation and QA of cervical cancer screening programmes in Europe.

Baccarani M, Castagnetti F, Gugliotta G, Rosti G
A review of the European LeukemiaNet recommendations for the management of CML.
Ann Hematol. 2015; 94 Suppl 2:S141-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several guidelines and recommendations on the management of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have been prepared by several scientific societies. The European LeukemiaNet (ELN) appointed a panel of experts who submitted their recommendations to peer-reviewed scientific journals in 2006, 2009, and 2013. Here, we make a critical review of the last, 2013, ELN recommendations, concerning the use of the five available tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), the evaluation of cytogenetic and molecular response, and the strategy of treatment. Three TKIs (imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib) are recommended first-line. Bosutinib and ponatinib are available second-line; ponatinib is particularly indicated in case of the T315I mutation. Achieving an optimal response, not only for survival but also for a deeper, stable, treatment-free remission, requires a BCR-ABL transcripts level ≤ 10 % at 3 months, ≤ 1 % at 6 months, ≤ 0.1 % at 1 year, and ≤ 0.01 % later on. Molecular monitoring must include mutational analysis in every case of failure. A successful treatment of accelerated and blastic phase requires TKIs, and in many cases also allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Rodriguez EF, Dacic S, Pantanowitz L, et al.
Cytopathology of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with a single histological pattern using the proposed International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) classification.
Cancer Cytopathol. 2015; 123(5):306-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for histological subtyping in patients with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) were recently proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society. The objective of the current study was to investigate the cytomorphology of these subtypes of ADC in cases with matched histology specimens demonstrating a single pure subtype.
METHODS: The authors reviewed their database for patients with histological diagnoses of primary lung ADC with a single histological pattern observed on surgical resection and investigated the cytological findings in 18 matched cytology specimens to eliminate sampling issues in cases of mixed ADC.
RESULTS: Resections were classified as acinar (7 specimens), solid (6 specimens), lepidic (2 specimens), mucinous (2 specimens), and papillary (1 specimen). Cytology specimens demonstrating a solid pattern had a predominance of 3-dimensional clusters (5 of 6 vs 0 of 12 specimens) (P = .0007, Fisher exact test), necrotic background (3 of 6 vs 0 of 12 specimens) (P = .02), pleomorphic nuclei (6 of 6 vs 1 of 12 specimens) (P = .0004), irregular nuclear contours (6 of 6 vs 3 of 12 specimens) (P = .009), and nuclear enlargement (5 of 6 vs 2 of 12 specimens) (P = .01) compared with the nonsolid patterns. Nuclear pseudoinclusions were present only in nonsolid patterns (5 of 12 specimens), although this finding was not statistically significant (P = .05) CONCLUSIONS: Cytological features of lung ADC subtypes proposed by the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification overlap. However, architectural and nuclear features may be helpful, particularly in distinguishing the prognostically adverse solid pattern from other patterns.

Bamia C, Lagiou P, Jenab M, et al.
Fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a multi-centre, European cohort study.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(7):1273-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 31/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vegetable and/or fruit intakes in association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been investigated in case-control studies conducted in specific European countries and cohort studies conducted in Asia, with inconclusive results. No multi-centre European cohort has investigated the indicated associations.
METHODS: In 486,799 men/women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition, we identified 201 HCC cases after 11 years median follow-up. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence for sex-specific quintiles and per 100 g d(-1) increments of vegetable/fruit intakes.
RESULTS: Higher vegetable intake was associated with a statistically significant, monotonic reduction of HCC risk: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71-0.98. This association was consistent in sensitivity analyses with no apparent heterogeneity across strata of HCC risk factors. Fruit intake was not associated with HCC incidence: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92-1.11.
CONCLUSIONS: Vegetable, but not fruit, intake is associated with lower HCC risk with no evidence for heterogeneity of this association in strata of important HCC risk factors. Mechanistic studies should clarify pathways underlying this association. Given that HCC prognosis is poor and that vegetables are practically universally accessible, our results may be important, especially for those at high risk for the disease.

Li K, Hüsing A, Fortner RT, et al.
An epidemiologic risk prediction model for ovarian cancer in Europe: the EPIC study.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(7):1257-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 31/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer has a high case-fatality ratio, largely due to late diagnosis. Epidemiologic risk prediction models could help identify women at increased risk who may benefit from targeted prevention measures, such as screening or chemopreventive agents.
METHODS: We built an ovarian cancer risk prediction model with epidemiologic risk factors from 202,206 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.
RESULTS: Older age at menopause, longer duration of hormone replacement therapy, and higher body mass index were included as increasing ovarian cancer risk, whereas unilateral ovariectomy, longer duration of oral contraceptive use, and higher number of full-term pregnancies were decreasing risk. The discriminatory power (overall concordance index) of this model, as examined with five-fold cross-validation, was 0.64 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57, 0.70). The ratio of the expected to observed number of ovarian cancer cases occurring in the first 5 years of follow-up was 0.90 (293 out of 324, 95% CI: 0.81-1.01), in general there was no evidence for miscalibration.
CONCLUSION: Our ovarian cancer risk model containing only epidemiological data showed modest discriminatory power for a Western European population. Future studies should consider adding informative biomarkers to possibly improve the predictive ability of the model.

Costas L, Infante-Rivard C, Zock JP, et al.
Occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors and lymphoma risk in a multi-centric European study.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(7):1251-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 31/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Incidence rates of lymphoma are usually higher in men than in women, and oestrogens may protect against lymphoma.
METHODS: We evaluated occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) among 2457 controls and 2178 incident lymphoma cases and subtypes from the European Epilymph study.
RESULTS: Over 30 years of exposure to EDCs compared to no exposure was associated with a 24% increased risk of mature B-cell neoplasms (P-trend=0.02). Associations were observed among men, but not women.
CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors seems to be moderately associated with some lymphoma subtypes.

Lista G, Buffi NM, Lughezzani G, et al.
Margin, ischemia, and complications system to report perioperative outcomes of robotic partial nephrectomy: a European Multicenter Observational Study (EMOS project).
Urology. 2015; 85(3):589-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore the margin, ischemia, and complications (MIC) system achievement rate within a population of patients who were treated with robotic partial nephrectomy (RAPN), at 3 different tertiary care centers, and to determine the factors predicting MIC achievement.
METHODS: The study population consisted of 339 patients who underwent RAPN for cT1 renal tumors at 3 centers. Cancer control was defined as the absence of positive surgical margin. Ideal threshold of warm ischemia time (WIT) was considered ≤20 minutes. Safety was defined as the absence of major complications. The achievement of MIC was considered as the fulfillment of all these 3 outcomes. The primary endpoint was to determine the MIC rate in our study population; the secondary endpoint was to detect factors affecting its achievement.
RESULTS: The overall MIC rate was 67%. Median WIT was 17 minutes (range, 7-51 minutes). In 88 cases (26%), WIT was >20 minutes. Positive surgical margins were found in 22 patients (6.5%). Overall postoperative and major complication rates were 14.5% (n = 49) and 3.8% (n = 13). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, continuously coded and categorically coded preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical scores were an independent predictor of MIC achievement (odds ratio, 0.636; confidence interval, 0.436-0.928; P = .019 and odds ratio, 0.098; confidence interval, 0.030-0.326; P <.001).
CONCLUSION: The MIC binary system may represent a useful tool to summarize the achievement of optimal perioperative outcomes of RAPN. In the current population, tumor complexity was significantly associated with MIC achievement.

Santoro R, Mancini P, Carboni F, et al.
Subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer: long term outcomes of Billroth I reconstruction at a single European institute.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2014 Nov-Dec; 61(136):2448-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The role of Billroth I (BI) subtotal gastrectomy (SG) for gastric cancer (GC) remains controversial in Western countries. The aim of the study is to critically analyze the long term outcomes of this procedure in a large single-institution experience.
METHODOLOGY: Between 1990 and 2004, 158 patients underwent BI SG for GC at the Regina Elena Cancer Institute of Rome. Evaluation focused on cancer recurrence of the gastric stump, functional outcome and endoscopic findings.
RESULTS: Actuarial survival rate 10 years after resection in stage I-II was 70.7 per cent. After curative resection, primary cancer of the gastric stump occurred in one patient seven years after resection (0.7 per cent), whereas two patients had early recurrence (1.4 per cent) one and three years postoperatively. There were no oesophageal cancers. In survivors, Visick grades I and II achieved 95 per cent, and postoperative endoscopy showed no evidence of mucosal changes in 85 per cent of the patients. Twelve per cent of the patients took acid blocker regularly, however, the incidence of functional failure was 5 per cent.
CONCLUSIONS: In selected patients, Billroth I subtotal gastrectomy is a safe and effective procedure that provides long-term survival and very good functional outcome.

Van Gestel D, Van den Weyngaert D, De Kerf G, et al.
Helical tomotherapy in head and neck cancer: a European single-center experience.
Oncologist. 2015; 20(3):279-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We report on a retrospective analysis of 147 patients with early and locoregionally advanced squamous cell head and neck cancer (SCCHN) treated with helical tomotherapy (HT).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Included were patients with SCCHN of the oral cavity (OC), oropharynx (OP), hypopharynx (HP), or larynx (L) consecutively treated in one radiotherapy center in 2008 and 2009. The prescribed HT dose was 60-66 Gy in the postoperative setting (group A) and 66-70 Gy when given as primary treatment (group B). HT was given alone, concurrent with systemic therapy (ST), that is, chemotherapy, biotherapy, or both, and with or without induction therapy (IT). Acute and late toxicities are reported using standard criteria; locoregional failure/progression (LRF), distant metastases (DM), and second primary tumors (SPT) were documented, and event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from the start of HT.
RESULTS: Group A patients received HT alone in 22 cases and HT + ST in 20 cases; group B patients received HT alone in 17 cases and HT + ST in 88 cases. Severe (grade ≥ 3) acute mucosal toxicity and swallowing problems increased with more additional ST. After a median follow-up of 44 months, grade ≥2 late toxicity after HT + ST was approximately twice that of HT alone for skin, subcutis, pharynx, and larynx. Forty percent had grade ≥2 late xerostomia, and 29% had mucosal toxicity. At 3 years, LRF/DM/SPT occurred in 7%/7%/17% and 25%/13%/5% in groups A and B, respectively, leading to a 3-year EFS/OS of 64%/74% and 56%/63% in groups A and B, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The use of HT alone or in combination with ST is feasible and promising and has a low late fatality rate. However, late toxicity is nearly twice as high when ST is added to HT.

Hanaizi Z, Flores B, Hemmings R, et al.
The European medicines agency review of pomalidomide in combination with low-dose dexamethasone for the treatment of adult patients with multiple myeloma: summary of the scientific assessment of the committee for medicinal products for human use.
Oncologist. 2015; 20(3):329-34 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
On August 5, 2013, a marketing authorization valid throughout the European Union (EU) was issued for pomalidomide in combination with dexamethasone for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM) who have received at least two prior treatment regimens, including both lenalidomide and bortezomib, and have demonstrated disease progression on the last therapy. Pomalidomide is an immunomodulating agent. The recommended starting dose of pomalidomide is 4 mg once daily taken on days 1-21 of repeated 28-day cycles. The main evidence of efficacy for pomalidomide in MM was based on a phase III multicenter, randomized, open-label study (CC-4047-MM-003) in which pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone therapy (POM+LoDEX) was compared with high-dose dexamethasone alone (HiDEX) in previously treated adult patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma who had received at least two prior treatment regimens, including both lenalidomide and bortezomib, and had demonstrated disease progression on the last therapy. For the intent-to-treat population, median progression-free survival based on International Myeloma Working Group criteria was 15.7 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.0-20.1) in the POM+LoDEX group versus 8.0 weeks (95% CI: 7.0-9.0) in the HiDEX group (log-rank p value <.001). Overall survival (secondary endpoint) was also different in the two treatment groups (hazard ratio 0.53 [95% CI: 0.37-0.74]). The most commonly reported adverse reactions to pomalidomide in clinical studies were anemia (45.7%), neutropenia (45.3%) and thrombocytopenia (27%), fatigue (28.3%), pyrexia (21%), peripheral edema (13%), and infections including pneumonia (10.7%). Peripheral neuropathy adverse reactions were reported in 12.3% of patients, and venous embolic or thrombotic (VTE) adverse reactions were reported in 3.3% of patients. Pomalidomide is expected to be teratogenic. This paper summarizes the scientific review of the application leading to approval in the EU. The detailed scientific assessment report and product information, including the summary of product characteristics, are available on the EMA website (http://www.ema.europa.eu).

Kreimer AR, Brennan P, Lang Kuhs KA, et al.
Human papillomavirus antibodies and future risk of anogenital cancer: a nested case-control study in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(8):877-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/03/2016 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) causes cancer at several anatomic sites. In the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study, HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before oropharyngeal cancer diagnosis and was nearly absent in controls. The current study sought to evaluate the extent to which HPV16 E6 antibodies are present before diagnosis of anogenital cancers within the same cohort.
METHODS: Four hundred incident anogenital cancers (273 cervical, 24 anal, 67 vulvar, 12 vaginal, and 24 penile cancers) with prediagnostic blood samples (collected on average 3 and 8 years before diagnosis for cervix and noncervix cancers, respectively) and 718 matched controls were included. Plasma was analyzed for antibodies against HPV16 E6 and multiple other HPV proteins and genotypes and evaluated in relation to risk using unconditional logistic regression.
RESULTS: HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in 29.2% of individuals (seven of 24 individuals) who later developed anal cancer compared with 0.6% of controls (four of 718 controls) who remained cancer free (odds ratio [OR], 75.9; 95% CI, 17.9 to 321). HPV16 E6 seropositivity was less common for cancers of the cervix (3.3%), vagina (8.3%), vulva (1.5%), and penis (8.3%). No associations were seen for non-type 16 HPV E6 antibodies, apart from anti-HPV58 E6 and anal cancer (OR, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 33.1). HPV16 E6 seropositivity tended to increase in blood samples drawn closer in time to cancer diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: HPV16 E6 seropositivity is relatively common before diagnosis of anal cancer but rare for other HPV-related anogenital cancers.

Bach T, Muschter R, Herrmann TR, et al.
Technical solutions to improve the management of non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma: summary of a European Association of Urology Section for Uro-Technology (ESUT) and Section for Uro-Oncology (ESOU) expert meeting and current and future perspectives.
BJU Int. 2015; 115(1):14-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present review was to compare state-of-the-art care and future perspectives for the detection and treatment of non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. We provide a summary of the third expert meeting on 'Optimising the management of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, organized by the European Association of Urology Section for Uro-Technology (ESUT) in collaboration with the Section for Uro-Oncology (ESOU), including a systematic literature review. The article includes a detailed discussion on the current and future perspectives for TCC, including photodynamic diagnosis, optical coherence tomography, narrow band imaging, the Storz Professional Image Enhancement system, magnification and high definition techniques. We also provide a detailed discussion of future surgical treatment options, including en bloc resection and tumour enucleation. Intensive research has been conducted to improve tumour detection and there are promising future perspectives, that require proven clinical efficacy. En bloc resection of bladder tumours may be advantageous, but is currently considered to be experimental.

Lengfelder E, Lo-Coco F, Ades L, et al.
Arsenic trioxide-based therapy of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia: registry results from the European LeukemiaNet.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(5):1084-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
In 2008, a European registry of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia was established by the European LeukemiaNet. Outcome data were available for 155 patients treated with arsenic trioxide in first relapse. In hematological relapse (n=104), 91% of the patients entered complete hematological remission (CR), 7% had induction death and 2% resistance, 27% developed differentiation syndrome and 39% leukocytosis, whereas no death or side effects occurred in patients treated in molecular relapse (n=40). The rate of molecular (m)CR was 74% in hematological and 62% in molecular relapse (P=0.3). All patients with extramedullary relapse (n=11) entered clinical and mCR. After 3.2 years median follow-up, the 3-year overall survival (OS) and cumulative incidence of second relapse were 68% and 41% in hematological relapse, 66% and 48% in molecular relapse and 90 and 11% in extramedullary relapse, respectively. After allogeneic or autologous transplantation in second CR (n=93), the 3-year OS was 80% compared with 59% without transplantation (n=55) (P=0.03). Multivariable analysis demonstrated the favorable prognostic impact of first remission duration ⩾1.5 years, achievement of mCR and allogeneic or autologous transplantation on OS of patients alive after induction (P=0.03, P=0.01, P=0.01) and on leukemia-free survival (P=0.006, P<0.0001, P=0.003), respectively.

Tinhofer I, Jöhrens K, Keilholz U, et al.
Contribution of human papilloma virus to the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in a European population with high smoking prevalence.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(4):514-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increases in incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in countries with falling tobacco use have been attributed to a growing role of human papilloma virus (HPV) in the carcinogenesis. Trends of HPV prevalence in populations with persistently high portions of smokers are poorly characterised.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Registry data from East Germany were used to determine incidence trends between 1998 and 2011. Data from patients treated at the Charité University Medicine Berlin between 2004 and 2013 (cohort 1, N=436) were used for estimation of trends in HPV prevalence, smoking and survival. HPV prevalence was prospectively confirmed in cohort 2 (N=213) comprising all primary HNSCC cases at the Charité in 2013.
RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2011 incidence of both OPSCC and non-OPSCC increased. An increase in HPV prevalence (% of HPV+ cases in 2004-2006 versus 2012-2013: 27% versus 59%, P=0.0004) accompanied by a moderate decrease in the portion of current smokers was observed in OPSCC but not in non-OPSCC. The change in disease epidemiology in OPSCC was associated with significant improvement in overall survival. Increased HPV prevalence in OPSCC (48%) compared to non-OPSCC (11%) was confirmed in cohort 2.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite clear differences to the United States in terms of tobacco use, the increase in OPSCC incidence in a European population was also mainly attributed to HPV, and the HPV status significantly affected prognosis. For clinical trial design it is important to consider the large group of smokers within HPV-induced OPSCC.

Gong Z, Yao S, Zirpoli G, et al.
Genetic variants in one-carbon metabolism genes and breast cancer risk in European American and African American women.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 137(3):666-77 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2016 Related Publications
Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism plays critical roles in DNA synthesis, repair and DNA methylation. The impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate-metabolizing enzymes has been investigated in risk of breast cancer among European or Asian populations, but not among women of African ancestry. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of SNPs in eleven genes involved in one-carbon metabolism and risk of breast cancer in 1,275 European-American (EA) and 1,299 African-American (AA) women who participated in the Women's Circle of Health Study. Allele frequencies varied significantly between EA and AA populations. A number of these SNPs, specifically in genes including MTR, MTRR, SHMT1, TYMS and SLC19A1, were associated with overall breast cancer risk, as well as risk by estrogen receptor (ER) status, in either EA or AA women. Associations appeared to be modified by dietary folate intake. Although single-SNP associations were not statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons, polygenetic score analyses revealed significant associations with breast cancer risk. Per unit increase of the risk score was associated with a modest 19 to 50% increase in risk of breast cancer overall, ER positive or ER negative cancer (all p < 0.0005) in EAs or AAs. In summary, our data suggest that one-carbon metabolizing gene polymorphisms could play a role in breast cancer and that may differ between EA and AA women.

Steffen A, Huerta JM, Weiderpass E, et al.
General and abdominal obesity and risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 137(3):646-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
General obesity, as reflected by BMI, is an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a suspected risk factor for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCC) and appears unrelated to gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCC). How abdominal obesity, as commonly measured by waist circumference (WC), relates to these cancers remains largely unexplored. Using measured anthropometric data from 391,456 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study and 11 years of follow-up, we comprehensively assessed the association of anthropometric measures with risk of EAC, GCC and GNCC using multivariable proportional hazards regression. One hundred twenty-four incident EAC, 193 GCC and 224 GNCC were accrued. After mutual adjustment, BMI was unrelated to EAC, while WC showed a strong positive association (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 1.19; 95% CI, 0.63-2.22 and HR = 3.76; 1.72-8.22, respectively). Hip circumference (HC) was inversely related to EAC after controlling for WC, while WC remained positively associated (HR = 0.35; 0.18-0.68, and HR=4.10; 1.94-8.63, respectively). BMI was not associated with GCC or GNCC. WC was related to higher risks of GCC after adjustment for BMI and more strongly after adjustment for HC (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 1.91; 1.09-3.37, and HR = 2.23; 1.28-3.90, respectively). Our study demonstrates that abdominal, rather than general, obesity is an indisputable risk factor for EAC and also provides evidence for a protective effect of gluteofemoral (subcutaneous) adipose tissue in EAC. Our study further shows that general obesity is not a risk factor for GCC and GNCC, while the role of abdominal obesity in GCC needs further investigation.

Frezza AM, Cesari M, Baumhoer D, et al.
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma: prognostic factors and outcome in 113 patients. A European Musculoskeletal Oncology Society study.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(3):374-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (MCS) is a distinct, very rare sarcoma with little evidence supporting treatment recommendations.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Specialist centres collaborated to report prognostic factors and outcome for 113 patients.
RESULTS: Median age was 30 years (range: 11-80), male/female ratio 1.1. Primary sites were extremities (40%), trunk (47%) and head and neck (13%), 41 arising primarily in soft tissue. Seventeen patients had metastases at diagnosis. Mean follow-up was 14.9 years (range: 1-34), median overall survival (OS) 17 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.3-28.6). Ninety-five of 96 patients with localised disease underwent surgery, 54 additionally received combination chemotherapy. Sixty-five of 95 patients are alive and 45 progression-free (5 local recurrence, 34 distant metastases, 11 combined). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and OS were 7 (95% CI: 3.03-10.96) and 20 (95% CI: 12.63-27.36) years respectively. Chemotherapy administration in patients with localised disease was associated with reduced risk of recurrence (P=0.046; hazard ratio (HR)=0.482 95% CI: 0.213-0.996) and death (P=0.004; HR=0.445 95% CI: 0.256-0.774). Clear resection margins predicted less frequent local recurrence (2% versus 27%; P=0.002). Primary site and origin did not influence survival. The absence of metastases at diagnosis was associated with a significantly better outcome (P<0.0001). Data on radiotherapy indications, dose and fractionation were insufficiently complete, to allow comment of its impact on outcomes. Median OS for patients with metastases at presentation was 3 years (95% CI: 0-4.25).
CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis in MCS varies considerably. Metastatic disease at diagnosis has the strongest impact on survival. Complete resection and adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered as standard of care for localised disease.

Schneider DT, Orbach D, Cecchetto G, et al.
Ovarian Sertoli Leydig cell tumours in children and adolescents: an analysis of the European Cooperative Study Group on Pediatric Rare Tumors (EXPeRT).
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(4):543-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To analyse ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours (SLCTs) for potential prognostic markers and their use for treatment stratification.
PATIENTS: Forty-four patients were included. Patients were prospectively reported to the German MAKEI (Maligne Keimzelltumoren) studies (n=23), French TGM protocols (n=10), Italian Rare Tumour Project (TREP) registry (n=6), and the Polish Pediatric Rare Tumour Study group (n=5). Tumours were classified according to World Health Organisation (WHO) and staged according to International Federation of Gynecological Oncology (FIGO).
RESULTS: Median age was 13.9 (0.5-17.4) years. All patients underwent resection by tumour enucleation (n=8), ovariectomy (n=17), adenectomy isolated (n=18) or with hysterectomy (n=1). FIGO-stage: Ia 24pts., Ic 17pts., II/III 3pts. One patient had bilateral tumours. Four patients (stage Ia: 3, stage Ic: 1) developed a metachronous contralateral tumour. Otherwise, all stage Ia patients remained in complete remission. Among 20 patients with incomplete resection or tumour spread (stage Ic-III), eight relapsed, and five patients died. Eleven patients were initially treated with two to sixcycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Of these, seven patients are in continuous remission. Poor histological differentiation was associated with higher relapse rate (5/13) compared to intermediate (3/18) and high differentiation (0/4). Tumours with retiform pattern or heterologous elements showed a high relapse rate, too (5/11). After a median follow-up of 62 months, event-free survival is 0.70±0.07, relapse-free survival 0.81±0.06 and overall survival 0.87±0.05.
CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis of SLCTs is determined by stage and histopathologic differentiation. Complete resection with careful avoidance of spillage is a prerequisite of cure. The impact of chemotherapy in incompletely resected and advanced stage tumours remains to be evaluated.

de Batlle J, Ferrari P, Chajes V, et al.
Dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk: European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(1):367 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the association between dietary folate intake and the risk of breast cancer (BC) by hormone receptor expression in the tumors. We investigated the relationship between dietary folate and BC risk using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
METHODS: A total of 367993 women age 35 to 70 years were recruited in 10 European countries. During a median follow-up of 11.5 years, 11575 women with BC were identified. Dietary folate intake was estimated from country-specific dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to quantify the association between dietary variables and BC risk. BC tumors were classified by receptor status. Subgroup analyses were performed by menopausal status and alcohol intake. Intake of other B vitamins was considered. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: A borderline inverse association was observed between dietary folate and BC risk (hazard ratio comparing top vs bottom quintile [HRQ5-Q1] = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.83 to 1.01, P trend = .037). In premenopausal women, we observed a statistically significant trend towards lower risk in estrogen receptor-negative BC (HRQ5-Q1 = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.45 to 0.96, P trend = .042) and progesterone receptor-negative BC (HRQ5-Q1 = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.97, P trend = .021). No associations were found in postmenopausal women. A 14% reduction in BC risk was observed when comparing the highest with the lowest dietary folate tertiles in women having a high (>12 alcoholic drinks/week) alcohol intake (HRT3-T1 = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75 to 0.98, P interaction = .035).
CONCLUSIONS: Higher dietary folate intake may be associated with a lower risk of sex hormone receptor-negative BC in premenopausal women.

Tilki D, Mandel P, Schlomm T, et al.
External validation of the CAPRA-S score to predict biochemical recurrence, metastasis and mortality after radical prostatectomy in a European cohort.
J Urol. 2015; 193(6):1970-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The CAPRA-S score predicts prostate cancer recurrence based on pathological information from radical prostatectomy. To our knowledge CAPRA-S has never been externally validated in a European cohort. We independently validated CAPRA-S in a single institution European database.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort comprised 14,532 patients treated with radical prostatectomy between January 1992 and August 2012. Prediction of biochemical recurrence, metastasis and cancer specific mortality by CAPRA-S was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and the c-index. CAPRA-S performance to predict biochemical recurrence was evaluated by calibration plot and decision curve analysis.
RESULTS: Median followup was 50.8 months (IQR 25.0-96.0). Biochemical recurrence developed in 20.3% of men at a median of 21.2 months (IQR 7.7-44.9). When stratifying patients by CAPRA-S risk group, estimated 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival was 91.4%, 70.4% and 29.3% in the low, intermediate and high risk groups, respectively. The CAPRA-S c-index to predict biochemical recurrence, metastasis and cancer specific mortality was 0.80, 0.85 and 0.88, respectively. Metastasis developed in 417 men and 196 men died of prostate cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: The CAPRA-S score was accurate when applied in a European study cohort. It predicted biochemical recurrence, metastasis and cancer specific mortality after radical prostatectomy with a c-index of greater than 0.80. The score can be valuable in regard to decision making for adjuvant therapy.

Anttila A, Lönnberg S, Ponti A, et al.
Towards better implementation of cancer screening in Europe through improved monitoring and evaluation and greater engagement of cancer registries.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(2):241-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Proposals to improve implementation, monitoring and evaluation of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes have been developed in a European project involving scientists and professionals experienced in cancer registration (EUROCOURSE). They call for a clear and more active role for cancer registries through better interfaces with cancer screening programmes and adapting data contents of cancer registries for evaluation purposes. Cancer registries are recognised as essential for adequate evaluation of cancer screening programmes, but they are not involved in screening evaluation in several European countries. This is a key barrier to improving the effectiveness of programmes across Europe. The variation in Europe in the implementation of cancer screening offers a unique opportunity to learn from best practices in collaboration between cancer registries and screening programmes. Population-based cancer registries have experience and tools in collecting and analysing relevant data, e.g. for diagnostic and therapeutic determinants of mortality. In order to accelerate improvements in cancer control we argue that cancer registries should take co-responsibility in promoting effective screening evaluation in Europe. Additional investments are vital to further development of infrastructures and activities for screening evaluation and monitoring in the national settings and also at the pan-European level. The EUROCOURSE project also aimed to harmonise implementation of the European quality assurance guidelines for cancer screening programmes across Europe through standardising routine data collection and analysis, and definitions for key performance indicators for screening registers. Data linkage between cancer and screening registers and other repositories of demographic data and cause of death and where available clinical registers is key to implementing the European screening standards and thereby reducing the burden of disease through early detection. Greater engagement of cancer registries in this collaborative effort is also essential to develop adequate evaluation of innovations in cancer prevention and care.

European cancer consortium launched.
Cancer Discov. 2014; 4(12):1358-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
A new consortium will allow researchers at six leading European cancer institutes to share patient information and conduct joint projects. The institutes will also standardize many of their diagnostic procedures. The consortium, which should be fully operational within 3 years, can draw on a pool of up to 300,000 patients for clinical trials.

Young RJ, Natukunda A, Litière S, et al.
First-line anthracycline-based chemotherapy for angiosarcoma and other soft tissue sarcoma subtypes: pooled analysis of eleven European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group trials.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(18):3178-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Angiosarcoma is a rare subtype of soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Doxorubicinis the standard first-line chemotherapy for advanced STS. It is not known whether angiosarcoma response to anthracycline-based chemotherapy is different to other STS subtypes.
METHODS: Pooled data were analysed from 11 prospective randomised and non-randomized European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) clinical trials of first-line anthracycline-based chemotherapy for advanced STS. Baseline patient characteristics, chemotherapy response, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of angiosarcoma patients were compared with other STS patients. Analysis was performed to identify factors prognostic for angiosarcoma response to chemotherapy, PFS and OS.
RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 4.2 years, data from 108 locally advanced and metastatic angiosarcoma patients and 2557 patients with other STS histologies were analysed. 25% of angiosarcoma patients had a complete or partial response to chemotherapy compared to 21% for other STS histotypes. The median PFS was 4.9 months and OS 9.9 months, which were not significantly different from other STS histotypes. In univariate analysis, bone metastases were an adverse prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio (HR) 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–2.67; p = 0.036). Tumour grade was as an adverse prognostic factor for PFS (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.01–2.92; p = 0.044) and OS (HR 2.03; 95% CI 1.16–3.56; p = 0.011). Compared to single agent anthracyclines, doxorubicin + ifosfamide was associated with improved PFS (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.33–0.86; p = 0.010) and OS (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32–0.90; p = 0.018).
CONCLUSIONS: Angiosarcoma response and survival following first-line anthracycline-based chemotherapy was similar to other STS histotypes. Our analysis provides a useful measure of angiosarcoma response to chemotherapy for comparison with future clinical trials.

Bergmann L, Maute L, Heil G, et al.
A prospective randomised phase-II trial with gemcitabine versus gemcitabine plus sunitinib in advanced pancreatic cancer: a study of the CESAR Central European Society for Anticancer Drug Research-EWIV.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(1):27-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most common malignant tumours and is still associated with a poor prognosis in advanced disease. To improve the standard therapy with gemcitabine, we initiated a prospective randomised phase-II trial with gemcitabine (GEM) versus gemcitabine plus sunitinib (SUNGEM) based on data of in vitro trials and phase-I data for the combination treatment. The rational of adding sunitinib was its putative antiangiogenic mechanism of action.
METHODS: A total of 106 eligible patients with locally advanced, unresectable or metastatic PDAC without previous system therapy were randomised to receive GEM at a dosage of 1.000mg/m(2) d1, 8, 15 q28 versus a combination of SUNGEM at a dosage of GEM 1.000mg/m(2) d1+8 and sunitinib 50mg p.o. d1-14, q21d. The primary end-point was progression free survival (PFS), secondary end-points were overall survival (OS), toxicity and overall response rate (ORR).
RESULTS: The confirmatory analysis of PFS was based on the intend-to-treat (ITT) population (N=106). The median PFS was 13.3 weeks (95% confidence interval (95%-CI): 10.4-18.1 weeks) for GEM and 11.6 weeks for SUNGEM (95%-CI: 7.0-18.0 weeks; p=0.78 one-sided log-rank). The ORR was 6.1% (95%-CI: 0.7-20.2%) for GEM and for 7.1% (95%-CI: 0.9-23.5%) for SUNGEM (p=0.87). The median time to progression (TTP) was 14.0 weeks (95%-CI: 12.4-22.3 weeks) for GEM and 18.0 weeks (95%-CI: 11.3-19.3 weeks) for SUNGEM (p=0.60; two-sided log-rank). The median OS was 36.7 weeks (95%-CI: 20.6-49.0 weeks) for the GEM arm and 30.4 weeks (95%-CI: 18.1-37.6 weeks) for the SUNGEM (p=0.78, one-sided log-rank). In regard to toxicities, suspected SAEs were reported in 53.7% in the GEM arm and 71.2% in the SUNGEM arm. Grade 3 and 4 neutropenia was statistically significantly higher in the SUNGEM arm with 48.1% versus 27.8% in the GEM arm (p=0.045, two sided log-rank).
CONCLUSIONS: The combination SUNGEM was not sufficient superior in locally advanced or metastatic PDAC compared to GEM alone in regard to efficacy but was associated with more toxicity.

Wong CK, Chen J, Yu CL, et al.
Systematic review recommends the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer colorectal cancer-specific module for measuring quality of life in colorectal cancer patients.
J Clin Epidemiol. 2015; 68(3):266-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To critically appraise the measurement properties of standardized health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and to provide recommendations on the choice of HRQOL instruments.
STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review of English language literature published between January 1985 and May 2014 identified through a database search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Ovid MEDLINE. HRQOL instruments were rated on methodological quality and overall levels of evidence using a Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instrument checklist.
RESULTS: Internal consistency and hypothesis testing were evaluated most frequently in 63 studies identified. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C) was the most extensively evaluated. The highest number of positive ratings in the overall level of evidence was found in the CRC-specific quality of life questionnaire module (QLQ-CR38) in European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) module, followed by the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Bowel instrument, FACT-C, and Quick-FLIC. The EORTC QLQ-CR38 had the most positive ratings on measurement property and was recommended.
CONCLUSION: The EORTC QLQ-CR38 was recommended to assess HRQOL in patients with CRC, regardless of disease stage and primary tumor site.

Stiller CA, Trama A, Brewster DH, et al.
Descriptive epidemiology of Kaposi sarcoma in Europe. Report from the RARECARE project.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2014; 38(6):670-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a virus-related malignancy which most frequently arises in skin, though visceral sites can also be involved. Infection with Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV or HHV-8) is required for development of KS. Nowadays, most cases worldwide occur in persons who are immunosuppressed, usually because of HIV infection or as a result of therapy to combat rejection of a transplanted organ, but classic Kaposi sarcoma is predominantly a disease of the elderly without apparent immunosuppression. We analyzed 2667 KS incident cases diagnosed during 1995-2002 and registered by 75 population-based European cancer registries contributing to the RARECARE project. Total crude and age-standardized incidence rate was 0.3 per 100,000 per year with an estimated 1642 new cases per year in the EU27 countries. Age-standardized incidence rate was 0.8 per 100,000 in Southern Europe but below 0.3 per 100,000 in all other regions. The elevated rate in southern Europe was attributable to a combination of classic Kaposi sarcoma in some Mediterranean countries and the relatively high incidence of AIDS in several countries. Five-year relative survival for 2000-2002 by the period method was 75%. More than 10,000 persons were estimated to be alive in Europe at the beginning of 2008 with a past diagnosis of KS. The aetiological link with suppressed immunity means that many people alive following diagnosis of KS suffer comorbidity from a pre-existing condition. While KS is a rare cancer, it has a relatively good prognosis and so the number of people affected by it is quite large. Thus it provides a notable example of the importance of networking in diagnosis, therapy and research for rare cancers.

Stoffel EM, Mangu PB, Gruber SB, et al.
Hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline endorsement of the familial risk-colorectal cancer: European Society for Medical Oncology Clinical Practice Guidelines.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(2):209-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To provide recommendations on prevention, screening, genetics, treatment, and management for people at risk for hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) syndromes. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations.
METHODS: The Familial Risk-Colorectal Cancer: European Society for Medical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline published in 2013 on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Guidelines Working Group in Annals of Oncology was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists, with content and recommendations reviewed by an ASCO endorsement panel.
RESULTS: The ASCO endorsement panel determined that the recommendations of the ESMO guidelines are clear, thorough, and based on the most relevant scientific evidence. The ASCO panel endorsed the ESMO guidelines and added a few qualifying statements.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Approximately 5% to 6% of patient cases of CRC are associated with germline mutations that confer an inherited predisposition for cancer. The possibility of a hereditary cancer syndrome should be assessed for every patient at the time of CRC diagnosis. A diagnosis of Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, or another genetic syndrome can influence clinical management for patients with CRC and their family members. Screening for hereditary cancer syndromes in patients with CRC should include review of personal and family histories and testing of tumors for DNA mismatch repair deficiency and/or microsatellite instability. Formal genetic evaluation is recommended for individuals who meet defined criteria.

Ades F, Senterre C, Zardavas D, et al.
An exploratory analysis of the factors leading to delays in cancer drug reimbursement in the European Union: the trastuzumab case.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(18):3089-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The European Union (EU) has adopted a common procedure for granting marketing authorisation for cancer drugs. Nevertheless, pricing and reimbursement decisions are a competency of EU national governments, and their policies are diverse. We aimed to evaluate the time for trastuzumab reimbursement approval and its association to health expenditure, to health policy performance, to the availability of cost-effectiveness studies and to breast cancer outcome.
METHODS: Breast cancer outcome was estimated by the mortality/incidence (M/I) ratio. Trastuzumab reimbursement approval dates were provided by Roche. Spearman's rank correlation and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to evaluate associations and/or differences between the variables studied. Additional analyses were made by grouping countries according to compliance to the 180 day timeframe stipulated in the EU 89/105/EEC Directive for drug pricing and reimbursement.
RESULTS: A statistically significant inverse and strong correlation between breast cancer M/I ratio and health expenditure (r(s)=-0.730, p<0.001) and health policy performance (r(s)=-0.711, p<0.001) was found, meaning the better the score and the higher the expenditure, the fewer patients died after a breast cancer diagnosis. Factors associated with trastuzumab faster reimbursement and compliance to the 89/105/EEC Directive were better health policy score, higher health expenditure and availability of cost-effectiveness studies.
CONCLUSION: Higher health policy scores and health expenditure are associated with faster reimbursement of trastuzumab and better breast cancer outcome. Although the study design does not allow inference of causal associations, a marked difference is observed between Eastern and Western Europe, with long delays and increased breast cancer mortality identified in Eastern European countries.

Kasper B, Baumgarten C, Bonvalot S, et al.
Management of sporadic desmoid-type fibromatosis: a European consensus approach based on patients' and professionals' expertise - a sarcoma patients EuroNet and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group initiative.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(2):127-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) is a rare monoclonal, fibroblastic proliferation characterised by a variable and often unpredictable clinical course. It may affect nearly all parts of the body including extremities, trunk and abdomen. Considering the variable clinical presentations, anatomic locations and biological behaviours, an individualised treatment approach is required. No established or evidence-based approach for the treatment of this neoplasm is available as of today. Therefore, we propose a consensus treatment algorithm based on a round table meeting bringing together sarcoma experts from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (STBSG) with patient advocates from Sarcoma Patients EuroNet (SPAEN). The aim of the meeting was to develop - for the first time ever - a consensus approach based on professionals' AND patients' expertise. As a fundamental prerequisite, all patients should be discussed in a multidisciplinary setting in centres or professional networks with a specific expertise in the disease.

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