Gene Summary

Gene:PDCD10; programmed cell death 10
Aliases: CCM3, TFAR15
Summary:This gene encodes an evolutionarily conserved protein associated with cell apoptosis. The protein interacts with the serine/threonine protein kinase MST4 to modulate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. It also interacts with and is phosphoryated by serine/threonine kinase 25, and is thought to function in a signaling pathway essential for vascular developent. Mutations in this gene are one cause of cerebral cavernous malformations, which are vascular malformations that cause seizures and cerebral hemorrhages. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:programmed cell death protein 10
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (11)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Skin Abnormalities
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Risk Factors
  • Ventriculostomy
  • Brain Tumours
  • Risk Assessment
  • Exons
  • Messenger RNA
  • Pedigree
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • RNA Splice Sites
  • Genotype
  • Brain Tumours
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Italy
  • Spain
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Genetic Testing
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System
  • Adolescents
  • Brain
  • KRIT1 Protein
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Endothelial Cells
  • Chromosome 3
  • Membrane Proteins
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Transcription Factors
  • Skin Cancer
  • MicroRNAs
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Cell Line
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • PDCD10
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Retinal Neoplasms
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Brain and CNS Tumours
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PDCD10 (cancer-related)

Malinverno M, Maderna C, Abu Taha A, et al.
Endothelial cell clonal expansion in the development of cerebral cavernous malformations.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2761 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a neurovascular familial or sporadic disease that is characterised by capillary-venous cavernomas, and is due to loss-of-function mutations to any one of three CCM genes. Familial CCM follows a two-hit mechanism similar to that of tumour suppressor genes, while in sporadic cavernomas only a small fraction of endothelial cells shows mutated CCM genes. We reported that in mouse models and in human patients, endothelial cells lining the lesions have different features from the surrounding endothelium, as they express mesenchymal/stem-cell markers. Here we show that cavernomas originate from clonal expansion of few Ccm3-null endothelial cells that express mesenchymal/stem-cell markers. These cells then attract surrounding wild-type endothelial cells, inducing them to express mesenchymal/stem-cell markers and to contribute to cavernoma growth. These characteristics of Ccm3-null cells are reminiscent of the tumour-initiating cells that are responsible for tumour growth. Our data support the concept that CCM has benign tumour characteristics.

Du Q, Shi Z, Chen H, et al.
Two Novel CCM2 Heterozygous Mutations Associated with Cerebral Cavernous Malformation in a Chinese Family.
J Mol Neurosci. 2019; 67(3):467-471 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a congenital vascular anomaly that predominantly involves the central nervous system (CNS). CCM occurs in either a sporadic or an inherited form; the latter is called familial cerebral cavernous malformation (FCCM). FCCM has an autosomal dominant transmission with incomplete penetrance and variable clinical expression that is associated with germline mutations in the CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2/MGC4607, and CCM3/PDCD10 genes. Herein, we disclose two novel heterozygous mutations in the CCM2 gene in a Chinese family: a deletion mutation (c.55C>T; p. R19X, 426) in exon 2 and a mutation (c.*18G>A) in the noncoding region of exon 10. Our findings provide new CCM2 gene mutation profiles and further evidence for phenotypic heterogeneity.

Lopez-Ramirez MA, Pham A, Girard R, et al.
Cerebral cavernous malformations form an anticoagulant vascular domain in humans and mice.
Blood. 2019; 133(3):193-204 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/01/2020 Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common brain vascular dysplasias that are prone to acute and chronic hemorrhage with significant clinical sequelae. The pathogenesis of recurrent bleeding in CCM is incompletely understood. Here, we show that central nervous system hemorrhage in CCMs is associated with locally elevated expression of the anticoagulant endothelial receptors thrombomodulin (TM) and endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR). TM levels are increased in human CCM lesions, as well as in the plasma of patients with CCMs. In mice, endothelial-specific genetic inactivation of

Tan P, Ye Y, He L, et al.
TRIM59 promotes breast cancer motility by suppressing p62-selective autophagic degradation of PDCD10.
PLoS Biol. 2018; 16(11):e3000051 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/01/2020 Related Publications
Cancer cells adopt various modes of migration during metastasis. How the ubiquitination machinery contributes to cancer cell motility remains underexplored. Here, we report that tripartite motif (TRIM) 59 is frequently up-regulated in metastatic breast cancer, which is correlated with advanced clinical stages and reduced survival among breast cancer patients. TRIM59 knockdown (KD) promoted apoptosis and inhibited tumor growth, while TRIM59 overexpression led to the opposite effects. Importantly, we uncovered TRIM59 as a key regulator of cell contractility and adhesion to control the plasticity of metastatic tumor cells. At the molecular level, we identified programmed cell death protein 10 (PDCD10) as a target of TRIM59. TRIM59 stabilized PDCD10 by suppressing RING finger and transmembrane domain-containing protein 1 (RNFT1)-induced lysine 63 (K63) ubiquitination and subsequent phosphotyrosine-independent ligand for the Lck SH2 domain of 62 kDa (p62)-selective autophagic degradation. TRIM59 promoted PDCD10-mediated suppression of Ras homolog family member A (RhoA)-Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) 1 signaling to control the transition between amoeboid and mesenchymal invasiveness. PDCD10 overexpression or administration of a ROCK inhibitor reversed TRIM59 loss-induced contractile phenotypes, thereby accelerating cell migration, invasion, and tumor formation. These findings establish the rationale for targeting deregulated TRIM59/PDCD10 to treat breast cancer.

Tinsa F, Bel Hadj I, Riant F, et al.
A novel large deletion in CCM1 gene in a Tunisian family.
Rev Neurol (Paris). 2019; 175(3):194-197 [PubMed] Related Publications
Familial CCM is a rare entity associated with the mutation of three genes: CCM1 (KRIT1), CCM2 (MGC4607), and CCM3 (PDCD10). We report here the first description of a Tunisian familial CCMs composed of six members. The father and two daughters were affected and symptomatic. The two other kindred were healthy. Surgical treatment was performed in only one affected patient. Molecular analysis of KRIT1, MGC4607 and PDCD10 genes identified a large KRIT1 deletion of the first ten exons. To the best of our knowledge, this large deletion has never been reported before.

Wu K, Mu XY, Jiang JT, et al.
miRNA‑26a‑5p and miR‑26b‑5p inhibit the proliferation of bladder cancer cells by regulating PDCD10.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(6):3523-3532 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA (miR)‑26a‑5p and miR‑26b‑5p consistently play an antitumor role in many types of cancers, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear in bladder cancer (BC). In the present study, we found that, in BC tissues, the levels of miR‑26a‑5p and miR‑26b‑5p were lower than in paired normal tissues. The upregulation of miR‑26‑5p significantly inhibited the proliferation of BC cell lines (T24 and 5637). Bioinformatics analysis indicated that Programmed Cell Death 10 (PDCD10) was the downstream target gene of miR‑26a‑5p/miR‑26b‑5p, and this was ascertained by western blotting and quantitative real‑time reverse transcription PCR (RT‑qPCR). In addition, in the 3'‑UTR of PDCD10, the binding site was identified using a luciferase reporter assay. We determined that clinical BC tissues presented higher PDCD10 levels than adjacent normal tissues and that PDCD10 promoted proliferation of BC cell lines. Overexpression of miR‑26a‑5p/miR‑26b‑5p inhibited the stimulatory effect on proliferation of BC cells induced by PDCD10. In addition, in vivo experiments and clinical data revealed that the prognosis of BC patients with high expression of miR‑26a‑5p/miR‑26b‑5p and low expression of PDCD10 was better than that of patients with low miR‑26‑5p and high PDCD10 expression. These data revealed that miR‑26a‑5p and miR‑26b‑5p were pivotal regulators in BC progression by targeting the proliferation‑related protein, PDCD10. The miR‑26‑5p/PDCD10 interaction may provide important insight into the pathway of BC progression and present novel opportunities for future diagnosis and treatment strategies, especially for patients with high levels of PDCD10.

Otten C, Knox J, Boulday G, et al.
Systematic pharmacological screens uncover novel pathways involved in cerebral cavernous malformations.
EMBO Mol Med. 2018; 10(10) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/01/2020 Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular lesions in the central nervous system causing strokes and seizures which currently can only be treated through neurosurgery. The disease arises through changes in the regulatory networks of endothelial cells that must be comprehensively understood to develop alternative, non-invasive pharmacological therapies. Here, we present the results of several unbiased small-molecule suppression screens in which we applied a total of 5,268 unique substances to

Zeineddine HA, Girard R, Saadat L, et al.
Phenotypic characterization of murine models of cerebral cavernous malformations.
Lab Invest. 2019; 99(3):319-330 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/01/2020 Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are clusters of dilated capillaries that affect around 0.5% of the population. CCMs exist in two forms, sporadic and familial. Mutations in three documented genes, KRIT1(CCM1), CCM2, and PDCD10(CCM3), cause the autosomal dominant form of the disease, and somatic mutations in these same genes underlie lesion development in the brain. Murine models with constitutive or induced loss of respective genes have been applied to study disease pathobiology and therapeutic manipulations. We aimed to analyze the phenotypic characteristic of two main groups of models, the chronic heterozygous models with sensitizers promoting genetic instability, and the acute neonatal induced homozygous knockout model. Acute model mice harbored a higher lesion burden than chronic models, more localized in the hindbrain, and largely lacking iron deposition and inflammatory cell infiltrate. The chronic model mice showed a lower lesion burden localized throughout the brain, with significantly greater perilesional iron deposition, immune B- and T-cell infiltration, and less frequent junctional protein immunopositive endothelial cells. Lesional endothelial cells in both models expressed similar phosphorylated myosin light chain immunopositivity indicating Rho-associated protein kinase activity. These data suggest that acute models are better suited to study the initial formation of the lesion, while the chronic models better reflect lesion maturation, hemorrhage, and inflammatory response, relevant pathobiologic features of the human disease.

Yang C, Wu B, Zhong H, et al.
A novel CCM1/KRIT1 heterozygous deletion mutation (c.1919delT) in a Chinese family with familial cerebral cavernous malformation.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2018; 164:44-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a relatively rare congenital vascular anomaly in the central venous system. Its inherited form, familial cerebral cavernous malformation (FCCM), is an autosomal-dominant disease with incomplete penetrance. The pathogenic genes of FCCM have been mapped into three loci: CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2/MGC4607, and CCM3/PDCD10. Till now, the genetic basis of FCCM in the Chinese population has yet to be well understood. Herein, we investigated the genetic mutation in a Chinese family with FCCM.
CASE REPORT: The proband is a 29-year-old female presenting with a 1-month history of headache. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple intracranial lesions, the largest one showing a popcorn-like appearance. After a 4-year conservative observation, there was no significant clinical or radiological progression. Family investigation found five of her relatives had multiple CCM lesions. DNA sequencing analysis in the proband disclosed a novel heterozygous deletion mutation (c.1919delT; p.Phe640SerfsX21) in exon 17 of the CCM1/KRIT1 gene. This mutation leads to a frameshift and is predicted to cause a premature termination codon to generate a truncated Krev interaction trapped-1 (Krit1) protein of 659 amino acids. The mutation segregated with the disease in the family.
CONCLUSION: The current study identified a novel CCM1/KRIT1 heterozygous deletion mutation (c.1919delT) associated with FCCM. Our findings expand the CCM gene mutation profiles in the Chinese population, which will be beneficial for genetic counseling.

Rosário Marques I, Antunes F, Ferreira N, Grunho M
Familial cerebral cavernous malformation: Report of a novel KRIT1 mutation in a Portuguese family.
Seizure. 2017; 53:72-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular malformations which may occur in familial forms which have autosomal dominant inheritance. Mutations have been identified in three genes: KRIT1, MGC4607 and PDCD10. We have documented a novel mutation on KRIT1 gene, and the second to be reported in a Portuguese family. This mutation consists in a two nucleotide insertion (c.947_948insAC) within the exon 10, resulting in premature protein termination (p.Leu317Argfs*2). These findings will hopefully contribute to a better clinical, imaging and genetic characterisation of this disease, particularly while trying to identify the factors that influence its treatment and prognosis.

Flemming KD
Clinical Management of Cavernous Malformations.
Curr Cardiol Rep. 2017; 19(12):122 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to review the current epidemiology and clinical management of patients with cavernous malformations (CM).
RECENT FINDINGS: Hemorrhage is the most feared complication and leads to morbidity in patients with CM. Multiple studies including three meta-analyses have provided useful estimates of hemorrhage risk, but have failed to identify a modifiable risk factor for prevention of cavernous malformation related hemorrhage. In treating the CM itself, surgical risk is weighed against the natural history. However, accumulating knowledge regarding the roles of CCM 1, 2, and 3 genes has led to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets. The risk of future hemorrhage in patients with CM is highest in those who have had previously clinical hemorrhages. Estimated risks are helpful in counseling patients and comparing to the risk of surgery. Future clinical trials of candidate medications are likely to target those patients with prior clinical hemorrhage in whom the surgical risk is deemed high.

Choi JP, Yang X, Foley M, et al.
Induction and Micro-CT Imaging of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations in Mouse Model.
J Vis Exp. 2017; (127) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/09/2019 Related Publications
Mutations in the CCM1 (aka KRIT1), CCM2, or CCM3 (aka PDCD10) gene cause cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) in humans. Mouse models of CCM disease have been established by tamoxifen induced deletion of Ccm genes in postnatal animals. These mouse models provide invaluable tools to investigate molecular mechanism and therapeutic approaches for CCM disease. An accurate and quantitative method to assess lesion burden and progression is essential to harness the full value of these animal models. Here, we demonstrate the induction of CCM disease in a mouse model and the use of the contrast enhanced X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT) method to measure CCM lesion burden in mouse brains. At postnatal day 1 (P1), we used 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4HT) to activate Cre recombinase activity from the Cdh5-CreErt2 transgene to cleave the floxed allele of Ccm2. CCM lesions in mouse brains were analyzed at P8. For micro-CT, iodine based Lugol's solution was used to enhance contrast in brain tissue. We have optimized the scan parameters and utilized a voxel dimension of 9.5 µm, which lead to a minimum feature size of approximately 25 µm. This resolution is sufficient to measure CCM lesion volume and number globally and accurately, and provide high-quality 3-D mapping of CCM lesions in mouse brains. This method enhances the value of the established mouse models to study the molecular basis and potential therapies for CCM and other cerebrovascular diseases.

Rinaldi C, Bramanti P, Scimone C, et al.
Relevance of CCM gene polymorphisms for clinical management of sporadic cerebral cavernous malformations.
J Neurol Sci. 2017; 380:31-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are clusters of capillaries in the brain that may cause focal deficits or seizures in affected patients. They occur in both sporadic and inherited autosomal dominant form. Germline mutations in CCM1, CCM2 and CCM3 were identified in familial cases. Over the past 13years we performed sequencing and MLPA of the CCM genes in all sporadic and familial CCM cases coming from some hospital clinics of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Messina and other Italian cities. Our results showed that CCM sporadic patients, negative for previously reported CCM gene causative mutations, always carried known CCM polymorphisms. Previously, we reported polymorphisms in CCM2 gene associated with an increase in risk for CCM. Here, we undertook a case-control study to investigate the possible association of others polymorphisms (c.485+65 C/G, c.989+63 C/G, c.1980 A/G in CCM1 gene, c.472+127 C/T in CCM2 and c.150 G/A in CCM3) with CCMs. The five polymorphisms were characterized in 64 sporadic patients and in 90 healthy controls by ASO-PCR. Statistically significant differences in frequencies between patients and controls were found for c.485+65C/G, c.1980 A/G and c.472+127C/T polymorphisms. For c.485+65C/G polymorphism, a higher frequency of mutated allele (G) was found in patients group (9%) than in controls (2%) (p=0.0041); for c.1980 A/G polymorphism, we found a frequency of mutated allele (G) higher in the control group (25%) compared to that of patients (8%) (p=0.0396). Same trend was observed for c.472+127C/T polymorphism (T allele frequency=34% and 6% in control group and patients, respectively; p=0.0001). Polymorphisms c.485+65C/G, c.1980 A/G and c.472+127C/T were associated with an increased risk of CCM as indicated by odds ratio values. Furthermore, c.1980 A/G and c.472+127C/T polymorphisms were associated with less severe CCM symptomatology. Identification of these polymorphisms in CCM sporadic patient may represent a useful tool for clinicians to determine prognosis, scheduled periodic checks and appropriate treatment strategy.

Yang D, Wang JJ, Li JS, Xu QY
miR-103 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor by Directly Targeting Programmed Cell Death 10 in NSCLC.
Oncol Res. 2018; 26(4):519-528 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 85% of all lung cancer cases. Absence of miR-103 has recently been identified to be associated with metastatic capacity of primary lung tumors. However, the exact role of miR-103 in NSCLC and the molecular mechanism are unclear. In the present study, we showed that miR-103 expression was reduced in NSCLC tissues and cells. miR-103 expression was negatively correlated with tumor size and stage. The overall survival was longer in patients with higher miR-103 level than in those with lower miR-103 expression. miR-103 inhibited cell proliferation in A549 cells, decreased tumor weight and volume, and prolonged survival of tumor-implanted nude mice. miR-103 increased apoptotic cell death in A549 cells. Furthermore, miR-103 decreased the invasion and migration abilities in A549 cells, as evidenced by Transwell and wound healing results. Downregulation of miR-103 significantly reduced the level of programmed cell death 10 (PDCD10). We found a significant decrease in the relative luciferase activity of the reporter gene in A549 cells cotransfected with the miR-103 mimic and pGL3-PDCD10 WT 3'-UTR, but not pGL3-PDCD10 mut 3'-UTR. We showed that overexpression of PDCD10 significantly inhibited miR-103-induced inhibition of cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and decreased invasion and migration in A549 cells. Moreover, we found that PDCD10 expression was increased in NSCLC tissues and cells. PDCD10 expression was positively correlated with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of PDCD10 increased cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in A549 cells. The data demonstrated that dysregulation of the miR-103/PDCD10 signal may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of NSCLC.

Rath M, Jenssen SE, Schwefel K, et al.
High-throughput sequencing of the entire genomic regions of CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2 and CCM3/PDCD10 to search for pathogenic deep-intronic splice mutations in cerebral cavernous malformations.
Eur J Med Genet. 2017; 60(9):479-484 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular lesions of the central nervous system that can cause headaches, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Disease-associated mutations have been identified in three genes: CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2 and CCM3/PDCD10. The precise proportion of deep-intronic variants in these genes and their clinical relevance is yet unknown. Here, a long-range PCR (LR-PCR) approach for target enrichment of the entire genomic regions of the three genes was combined with next generation sequencing (NGS) to screen for coding and non-coding variants. NGS detected all six CCM1/KRIT1, two CCM2 and four CCM3/PDCD10 mutations that had previously been identified by Sanger sequencing. Two of the pathogenic variants presented here are novel. Additionally, 20 stringently selected CCM index cases that had remained mutation-negative after conventional sequencing and exclusion of copy number variations were screened for deep-intronic mutations. The combination of bioinformatics filtering and transcript analyses did not reveal any deep-intronic splice mutations in these cases. Our results demonstrate that target enrichment by LR-PCR combined with NGS can be used for a comprehensive analysis of the entire genomic regions of the CCM genes in a research context. However, its clinical utility is limited as deep-intronic splice mutations in CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2 and CCM3/PDCD10 seem to be rather rare.

Belousova OB, Okishev DN, Ignatova TM, et al.
Hereditary Multiple Cerebral Cavernous Malformations Associated with Wilson Disease and Multiple Lipomatosis.
World Neurosurg. 2017; 105:1034.e1-1034.e6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report on a patient with 2 Mendelian diseases-symptomatic multiple familial cerebral cavernous malformations (FCCMs) and Wilson disease. Genetic analysis revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes CCM2 and CCM3, associated with cavernous malformations, and homozygote mutation in the ATP7B gene, responsible for Wilson disease. FCCMs were symptomatic in 3 generations. The patient also had multiple lipomatosis, which is suggested to be a familial syndrome. In recent years there has been an increasing amount of publications linking FCCMs with other pathology, predominantly with extracranial and intracranial mesenchymal anomalies. The present study is the description of an unusual association between 2 independent hereditary diseases of confirmed genetic origin-a combination that has not been described previously.

Cox EM, Bambakidis NC, Cohen ML
Pathology of cavernous malformations.
Handb Clin Neurol. 2017; 143:267-277 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cavernous malformations (CMs) are low-pressure angiographically occult lesions, composed of blood-filled sinusoidal locules known as "caverns." Although these lesions were once believed to be congenital in nature, there is compelling evidence to support de novo formation of CMs as well. They can occur as sporadic lesions or be inherited in an autosomal-dominant phenotype in familial forms of the disease. The pathophysiology of CMs is commonly believed to be due to abnormal vascular pathology. Three genes, CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3, have been extensively studied for their role in vascular pathology, resulting in abnormal angiogenesis and compromising the structural integrity of vessel endothelial cell. The expression of growth factors has been researched to gain insight into the dynamic behavior of CM lesions. Gross and microscopic images are utilized in this chapter to illustrate the pathologic findings of these lesions. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrates the aberrations in CM endothelial cells and structural integrity that may provide better understanding into how and why these lesions have a propensity to hemorrhage.

Yang C, Nicholas VH, Zhao J, et al.
A Novel CCM1/KRIT1 Heterozygous Nonsense Mutation (c.1864C>T) Associated with Familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformation: a Genetic Insight from an 8-Year Continuous Observational Study.
J Mol Neurosci. 2017; 61(4):511-523 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a congenital vascular abnormality that predominantly affects the central nervous system, but that sometimes encroaches other vital tissues, including the retina, skin, and even liver. The familial form of CCM (FCCM) is considered to be an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance and variable expression, which is often attributed to mutations in three genes: CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3. We screened a Chinese family diagnosed with FCCM by using Sanger sequencing. A 29-year-old male proband with cutaneous angiomas was pathologically diagnosed but presented with an atypical form of CCM as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, prompting further clinical evaluation and genetic analyses of him and his immediate family. We performed continuous observation over an 8-year period using MRI gradient echo imaging and susceptibility-weighted imaging of these individuals. Sanger sequencing of the CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3 genes identified a novel heterozygous nonsense nucleotide transition (c.1864C>T; p.Gln622X) in exon 17 of the CCM1/KRIT1 gene; this mutation was predicted to cause a premature stop codon (TAG) at nucleotides 1864 to 1866 to generate a truncated Krev interaction trapped 1 (Krit1) protein of 621 amino acids. During this long-term observational study, one of the enrolled family members with neurological deficits progressed to a stage indicative of brain surgery. This study provides a new CCM gene mutation profile, which highlights the significance of genetic counseling for individuals suspected of having this condition.

Lampugnani MG, Malinverno M, Dejana E, Rudini N
Endothelial cell disease: emerging knowledge from cerebral cavernous malformations.
Curr Opin Hematol. 2017; 24(3):256-264 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endothelial cells dysfunctions are crucial determinants of several human diseases. We review here the most recent reports on endothelial cell defects in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), particularly focusing on adherens junctions. CCM is a vascular disease that affects specifically the venous microvessels of the central nervous system and which is caused by loss-of-function mutation in any one of the three CCM genes (CCM1, 2 or 3) in endothelial cells. The phenotypic result of these mutations are focal vascular malformations that are permeable and fragile causing neurological symptoms and occasionally haemorrhagic stroke.
RECENT FINDINGS: CCM is still an incurable disease, as no pharmacological treatment is available, besides surgery. The definition of the molecular alterations ensuing loss of function mutation of CCM genes is contributing to orientate the testing of targeted pharmacological tools.Several signalling pathways are altered in the three genotypes in a similar way and concur in the acquisition of mesenchymal markers in endothelial cells. However, also genotype-specific defects are reported, in particular for the CCM1 and CCM3 mutation.
SUMMARY: Besides the specific CCM disease, the characterization of endothelial alterations in CCM has the potentiality to shed light on basic molecular regulations as the acquisition and maintenance of organ and vascular site specificity of endothelial cells.

Kar S, Bali KK, Baisantry A, et al.
Genome-Wide Sequencing Reveals MicroRNAs Downregulated in Cerebral Cavernous Malformations.
J Mol Neurosci. 2017; 61(2):178-188 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular lesions associated with loss-of-function mutations in one of the three genes encoding KRIT1 (CCM1), CCM2, and PDCD10. Recent understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to CCM development is limited. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been demonstrated in vascular pathologies resulting in loss of tight junction proteins, increased vascular permeability and endothelial cell dysfunction. Since the relevance of miRNAs in CCM pathophysiology has not been elucidated, the primary aim of the study was to identify the miRNA-mRNA expression network associated with CCM. Using small RNA sequencing, we identified a total of 764 matured miRNAs expressed in CCM patients compared to the healthy brains. The expression of the selected miRNAs was validated by qRT-PCR, and the results were found to be consistent with the sequencing data. Upon application of additional statistical stringency, five miRNAs (let-7b-5p, miR-361-5p, miR-370-3p, miR-181a-2-3p, and miR-95-3p) were prioritized to be top CCM-relevant miRNAs. Further in silico analyses revealed that the prioritized miRNAs have a direct functional relation with mRNAs, such as MIB1, HIF1A, PDCD10, TJP1, OCLN, HES1, MAPK1, VEGFA, EGFL7, NF1, and ENG, which are previously characterized as key regulators of CCM pathology. To date, this is the first study to investigate the role of miRNAs in CCM pathology. By employing cutting edge molecular and in silico analyses on clinical samples, the current study reports global miRNA expression changes in CCM patients and provides a rich source of data set to understand detailed molecular machinery involved in CCM pathophysiology.

Wang H, Pan Y, Zhang Z, et al.
A Novel KRIT1/CCM1 Gene Insertion Mutation Associated with Cerebral Cavernous Malformations in a Chinese Family.
J Mol Neurosci. 2017; 61(2):221-226 [PubMed] Related Publications
Familial cerebral cavernous malformation (FCCM) is a vascular malformation disorder that closely associated with three identified genes: KRIT1/CCM1, MGC4607/CCM2, and PDCD10/CCM3. Here, we present a Chinese family affected by FCCM due to a novel KRIT1/CCM1 insertion mutation. The proband was hospitalized for sudden unconsciousness and underwent surgical treatment. The section of lesions showed classical cavernous-dilated vessels without intervening brain parenchyma, and hemosiderin-laden macrophages were accumulated in the surrounding tissue. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed severe multiple cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) lesions in cerebrum, brainstem, and cerebellum in other affected subjects. Especially, for the proband's mother, hundreds of lesions were presented, and a few lesions were found in the expanded lateral ventricle (Evans' index =0.33). Moreover, she showed the similar symptoms of hydrocephalus, including headache, dizziness, and diplopia. It was extremely rare in previous reports. To date, the genetic alterations leading to FCCM in Chinese population remain largely unknown. We investigated genetic defects of this family. Sequence analyses disclosed a novel heterozygous insertion mutation (c.1896_1897insT; p.Pro633SerfsTer22) in KRIT1/CCM1. Moreover, our real-time PCR results revealed that the mRNA level of KRIT1/CCM1 were significantly decreased in FCCM subjects (CCM family =0.42 ± 0.20 vs. healthy control =1.01 ± 0.16, P = 0.004). It indicated that this mutation could cause KRIT1/CCM1 functional mRNA deficiency. It may be closely related with the pathogenesis of FCCM. Our findings provided a new gene mutation profile which will be of great significance in early diagnosis and appropriate clinical surveillance of FCCM patients.

Scimone C, Bramanti P, Alafaci C, et al.
Update on Novel CCM Gene Mutations in Patients with Cerebral Cavernous Malformations.
J Mol Neurosci. 2017; 61(2):189-198 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are lesions affecting brain microvessels. The pathogenesis is not clearly understood. Conventional classification criterion is based on genetics, and thus, familial and sporadic forms can be distinguished; however, classification of sporadic cases with multiple lesions still remains uncertain. To date, three CCM causative genes have been identified: CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2/MGC4607 and CCM3/PDCD10. In our previous mutation screening, performed in a cohort of 95 Italian patients, with both sporadic and familial cases, we identified several mutations in CCM genes. This study represents further molecular screening in a cohort of 19 Italian patients enrolled by us in the few last years and classified into familial, sporadic and sporadic with multiple lesions cases. Direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis were performed to detect point mutations and large genomic rearrangements, respectively. Effects of detected mutations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were evaluated by an in silico approach and by western blot analysis. A novel nonsense mutation in CCM1 and a novel missense mutation in CCM2 were detected; moreover, several CCM2 gene polymorphisms in sporadic CCM patients were reported. We believe that these data enrich the mutation spectrum of CCM genes, which is useful for genetic counselling to identify both familial and sporadic CCM cases, as early as possible.

de Vos IJ, Vreeburg M, Koek GH, van Steensel MA
Review of familial cerebral cavernous malformations and report of seven additional families.
Am J Med Genet A. 2017; 173(2):338-351 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformations are vascular anomalies of the central nervous system characterized by clusters of enlarged, leaky capillaries. They are caused by loss-of-function mutations in KRIT1, CCM2, or PDCD10. The proteins encoded by these genes are involved in four partially interconnected signaling pathways that control angiogenesis and endothelial permeability. Cerebral cavernous malformations can occur sporadically, or as a familial autosomal dominant disorder (FCCM) with incomplete clinical and neuroradiological penetrance and great inter-individual variability. Although the clinical course is unpredictable, symptoms typically present during adult life and include headaches, focal neurological deficits, seizures, and potentially fatal stroke. In addition to neural lesions, extraneural cavernous malformations have been described in familial disease in several tissues, in particular the skin. We here present seven novel FCCM families with neurologic and cutaneous lesions. We review histopathological and clinical features and provide an update on the pathophysiology of cerebral cavernous malformations and associated cutaneous vascular lesions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Scimone C, Bramanti P, Ruggeri A, et al.
CCM3/SERPINI1 bidirectional promoter variants in patients with cerebral cavernous malformations: a molecular and functional study.
BMC Med Genet. 2016; 17(1):74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular anomalies of the nervous system mostly located in the brain presenting sporadically or familial. Causes of familial forms are mutations in CCM1 (Krit1), CCM2 (MGC4607) and CCM3 (PDCD10) genes. Sporadic forms with no affected relative most often have only one lesion and no germ line mutations. However, a number of sporadic cases with multiple lesions have been reported and are indeed genetic cases with a de novo mutation or a mutation inherited from an asymptomatic parent.
METHODS: Here, we performed an analysis of regulatory region of CCM genes in 60 sporadic patients, negative for mutations in coding region and intron-exon boundaries and large deletion/duplications in CCM genes by direct sequencing and MLPA. Among 5 variants identified in 851-bp region shared by CCM3 and SERPINI1 genes and acting as asymmetric bidirectional promoter, two polymorphisms c.-639 T > C/rs9853967 and c.-591 T > C/rs11714980 were selected. A case-control study was performed to analyze their possible relationships with sporadic CCMs. Promoter haplotypes activities on CCM3/SERPINI1 genes expression were tested by dual-luciferase assay.
RESULTS: No variants were identified in CCM1 and CCM2 regulatory regions. In CCM3/SERPINI1 asymmetric bidirectional promoter 5 variants, 2 of them unknown and 3 corresponding to polymorphisms c.-639 T > C/rs9853967, c.-591 T > C/rs11714980 and c.-359G > A/rs9834676 were detected. While rs9853967 and rs11714980 polymorphisms fall in a critical regulatory fragment outside the minimal promoter in intergenic region, other variants had no effects on transcription factor binding according to RegRNA tool. Case-control study performed on 60 patients and 350 healthy controls showed frequencies of the mutated alleles significantly higher in the control group than in patients. Furthermore, the functional assay showed a significant reduction of CCM3 expression for C-C haplotype even more than for T-C and C-T haplotypes. In SERPINI1 direction, the reduction was not statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicated that rs9853967 and rs11714980 polymorphisms could be associated with a protective role in CCM disease.

Merello E, Pavanello M, Consales A, et al.
Genetic Screening of Pediatric Cavernous Malformations.
J Mol Neurosci. 2016; 60(2):232-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular malformations mostly located within the central nervous system. Heterozygous loss of function mutations in CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2/MGC4607, and CCM3/PDCD10 genes are identified in about 90 % of familial cases of CCMs and two thirds of sporadic cases with multiple lesions. In this study, we performed genetic screening of a cohort of 31 patients, mainly pediatric. We analyzed the CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3 genes by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and direct sequencing of exons and intronic boundaries. A total of 9 typical pathogenic loss-of-function mutations were identified in 10 out 31 patients (32 %). The 75 % of familial cases were mutated and the percentage reached to 85 % when we consider only pediatric cases. Detection rate in sporadic cases with multiple lesions was considerably lower (16 %). We identified a novel variant of CCM3, the c.130-131insT (p.R45Efs*8), in 1 pediatric sporadic case with multiple lesions that introduced a premature termination codon into the messenger RNA (mRNA), most likely leading to mRNA decay. Similar to other CCM pediatric series, the main symptoms associated to clinical debut consisted of cerebral hemorrhage. In conclusion, the penetrance of CCM mutations in familial pediatric cases is high (85 %). The genetic workup could improve clinical and genetic counseling in CCM patients. Moreover, we confirmed the high risk of hemorrhage in children with CCMs.

Jenny Zhou H, Qin L, Zhang H, et al.
Endothelial exocytosis of angiopoietin-2 resulting from CCM3 deficiency contributes to cerebral cavernous malformation.
Nat Med. 2016; 22(9):1033-1042 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/09/2019 Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular malformations that affect the central nervous system and result in cerebral hemorrhage, seizure and stroke. CCMs arise from loss-of-function mutations in one of three genes: KRIT1 (also known as CCM1), CCM2 or PDCD10 (also known as CCM3). PDCD10 mutations in humans often result in a more severe form of the disease relative to mutations in the other two CCM genes, and PDCD10-knockout mice show severe defects, the mechanistic basis for which is unclear. We have recently reported that CCM3 regulates exocytosis mediated by the UNC13 family of exocytic regulatory proteins. Here, in investigating the role of endothelial cell exocytosis in CCM disease progression, we found that CCM3 suppresses UNC13B- and vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP3)-dependent exocytosis of angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) in brain endothelial cells. CCM3 deficiency in endothelial cells augments the exocytosis and secretion of ANGPT2, which is associated with destabilized endothelial cell junctions, enlarged lumen formation and endothelial cell-pericyte dissociation. UNC13B deficiency, which blunts ANGPT2 secretion from endothelial cells, or treatment with an ANGPT2-neutralizing antibody normalizes the defects in the brain and retina caused by endothelial-cell-specific CCM3 deficiency, including the disruption of endothelial cell junctions, vessel dilation and pericyte dissociation. Thus, enhanced secretion of ANGPT2 in endothelial cells contributes to the progression of CCM disease, providing a new therapeutic approach for treating this devastating pathology.

Zhou Z, Tang AT, Wong WY, et al.
Cerebral cavernous malformations arise from endothelial gain of MEKK3-KLF2/4 signalling.
Nature. 2016; 532(7597):122-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/09/2019 Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common inherited and sporadic vascular malformations that cause strokes and seizures in younger individuals. CCMs arise from endothelial cell loss of KRIT1, CCM2 or PDCD10, non-homologous proteins that form an adaptor complex. How disruption of the CCM complex results in disease remains controversial, with numerous signalling pathways (including Rho, SMAD and Wnt/β-catenin) and processes such as endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) proposed to have causal roles. CCM2 binds to MEKK3 (refs 7, 8, 9, 10, 11), and we have recently shown that CCM complex regulation of MEKK3 is essential during vertebrate heart development. Here we investigate this mechanism in CCM disease pathogenesis. Using a neonatal mouse model of CCM disease, we show that expression of the MEKK3 target genes Klf2 and Klf4, as well as Rho and ADAMTS protease activity, are increased in the endothelial cells of early CCM lesions. By contrast, we find no evidence of EndMT or increased SMAD or Wnt signalling during early CCM formation. Endothelial-specific loss of Map3k3 (also known as Mekk3), Klf2 or Klf4 markedly prevents lesion formation, reverses the increase in Rho activity, and rescues lethality. Consistent with these findings in mice, we show that endothelial expression of KLF2 and KLF4 is increased in human familial and sporadic CCM lesions, and that a disease-causing human CCM2 mutation abrogates the MEKK3 interaction without affecting CCM complex formation. These studies identify gain of MEKK3 signalling and KLF2/4 function as causal mechanisms for CCM pathogenesis that may be targeted to develop new CCM therapeutics.

Bravi L, Malinverno M, Pisati F, et al.
Endothelial Cells Lining Sporadic Cerebral Cavernous Malformation Cavernomas Undergo Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition.
Stroke. 2016; 47(3):886-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is characterized by multiple lumen vascular malformations in the central nervous system that can cause neurological symptoms and brain hemorrhages. About 20% of CCM patients have an inherited form of the disease with ubiquitous loss-of-function mutation in any one of 3 genes CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3. The rest of patients develop sporadic vascular lesions histologically similar to those of the inherited form and likely mediated by a biallelic acquired mutation of CCM genes in the brain vasculature. However, the molecular phenotypic features of endothelial cells in CCM lesions in sporadic patients are still poorly described. This information is crucial for a targeted therapy.
METHODS: We used immunofluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers in the cavernoma of sporadic CCM patients in parallel with human familial cavernoma as a reference control.
RESULTS: We report here that endothelial cells, a cell type critically involved in CCM development, undergo endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the lesions of sporadic patients. This switch in endothelial phenotype has been described only in genetic CCM patients and in murine models of the disease. In addition, TGF-β/p-Smad- and β-catenin-dependent signaling pathways seem activated in sporadic cavernomas as in familial ones.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the use of common therapeutic strategies for both sporadic and genetic CCM malformations.

Kar S, Baisantry A, Nabavi A, Bertalanffy H
Role of Delta-Notch signaling in cerebral cavernous malformations.
Neurosurg Rev. 2016; 39(4):581-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) commonly known as cavernous hemangioma are associated with abnormally enlarged thin-walled blood vessels. As a result, these dilated capillaries are prone to leakage and result in hemorrhages. Clinically, such hemorrhages lead to severe headaches, focal neurological deficits, and epileptic seizures. CCM is caused by loss of function mutations in one of the three well-known CCM genes: Krev interaction trapped 1 (KRIT1), OSM, and programmed cell death 10 (PDCD10). Loss of CCM genes have been shown to be synergistically related to decreased Notch signaling and excessive angiogenesis. Despite recent evidences indicating that Notch signaling plays a pivotal role in regulating angiogenesis, the role of Notch in CCM development and progression is still not clear. Here, we provide an update literature review on the current knowledge of the structure of Notch receptor and its ligands, its relevance to angiogenesis and more precisely to CCM pathogenesis. In addition to reviewing the current literatures, this review will also focus on the cross talk between Delta-Notch and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in angiogenesis and in CCM pathogenesis. Understanding the role of Notch signaling in CCM development and progression might help provide a better insight for novel anti-angiogenic therapies.

Fu X, Zhang W, Su Y, et al.
MicroRNA-103 suppresses tumor cell proliferation by targeting PDCD10 in prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2016; 76(6):543-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is known that microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that act as key regulators in various physiological and pathological processes. However, the regulatory mechanisms involving miRNAs in prostate cancer remain largely unknown. Here, we found that miR-103 is down-regulated in prostate cancer and closely associated with tumor proliferation and migration. Our objective was to explore the role of the miR-103 in prostate cancer.
METHODS: In this study, we measured miR-103 level using real-time polymerase chain reaction in the human prostate cancer cell lines, including PC-3, LNCap, 22Rv1, DU145, and the normal prostate epithelium cell line RWPE-1, a total of 25 pairs of primary prostate cancer tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues (NCTs) were measured also. In addition, over-expression of miR-103 in prostate cancer cell lines to determine the role of miR-103 in prostate cancer.
RESULTS: We found that miR-103 is down-regulated in prostate cancer and closely associated with tumor proliferation and migration. In addition, over-expression of miR-103 apparently inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Gain-of-function in vitro experiments further show that miR-103 mimics significantly inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation, invasion and increase the cell cycle in G1 phase, while promoted cell apoptosis. Subsequent dual-luciferase reporter assay identified one of the proto-oncogene PDCD10 as direct target of miR-103.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, our data collectively demonstrate that miR-103 is a proto-oncogene miRNA that can suppress prostate cancer proliferation and migration by down-regulating the oncogene PDCD10, indicating that miR-103 may represent a new potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for prostate cancer treatment.

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