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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 9.5m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 50,500
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 270.0
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:27.8%
People dying from cancer /yr: 22,100
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Swedish Cancer Organisations
Cancer Centres in Sweden
Latest Research Publications from Sweden

Swedish Cancer Organisations (16 links)

Cancer Centres in Sweden (6 links)

Latest Research Publications from Sweden

Mertins P, Mani DR, Ruggles KV, et al.
Proteogenomics connects somatic mutations to signalling in breast cancer.
Nature. 2016; 534(7605):55-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatic mutations have been extensively characterized in breast cancer, but the effects of these genetic alterations on the proteomic landscape remain poorly understood. Here we describe quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of 105 genomically annotated breast cancers, of which 77 provided high-quality data. Integrated analyses provided insights into the somatic cancer genome including the consequences of chromosomal loss, such as the 5q deletion characteristic of basal-like breast cancer. Interrogation of the 5q trans-effects against the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures, connected loss of CETN3 and SKP1 to elevated expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and SKP1 loss also to increased SRC tyrosine kinase. Global proteomic data confirmed a stromal-enriched group of proteins in addition to basal and luminal clusters, and pathway analysis of the phosphoproteome identified a G-protein-coupled receptor cluster that was not readily identified at the mRNA level. In addition to ERBB2, other amplicon-associated highly phosphorylated kinases were identified, including CDK12, PAK1, PTK2, RIPK2 and TLK2. We demonstrate that proteogenomic analysis of breast cancer elucidates the functional consequences of somatic mutations, narrows candidate nominations for driver genes within large deletions and amplified regions, and identifies therapeutic targets.

Hammel P, Huguet F, van Laethem JL, et al.
Effect of Chemoradiotherapy vs Chemotherapy on Survival in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Controlled After 4 Months of Gemcitabine With or Without Erlotinib: The LAP07 Randomized Clinical Trial.
JAMA. 2016; 315(17):1844-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
IMPORTANCE: In locally advanced pancreatic cancer, the role of chemoradiotherapy is controversial and the efficacy of erlotinib is unknown.
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether chemoradiotherapy improves overall survival of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer controlled after 4 months of gemcitabine-based induction chemotherapy and to assess the effect of erlotinib on survival.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In LAP07, an international, open-label, phase 3 randomized trial, 449 patients were enrolled between 2008 and 2011. Follow-up ended in February 2013.
INTERVENTIONS: In the first randomization, 223 patients received 1000 mg/m2 weekly of gemcitabine alone and 219 patients received 1000 mg/m2 of gemcitabine plus 100 mg/d of erlotinib. In the second randomization involving patients with progression-free disease after 4 months, 136 patients received 2 months of the same chemotherapy and 133 underwent chemoradiotherapy (54 Gy plus capecitabine).
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was overall survival from the date of the first randomization. Secondary outcomes were the effect of erlotinib and quality assurance of radiotherapy on overall survival, progression-free survival of gemcitabine-erlotinib and erlotinib maintenance with gemcitabine alone at the second randomization, and toxic effects.
RESULTS: A total of 442 of the 449 patients (232 men; median age, 63.3 years) enrolled underwent the first randomization. Of these, 269 underwent the second randomization. Interim analysis was performed when 221 patients died (109 in the chemoradiotherapy group and 112 in the chemotherapy group), reaching the early stopping boundaries for futility. With a median follow-up of 36.7 months, the median overall survival from the date of the first randomization was not significantly different between chemotherapy at 16.5 months (95% CI, 14.5-18.5 months) and chemoradiotherapy at 15.2 months (95% CI, 13.9-17.3 months; hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; 95% CI, 0.79-1.34; P = .83). Median overall survival from the date of the first randomization for the 223 patients receiving gemcitabine was 13.6 months (95% CI, 12.3-15.3 months) and was 11.9 months (95% CI, 10.4-13.5 months) for the 219 patients receiving gemcitabine plus erlotinib (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.97-1.45; P = .09; 188 deaths vs 191 deaths). Chemoradiotherapy was associated with decreased local progression (32% vs 46%, P = .03) and no increase in grade 3 to 4 toxicity, except for nausea.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this open-label, randomized trial involving patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer with disease controlled after 4 months of induction chemotherapy, there was no significant difference in overall survival with chemoradiotherapy compared with chemotherapy alone and there was no significant difference in overall survival with gemcitabine compared with gemcitabine plus erlotinib used as maintenance therapy.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00634725.

Nik-Zainal S, Davies H, Staaf J, et al.
Landscape of somatic mutations in 560 breast cancer whole-genome sequences.
Nature. 2016; 534(7605):47-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/12/2016 Related Publications
We analysed whole-genome sequences of 560 breast cancers to advance understanding of the driver mutations conferring clonal advantage and the mutational processes generating somatic mutations. We found that 93 protein-coding cancer genes carried probable driver mutations. Some non-coding regions exhibited high mutation frequencies, but most have distinctive structural features probably causing elevated mutation rates and do not contain driver mutations. Mutational signature analysis was extended to genome rearrangements and revealed twelve base substitution and six rearrangement signatures. Three rearrangement signatures, characterized by tandem duplications or deletions, appear associated with defective homologous-recombination-based DNA repair: one with deficient BRCA1 function, another with deficient BRCA1 or BRCA2 function, the cause of the third is unknown. This analysis of all classes of somatic mutation across exons, introns and intergenic regions highlights the repertoire of cancer genes and mutational processes operating, and progresses towards a comprehensive account of the somatic genetic basis of breast cancer.

Moreau P, Masszi T, Grzasko N, et al.
Oral Ixazomib, Lenalidomide, and Dexamethasone for Multiple Myeloma.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 374(17):1621-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ixazomib is an oral proteasome inhibitor that is currently being studied for the treatment of multiple myeloma.
METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 722 patients who had relapsed, refractory, or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma to receive ixazomib plus lenalidomide-dexamethasone (ixazomib group) or placebo plus lenalidomide-dexamethasone (placebo group). The primary end point was progression-free survival.
RESULTS: Progression-free survival was significantly longer in the ixazomib group than in the placebo group at a median follow-up of 14.7 months (median progression-free survival, 20.6 months vs. 14.7 months; hazard ratio for disease progression or death in the ixazomib group, 0.74; P=0.01); a benefit with respect to progression-free survival was observed with the ixazomib regimen, as compared with the placebo regimen, in all prespecified patient subgroups, including in patients with high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities. The overall rates of response were 78% in the ixazomib group and 72% in the placebo group, and the corresponding rates of complete response plus very good partial response were 48% and 39%. The median time to response was 1.1 months in the ixazomib group and 1.9 months in the placebo group, and the corresponding median duration of response was 20.5 months and 15.0 months. At a median follow-up of approximately 23 months, the median overall survival has not been reached in either study group, and follow-up is ongoing. The rates of serious adverse events were similar in the two study groups (47% in the ixazomib group and 49% in the placebo group), as were the rates of death during the study period (4% and 6%, respectively); adverse events of at least grade 3 severity occurred in 74% and 69% of the patients, respectively. Thrombocytopenia of grade 3 and grade 4 severity occurred more frequently in the ixazomib group (12% and 7% of the patients, respectively) than in the placebo group (5% and 4% of the patients, respectively). Rash occurred more frequently in the ixazomib group than in the placebo group (36% vs. 23% of the patients), as did gastrointestinal adverse events, which were predominantly low grade. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy was 27% in the ixazomib group and 22% in the placebo group (grade 3 events occurred in 2% of the patients in each study group). Patient-reported quality of life was similar in the two study groups.
CONCLUSIONS: The addition of ixazomib to a regimen of lenalidomide and dexamethasone was associated with significantly longer progression-free survival; the additional toxic effects with this all-oral regimen were limited. (Funded by Millennium Pharmaceuticals; TOURMALINE-MM1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01564537.).

Barazeghi E, Gill AJ, Sidhu S, et al.
5-Hydroxymethylcytosine discriminates between parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma.
Clin Epigenetics. 2016; 8:31 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/12/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by enlarged parathyroid glands due to an adenoma (80-85 %) or multiglandular disease (~15 %) causing hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and generally hypercalcemia. Parathyroid cancer is rare (<1-5 %). The epigenetic mark 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is reduced in various cancers, and this may involve reduced expression of the ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) enzyme. Here, we have performed novel experiments to determine the 5hmC level and TET1 protein expression in 43 parathyroid adenomas (PAs) and 17 parathyroid carcinomas (PCs) from patients who had local invasion or metastases and to address a potential growth regulatory role of TET1.
RESULTS: The global 5hmC level was determined by a semi-quantitative DNA immune-dot blot assay in a smaller number of tumors. The global 5hmC level was reduced in nine PCs and 15 PAs compared to four normal tissue samples (p < 0.05), and it was most severely reduced in the PCs. By immunohistochemistry, all 17 PCs stained negatively for 5hmC and TET1 showed negative or variably heterogeneous staining for the majority. All 43 PAs displayed positive 5hmC staining, and a similar aberrant staining pattern of 5hmC and TET1 was seen in about half of the PAs. Western blotting analysis of two PCs and nine PAs showed variable TET1 protein expression levels. A significantly higher tumor weight was associated to PAs displaying a more severe aberrant staining pattern of 5hmC and TET1. Overexpression of TET1 in a colony forming assay inhibited parathyroid tumor cell growth.
CONCLUSIONS: 5hmC can discriminate between PAs and PCs. Whether 5hmC represents a novel marker for malignancy warrants further analysis in additional parathyroid tumor cohorts. The results support a growth regulatory role of TET1 in parathyroid tissue.

Wang J, Andrae B, Sundström K, et al.
Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study.
BMJ. 2016; 352:i276 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/12/2016 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risks of invasive cervical cancer after detection of atypical glandular cells (AGC) during cervical screening.
DESIGN: Nationwide population based cohort study.
SETTING: Cancer and population registries in Sweden.
PARTICIPANTS: 3,054,328 women living in Sweden at any time between 1 January 1980 and 1 July 2011 who had any record of cervical cytological testing at ages 23-59. Of these, 2,899,968 women had normal cytology results at the first screening record. The first recorded abnormal result was atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 14 625, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 65 633, and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 244 168.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer over 15.5 years; proportion of invasive cervical cancer within six months of abnormality (prevalence); crude incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer over 0.5-15.5 years of follow-up; incidence rate ratios compared with women with normal cytology, estimated with Poisson regression adjusted for age and stratified by histopathology of cancer; distribution of clinical assessment within six months after the abnormality.
RESULTS: The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.4% for women with AGC, which was lower than for women with HSIL (2.5%) but higher than for women with LSIL (0.2%); adenocarcinoma accounted for 73.2% of the prevalent cases associated with AGC. The incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than for women with normal results on cytology for up to 15.5 years and higher than HSIL and LSIL for up to 6.5 years. The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma was 61 times higher than for women with normal results on cytology in the first screening round after AGC, and remained nine times higher for up to 15.5 years. Incidence and prevalence of invasive cervical cancer was highest when AGC was found at ages 30-39. Only 54% of women with AGC underwent histology assessment within six months, much less than after HSIL (86%). Among women with histology assessment within six months, the incidence rate of cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than that after HSIL for up to 6.5 years.
CONCLUSIONS: AGC found at cervical screening is associated with a high and persistent risk of cervical cancer for up to 15 years, particularly for cervical adenocarcinoma and women with AGC at age 30-39. Compared with the reduction in risk of cancer seen after HSIL management, management of AGC seems to have been suboptimal in preventing cervical cancer. Research to optimise management is needed, and a more aggressive assessment strategy is warranted.

Warner A, Dahele M, Hu B, et al.
Factors Associated With Early Mortality in Patients Treated With Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016; 94(3):612-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (con-CRT) is recommended for fit patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) but is associated with toxicity, and observed survival continues to be limited. Identifying factors associated with early mortality could improve patient selection and identify strategies to improve prognosis.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Analysis of a multi-institutional LA-NSCLC database consisting of 1245 patients treated with con-CRT in 13 institutions was performed to identify factors predictive of 180-day survival. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was performed to identify prognostic groups for 180-day survival. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to create a clinical nomogram predicting 180-day survival based on important predictors from RPA.
RESULTS: Median follow-up was 43.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 40.3-48.8) and 127 patients (10%) died within 180 days of treatment. Median, 180-day, and 1- to 5-year (by yearly increments) actuarial survival rates were 20.9 months, 90%, 71%, 45%, 32%, 27%, and 22% respectively. Multivariate analysis adjusted by region identified gross tumor volume (GTV) (odds ratio [OR] ≥100 cm(3): 2.61; 95% CI: 1.10-6.20; P=.029) and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], defined as the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity [FVC]) (OR <80%: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.09-5.88; P=.030) as significant predictors of 180-day survival. RPA resulted in a 2-class risk stratification system: low-risk (GTV <100 cm(3) or GTV ≥100 cm(3) and FEV1 ≥80%) and high-risk (GTV ≥100 cm(3) and FEV1 <80%). The 180-day survival rates were 93% for low risk and 79% for high risk, with an OR of 4.43 (95% CI: 2.07-9.51; P<.001), adjusted by region. A clinical nomogram predictive of 180-day survival, incorporating FEV1, GTV, N stage, and maximum esophagus dose yielded favorable calibration (R(2) = 0.947).
CONCLUSIONS: This analysis identified several risk factors associated with early mortality and suggests that future research in the optimization of pretreatment pulmonary function and/or functional lung avoidance treatment may alter the therapeutic ratio in this patient population.

Sivars L, Tani E, Näsman A, et al.
Human Papillomavirus as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Tool in Cancer of Unknown Primary in the Head and Neck Region.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(2):487-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as a risk factor for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), especially tonsillar and base of tongue cancer. Furthermore, HPV-positive tonsillar and base of tongue SCC have a significantly better prognosis than their HPV-negative counterparts and head and neck cancer (HNSCC) in general. HPV has recently also been implicated in cancer of unknown primary (CUP) in the head and neck region, where a primary tumour is not found despite extensive workup. Using fine-needle aspiration cytology to determine CUP HPV status in cervical lymph nodes could be of advantage, since it is minimally invasive and it is assumed that an HPV-positive lymph node metastasis likely has an HPV-positive otopharyngeal SCC origin. We review the current knowledge of HPV in HNSCC, with an emphasis on CUP of the head and neck region, its relation to oropharyngeal, tonsillar and base of tongue SCC and implications of HPV status for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.

Hesla AC, Tsagozis P, Jebsen N, et al.
Improved Prognosis for Patients with Ewing Sarcoma in the Sacrum Compared with the Innominate Bones: The Scandinavian Sarcoma Group Experience.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2016; 98(3):199-210 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Treatment of Ewing sarcoma of the pelvic bones remains one of the most difficult tasks in the treatment of bone sarcomas. Whether surgery or radiation therapy is the best local treatment is still a matter of debate. The aim of the present study was to compare sacral and nonsacral sites with regard to the treatment and outcome of pelvic Ewing sarcomas.
METHODS: Patients with Ewing sarcoma of the osseous pelvis diagnosed between 1986 and 2011 were identified through the Scandinavian Sarcoma Group registry. Data regarding tumor size, local treatment (surgery or radiation therapy), metastatic disease, surgical margins, local recurrence, and overall survival were analyzed.
RESULTS: Of the 117 patients examined, eighty-eight had tumors in the innominate bones and twenty-nine, in the sacrum. Radiation therapy was the sole local treatment for 40% of the innominate bone tumors in contrast to 79% of the sacral tumors. The five-year disease-free survival rate in the latter group (66%) was greater than that in the group with tumors in the innominate bones (40%) (p = 0.02 adjusted for size).
CONCLUSIONS: Disease-free survival among patients with Ewing sarcoma was improved when the tumor was localized in the sacrum compared with the innominate bones, where these tumors are generally larger. Local radiation therapy alone appears to result in good local tumor control and may be the treatment of choice for sacral tumors.

Lechman ER, Gentner B, Ng SW, et al.
miR-126 Regulates Distinct Self-Renewal Outcomes in Normal and Malignant Hematopoietic Stem Cells.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 29(2):214-28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/12/2016 Related Publications
To investigate miRNA function in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) stem cells (LSC), we generated a prognostic LSC-associated miRNA signature derived from functionally validated subpopulations of AML samples. For one signature miRNA, miR-126, high bioactivity aggregated all in vivo patient sample LSC activity into a single sorted population, tightly coupling miR-126 expression to LSC function. Through functional studies, miR-126 was found to restrain cell cycle progression, prevent differentiation, and increase self-renewal of primary LSC in vivo. Compared with prior results showing miR-126 regulation of normal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) cycling, these functional stem effects are opposite between LSC and HSC. Combined transcriptome and proteome analysis demonstrates that miR-126 targets the PI3K/AKT/MTOR signaling pathway, preserving LSC quiescence and promoting chemotherapy resistance.

Follin C, Gabery S, Petersén Å, et al.
Associations between Metabolic Risk Factors and the Hypothalamic Volume in Childhood Leukemia Survivors Treated with Cranial Radiotherapy.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0147575 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/12/2016 Related Publications
Metabolic complications are prevalent in individuals treated with cranial radiotherapy (CRT) for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The hypothalamus is a master regulator of endocrine and metabolic control. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the hypothalamic volume would be associated to metabolic parameters in ALL survivors. Thirty-eight (21 women) survivors participated in this study 34 years after diagnosis and with a median age of 38 (27-46) years. All were treated with a median CRT dose of 24 Gy and 11 years (3-13) of complete hormone supplementation. Comparisons were made to 31 matched controls. We performed analyses of fat mass, fat free mass, plasma (p)-glucose, p-insulin, Homa-Index (a measure of insulin resistance), serum (s)-leptin, s-ghrelin and of the hypothalamic volume in scans obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 Tesla. Serum leptin/kg fat mass (r = -0.4, P = 0.04) and fat mass (r = -0.4, P = 0.01) were negatively correlated with the HT volume among ALL survivors, but not among controls. We also detected significantly higher BMI, waist, fat mass, p-insulin, Homa-Index, leptin/kg fat mass and s-ghrelin and significantly lower fat free mass specifically among female ALL survivors (all P<0.01). Interestingly, s-ghrelin levels increased with time since diagnosis and with low age at diagnosis for childhood ALL. Our results showed that leptin/kg fat mass and fat mass were associated with a reduced HT volume 34 years after ALL diagnosis and that women treated with CRT after ALL are at high risk of metabolic abnormalities. Taken together our data suggest that the hypothalamus is involved in the metabolic consequences after CRT in ALL survivors.

Raaschou P, Simard JF, Asker Hagelberg C, et al.
Rheumatoid arthritis, anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment, and risk of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancer: cohort study based on nationwide prospectively recorded data from Sweden.
BMJ. 2016; 352:i262 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/12/2016 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancer in patients with rheumatoid arthritis naive to biologic drugs, in patients starting tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor treatment, and in the general population.
DESIGN: Population based cohort study.
SETTING: Nationwide data from Sweden.
PARTICIPANTS: Cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis naive to biologics (n=46 409), cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis starting TNF inhibitor treatment as first biologic in 1998-2012 (n=12 558), and matched general population comparator cohort, identified through national quality of care and health registers.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Hazard ratio of first in situ or invasive squamous cell skin cancer (1998-2012) and first basal cell cancer (2004-12).
RESULTS: For basal cell cancer, the hazard ratio was 1.22 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.41) comparing biologics-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients with the general population and 1.14 (0.98 to 1.33; 236 v 1587 events) comparing TNF inhibitor treated patients with biologics-naive patients. For squamous cell cancer, the hazard ratio was 1.88 (1.74 to 2.03) comparing biologics-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients with the general population and 1.30 (1.10 to 1.55; 191 v 847 events) comparing TNF inhibitors with biologics-naive patients; the latter translated to an annual number needed to harm in the order of 1600. Among people with a history of squamous cell or basal cell cancer, TNF inhibitors did not further increase risks.
CONCLUSION: A small to moderately increased risk of basal cell cancer was seen in biologics-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients, with no further effect of TNF inhibitors. For squamous cell cancer, the risk was nearly doubled in biologics-naive patients, with a further 30% increase in risk among patients treated with TNF inhibitors; this translates to one additional case for every 1600 years of treatment experience, assuming that this association reflected causality. Vigilance regarding skin malignancies may be advisable in rheumatoid arthritis, irrespective of TNF inhibitor treatment. Most of the increase in risk for non-melanoma skin cancer in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with TNF inhibitors originates from factors other than that treatment.

Hu L, Uzhameckis D, Hedborg F, Blomberg J
Dynamic and selective HERV RNA expression in neuroblastoma cells subjected to variation in oxygen tension and demethylation.
APMIS. 2016 Jan-Feb; 124(1-2):140-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We studied HERV expression in cell lines after hypoxia, mitogenic stimulation, and demethylation, to better understand if hypoxia may play a role in ERV activation also within the nervous system, as represented by neuroblastoma cell lines. The level of RNA of four human ERV groups (HERVs) (HERVE, I/T, H, and W), and three housekeeping genes, of different cell lines including A549, COS-1, Namalwa, RD-L and Vero-E6, as well as human neuroblastoma cell lines SH-SY5Y, SK-N-DZ, and SK-N-AS were studied using reverse transcription and real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR). During the course of recovery from hypoxia a pronounced and selective activation of RNA expression of HERVW-like sequences, but not of HERVE, I/T, H, and three housekeeping genes, was found in the neuroblastoma cell lines, most pronounced in SK-N-DZ. In the SK-N-DZ cell line, we also tested the expression of HERVs after chemical treatments. HERVW-like sequences were selectively upregulated by 5-azacytidine, a demethylating agent. Some HERVW loci seem especially responsive to hypoxia and demethylation. HERV expression in neuroblastoma cells is selectively and profoundly influenced by some physiological and chemical stimuli.

Graff RE, Pettersson A, Lis RT, et al.
Dietary lycopene intake and risk of prostate cancer defined by ERG protein expression.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2016; 103(3):851-60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence that supports etiologically distinct molecular subtypes of prostate cancer, the identification of which may improve prevention. Given their antioxidant properties, we hypothesized that lycopene and tomato sauce may be especially protective against diseases harboring the common gene fusion transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2):v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG).
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine associations between estimated lycopene and tomato sauce intake and the risk of prostate cancer defined by ERG protein expression subtype.
DESIGN: Our study population consisted of a prospective cohort of 46,719 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. TMPRSS2:ERG was assessed by ERG immunohistochemistry on tumor tissue microarrays constructed from radical prostatectomy specimens. We used multivariable competing risk models to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for the risk of ERG-positive and, separately, ERG-negative disease. We implemented inverse probability weighting to account for evaluating ERG status only in surgically treated cases.
RESULTS: During 23 y of follow-up, 5543 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, among whom 884 were assayed for ERG (426 ERG-positive). With inclusion of only the latter cases, increasing cumulative average tomato sauce intake was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer overall (≥2 servings/wk compared with <1 serving/mo; multivariable HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.95; P-trend = 0.002). With respect to molecular subtypes, cumulative average tomato sauce intake was associated with a decreased risk of ERG-positive disease (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.81; P-trend = 0.004) but not with ERG-negative disease (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.50; P-trend = 0.10) (P-heterogeneity = 0.04). Increasing quintiles of lycopene intake were associated with a decreased risk of both subtypes (P-heterogeneity = 0.79). Inverse probability weighting did not materially change the results.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results lend some support to the hypothesis that prostate cancers that harbor TMPRSS2:ERG may be etiologically distinct from fusion-negative cancers. In particular, tomato sauce consumption may play a role in reducing TMPRSS2:ERG-positive disease.

Moudry P, Watanabe K, Wolanin KM, et al.
TOPBP1 regulates RAD51 phosphorylation and chromatin loading and determines PARP inhibitor sensitivity.
J Cell Biol. 2016; 212(3):281-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2016 Related Publications
Topoisomerase IIβ-binding protein 1 (TOPBP1) participates in DNA replication and DNA damage response; however, its role in DNA repair and relevance for human cancer remain unclear. Here, through an unbiased small interfering RNA screen, we identified and validated TOPBP1 as a novel determinant whose loss sensitized human cells to olaparib, an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. We show that TOPBP1 acts in homologous recombination (HR) repair, impacts olaparib response, and exhibits aberrant patterns in subsets of human ovarian carcinomas. TOPBP1 depletion abrogated RAD51 loading to chromatin and formation of RAD51 foci, but without affecting the upstream HR steps of DNA end resection and RPA loading. Furthermore, TOPBP1 BRCT domains 7/8 are essential for RAD51 foci formation. Mechanistically, TOPBP1 physically binds PLK1 and promotes PLK1 kinase-mediated phosphorylation of RAD51 at serine 14, a modification required for RAD51 recruitment to chromatin. Overall, our results provide mechanistic insights into TOPBP1's role in HR, with potential clinical implications for cancer treatment.

Roura E, Travier N, Waterboer T, et al.
The Influence of Hormonal Factors on the Risk of Developing Cervical Cancer and Pre-Cancer: Results from the EPIC Cohort.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0147029 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In addition to HPV, high parity and hormonal contraceptives have been associated with cervical cancer (CC). However, most of the evidence comes from retrospective case-control studies. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate associations between hormonal factors and risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC).
METHODS AND FINDINGS: We followed a cohort of 308,036 women recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study. At enrollment, participants completed a questionnaire and provided serum. After a 9-year median follow-up, 261 ICC and 804 CIN3/CIS cases were reported. In a nested case-control study, the sera from 609 cases and 1,218 matched controls were tested for L1 antibodies against HPV types 11,16,18,31,33,35,45,52,58, and antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Human herpesvirus 2. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR), odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). The cohort analysis showed that number of full-term pregnancies was positively associated with CIN3/CIS risk (p-trend = 0.03). Duration of oral contraceptives use was associated with a significantly increased risk of both CIN3/CIS and ICC (HR = 1.6 and HR = 1.8 respectively for ≥ 15 years versus never use). Ever use of menopausal hormone therapy was associated with a reduced risk of ICC (HR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.4-0.8). A non-significant reduced risk of ICC with ever use of intrauterine devices (IUD) was found in the nested case-control analysis (OR = 0.6). Analyses restricted to all cases and HPV seropositive controls yielded similar results, revealing a significant inverse association with IUD for combined CIN3/CIS and ICC (OR = 0.7).
CONCLUSIONS: Even though HPV is the necessary cause of CC, our results suggest that several hormonal factors are risk factors for cervical carcinogenesis. Adherence to current cervical cancer screening guidelines should minimize the increased risk of CC associated with these hormonal risk factors.

Bakker MF, Peeters PH, Klaasen VM, et al.
Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, tocopherols, and retinol and the risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2016; 103(2):454-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Carotenoids and vitamin C are thought to be associated with reduced cancer risk because of their antioxidative capacity.
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the associations of plasma carotenoid, retinol, tocopherol, and vitamin C concentrations and risk of breast cancer.
DESIGN: In a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 1502 female incident breast cancer cases were included, with an oversampling of premenopausal (n = 582) and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) cases (n = 462). Controls (n = 1502) were individually matched to cases by using incidence density sampling. Prediagnostic samples were analyzed for α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, retinol, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and vitamin C. Breast cancer risk was computed according to hormone receptor status and age at diagnosis (proxy for menopausal status) by using conditional logistic regression and was further stratified by smoking status, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI). All statistical tests were 2-sided.
RESULTS: In quintile 5 compared with quintile 1, α-carotene (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.98) and β-carotene (OR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.65) were inversely associated with risk of ER- breast tumors. The other analytes were not statistically associated with ER- breast cancer. For estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors, no statistically significant associations were found. The test for heterogeneity between ER- and ER+ tumors was statistically significant only for β-carotene (P-heterogeneity = 0.03). A higher risk of breast cancer was found for retinol in relation to ER-/progesterone receptor-negative tumors (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.20, 4.67; P-heterogeneity with ER+/progesterone receptor positive = 0.06). We observed no statistically significant interaction between smoking, alcohol, or BMI and all investigated plasma analytes (based on tertile distribution).
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that higher concentrations of plasma β-carotene and α-carotene are associated with lower breast cancer risk of ER- tumors.

Guo J, Thiess S, Johansson I, et al.
Membrane topology and search for potential redox partners of colon cancer-specific cytochrome P450 2W1.
FEBS Lett. 2016; 590(3):330-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytochrome P450 2W1 (CYP2W1) is a colon tumor-specific enzyme, suggested as a potential target for cancer therapy. In contrast to other endoplasmic reticulum P450s, we found completely inverted ER membrane topology of CYP2W1 using different approaches (redox sensitive luciferase assay and protease protection assay) and demonstrated that canonical CYP reductants, cytochrome P450 reductase, and cytochrome b5 cannot serve as electron donors for CYP2W1. Moreover, the reduced catalytic activity of the Asn177 mutant that is modified by glycan moieties in the wild-type enzyme indicates a functional relevance of CYP2W1 glycosylation.

von Below C, Daouacher G, Wassberg C, et al.
Validation of 3 T MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging for nodal staging of newly diagnosed intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer.
Clin Radiol. 2016; 71(4):328-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To prospectively validate 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for preoperative lymph node (LN) staging in a clinical setting, in intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients using laparoscopic extended LN dissection (ePLND) as the reference standard.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 2011 and May 2013, 40 newly diagnosed intermediate and high-risk PCa patients underwent preoperative LN staging with 3 T MRI DWI using histopathology of ePLND as the reference standard. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI DWI were calculated. A subgroup analysis of proven LN-positive patients was made to investigate differences in PSA, Gleason score, number, and size of LN metastases, estimated risk of LN involvement, and if curative treatment was indicated, between the true-positive and the false-negative groups.
RESULTS: A total of 728 LN were harvested from six anatomical regions per patient (external, obturator, internal) with a mean number of 18 LNs per patient (range 11-40). Twenty patients had histologically proven LN-positive disease. MRI DWI was true positive in 11 patients, false negative in nine patients, false positive in two patients, and true negative in 18 patients, resulting in 90% specificity, 55% sensitivity, and 72.5% accuracy. The true-positive patients had significantly more involved LNs (mean 6.9 versus 2.7, p=0.017), with larger diameter (mean 12.3 versus 5.2 mm, p=0.048) and fewer were treated with curative intent (six versus nine, p=0.03), compared with the false-negative group.
CONCLUSION: MRI DWI LN staging has a low sensitivity but high specificity. The true-positive patients have a considerably higher burden of LN metastases compared to false-negative patients.

Mills CD, Lenz LL, Harris RA
A Breakthrough: Macrophage-Directed Cancer Immunotherapy.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(3):513-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2017 Related Publications
Successful immunotherapy of cancer is becoming a reality aided by the realization that macrophages play an important role in the growth or regression of tumors. Specifically, M2/repair-type macrophages predominate in human cancers and produce growth-promoting molecules that actively stimulate tumor growth in much the same way they help wounds heal. However, modulating M2/repair-type macrophages to M1/kill-type can slow or stop cancer growth. The effects involve direct activity of M1 kill-type as well as the ability of M1-type macrophages to stimulate Th1-type cytotoxic T cells and other effector cells. Macrophage responses can also predict cancer susceptibility; individuals with a high M1/kill to M2/repair ratio are less prone. That macrophages/innate immunity can be modulated to play a central role in directly or indirectly combating cancer is a breakthrough that seems likely to finally make successful immunotherapy of cancer a reality.

Quistgaard EM, Löw C, Guettou F, Nordlund P
Understanding transport by the major facilitator superfamily (MFS): structures pave the way.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2016; 17(2):123-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of transport proteins are essential for the movement of a wide range of substrates across biomembranes. As this transport requires a series of conformational changes, structures of MFS transporters captured in different conformational states are needed to decipher the transport mechanism. Recently, a large number of MFS transporter structures have been determined, which has provided us with an unprecedented opportunity to understand general aspects of the transport mechanism. We propose an updated model for the conformational cycle of MFS transporters, the 'clamp-and-switch model', and discuss the role of so-called 'gating residues' and the substrate in modulating these conformational changes.

Pujade-Lauraine E, Selle F, Weber B, et al.
Volasertib Versus Chemotherapy in Platinum-Resistant or -Refractory Ovarian Cancer: A Randomized Phase II Groupe des Investigateurs Nationaux pour l'Etude des Cancers de l'Ovaire Study.
J Clin Oncol. 2016; 34(7):706-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Volasertib is a potent and selective cell-cycle kinase inhibitor that induces mitotic arrest and apoptosis by targeting Polo-like kinase. This phase II trial evaluated volasertib or single-agent chemotherapy in patients with platinum-resistant or -refractory ovarian cancer who experienced failure after treatment with two or three therapy lines.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive either volasertib 300 mg by intravenous infusion every 3 weeks or an investigator's choice of single-agent, nonplatinum, cytotoxic chemotherapy. The primary end point was 24-week disease control rate. Secondary end points included best overall response, progression-free survival (PFS), safety, quality of life, and exploratory biomarker analyses.
RESULTS: Of the 109 patients receiving treatment, 54 received volasertib and 55 received chemotherapy; demographics were well balanced. The 24-week disease control rates for volasertib and chemotherapy were 30.6% (95% CI, 18.0% to 43.2%) and 43.1% (95% CI, 29.6% to 56.7%), respectively, with partial responses in seven (13.0%) and eight (14.5%) patients, respectively. Median PFS was 13.1 weeks and 20.6 weeks for volasertib and chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.53). Six patients (11%) receiving volasertib achieved PFS fore more than 1 year, whereas no patient receiving chemotherapy achieved PFS greater than 1 year. No relationship between the expression of the biomarkers tested and their response was determined. Patients treated with volasertib experienced more grade 3 and 4 drug-related hematologic adverse events (AEs) and fewer nonhematologic AEs than did patients receiving chemotherapy. Discontinuation resulting from AEs occurred in seven (13.0%) and 15 (27.3%) patients in the volasertib and chemotherapy arms, respectively. Both arms showed similar effects on quality of life.
CONCLUSION: Single-agent volasertib showed antitumor activity in patients with ovarian cancer. AEs in patients receiving volasertib were mainly hematologic and manageable.

Cashin PH, Mahteme H, Spång N, et al.
Cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy versus systemic chemotherapy for colorectal peritoneal metastases: A randomised trial.
Eur J Cancer. 2016; 53:155-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: First-line treatment of isolated resectable colorectal peritoneal metastases remains unclear. This study (the Swedish peritoneal study) compares cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (surgery arm) with systemic chemotherapy (chemotherapy arm).
METHODS: Patients deemed resectable preoperatively were randomised to surgery and intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil 550 mg/m(2)/d for 6 d with repeated courses every month or to systemic oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil regimen every second week. Both treatments continued for 6 months. Primary end-point was overall survival (OS) and secondary end-points were progression-free survival (PFS), and morbidity.
RESULTS: The study terminated prematurely when 48 eligible patients (24/arm) were included due to recruitment difficulties. Two-year OS was 54% in the surgery arm and 38% in the chemotherapy arm (p = 0.04). After 5 years, 8 versus 1 patient were alive, respectively (p = 0.02). Median OS was 25 months versus 18 months, respectively, hazard ratio 0.51 (95% confidence interval: 0.27-0.96, p = 0.04). PFS in the surgery arm was 12 months versus 11 months in the chemotherapy arm (p = 0.16) with 17% versus 0% 5-year PFS. Grade III-IV morbidity was seen in 42% and 50% of the patients, respectively. No mortalities.
CONCLUSIONS: Cytoreductive surgery with intraperitoneal chemotherapy may be superior to systemic oxaliplatin-based treatment of colorectal cancer with resectable isolated peritoneal metastases.(ClinicalTrials.gov nr:NCT01524094).

Mucci LA, Hjelmborg JB, Harris JR, et al.
Familial Risk and Heritability of Cancer Among Twins in Nordic Countries.
JAMA. 2016; 315(1):68-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
IMPORTANCE: Estimates of familial cancer risk from population-based studies are essential components of cancer risk prediction.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate familial risk and heritability of cancer types in a large twin cohort.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective study of 80,309 monozygotic and 123,382 same-sex dizygotic twin individuals (N = 203,691) within the population-based registers of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Twins were followed up a median of 32 years between 1943 and 2010. There were 50,990 individuals who died of any cause, and 3804 who emigrated and were lost to follow-up.
EXPOSURES: Shared environmental and heritable risk factors among pairs of twins.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The main outcome was incident cancer. Time-to-event analyses were used to estimate familial risk (risk of cancer in an individual given a twin's development of cancer) and heritability (proportion of variance in cancer risk due to interindividual genetic differences) with follow-up via cancer registries. Statistical models adjusted for age and follow-up time, and accounted for censoring and competing risk of death.
RESULTS: A total of 27,156 incident cancers were diagnosed in 23,980 individuals, translating to a cumulative incidence of 32%. Cancer was diagnosed in both twins among 1383 monozygotic (2766 individuals) and 1933 dizygotic (2866 individuals) pairs. Of these, 38% of monozygotic and 26% of dizygotic pairs were diagnosed with the same cancer type. There was an excess cancer risk in twins whose co-twin was diagnosed with cancer, with estimated cumulative risks that were an absolute 5% (95% CI, 4%-6%) higher in dizygotic (37%; 95% CI, 36%-38%) and an absolute 14% (95% CI, 12%-16%) higher in monozygotic twins (46%; 95% CI, 44%-48%) whose twin also developed cancer compared with the cumulative risk in the overall cohort (32%). For most cancer types, there were significant familial risks and the cumulative risks were higher in monozygotic than dizygotic twins. Heritability of cancer overall was 33% (95% CI, 30%-37%). Significant heritability was observed for the cancer types of skin melanoma (58%; 95% CI, 43%-73%), prostate (57%; 95% CI, 51%-63%), nonmelanoma skin (43%; 95% CI, 26%-59%), ovary (39%; 95% CI, 23%-55%), kidney (38%; 95% CI, 21%-55%), breast (31%; 95% CI, 11%-51%), and corpus uteri (27%; 95% CI, 11%-43%).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this long-term follow-up study among Nordic twins, there was significant excess familial risk for cancer overall and for specific types of cancer, including prostate, melanoma, breast, ovary, and uterus. This information about hereditary risks of cancers may be helpful in patient education and cancer risk counseling.

Björklund AT, Clancy T, Goodridge JP, et al.
Naive Donor NK Cell Repertoires Associated with Less Leukemia Relapse after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.
J Immunol. 2016; 196(3):1400-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute and latent human CMV cause profound changes in the NK cell repertoire, with expansion and differentiation of educated NK cells expressing self-specific inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors. In this study, we addressed whether such CMV-induced imprints on the donor NK cell repertoire influenced the outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Hierarchical clustering of high-resolution immunophenotyping data covering key NK cell parameters, including frequencies of CD56(bright), NKG2A(+), NKG2C(+), and CD57(+) NK cell subsets, as well as the size of the educated NK cell subset, was linked to clinical outcomes. Clusters defining naive (NKG2A(+)CD57(-)NKG2C(-)) NK cell repertoires in the donor were associated with decreased risk for relapse in recipients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome (hazard ratio [HR], 0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03-0.27; p < 0.001). Furthermore, recipients with naive repertoires at 9-12 mo after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation had increased disease-free survival (HR, 7.2; 95% CI: 1.6-33; p = 0.01) and increased overall survival (HR, 9.3; 95% CI: 1.1-77, p = 0.04). Conversely, patients with a relative increase in differentiated NK cells at 9-12 mo displayed a higher rate of late relapses (HR, 8.41; 95% CI: 6.7-11; p = 0.02), reduced disease-free survival (HR, 0.12; 95% CI: 0.12-0.74; p = 0.02), and reduced overall survival (HR, 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01-0.69; p = 0.02). Thus, our data suggest that naive donor NK cell repertoires are associated with protection against leukemia relapse after allogeneic HSCT.

Yu Y, Qin G, Cnattingius S, et al.
Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0146669 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mortality in children under five years has been widely studied, whereas mortality at 5-9 years has received little attention. Using unique data from national registers in three Nordic countries, we aimed to characterize mortality directionality in children aged 0 to 9 years.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: The cohort study included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2008 (n = 2,433,758), Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,400,212), and a random sample of 89.3% of children born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,272,083). Children were followed from 0 to 9 years, and cumulative mortality and mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 1981-1985 to 2001-2005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5-9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined by 42% (from 6.2 to 3.6 per 100,000 person years), 43% (from 3.7 to 2.1) and 62% (from 3.9 to 1.5) in boys, and 25% (from 4.1 to 3.1 per 100000 person years), 42% (from 3.4 to 1.9) and 63% (from 3.0 to 1.1) in girls, respectively. Mortality from neoplasms was the highest in each age except infants when comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5-9 years.
CONCLUSIONS: Mortality rate in children aged 0-9 years has been decreasing with diminished difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport accidents-especially in children aged 5-9 years.

Johnson DC, Weinhold N, Mitchell JS, et al.
Genome-wide association study identifies variation at 6q25.1 associated with survival in multiple myeloma.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:10290 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2017 Related Publications
Survival following a diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM) varies between patients and some of these differences may be a consequence of inherited genetic variation. In this study, to identify genetic markers associated with MM overall survival (MM-OS), we conduct a meta-analysis of four patient series of European ancestry, totalling 3,256 patients with 1,200 MM-associated deaths. Each series is genotyped for ∼600,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome; genotypes for six million common variants are imputed using 1000 Genomes Project and UK10K as the reference. The association between genotype and OS is assessed by Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for age, sex, International staging system and treatment. We identify a locus at 6q25.1 marked by rs12374648 associated with MM-OS (hazard ratio=1.34, 95% confidence interval=1.22-1.48, P=4.69 × 10(-9)). Our findings have potential clinical implications since they demonstrate that inherited genotypes can provide prognostic information in addition to conventional tumor acquired prognostic factors.

Hilborn E, Gacic J, Fornander T, et al.
Androgen receptor expression predicts beneficial tamoxifen response in oestrogen receptor-α-negative breast cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 114(3):248-55 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/02/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although the androgen receptor (AR) is frequently expressed in breast cancer, its relevance in the disease is not fully understood. In addition, the relevance of AR in determining tamoxifen treatment efficiency requires evaluation.
PURPOSE: To investigate the tamoxifen predictive relevance of the AR protein expression in breast cancer.
METHODS: Patients were randomised to tamoxifen 40 mg daily for 2 or 5 years or to no endocrine treatment. Mean follow-up was 15 years. Hazard ratios were calculated with recurrence-free survival as end point.
RESULTS: In patients with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumours, expression of AR predicted decreased recurrence rate with tamoxifen (hazard ratio (HR)=0.34; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.14-0.81; P=0.015), whereas the opposite was seen in the AR- group (HR=2.92; 95% CI=1.16-7.31; P=0.022). Interaction test was significant P<0.001. Patients with triple-negative and AR+ tumours benefitted from tamoxifen treatment (HR=0.12; 95% CI=0.014-0.95 P=0.044), whereas patients with AR- tumours had worse outcome when treated with tamoxifen (HR=3.98; 95% CI=1.32-12.03; P=0.014). Interaction test was significant P=0.003. Patients with ER+ tumours showed benefit from tamoxifen treatment regardless of AR expression.
CONCLUSIONS: AR can predict tamoxifen treatment benefit in patients with ER- tumours and triple-negative breast cancer.

Maleki KT, Cornillet M, Björkström NK
Soluble SEMA4D/CD100: A novel immunoregulator in infectious and inflammatory diseases.
Clin Immunol. 2016; 163:52-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
SEMA4D/CD100 is a homodimeric protein belonging to the semaphorin family of axonal guidance proteins. Semaphorin family members have received increased attention lately due to their diverse functions in the immune system. SEMA4D was the first semaphorin described to have immune functions and serves important roles in T cell priming, antibody production, and cell-to-cell adhesion. Proteolytic cleavage of SEMA4D from the cell surface gives rise to a soluble fragment of SEMA4D (sSEMA4D). Similar to the transmembranal form, sSEMA4D is thought to have immunoregulatory properties. While the exact mechanisms responsible for SEMA4D shedding remain to be elucidated, emerging data have revealed associations between elevated systemic sSEMA4D levels and severity of infectious and inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes the literature concerning sSEMA4D and discusses its potential as a novel prognostic immune-biomarker and potential target for immunotherapy.

Mogensen H, Modig K, Tettamanti G, et al.
Socioeconomic differences in cancer survival among Swedish children.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 114(1):118-24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/01/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Earlier evidence, also from high-income countries, suggests that parental socioeconomic status might influence survival from childhood cancer. This nationwide cohort study aimed to determine whether survival from childhood cancer in Sweden varies according to parental educational level and household income at the time of the child's diagnosis.
METHODS: All children aged 1-14 years with a first primary diagnosis of cancer during 1991 to 2010 identified from the Swedish Cancer Register were included. Using Cox regression, the effects of parental educational level and household income on childhood cancer survival were estimated.
RESULTS: For all diagnoses combined (n=4700), children of parents with compulsory or less education and upper-secondary education had poorer survival compared with children with parents who had the highest educational level, adjusted hazard ratios 1.28 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.59) and 1.17 (1.00-1.38). Results for leukaemia and nervous system tumours showed a similar pattern but were not statistically significant in adjusted analyses. The observed differences began within the first year after diagnosis. Household income was not associated with survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Also in Sweden, with universal health care, there are indications of inequalities in survival after childhood cancer diagnosis. Further studies are needed to determine which mechanisms explain the association.

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