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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 9.5m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 50,500
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 270.0
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:27.8%
People dying from cancer /yr: 22,100
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Swedish Cancer Organisations
Cancer Centres in Sweden
Latest Research Publications from Sweden

Swedish Cancer Organisations (16 links)

Cancer Centres in Sweden (6 links)

Latest Research Publications from Sweden

Loeb S, Folkvaljon Y, Lambe M, et al.
Use of Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors for Erectile Dysfunction and Risk of Malignant Melanoma.
JAMA. 2015 Jun 23-30; 313(24):2449-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
IMPORTANCE: The target for the oral erectile dysfunction drugs, phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, is part of a pathway implicated in the development of malignant melanoma. An increased risk of melanoma in sildenafil users was recently reported.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between use of PDE5 inhibitors and melanoma risk, including data on specific PDE5 inhibitors, number of prescriptions, and melanoma stage.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Nationwide, population-based, nested case-control study in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, the Swedish Melanoma Register, and other health care registers and demographic databases in Sweden, including 4065 melanoma cases diagnosed from 2006 through 2012 and 5 randomly selected controls per case with matching year of birth.
EXPOSURES: Number of filled prescriptions for the PDE5 inhibitors sildenafil and vardenafil or tadalafil.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Risk of melanoma; overall and by stage and risk of basal cell carcinoma in multivariable logistic regression analyses.
RESULTS: Of 4065 melanoma cases, 435 men (11%) had filled prescriptions for PDE5 inhibitors, as did 1713 men of 20,325 controls (8%). In multivariable analysis, there was an increased risk of melanoma in men taking PDE5 inhibitors (OR, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.08-1.36]). The most pronounced increase in risk was observed in men who had filled a single prescription (OR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.10-1.59]; exposure rate, 4% for cases vs 3% for controls), but was not significant among men with multiple filled prescriptions (for 2-5 prescriptions: OR, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.95-1.37], 4% for cases and 3% for controls; for ≥6 prescriptions: OR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.95-1.44], 3% for cases vs 2% for controls). PDE5 inhibitors were significantly associated with melanoma stage 0 (OR, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.22-1.83], 13% for cases vs 8% for controls) and stage I (OR, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.02-1.43], 12% for cases vs 10% for controls), but not stage II through IV (OR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.63-1.09], 6% for cases vs 7% for controls). The risk estimates were similar for sildenafil and vardenafil or tadalafil. PDE5 inhibitor use was also associated with an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma (OR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.14-1.25], 9% for cases vs 8% for controls). Men taking PDE5 inhibitors had a higher educational level and annual income, factors that were also significantly associated with melanoma risk.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In a Swedish cohort of men, the use of PDE5 inhibitors was associated with a modest but statistically significant increased risk of malignant melanoma. However, the pattern of association (eg, the lack of association with multiple filled prescriptions) raises questions about whether this association is causal.

Heckl D, Charpentier E
Toward Whole-Transcriptome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9.
Mol Cell. 2015; 58(4):560-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
Targeted regulation of gene expression holds huge promise for biomedical research. In a series of recent publications (Gilbert et al., 2014; Konermann et al., 2015; Zalatan et al., 2015), sophisticated, multiplex-compatible transcriptional activator systems based on the CRISPR-Cas9 technology and genome-scale libraries advance the field toward whole-transcriptome control.

Mertens F, Johansson B, Fioretos T, Mitelman F
The emerging complexity of gene fusions in cancer.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2015; 15(6):371-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Structural chromosome rearrangements may result in the exchange of coding or regulatory DNA sequences between genes. Many such gene fusions are strong driver mutations in neoplasia and have provided fundamental insights into the disease mechanisms that are involved in tumorigenesis. The close association between the type of gene fusion and the tumour phenotype makes gene fusions ideal for diagnostic purposes, enabling the subclassification of otherwise seemingly identical disease entities. In addition, many gene fusions add important information for risk stratification, and increasing numbers of chimeric proteins encoded by the gene fusions serve as specific targets for treatment, resulting in dramatically improved patient outcomes. In this Timeline article, we describe the spectrum of gene fusions in cancer and how the methods to identify them have evolved, and also discuss conceptual implications of current, sequencing-based approaches for detection.

Boldrup L, Coates PJ, Laurell G, et al.
Downregulation of miRNA-424: a sign of field cancerisation in clinically normal tongue adjacent to squamous cell carcinoma.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(11):1760-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The overall survival for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue is low and the search for early diagnostic and prognostic markers is thus essential. MicroRNAs have been suggested as potential prognostic and diagnostic candidates in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in general.
METHODS: On the basis of the known differences between sub-sites within the oral cavity, we investigated the expression and role of microRNA-424 in squamous cell carcinoma arising in tongue. MicroRNA levels were measured by qRT-PCR in both tissue and plasma samples.
RESULTS: Levels of microRNA-424 were upregulated in tongue squamous cell carcinoma, but not in tumours originating from gingiva or floor of the mouth. Interestingly, microRNA-424 was downregulated in clinically normal tongue tissue next to tumour compared with completely healthy tongue, indicating that microRNA-424 could be a marker of field cancerisation in this tumour type. However, expression of microRNA-424 in a tongue-derived epithelial cell line revealed no significant changes in the expression profile of proteins and genes.
CONCLUSIONS: Our patient data show that microRNA-424 alterations are a marker of field cancerisation specific for tongue tumourigenesis, which also could have a role in development of tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

Liu Z, Fang F, Chang ET, Ye W
Cancer risk in the relatives of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma—a register-based cohort study in Sweden.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(11):1827-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Little is known about cancer susceptibility among relatives of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients in non-endemic areas. We conducted a register-based cohort study to assess the relative risks (RRs) of cancer in families of NPC probands in Sweden.
METHODS: By linking 11,602,616 Swedish-born individuals (defined as 'general population') identified from national censuses to the Swedish Cancer Register and Multi-Generation Register, we identified 9157 relatives (3645 first-degree and 5512 second-degree) of 1211 NPC probands. Cancer incidence during 1961-2009 was ascertained through the Cancer Register. Relative risks of cancer in the relatives of NPC probands, compared with the rest of the general population, were calculated from Poisson regression models.
RESULTS: First-degree relatives had higher risks of NPC (N=2, RR=4.29, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.07 to 17.17) and cancers of the larynx (N=5, RR=2.53, 95% CI=1.05 to 6.09), prostate (N=76, RR=1.35, 95% CI=1.07 to 1.68), and thyroid (N=10, RR=2.44, 95% CI=1.31 to 4.53) than the rest of the general population. In addition, a raised risk of cancer of the salivary glands was observed among first-degree relatives of probands with undifferentiated NPC (N=2, RR=6.64, 95% CI=1.66 to 26.57). In contrast, a decreased risk of colorectal cancer was observed in first- and second-degree relatives (N=43, RR=0.71, 95% CI=0.53 to 0.96).
CONCLUSION: The increased risk of NPC and certain other cancers among first-degree relatives may be explained by shared genetic and environmental risk factors, the latter including Epstein-Barr virus infection and smoking or by increased diagnostic intensity.

Aarnio K, Joensuu H, Haapaniemi E, et al.
Cancer in young adults with ischemic stroke.
Stroke. 2015; 46(6):1601-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cancer is a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Little is known about cancer among young adults with ischemic stroke. We studied the frequency of cancer and its association with long-term risk of death among young patients with first-ever ischemic stroke.
METHODS: 1002 patients aged 15 to 49 years, registered in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, and with a median follow-up of 10.0 years (interquartile range 6.5-13.8) after stroke were included. Historical and follow-up data were derived from the Finnish Care Register and Statistics Finland. Survival between groups was compared with the Kaplan-Meier life-table method, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors associated with mortality.
RESULTS: One or more cancer diagnosis was made in 77 (7.7%) patients, of whom 39 (3.9%) had cancer diagnosed prestroke. During the poststroke follow-up, 41 (53.2%) of the cancer patients died. Median time from prestroke cancer to stroke was 4.9 (1.0-9.5) years and from stroke to poststroke cancer was 6.7 (2.7-10.9) years. Poststroke cancer was associated with age>40 years, heavy drinking, and cigarette smoking. The cumulative mortality was significantly higher among the cancer patients (68.6%, 95% confidence interval 52.0%-85.3%) compared with patients without cancer (19.7%, 95% confidence interval 16.3%-23.2%). Active cancer at index stroke, melanoma, and lung/respiratory tract cancer had the strongest independent association with death during the follow-up when adjusted for known poststroke mortality prognosticators.
CONCLUSIONS: Cancer, and especially active cancer and no other apparent cause for stroke, is associated with unfavorable survival among young stroke patients.

Bauden M, Tassidis H, Ansari D
In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of HDAC inhibitor Apicidin in pancreatic carcinoma cells subsequent time and dose dependent treatment.
Toxicol Lett. 2015; 236(1):8-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Apicidin is a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) that selectively binds to histone deacetylases (HDACs) class I and interferes with the deacetylation process, which results in modification of acetylation level of cellular proteins. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential time and dose dependent cytotoxicity of the test compound, Apicidin, in pancreatic cancer cells Capan-1 and Panc-1 as well as estimate maximal tolerable dose (MTD) of the test agent and determine EC50 using four complementary colorimetric cytotoxicity or viability assays. The cells were treated with increasing concentrations of Apicidin (0-5000nM) for 2, 4 and 6h (short term exposure) or 24, 48 and 72h (long term exposure) before conducting cytotoxic analyses with lactate dehydrogenase assay or viability analyses with sulforhodamine B (SRB), methyl tetrazolium (MTT) and crystal violet (CV) assays. In order to investigate whether Apicidin irreversibly affects the cells already during the short term exposure, the medium containing Apicidin was removed and replaced with fresh culturing medium after 6h of treatment. The cells were then incubated for additional 24, 48 or 72h before carrying out the analysis. The results obtained from cytotoxicity and viability assays indicated, that Apicidin was well tolerated by both cell lines at concentrations below 100nM at any given time point and at all applied concentrations during the short term (6h or less) treatment. Continuous prolonged term exposures (48h or greater) of the cells to Apicidin with concentration exceeding 100nM resulted in significantly increasing cytotoxicity and sustained significant loss of cell viability. Moreover, long term exposure of pancreatic cancer cells Capan-1 and Panc-1 to Apicidin concentrations exceeding 100nM showed an initial anti-proliferative effect before cytotoxicity onset. In summary, MTD was exposure time dependent and estimated to 100nM for long term treatment and to at least 5000nM for treatment not greater than 6h. EC50 concentration of Apicidin was established after long term treatment, however with some variation when comparing the different assays and cell lines. Results from this study may encourage reinvestigating the capacity of potent HDACI Apicidin as an attractive agent for interfering with the deacetylation process catalyzed by HDACs for potential pancreatic cancer intervention.

Bujko K, Glimelius B, Valentini V, et al.
Postoperative chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer receiving preoperative radio(chemo)therapy: A meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing surgery ± a fluoropyrimidine and surgery + a fluoropyrimidine ± oxaliplatin.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2015; 41(6):713-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on the role of postoperative chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer who have received preoperative radio(chemo)therapy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed of trials that used preoperative radio(chemo)therapy and randomized patients either between postoperative chemotherapy and observation or between a fluoropyrimidine only (FU-only) and a fluoropyrimidine with oxaliplatin (FU-OXA) as postoperative chemotherapy.
RESULTS: Five randomized studies compared postoperative chemotherapy with observation in a total of 2398 patients. None of these trials demonstrated a statistically significant benefit of chemotherapy for OS and DFS. The pooled differences in OS and DFS did not differ statistically significantly between the chemotherapy group and the observation group. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 0.95 (CI: 0.82-1.10), P = 0.49 and 0.92 (CI: 0.80-1.04), P = 0.19, respectively. In the subgroup of trials in which randomization was performed after surgery (n = 753), a statistically significant positive pooled chemotherapy effect was observed for DFS (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.62-1.00, P = 0.047), but not for OS (P = 0.39). Four randomized trials compared adjuvant FU-OXA with adjuvant FU-only in 2710 patients. In two trials, the difference in DFS between groups was statistically significant in favour of FU-OXA, and in the other two trials, the difference was not significant. The pooled difference in DFS between the FU-OXA group and the FU-only group was not statistically significant: HR = 0.84 (CI: 0.66-1.06), P = 0.15.
CONCLUSION: The use of postoperative chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer receiving preoperative radio(chemo)therapy is not based on strong scientific evidence.

Anderin K, Gustafsson UO, Thorell A, Nygren J
The effect of diverting stoma on postoperative morbidity after low anterior resection for rectal cancer in patients treated within an ERAS program.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2015; 41(6):724-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leakage (AL) is a serious complication after low anterior resection (LAR) with total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancer. Whether the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS)-protocol influences the risk of short-term morbidity in relation to the use of a diverting stoma is unclear.
METHODS: Between 2002 and 2011, 287 consecutive patients underwent LAR with TME for rectal cancer at Ersta Hospital, Sweden. All patients were treated according to the ERAS program and thereby included. Between 2002 and 2006 15% had a diverting stoma compared to 91 %, 2007 to 2011.
RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-nine patients were operated with a diverting stoma at primary surgery (S+), 148 patients were not (S-). The groups were comparable regarding pre- and peroperative data and patients' characteristics. Postoperative morbidity within 30 days after surgery (S+ 53% vs. S- 43%) and hospital stay (S+ 11 days vs. S- 9 days) did not differ. AL occurred in 22% of all patients. In a multivariate analysis, no significant difference in AL was found in relation to the use of a diverting stoma (S+ vs. S-, OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.34-1.19). Eleven patients (8%) in the S+ group underwent relaparotomy versus 22 (15%) in the S- group (p = 0.065). Total overall compliance to the ERAS program was 65%. Patients in S- had faster postoperative recovery.
CONCLUSION: A diverting stoma did not affect postoperative morbidity in this large cohort of patients undergoing LAR within an ERAS program. However, the routine use of a diverting stoma could be expected to delay postoperative recovery.

Saie AA, Ray M, Mahmoudi M, Rotello VM
Engineering the nanoparticle-protein interface for cancer therapeutics.
Cancer Treat Res. 2015; 166:245-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intracellular delivery of functional proteins using nanoparticles can be a game-changing approach for cancer therapy. However, cytosolic release of functional protein is still a major challenge. In addition, formation of protein corona on the surface of the nanoparticles can also alter the behavior of the nanoparticles. Here, we will review recent strategies for protein delivery into the cell. Finally we will discuss the issue of protein corona formation in light of nanoparticle-protein interactions.

Guo Q, Schmidt MK, Kraft P, et al.
Identification of novel genetic markers of breast cancer survival.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(5) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Survival after a diagnosis of breast cancer varies considerably between patients, and some of this variation may be because of germline genetic variation. We aimed to identify genetic markers associated with breast cancer-specific survival.
METHODS: We conducted a large meta-analysis of studies in populations of European ancestry, including 37954 patients with 2900 deaths from breast cancer. Each study had been genotyped for between 200000 and 900000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genome; genotypes for nine million common variants were imputed using a common reference panel from the 1000 Genomes Project. We also carried out subtype-specific analyses based on 6881 estrogen receptor (ER)-negative patients (920 events) and 23059 ER-positive patients (1333 events). All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: We identified one new locus (rs2059614 at 11q24.2) associated with survival in ER-negative breast cancer cases (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.55 to 2.47, P = 1.91 x 10(-8)). Genotyping a subset of 2113 case patients, of which 300 were ER negative, provided supporting evidence for the quality of the imputation. The association in this set of case patients was stronger for the observed genotypes than for the imputed genotypes. A second locus (rs148760487 at 2q24.2) was associated at genome-wide statistical significance in initial analyses; the association was similar in ER-positive and ER-negative case patients. Here the results of genotyping suggested that the finding was less robust.
CONCLUSIONS: This is currently the largest study investigating genetic variation associated with breast cancer survival. Our results have potential clinical implications, as they confirm that germline genotype can provide prognostic information in addition to standard tumor prognostic factors.

Torchia J, Picard D, Lafay-Cousin L, et al.
Molecular subgroups of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours in children: an integrated genomic and clinicopathological analysis.
Lancet Oncol. 2015; 16(5):569-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Rhabdoid brain tumours, also called atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours, are lethal childhood cancers with characteristic genetic alterations of SMARCB1/hSNF5. Lack of biological understanding of the substantial clinical heterogeneity of these tumours restricts therapeutic advances. We integrated genomic and clinicopathological analyses of a cohort of patients with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours to find out the molecular basis for clinical heterogeneity in these tumours.
METHODS: We obtained 259 rhabdoid tumours from 37 international institutions and assessed transcriptional profiles in 43 primary tumours and copy number profiles in 38 primary tumours to discover molecular subgroups of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours. We used gene and pathway enrichment analyses to discover group-specific molecular markers and did immunohistochemical analyses on 125 primary tumours to evaluate clinicopathological significance of molecular subgroup and ASCL1-NOTCH signalling.
FINDINGS: Transcriptional analyses identified two atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumour subgroups with differential enrichment of genetic pathways, and distinct clinicopathological and survival features. Expression of ASCL1, a regulator of NOTCH signalling, correlated with supratentorial location (p=0·004) and superior 5-year overall survival (35%, 95% CI 13-57, and 20%, 6-34, for ASCL1-positive and ASCL1-negative tumours, respectively; p=0·033) in 70 patients who received multimodal treatment. ASCL1 expression also correlated with superior 5-year overall survival (34%, 7-61, and 9%, 0-21, for ASCL1-positive and ASCL1-negative tumours, respectively; p=0·001) in 39 patients who received only chemotherapy without radiation. Cox hazard ratios for overall survival in patients with differential ASCL1 enrichment treated with chemotherapy with or without radiation were 2·02 (95% CI 1·04-3·85; p=0·038) and 3·98 (1·71-9·26; p=0·001). Integrated analyses of molecular subgroupings with clinical prognostic factors showed three distinct clinical risk groups of tumours with different therapeutic outcomes.
INTERPRETATION: An integration of clinical risk factors and tumour molecular groups can be used to identify patients who are likely to have improved long-term radiation-free survival and might help therapeutic stratification of patients with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours.
FUNDING: C17 Research Network, Genome Canada, b.r.a.i.n.child, Mitchell Duckman, Tal Doron and Suri Boon foundations.

Hillmen P, Robak T, Janssens A, et al.
Chlorambucil plus ofatumumab versus chlorambucil alone in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (COMPLEMENT 1): a randomised, multicentre, open-label phase 3 trial.
Lancet. 2015; 385(9980):1873-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Treatment for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia who are elderly or who have comorbidities is challenging because fludarabine-based chemoimmunotherapies are mostly not suitable. Chlorambucil remains the standard of care in many countries. We aimed to investigate whether the addition of ofatumumab to chlorambucil could lead to better clinical outcomes than does treatment with chlorambucil alone, while also being tolerable for patients who have few treatment options.
METHODS: We carried out a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial for treatment-naive patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in 109 centres in 16 countries. We included patients who had active disease needing treatment, but in whom fludarabine-based treatment was not possible. We randomly assigned patients (1:1) to receive oral chlorambucil (10 mg/m(2)) on days 1-7 of a 28 day treatment course or to receive chlorambucil by this schedule plus intravenous ofatumumab (cycle 1: 300 mg on day 1 and 1000 mg on day 8; subsequent cycles: 1000 mg on day 1) for three to 12 cycles. Assignment was done with a randomisation list that was computer generated at GlaxoSmithKline, and was stratified, in a block size of two, by age, disease stage, and performance status. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population and assessment was done by an independent review committee that was masked to group assignment. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00748189.
FINDINGS: We enrolled 447 patients, median age 69 years (range 35-92). Between Dec 22, 2008, and May 26, 2011, we randomly assigned 221 patients to chlorambucil plus ofatumumab and 226 patients to chlorambucil alone. Median progression-free survival was 22·4 months (95% CI 19·0-25·2) in the group assigned to chlorambucil plus ofatumumab compared with 13·1 months (10·6-13·8) in the group assigned to chlorambucil only (hazard ratio 0·57, 95% CI 0·45-0·72; p<0·0001). Grade 3 or greater adverse events were more common in the chlorambucil plus ofatumumab group (109 [50%] patients; vs 98 [43%] given chlorambucil alone), with neutropenia being the most common event (56 [26%] vs 32 [14%]). Grade 3 or greater infections had similar frequency in both groups. Grade 3 or greater infusion-related adverse events were reported in 22 (10%) patients given chlorambucil plus ofatumumab. Five (2%) patients died during treatment in each group.
INTERPRETATION: Addition of ofatumumab to chlorambucil led to clinically important improvements with a manageable side-effect profile in treatment-naive patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia who were elderly or had comorbidities. Chlorambucil plus ofatumumab is therefore an important treatment option for these patients who cannot tolerate more intensive therapy.
FUNDING: GlaxoSmithKline, Genmab A/S.

Martner A, Wiktorin HG, Lenox B, et al.
Histamine promotes the development of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and reduces tumor growth by targeting the myeloid NADPH oxidase.
J Immunol. 2015; 194(10):5014-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The efficiency of immune-mediated clearance of cancer cells is hampered by immunosuppressive mediators in the malignant microenvironment, including NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species. We aimed at defining the effects of histamine, an inhibitor of the myeloid NADPH oxidase/NOX2, on the development of Ag-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) from myeloid precursors and the impact of these mechanisms for tumor growth. Histamine was found to promote the maturation of human DCs from monocytes by increasing the expression of HLA-DR and costimulatory molecules, which resulted in improved induction of Th cells with Th0 polarity. Experiments using wild-type and NOX2-deficient myelomonoblastic cells showed that histamine facilitated myeloid cell maturation only in cells capable of generating reactive oxygen species. Treatment of mice with histamine reduced the growth of murine EL-4 lymphomas in parallel with an increment of tumor-infiltrating DCs in NOX2-sufficient mice but not in NOX2-deficient (gp91(phox) (-/-)) mice. We propose that strategies to target the myeloid NADPH oxidase may facilitate the development of endogenous DCs in cancer.

Sung H, Rosenberg PS, Chen WQ, et al.
Female breast cancer incidence among Asian and Western populations: more similar than expected.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(7) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous reports suggested that female breast cancer is associated with earlier ages at onset among Asian than Western populations. However, most studies utilized cross-sectional analyses that may be confounded by calendar-period and/or birth cohort effects. We, therefore, considered a longitudinal (forward-looking) approach adjusted for calendar-period changes and conditioned upon birth cohort.
METHODS: Invasive female breast cancer data (1988-2009) were obtained from cancer registries in China, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and the United States. Age-period-cohort models were used to extrapolate longitudinal age-specific incidence rates for the 1920, 1944, and 1970 birth cohorts.
RESULTS: Cross-sectional age-specific incidence rates rose continuously until age 80 years among US white women, but plateaued or decreased after age 50 years among Asian women. In contrast, longitudinal age-specific rates were proportional (similar) among all Asian countries and the United States with incidence rates rising continuously until age 80 years. The extrapolated estimates for the most recent cohorts in some Asian countries actually showed later ages at onset than in the United States. Additionally, over successive birth cohorts, the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for the longitudinal curves converged (narrowed) between Asian and US white women.
CONCLUSIONS: Similar longitudinal age-specific incidence rates along with converging IRRs indicate that the age effects for invasive breast cancer are more similar among Asian and Western populations than might be expected from a solely cross-sectional analysis. Indeed, the Asian breast cancer rates in recent generations are even surpassing the historically high rates in the United States, highlighting an urgent need for efficient prevention and treatment strategies among Asian populations.

Fisher OM, Levert-Mignon AJ, Lord SJ, et al.
MIC-1/GDF15 in Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(8):1384-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers are needed to improve current diagnosis and surveillance strategies for patients with Barrett's oesophagus (BO) and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1/growth differentiation factor 15 (MIC-1/GDF15) tissue and plasma levels have been shown to predict disease progression in other cancer types and was therefore evaluated in BO/OAC.
METHODS: One hundred thirty-eight patients were studied: 45 normal oesophagus (NE), 37 BO, 16 BO with low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and 40 OAC.
RESULTS: Median tissue expression of MIC-1/GDF15 mRNA was ⩾25-fold higher in BO and LGD compared to NE (P<0.001); two-fold higher in OAC vs BO (P=0.039); and 47-fold higher in OAC vs NE (P<0.001). Relative MIC-1/GDF15 tissue expression >720 discriminated between the presence of either OAC or LGD vs NE with 94% sensitivity and 71% specificity (ROC AUC 0.86, 95% CI 0.73-0.96; P<0.001). Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1/growth differentiation factor 15 plasma values were also elevated in patients with OAC vs NE (P<0.001) or BO (P=0.015).High MIC-1/GDF15 plasma levels (⩾1140 pg ml(-1)) were an independent predictor of poor survival for patients with OAC (HR 3.87, 95% CI 1.01-14.75; P=0.047).
CONCLUSIONS: Plasma and tissue levels of MIC-1/GDF15 are significantly elevated in patients with BO, LGD and OAC. Plasma MIC-1/GDF15 may have value in diagnosis and monitoring of Barrett's disease.

Bryant RJ, Sjoberg DD, Vickers AJ, et al.
Predicting high-grade cancer at ten-core prostate biopsy using four kallikrein markers measured in blood in the ProtecT study.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(7) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Many men with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in serum do not have aggressive prostate cancer and undergo unnecessary biopsy. Retrospective studies using cryopreserved serum suggest that four kallikrein markers can predict biopsy outcome.
METHODS: Free, intact and total PSA, and kallikrein-related peptidase 2 were measured in cryopreserved blood from 6129 men with elevated PSA (≥3.0ng/mL) participating in the prospective, randomized trial Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment. Marker levels from 4765 men providing anticoagulated plasma were incorporated into statistical models to predict any-grade and high-grade (Gleason score ≥7) prostate cancer at 10-core biopsy. The models were corrected for optimism by 10-fold cross validation and independently validated using markers measured in serum from 1364 men. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: The four kallikreins enhanced prostate cancer detection compared with PSA and age alone. Area under the curve (AUC) for the four kallikreins was 0.719 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.704 to 0.734) vs 0.634 (95% CI = 0.617 to 0.651, P < .001) for PSA and age alone for any-grade cancer, and 0.820 (95% CI = 0.802 to 0.838) vs 0.738 (95% CI = 0.716 to 0.761) for high-grade cancer. Using a 6% risk of high-grade cancer as an illustrative cutoff, for 1000 biopsied men with PSA levels of 3.0ng/mL or higher, the model would reduce the need for biopsy in 428 men, detect 119 high-grade cancers, and delay diagnosis of 14 of 133 high-grade cancers. Models exhibited excellent discrimination on independent validation among men with only serum samples available for analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: A statistical model based on kallikrein markers was validated in a large prospective study and reduces unnecessary biopsies while delaying diagnosis of high-grade cancers in few men.

Mavaddat N, Pharoah PD, Michailidou K, et al.
Prediction of breast cancer risk based on profiling with common genetic variants.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(5) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Data for multiple common susceptibility alleles for breast cancer may be combined to identify women at different levels of breast cancer risk. Such stratification could guide preventive and screening strategies. However, empirical evidence for genetic risk stratification is lacking.
METHODS: We investigated the value of using 77 breast cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for risk stratification, in a study of 33 673 breast cancer cases and 33 381 control women of European origin. We tested all possible pair-wise multiplicative interactions and constructed a 77-SNP polygenic risk score (PRS) for breast cancer overall and by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Absolute risks of breast cancer by PRS were derived from relative risk estimates and UK incidence and mortality rates.
RESULTS: There was no strong evidence for departure from a multiplicative model for any SNP pair. Women in the highest 1% of the PRS had a three-fold increased risk of developing breast cancer compared with women in the middle quintile (odds ratio [OR] = 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.95 to 3.83). The ORs for ER-positive and ER-negative disease were 3.73 (95% CI = 3.24 to 4.30) and 2.80 (95% CI = 2.26 to 3.46), respectively. Lifetime risk of breast cancer for women in the lowest and highest quintiles of the PRS were 5.2% and 16.6% for a woman without family history, and 8.6% and 24.4% for a woman with a first-degree family history of breast cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: The PRS stratifies breast cancer risk in women both with and without a family history of breast cancer. The observed level of risk discrimination could inform targeted screening and prevention strategies. Further discrimination may be achievable through combining the PRS with lifestyle/environmental factors, although these were not considered in this report.

Rebbeck TR, Mitra N, Wan F, et al.
Association of type and location of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations with risk of breast and ovarian cancer.
JAMA. 2015; 313(13):1347-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
IMPORTANCE: Limited information about the relationship between specific mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and cancer risk exists.
OBJECTIVE: To identify mutation-specific cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1/2.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Observational study of women who were ascertained between 1937 and 2011 (median, 1999) and found to carry disease-associated BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The international sample comprised 19,581 carriers of BRCA1 mutations and 11,900 carriers of BRCA2 mutations from 55 centers in 33 countries on 6 continents. We estimated hazard ratios for breast and ovarian cancer based on mutation type, function, and nucleotide position. We also estimated RHR, the ratio of breast vs ovarian cancer hazard ratios. A value of RHR greater than 1 indicated elevated breast cancer risk; a value of RHR less than 1 indicated elevated ovarian cancer risk.
EXPOSURES: Mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Breast and ovarian cancer risks.
RESULTS: Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, 9052 women (46%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 2317 (12%) with ovarian cancer, 1041 (5%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 7171 (37%) without cancer. Among BRCA2 mutation carriers, 6180 women (52%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 682 (6%) with ovarian cancer, 272 (2%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 4766 (40%) without cancer. In BRCA1, we identified 3 breast cancer cluster regions (BCCRs) located at c.179 to c.505 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.22-1.74; P = 2 × 10(-6)), c.4328 to c.4945 (BCCR2; RHR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.78; P = .04), and c. 5261 to c.5563 (BCCR2', RHR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.22-1.55; P = 6 × 10(-9)). We also identified an ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) from c.1380 to c.4062 (approximately exon 11) with RHR = 0.62 (95% CI, 0.56-0.70; P = 9 × 10(-17)). In BRCA2, we observed multiple BCCRs spanning c.1 to c.596 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06-2.78; P = .03), c.772 to c.1806 (BCCR1'; RHR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.10-2.40; P = .01), and c.7394 to c.8904 (BCCR2; RHR = 2.31; 95% CI, 1.69-3.16; P = .00002). We also identified 3 OCCRs: the first (OCCR1) spanned c.3249 to c.5681 that was adjacent to c.5946delT (6174delT; RHR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.44-0.60; P = 6 × 10(-17)). The second OCCR spanned c.6645 to c.7471 (OCCR2; RHR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.41-0.80; P = .001). Mutations conferring nonsense-mediated decay were associated with differential breast or ovarian cancer risks and an earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Breast and ovarian cancer risks varied by type and location of BRCA1/2 mutations. With appropriate validation, these data may have implications for risk assessment and cancer prevention decision making for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.

Kärrberg C, Rådberg T, Holmberg E, Norström A
Support for down-staging of pregnancy-associated cervical cancer.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2015; 94(6):654-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate all cases of cervical cancer associated with pregnancy during 16 years in the Western Region of Sweden.
DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive cohort study.
SETTING AND POPULATION: All women with cervical cancer, diagnosed during pregnancy or within 6 months after parturition, between 1993 and 2008.
METHODS: The study was based on data from different registers and medical records.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence, diagnostic measures, treatment and outcome of disease.
RESULTS: Cervical cancer was diagnosed in 47 women (15.6/100 000 deliveries). Sixteen women had abnormal vaginal bleeding and/or discharge. The other women were asymptomatic and diagnosed by abnormal cervical smear or clinical signs at vaginal examination. Nine women had atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance as presenting by cervical atypia. Twenty-two women had stage IA, 17 stage IB1, six stage IB2 and two stage IIA cancer. Cancer was diagnosed in the first trimester in two, in the second trimester in 14, in the third trimester in five and postpartum in 26 women. Histology revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 36 women, adenocarcinoma in eight, and adenosquamous carcinoma in three. Twenty women underwent cesarean section due to diagnosed or clinically suspected cancer, combined with the Wertheim-Meigs radical hysterectomy in six women. Sixteen women with stage IA1 cancer without signs of vascular invasion underwent conization as definitive therapy. Six women died of the disease.
CONCLUSION: Early detection of cervical cytological atypia and proper follow-up during pregnancy led to detection of a high proportion of stage I cancer cases, which could be cured with fertility-sparing therapy.

Dillner J
Prevention of human papillomavirus-associated cancers.
Semin Oncol. 2015; 42(2):272-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
The oncogenic, anogenital types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are established as causing about 4.8% of all human cancers worldwide, particularly cervical, anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers. Quantitative knowledge of the HPV type-specific risks for these cancers, as well as for the different cervical cancer precursors (cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, CINs), is useful for estimating the effect of elimination of specific HPV types and clinical benefits of screening for specific HPV types. The present review summarizes both the worldwide presence of specific HPV types in cervical cancer precursors and in invasive cervical cancers, and also the long-term follow-up data from a large randomized clinical trial of HPV-based cervical cancer screening. All 12 HPV types classified as class I (established) carcinogens (HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59) were more common in cervical cancers than among women without cervical lesions. A few rare HPV types also were more common in cervical cancers (eg, HPV26, 67, 68, 69, 73, 82). The follow-up studies found increased long-term risks particularly for HPV types 16, 18, 31, and 33, which had 14-year cumulative incidences for CIN3+above 28%, while HPV35, 45, 52, and 58 had 14-year risks between 14%-18% and HPV39, 51, 56, 59, 66, and 68 had risks<10%. HPV16 contributed to the greatest proportion of CIN2+(first-round population attributable proportion [PAR] 36%), followed by types 31, 52, 45, and 58 (7%-11%). HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 together contributed 73.9% of CIN2+lesions and all high-risk types contributed 86.9%.In summary, the different oncogenic HPV types have substantial differences in their oncogenic potential. These differences are relevant for the design and evaluation of cervical screening tests and programs, as well as for studying the effect of vaccination programs using different HPV vaccines.

Eidemüller M, Holmberg E, Jacob P, et al.
Breast cancer risk and possible mechanisms of radiation-induced genomic instability in the Swedish hemangioma cohort after reanalyzed dosimetry.
Mutat Res. 2015; 775:1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cohort of 17,200 female Swedish hemangioma patients, who had been exposed to ionizing radiation because of skin hemangioma, was analyzed for breast cancer incidence with descriptive excess relative risk models and mechanistic models of carcinogenesis. The dosimetry system has recently been updated, leading to substantially reduced doses for the most highly exposed part of the Stockholm cohort. The follow-up includes persons until December 2009 with 877 breast cancer cases. All models agree on the risk estimates. The excess relative and excess absolute risk at the age of 50 years are 0.48 Gy(-1) (95% CI 0.28; 0.69) and 10.4 (10(4)PYR Gy)(-1) (95% CI 6.1; 14.4) (95% CI 6.1; 14.4), respectively. These risk estimates are about a factor of 2 higher than previous analyses of this cohort as a consequence of the re-evaluation of the dosimetry system. Explicit models incorporating effects of genomic instability were developed and applied to the hemangioma cohort. It was found that a radiation-induced transition towards genomic instability was highly significant. The models indicate that the main effect of radiation-induced genomic instability is to increase the rate of transition of non-initiated cells to initiated cells with a proliferative advantage. The magnitude of such an acceleration cannot be inferred from epidemiological data alone, but must be complemented by radiobiological measurements.

Rodrigues G, Oberije C, Senan S, et al.
Is intermediate radiation dose escalation with concurrent chemotherapy for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer beneficial? A multi-institutional propensity score matched analysis.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 91(1):133-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The clinical benefits and risks of dose escalation (DE) for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain uncertain despite the results from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0617. There is significant heterogeneity of practice, with many clinicians prescribing intermediate dose levels between the 0617 study arms of 60 and 74 Gy. This study investigated whether this strategy is associated with any survival benefits/risks by analyzing a large multi-institutional database.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: An individual patient database of stage III NSCLC patients treated with radical intent concurrent chemoradiation therapy was created (13 institutions, n=1274 patients). Patients were divided into 2 groups based on tumor Biological Effective Dose at 10 Gy (BED 10): those receiving standard dose (SD; n=552), consisting of 72Gy ≤ BED 10 ≤ 76.8 Gy (eg 60-64 Gy/30-32 fractions [fr]), and those receiving intermediate dose (ID; n=497), consisting of 76.8Gy < BED 10 < 100.8 Gy (eg >64 Gy/32 fr and <74 Gy/37 fr), with lower-dose patients (n=225) excluded from consideration. Patients were then matched using propensity scores, leading to 2 matched groups of 196 patients. Outcomes were compared using various statistics including interquartile range (IQR), Kaplan-Meier curves, and adjusted Cox regression analysis.
RESULTS: Matched groups were found to be balanced except for N stage (more N3 disease in SD), median treatment year (SD in 2003; ID in 2007), platinum and taxane chemotherapy (SD in 28%; ID in 39%), and median follow-up (SD were 89 months; ID were 40 months). Median dose fractionation was 60 Gy/30 fr in SD (BED 10 IQR: 72.0-75.5 Gy) and 66 Gy/33 fr (BED 10 IQR: 78.6-79.2 Gy) in ID. Survival curves for SD and ID matched cohorts were statistically similar (P=.27); however, a nonstatistically significant trend toward better survival for ID was observed after 15 months (median survival SD: 19.3 months; ID: 21.0 months). There was an increase in grades III to V lung toxicity associated with ID (13.0% vs 4.9%, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: No significant overall survival benefits were found with intermediate DE; however, more grade III or greater lung toxicity was observed. The separation of survival curves after 15 months of follow-up suggests that a small overall survival improvement associated with intermediate DE cannot be excluded.

Fager M, Toma-Dasu I, Kirk M, et al.
Linear energy transfer painting with proton therapy: a means of reducing radiation doses with equivalent clinical effectiveness.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 91(5):1057-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to propose a proton treatment planning method that trades physical dose (D) for dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LETd) while keeping the radiobiologically weighted dose (DRBE) to the target the same.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: The target is painted with LETd by using 2, 4, and 7 fields aimed at the proximal segment of the target (split target planning [STP]). As the LETd within the target increases with increasing number of fields, D decreases to maintain the DRBE the same as the conventional treatment planning method by using beams treating the full target (full target planning [FTP]).
RESULTS: The LETd increased 61% for 2-field STP (2STP) compared to FTP, 72% for 4STP, and 82% for 7STP inside the target. This increase in LETd led to a decrease of D with 5.3 ± 0.6 Gy for 2STP, 4.4 ± 0.7 Gy for 4STP, and 5.3 ± 1.1 Gy for 7STP, keeping the Drbe at 90% of the volume (Drbe, 90) constant to FTP.
CONCLUSIONS: LETd painting offers a method to reduce prescribed dose at no cost to the biological effectiveness of the treatment.

Bonjer HJ, Deijen CL, Abis GA, et al.
A randomized trial of laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2015; 372(14):1324-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer is widely used. However, robust evidence to conclude that laparoscopic surgery and open surgery have similar outcomes in rectal cancer is lacking. A trial was designed to compare 3-year rates of cancer recurrence in the pelvic or perineal area (locoregional recurrence) and survival after laparoscopic and open resection of rectal cancer.
METHODS: In this international trial conducted in 30 hospitals, we randomly assigned patients with a solitary adenocarcinoma of the rectum within 15 cm of the anal verge, not invading adjacent tissues, and without distant metastases to undergo either laparoscopic or open surgery in a 2:1 ratio. The primary end point was locoregional recurrence 3 years after the index surgery. Secondary end points included disease-free and overall survival.
RESULTS: A total of 1044 patients were included (699 in the laparoscopic-surgery group and 345 in the open-surgery group). At 3 years, the locoregional recurrence rate was 5.0% in the two groups (difference, 0 percentage points; 90% confidence interval [CI], -2.6 to 2.6). Disease-free survival rates were 74.8% in the laparoscopic-surgery group and 70.8% in the open-surgery group (difference, 4.0 percentage points; 95% CI, -1.9 to 9.9). Overall survival rates were 86.7% in the laparoscopic-surgery group and 83.6% in the open-surgery group (difference, 3.1 percentage points; 95% CI, -1.6 to 7.8).
CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic surgery in patients with rectal cancer was associated with rates of locoregional recurrence and disease-free and overall survival similar to those for open surgery. (Funded by Ethicon Endo-Surgery Europe and others; COLOR II ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00297791.).

Mertz TM, Sharma S, Chabes A, Shcherbakova PV
Colon cancer-associated mutator DNA polymerase δ variant causes expansion of dNTP pools increasing its own infidelity.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(19):E2467-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/11/2015 Related Publications
Defects in DNA polymerases δ (Polδ) and ε (Polε) cause hereditary colorectal cancer and have been implicated in the etiology of some sporadic colorectal and endometrial tumors. We previously reported that the yeast pol3-R696W allele mimicking a human cancer-associated variant, POLD1-R689W, causes a catastrophic increase in spontaneous mutagenesis. Here, we describe the mechanism of this extraordinary mutator effect. We found that the mutation rate increased synergistically when the R696W mutation was combined with defects in Polδ proofreading or mismatch repair, indicating that pathways correcting DNA replication errors are not compromised in pol3-R696W mutants. DNA synthesis by purified Polδ-R696W was error-prone, but not to the extent that could account for the unprecedented mutator phenotype of pol3-R696W strains. In a search for cellular factors that augment the mutagenic potential of Polδ-R696W, we discovered that pol3-R696W causes S-phase checkpoint-dependent elevation of dNTP pools. Abrogating this elevation by strategic mutations in dNTP metabolism genes eliminated the mutator effect of pol3-R696W, whereas restoration of high intracellular dNTP levels restored the mutator phenotype. Further, the use of dNTP concentrations present in pol3-R696W cells for in vitro DNA synthesis greatly decreased the fidelity of Polδ-R696W and produced a mutation spectrum strikingly similar to the spectrum observed in vivo. The results support a model in which (i) faulty synthesis by Polδ-R696W leads to a checkpoint-dependent increase in dNTP levels and (ii) this increase mediates the hypermutator effect of Polδ-R696W by facilitating the extension of mismatched primer termini it creates and by promoting further errors that continue to fuel the mutagenic pathway.

Wood SL, Pernemalm M, Crosbie PA, Whetton AD
Molecular histology of lung cancer: from targets to treatments.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2015; 41(4):361-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide with a 5-year survival rate of less than 15%, despite significant advances in both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Combined genomic and transcriptomic sequencing studies have identified numerous genetic driver mutations that are responsible for the development of lung cancer. In addition, molecular profiling studies identify gene products and their mutations which predict tumour responses to targeted therapies such as protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors and also can offer explanation for drug resistance mechanisms. The profiling of circulating micro-RNAs has also provided an ability to discriminate patients in terms of prognosis/diagnosis and high-throughput DNA sequencing strategies are beginning to elucidate cell signalling pathway mutations associated with oncogenesis, including potential stem cell associated pathways, offering the promise that future therapies may target this sub-population, preventing disease relapse post treatment and improving patient survival. This review provides an assessment of molecular profiling within lung cancer concerning molecular mechanisms, treatment options and disease-progression. Current areas of development within lung cancer profiling are discussed (i.e. profiling of circulating tumour cells) and future challenges for lung cancer treatment addressed such as detection of micro-metastases and cancer stem cells.

Gunnarsson N, Stenke L, Höglund M, et al.
Second malignancies following treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor era.
Br J Haematol. 2015; 169(5):683-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Given that tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have dramatically improved the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), we were interested in examining the possible risk of long-term adverse events, such as the emergence of other neoplasms. Therefore, we studied the development of second malignancies in 868 patients diagnosed with CML between 2002 and 2011 using the Swedish CML register, cross-linked to the Swedish Cancer register. With a median follow-up of 3·7 (range 0-9·9) years, 65 (7·5%) patients developed 75 second malignancies (non-haematological), 52 of which were of the invasive type. Compared to expected rates in the background population, the risk of second malignancies was higher in the CML cohort, with a standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 1·52 (95% CI 1·13-1·99). The SIR before and after the second year following diagnosis of CML was 1·58 and 1·47, respectively. Among specific cancer types, gastrointestinal and nose and throat cancer were significantly increased. Founded on a population-based material, our results indicate that CML patients treated in the TKI era are at an increased risk of developing a second malignancy, with indications that this risk may more likely be linked to CML itself rather than to the TKI treatment.

Elfström KM, Arnheim-Dahlström L, von Karsa L, Dillner J
Cervical cancer screening in Europe: Quality assurance and organisation of programmes.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(8):950-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cervical screening programmes have reduced cervical cancer incidence and mortality but the level of success is highly variable between countries. Organisation of programmes is essential for equity and cost-effectiveness. However, there are differences in effectiveness, also among organised programmes. In order to identify the key organisational components that determine effectiveness, we performed a Europe-wide survey on the current status of organisation and organised quality assurance (QA) measures in cervical cancer prevention programmes, as well as organisation-associated costs.
METHODS: A comprehensive questionnaire was developed through systematic review of literature and existing guidelines. The survey was sent to programme organisers, Ministries of Health and experts in 34 European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Agreement (EFTA) countries. Detailed aspects of programme organisation, quality assurance, monitoring, evaluation and corresponding line-item costs were recorded. Documentation of programme guidelines, protocols and publications was requested.
RESULTS: Twenty-nine of 34 countries responded. The results showed that organised efforts for QA, monitoring and evaluation were carried out to a differing extent and were not standardised, making it difficult to compare the cost-effectiveness of organisation and QA strategies. Most countries found it hard to estimate the costs associated with launching and operating the organised programme.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first questionnaire to request detailed information on the actual organisation and QA of programmes. The results of this survey can be used as a basis for further development of standardised guidelines on organisation and QA of cervical cancer screening programmes in Europe.

Höglund M, Sandin F, Simonsson B
Epidemiology of chronic myeloid leukaemia: an update.
Ann Hematol. 2015; 94 Suppl 2:S241-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
National and regional population-based registries are, provided diagnostic accuracy and full coverage of the target population, indispensible tools for epidemiological research. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) registries with more comprehensive reporting may also provide complementary data on treatment outcome to those obtained from clinical trials. Reports from several European CML registries consistently show a crude annual incidence of 0.7-1.0/100,000, a median age at diagnosis of 57-60 years and a male/female ratio of 1.2-1.7. The incidence of CML has been stable over time. Worldwide, variations in the reported incidence of CML may be due to methodological issues, but a true difference between different geographical areas and/or ethnical subgroups cannot be excluded. The prevalence of CML is not well known but has been estimated to be 10-12/100,000 inhabitants with a steady increase due to the dramatic improvement in survival of these patients. In recent population-based studies, CML patients have an overall survival that is comparable to that shown in large clinical trials, though relative survival in patients >70 years is still decreased. The importance of socio-economic factors and health-care setting for outcome and the possible increased risk of secondary cancer in CML are areas of ongoing research.

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