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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 10.8m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 65,300
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 321.0
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:31.4%
People dying from cancer /yr: 29,800
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Belgium Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications Related to Belgium

Belgium Cancer Organisations and Resources (12 links)

Latest Research Publications Related to Belgium

Solinas C, Chanzá NM, Awada A, Scartozzi M
The immune infiltrate in prostate, bladder and testicular tumors: An old friend for new challenges.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2017; 53:138-145 [PubMed] Related Publications
In genito-urinary tumors immunotherapy has been administered for a long time: Calmette-Guèrin Bacillus as adjuvant treatment in high risk patients with non muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer and interleukin-2 and interferon-α in metastatic kidney cancer. The vaccine Sipuleucel-T has been approved by United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic disease, given the 22% reduction of mortality risk in this group. Recently immunotherapeutic agents targeting inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules lead to improved outcomes and lasting anti-tumor effects in a variety of hematological and solid malignancies, including urogenital tumors. The benefit from these treatments has been observed only in a proportion of subjects, raising a need in optimizing patients' selection for immune checkpoint blockade. The composition and activity of a pre-existing immune infiltrate may aid in identifying ideal candidates to immunotherapy, with possible implications for the clinical management of neoplastic diseases from earlier to later stages.

Andritsch E, Beishon M, Bielack S, et al.
ECCO Essential Requirements for Quality Cancer Care: Soft Tissue Sarcoma in Adults and Bone Sarcoma. A critical review.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2017; 110:94-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: ECCO essential requirements for quality cancer care (ERQCC) are checklists and explanations of organisation and actions that are necessary to give high-quality care to patients who have a specific tumour type. They are written by European experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care. ERQCC papers give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of the elements needed in any healthcare system to provide high quality of care throughout the patient journey. References are made to clinical guidelines and other resources where appropriate, and the focus is on care in Europe. Sarcoma: essential requirements for quality care • Sarcomas - which can be classified into soft tissue and bone sarcomas - are rare, but all rare cancers make up more than 20% of cancers in Europe, and there are substantial inequalities in access to high-quality care. Sarcomas, of which there are many subtypes, comprise a particularly complex and demanding challenge for healthcare systems and providers. This paper presents essential requirements for quality cancer care of soft tissue sarcomas in adults and bone sarcomas. • High-quality care must only be carried out in specialised sarcoma centres (including paediatric cancer centres) which have both a core multidisciplinary team and an extended team of allied professionals, and which are subject to quality and audit procedures. Access to such units is far from universal in all European countries. • It is essential that, to meet European aspirations for high-quality comprehensive cancer control, healthcare organisations implement the requirements in this paper, paying particular attention to multidisciplinarity and patient-centred pathways from diagnosis and follow-up, to treatment, to improve survival and quality of life for patients.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, the information presented in this paper provides a comprehensive description of the essential requirements for establishing a high-quality service for soft tissue sarcomas in adults and bone sarcomas. The ECCO expert group is aware that it is not possible to propose a 'one size fits all' system for all countries, but urges that access to multidisciplinary teams is guaranteed to all patients with sarcoma.

Beets G, Sebag-Montefiore D, Andritsch E, et al.
ECCO Essential Requirements for Quality Cancer Care: Colorectal Cancer. A critical review.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2017; 110:81-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: ECCO essential requirements for quality cancer care (ERQCC) are checklists and explanations of organisation and actions that are necessary to give high-quality care to patients who have a specific tumour type. They are written by European experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care. ERQCC papers give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of the elements needed in any healthcare system to provide high quality of care throughout the patient journey. References are made to clinical guidelines and other resources where appropriate, and the focus is on care in Europe. Colorectal cancer: essential requirements for quality care CONCLUSION: Taken together, the information presented in this paper provides a comprehensive description of the essential requirements for establishing a high-quality CRC service. The ECCO expert group is aware that it is not possible to propose a 'one size fits all' system for all countries, but urges that access to multidisciplinary units or centres must be guaranteed for all those with CRC.

Solinas C, Pusole G, Demurtas L, et al.
Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in gastrointestinal tumors: Controversies and future clinical implications.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2017; 110:106-116 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic inflammation following infections, autoimmune diseases or exposure to environmental irritants plays a crucial role in tumor development and influences the host immune response to neoplastic cells. The presence of an anti-tumor immune infiltrate is often associated with better outcomes in gastro-intestinal primary cancers, particularly in those with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Immunotherapeutic drugs inhibiting the PD-1 and PD-L1 pathway showed promising results in the treatment of these patients in the metastatic setting. The aim of this review is to resume the role tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) play in gastrointestinal tumors, underlining their potential value as a prognostic and predictive biomarker. TILs assessment could identify subsets of patients with high extent of TILs and better prognosis, that could be spared from adjuvant systemic treatments. Immune infiltration parameters might be additional predictors of a greater benefit from the immunotherapy with the immune checkpoint blockade.

Aalders KC, Tryfonidis K, Senkus E, Cardoso F
Anti-angiogenic treatment in breast cancer: Facts, successes, failures and future perspectives.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2017; 53:98-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiogenesis is one of the hallmarks of cancer and a crucial requisite in the development of tumors. Interrupting this process by blocking the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab has been considered a possible breakthrough in the treatment of various types of cancer, especially for advanced disease. However in breast cancer, studies have shown ambivalent results causing debate about the value of this drug. In this article, we review the evidence for anti-angiogenic treatment options for breast cancer, as well as discuss the possible factors limiting the effectiveness of anti-angiogenic agents and offer a recommendation regarding the future research on these therapies for the treatment of breast cancer.

Strosberg J, El-Haddad G, Wolin E, et al.
Phase 3 Trial of (177)Lu-Dotatate for Midgut Neuroendocrine Tumors.
N Engl J Med. 2017; 376(2):125-135 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background Patients with advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors who have had disease progression during first-line somatostatin analogue therapy have limited therapeutic options. This randomized, controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of lutetium-177 ((177)Lu)-Dotatate in patients with advanced, progressive, somatostatin-receptor-positive midgut neuroendocrine tumors. Methods We randomly assigned 229 patients who had well-differentiated, metastatic midgut neuroendocrine tumors to receive either (177)Lu-Dotatate (116 patients) at a dose of 7.4 GBq every 8 weeks (four intravenous infusions, plus best supportive care including octreotide long-acting repeatable [LAR] administered intramuscularly at a dose of 30 mg) ((177)Lu-Dotatate group) or octreotide LAR alone (113 patients) administered intramuscularly at a dose of 60 mg every 4 weeks (control group). The primary end point was progression-free survival. Secondary end points included the objective response rate, overall survival, safety, and the side-effect profile. The final analysis of overall survival will be conducted in the future as specified in the protocol; a prespecified interim analysis of overall survival was conducted and is reported here. Results At the data-cutoff date for the primary analysis, the estimated rate of progression-free survival at month 20 was 65.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.0 to 76.8) in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group and 10.8% (95% CI, 3.5 to 23.0) in the control group. The response rate was 18% in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group versus 3% in the control group (P<0.001). In the planned interim analysis of overall survival, 14 deaths occurred in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group and 26 in the control group (P=0.004). Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and lymphopenia occurred in 1%, 2%, and 9%, respectively, of patients in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group as compared with no patients in the control group, with no evidence of renal toxic effects during the observed time frame. Conclusions Treatment with (177)Lu-Dotatate resulted in markedly longer progression-free survival and a significantly higher response rate than high-dose octreotide LAR among patients with advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors. Preliminary evidence of an overall survival benefit was seen in an interim analysis; confirmation will be required in the planned final analysis. Clinically significant myelosuppression occurred in less than 10% of patients in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group. (Funded by Advanced Accelerator Applications; NETTER-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01578239 ; EudraCT number 2011-005049-11 .).

Eroukhmanoff J, Tejedor I, Potorac I, et al.
MRI follow-up is unnecessary in patients with macroprolactinomas and long-term normal prolactin levels on dopamine agonist treatment.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2017; 176(3):323-328 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Both antitumor and antisecretory efficacies of dopamine agonists (DA) make them the first-line treatment of macroprolactinomas. However, there is no guideline for MRI follow-up once prolactin is controlled. The aim of our study was to determine whether a regular MRI follow-up was necessary in patients with long-term normal prolactin levels under DA.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicenter study (Marseille, Paris La Pitie Salpetriere and Nancy, France; Liege, Belgium) including patients with macroprolactinomas (largest diameter: >10 mm and baseline prolactin level: >100 ng/mL) treated by dopamine agonists, and regularly followed (pituitary MRI and prolactin levels) during at least 48 months once normal prolactin level was obtained.
RESULTS: In total, 115 patients were included (63 men and 52 women; mean age at diagnosis: 36.3 years). Mean baseline prolactin level was 2224 ± 6839 ng/mL. No significant increase of tumor volume was observed during the follow-up. Of the 21 patients (18%) who presented asymptomatic hemorrhagic changes of the macroprolactinoma on MRI, 2 had a tumor increase (2 and 7 mm in the largest size). Both were treated by cabergoline (1 mg/week) with normal prolactin levels obtained for 6 and 24 months. For both patients, no further growth was observed on MRI during follow-up at the same dose of cabergoline.
CONCLUSION: No significant increase of tumor size was observed in our patients with controlled prolactin levels on DA. MRI follow-up thus appears unnecessary in patients with biologically controlled macroprolactinomas.

Buelens S, Van Hove AS, Ongenae K, et al.
Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser of Recent Surgical Scars in the Head and Neck Region: A Split-Scar, Evaluator-Blinded Study.
Dermatol Surg. 2017; 43 Suppl 1:S75-S84 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Postoperative scarring is a common cause of patient dissatisfaction. Several strategies have been developed to improve its clinical aspects.
OBJECTIVE: To assess efficacy and safety of the 10,600 nm ablative fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser in the treatment of recent surgical scars in the head and neck region.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: A prospective, randomized, single-blind intrapatient controlled study was conducted on 9 postoperative scars in the head and neck region. On half of the scar, 3 treatment sessions were performed. Physician/Patient Global Assessment (PhGA/PGA) and Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scales (POSAS) were used to evaluate treatment efficacy. Safety was evaluated by registration of pain and adverse events.
RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were noted in terms of PhGA or POSAS (observer). Patient Global Assessment (p = 0.058) and POSAS (patient) (p = 0.091) showed a trend toward better improvement of the treated half. Itch score (p = 0.046) and global end evaluation (patient) (p = 0.026) demonstrated a statistically significant difference in favor of the treated part. Adverse events were minor, and no long-term side effects were noted.
CONCLUSION: The use of CO2 fractional laser is safe and is associated with high patient satisfaction. However, objective measurements could not confirm its efficacy in the treatment of recent surgical scars.

Buffart LM, Kalter J, Sweegers MG, et al.
Effects and moderators of exercise on quality of life and physical function in patients with cancer: An individual patient data meta-analysis of 34 RCTs.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2017; 52:91-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
This individual patient data meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise on quality of life (QoL) and physical function (PF) in patients with cancer, and to identify moderator effects of demographic (age, sex, marital status, education), clinical (body mass index, cancer type, presence of metastasis), intervention-related (intervention timing, delivery mode and duration, and type of control group), and exercise-related (exercise frequency, intensity, type, time) characteristics. Relevant published and unpublished studies were identified in September 2012 via PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL, reference checking and personal communications. Principle investigators of all 69 eligible trials were requested to share IPD from their study. IPD from 34 randomised controlled trials (n=4519 patients) that evaluated the effects of exercise compared to a usual care, wait-list or attention control group on QoL and PF in adult patients with cancer were retrieved and pooled. Linear mixed-effect models were used to evaluate the effects of the exercise on post-intervention outcome values (z-score) adjusting for baseline values. Moderator effects were studies by testing interactions. Exercise significantly improved QoL (β=0.15, 95%CI=0.10;0.20) and PF (β=0.18, 95%CI=0.13;0.23). The effects were not moderated by demographic, clinical or exercise characteristics. Effects on QoL (βdifference_in_effect=0.13, 95%CI=0.03;0.22) and PF (βdifference_in_effect=0.10, 95%CI=0.01;0.20) were significantly larger for supervised than unsupervised interventions. In conclusion, exercise, and particularly supervised exercise, effectively improves QoL and PF in patients with cancer with different demographic and clinical characteristics during and following treatment. Although effect sizes are small, there is consistent empirical evidence to support implementation of exercise as part of cancer care.

Larue RT, Defraene G, De Ruysscher D, et al.
Quantitative radiomics studies for tissue characterization: a review of technology and methodological procedures.
Br J Radiol. 2017; 90(1070):20160665 [PubMed] Related Publications
Quantitative analysis of tumour characteristics based on medical imaging is an emerging field of research. In recent years, quantitative imaging features derived from CT, positron emission tomography and MR scans were shown to be of added value in the prediction of outcome parameters in oncology, in what is called the radiomics field. However, results might be difficult to compare owing to a lack of standardized methodologies to conduct quantitative image analyses. In this review, we aim to present an overview of the current challenges, technical routines and protocols that are involved in quantitative imaging studies. The first issue that should be overcome is the dependency of several features on the scan acquisition and image reconstruction parameters. Adopting consistent methods in the subsequent target segmentation step is evenly crucial. To further establish robust quantitative image analyses, standardization or at least calibration of imaging features based on different feature extraction settings is required, especially for texture- and filter-based features. Several open-source and commercial software packages to perform feature extraction are currently available, all with slightly different functionalities, which makes benchmarking quite challenging. The number of imaging features calculated is typically larger than the number of patients studied, which emphasizes the importance of proper feature selection and prediction model-building routines to prevent overfitting. Even though many of these challenges still need to be addressed before quantitative imaging can be brought into daily clinical practice, radiomics is expected to be a critical component for the integration of image-derived information to personalize treatment in the future.

Dessain A, Snauwaert C, Baldin P, et al.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection specimens in early colorectal cancer: lateral margins, macroscopic techniques, and possible pitfalls.
Virchows Arch. 2017; 470(2):165-174 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allows en-bloc resection of superficial gastrointestinal tumors, providing specimens on which lateral margin analysis can be performed reliably. Positive lateral margins have been linked to higher rates of recurrence/residual tumor. There are no guidelines for macroscopic processing of lateral margins. Currently, most institutions use parallel lateral sections, which are difficult to interpret. We use perpendicular lateral sections, hypothesizing that it decreases potential artifactually positive lateral margins. We analyzed positive lateral margin rates in colorectal ESD specimens according to sectioning method. We also looked at morphological factors associated with margin positivity as a function of technique used. We studied 166 ESD specimens, on which parallel sectioning practiced from 2006 to 2011 (n = 75). Perpendicular sectioning was used from 2010 to 2015 (n = 91). We recorded the number of positive margins, along with grade of dysplasia/carcinoma. Other information such as histopathological type, specimen size, lesion location, and patient follow-up was also recorded for evaluation. Forty of seventy-five (63%) margins were positive for parallel sections. In contrast, perpendicularly cut margins were significantly less frequently positive: 22/91 (24%) (p = 0.0001). Positive margins were found significantly more frequently in tubulo-villous lesions compared to tubular lesions in both the parallel and perpendicular groups (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively). Specimen size was not significantly associated with positive margins. Using perpendicular sectioning of colorectal ESD specimens, the proportion of cases with a positive lateral margin was significantly lower than when parallel sectioning was used. We suggest perpendicular sectioning to improve accuracy in histopathological analysis. This method is particularly important to use in future studies, as it may prevent authors from making conjectures based on overestimation of positive lateral margins.

van Marcke C, De Leener A, Berlière M, et al.
Routine use of gene panel testing in hereditary breast cancer should be performed with caution.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016; 108:33-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer occurring in women. Ten percent of these cancers are considered hereditary. Among them, 30% are attributed to germline mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Other genes of lower penetrance are also known, explaining together up to 40% of the hereditary risk of breast cancer. New techniques, such as next-generation sequencing, allow the simultaneous analysis of multiple genes in a cost-effective way. As a logical consequence, gene panel testing is entering clinical practice with the promise of personalized care. We however advocate that gene panel testing is not ready for non-specialist clinical use, as it generates many variants of unknown significance and includes more genes than are presently considered clinically useful. We hereby review the data for each gene that can change the risk management of patients carrying a pathogenic variant.

Menichetti J, Villa S, Magnani T, et al.
Lifestyle interventions to improve the quality of life of men with prostate cancer: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016; 108:13-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Improving quality of life is a key issue for patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Lifestyle interventions could positively impact the quality of life of patients. However, there is no clear-cut understanding of the role of diet, exercise and risky behaviour reduction in improving the quality of life of men with PCa. The aim of this review was to systematically summarize randomized controlled trials on lifestyle in PCa patients with quality of life as main outcome. 17 trials were included. Most of them referred to exercise interventions (71%) and involved men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (47%). Exercise studies yielded the greater amount of positive results on quality of life outcomes (67%), followed by dietary interventions (50%) and combined lifestyle interventions (33%). In particular, supervised exercise programs with resistance training sessions were the ones producing greater convincing evidence for benefits on quality of life. Further studies with high methodological quality providing adequate information to develop evidence-based, personalized lifestyle interventions that can effectively ameliorate PCa-related quality of life are needed.

Wauthy P, Mircev D, Marinakis S
Three years follow-up after cryoablation of a right atrial myxoma arising from the Koch's triangle.
J Cardiothorac Surg. 2016; 11(1):154 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We reported 3 years ago the use of cryoablation in the treatment of a right atrium myxoma arising from the Koch's triangle. The atrioventricular conduction was successfully preserved. Today, after 3 years follow-up, the patient remains with a conducted sinus rhythm and is free of recurrence. Even if extensive resection of the stack of the myxoma remains the first choice attitude, cryoablation could be considered as a serious second choice alternative.

Body JJ, Terpos E, Tombal B, et al.
Bone health in the elderly cancer patient: A SIOG position paper.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2016; 51:46-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
More than a third of cancers are diagnosed in people over the age of 75. Androgen deprivation for prostate cancer and aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer accelerate age-related bone loss and increase fracture rates. BMD should be checked by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and, dependent on risk, every 12-24months. Sufficient calcium, vitamin D and exercise are part of primary fracture prevention. Resistance exercise in particular may improve functional activity and bone density. In men at increased fracture risk and women with postmenopausal early breast cancer, antiresorptive treatment is warranted to reduce fracture rate and to increase overall survival in breast cancer. Bone metastases (BM) are common in breast and prostate cancer and lytic bone lesions typical of multiple myeloma. They can cause fractures, pain and spinal cord compression, require surgery or radiation for symptom relief, and lead to hypercalcaemia. Multidisciplinary working with patients and carers can improve quality of life for elderly patients with BM and mitigate the adverse consequences of therapy. Bisphosphonates and other osteoclast inhibitors such as denosumab reduce this morbidity, improve quality of life and reduce pain. Especially in the elderly, attention should be paid to renal function and to risk factors for osteonecrosis with bone-modifying agents. Attention should also be paid to hypocalcaemia risk, which can be considerable in elderly men with metastatic prostate cancer and vitamin D deficiency. We urgently need further research specifically directed at assessing risks and benefits of bone targeted treatments in the growing population of elderly cancer patients.

Egger K, Hohenhaus M, Van Velthoven V, et al.
Spinal diffusion tensor tractography for differentiation of intramedullary tumor-suspected lesions.
Eur J Radiol. 2016; 85(12):2275-2280 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Primary MRI diagnosis of spinal intramedullary tumor-suspected lesions can be challenging and often requires spinal biopsy or resection with a substantial risk of neurological deficits. We evaluated whether Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) tractography can facilitate the differential diagnosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive patients with an intramedullary tumor-suspected lesion considered for spinal surgery were studied with a Diffusion-weighted multi-shot read out segmented EPI sequence (RESOLVE). White matter tracts ("streamlines") were calculated using the FACT algorithm and visually co-registered to a T2-weighted 3D sequence. The fused images were assessed concerning spinal streamline appearance as normal, displaced or terminated. Definite diagnosis was verified by histological analysis or further clinical work-up.
RESULTS: All patients with normal appearing streamlines (n=6) showed an acute inflammatory demyelinating pathology in the further clinical work-up. In 10 patients streamline displacing lesions were found from which 5 patients underwent a surgical treatment with histologically confirmed low-grade tumors like ependymomas and pilocytic astrocytomas. In nine patients streamlines were terminated, from which 6 patients received a histology proven diagnoses with a more heterogenous spectrum (3 cases of high grade tumor, 1 case of low grade tumor with intralesional hemorrhage and 2 cases with gliosis but no tumor cells).
CONCLUSION: Using multi-shot DTI spinal tractography acute inflammatory lesions can be differentiated from other tumorous intramedullary lesions. The entity diagnosis of spinal tumors seems to be more challenging, primarily due to the variety of factors like invasivity, expansion or intralesional hemorrhage.

Kollár A, Jones RL, Stacchiotti S, et al.
Pazopanib in advanced vascular sarcomas: an EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (STBSG) retrospective analysis.
Acta Oncol. 2017; 56(1):88-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pazopanib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of patients with selective subtypes of advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) who have previously received standard chemotherapy including anthracyclines. Data on the efficacy in vascular sarcomas are limited. The main objective of this study was to investigate the activity of pazopanib in vascular sarcomas.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of patients with advanced vascular sarcomas, including angiosarcoma (AS), epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HE) and intimal sarcoma (IS) treated with pazopanib in real life practice at EORTC centers as well as patients treated within the EORTC phase II and III clinical trials (62043/62072) was performed. Patient and tumor characteristics were collected. Response was assessed according to RECIST 1.1. and survival analysis was performed.
RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were identified, 40 (76.9%), 10 (19.2%) and two (3.8%) with AS, HE and IS, respectively. The response rate was eight (20%), two (20%) and two (100%) in the AS, HE and IS subtypes, respectively. There was no significant difference in response rate between cutaneous and non-cutaneous AS and similarly between radiation-associated and non-radiation-associated AS. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and median overall survival (OS; from commencing pazopanib) were three months (95% CI 2.1-4.4) and 9.9 months (95% CI 6.5-11.3) in AS, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The activity of pazopanib in AS is comparable to its reported activity in other STS subtypes. In this study, the activity of pazopanib was similar in cutaneous/non-cutaneous and in radiation/non-radiation-associated AS. In addition, pazopanib showed promising activity in HE and IS, worthy of further evaluation.

Nevens D, Vantomme O, Laenen A, et al.
CT-based follow-up following radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer; outcome and development of a prognostic model for regional control.
Br J Radiol. 2016; 89(1068):20160492 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to make a prognostic model for regional relapse in head and neck cancer using clinical and CT parameters.
METHODS: 183 patients with lymph node-positive head and neck cancer were treated between 2002 and 2012 with radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy. CT studies pre- and post-treatment were reviewed for lymph node size and the presence of necrosis, extracapsular spread (ECS) and calcifications. For every patient, correlations with 3-year regional control (RC), metastasis-free survival (MFS), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were made.
RESULTS: 3-year outcome rates were as follows: local control of 84%, RC of 80%, MFS of 74%, DFS of 61% and OS of 63%. Pre-treatment nodal size and the presence of necrosis were associated with a poorer outcome. This was also the case for post-treatment lymph node size, the presence of necrosis and ECS. We developed a CT-based prognostic model for RC with an area under the curve of 0.78 (95% confidence interval 0.63; 0.85).
CONCLUSION: We reached a good outcome in our patient cohort using a CT-based follow-up approach. A CT-based model was developed, which can aid in predicting RC. Advances in knowledge: A prognostic model is proposed, which can aid in predicting RC and the necessity for post-radiotherapy neck dissection using clinical parameters and parameters derived from the post-treatment CT study. This is the first article to propose a prognostic model for regional relapse in head and neck cancer based on these parameters.

Donnez J, Donnez O, Dolmans MM
Safety of treatment of uterine fibroids with the selective progesterone receptor modulator, ulipristal acetate.
Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2016; 15(12):1679-1686 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: During the last decade, there has been increased emphasis on the role of progesterone in the promotion of fibroid growth, as well as heightened interest in modulating progesterone pathways by use of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs). Among them, ulipristal acetate (UPA) has proved its efficacy in the management of symptomatic myomas by controlling bleeding and inducing amenorrhea, and reducing the size of myomas in the majority of cases. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize published scientific studies exploring evidence of the safety of SPRMs and particularly UPA, a drug approved for the management of symptomatic uterine fibroids. We focus essentially on endometrial changes induced by UPA, and also evaluate other safety outcomes. Expert opinion: Data from published reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) over 5 years have demonstrated that UPA does indeed induce endometrial changes (known as progesterone receptor modulator-associated endometrial changes), but they have been shown to be both benign and reversible.

Koskas M, Depreeuw J, Moens S, et al.
Genomic Characterisation and Response to Trastuzumab and Paclitaxel in Advanced or Recurrent HER2-positive Endometrial Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(10):5381-5384 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity is associated with a worse prognosis in endometrial cancer (EC). Trastuzumab as a single agent did not demonstrate activity in such cases but there are no reports on its combined use with taxanes. We report the outcome in patients treated simultaneously with trastuzumab and paclitaxel for advanced or recurrent HER2-positive endometrial carcinoma and compared it to their microsatellite instability (MSI) status and PIK3CA mutational profiles.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advancedor recurrent endometrial carcinoma showing HER2 overexpression (2+ or 3+ immunohistochemical staining) or HER2 amplification (fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) HER2/chromosome 17 centromere (CEP 17) ratio >2.0) were treated with trastuzumab (8 mg/kg) and paclitaxel (90 mg/m(2)) every three weeks. Evaluation of the response was assessed according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) guidelines. Endometrial tumors, sampled before the beginning of trastuzumab, were genotyped for PIK3CA hot spot mutations using Sequenom iPLEX Assay technology.
RESULTS: Two uterine serous adenocarcinomas and one grade 3 endometrioid adenocarcinoma showing HER2 positivity were treated with trastuzumab and paclitaxel. Between three and seven months of treatment, the three cases showed progressive disease. The genomic analysis of the three cases showed different mutational profiles. One case was found to have MSI and had one PIK3CA mutation. The two others showed no hot spot mutation for PIK3CA.
CONCLUSION: Even associated with paclitaxel, HER2-positive endometrial carcinomas poorly responded to trastuzumab. This report underlines the low accuracy of HER2 positivity to predict response of endometrial cancer to combined targeted therapy using trastuzumab and paclitaxel.

Sleightholm R, Foster JM, Smith L, et al.
The American Society of Peritoneal Surface Malignancies Multi-Institution evaluation of 1,051 advanced ovarian cancer patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC: An introduction of the peritoneal surface disease severity score.
J Surg Oncol. 2016; 114(7):779-784 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment for ovarian epithelial cancer (OEC) consists of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and a platinum-taxane chemotherapy combination. There is increasing interest in evaluating hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in patients with stage IIIC/IV disease. The peritoneal surface disease severity score (PSDSS) was introduced as a basis to improve patient selection for this therapy in OEC.
METHODS: The charts of 1,051 patients with advanced OEC who underwent CRS/HIPEC were retrospectively evaluated using the following preoperatively obtained criteria: symptoms, peritoneal dissemination, and tumor histology. Overall survival was analyzed according to PSDSS as well as the timings and agents used during CRS/HIPEC.
RESULTS: Median survival for all 1,051 patients was 73.4 months. PSDSS information was available for 553 patients. Survival correlated negatively with PSDSS (P < 0.001). Furthermore, combining PSDSS scores into I/II and III/IV described two distinct patient populations with vastly different outcomes, 100 versus 55 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis failed to describe any differences between timings of HIPEC or chemotherapy agents used.
CONCLUSION: PSDSS was capable of identifying a better surviving patient population in advanced-stage OEC. While randomized trials to evaluate the benefit of HIPEC are needed, the PSDSS may be a useful tool for selecting and stratifying OEC patients in clinical trials. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:779-784. © 2016 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Farinella E, Safar A, Nasser HA, et al.
Salvage esophagectomy after failure of definitive radiochemotherapy for esophageal cancer.
J Surg Oncol. 2016; 114(7):833-837 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Definitive radiochemotherapy (dRCT) in locally advanced esophageal cancer is associated with a high rate of loco-regional recurrence. In this condition, salvage esophagectomy may be considered as a therapeutic option. The aim of this analysis is to evaluate the feasibility and the morbi-mortality of this strategy.
METHODS: Between January 2006 and April 2014, 208 patients underwent esophagectomy for esophageal cancer at ULB-Erasme-Bordet. Thirty-two patients received a preoperative radiochemotherapy (pRCT) followed by planned esophagectomy (Group 1) for locally advanced disease. Sixteen patients underwent salvage esophagectomy for recurrence or failure after dRCT (Group 2). Data on post-operative morbidity and mortality and survival were collected and analyzed.
RESULTS: An increase of overall morbidity was detected in Group 2 as compared to Group 1 (43% vs. 37.5%), mainly related to respiratory complications (35.5% vs. 28%) and anastomotic leak (25% vs. 3%). No 90-days mortality was observed in the two surgical groups. The 1, 2, and 3-year survival rates after surgery were respectively 89%, 80%, and 71% for Group1 and 84%, 73%, and 63% for Group 2.
CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, both salvage esophagectomy and esophagectomy after pRCT showed good survival results with low postoperative morbidity and mortality. Salvage surgery remains a therapeutic indication in selected patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:833-837. © 2016 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Billiet C, Peeters S, Decaluwé H, et al.
Postoperative radiotherapy for lung cancer: Is it worth the controversy?
Cancer Treat Rev. 2016; 51:10-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The role of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) in patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with pathologically involved mediastinal lymph nodes (N2) remains unclear. Despite a reduction of local recurrence (LR), its effect on overall survival (OS) remains unproven. Therefore we conducted a review of the current literature.
METHODS: To investigate the benefit and safety of modern PORT, we identified published phase III trials for PORT. We investigated modern PORT in low-risk (ypN0/1 and R0) and high-risk (ypN2 and/or R1/2) patients with stage III-N2 NSCLC treated with induction chemotherapy and resection.
RESULTS: Seventeen phase III trials using PORT were selected. Of all PORT N2 studies, 4 were eligible for evaluation of LR, all in high-risk patients only. In these high-risk patients receiving PORT, the mean LR rate at 5years was 20.9% (95% CI 16-24). Two trials were suitable to assess LR rates after chemotherapy and surgery without PORT. In these low-risk patients, the mean 5-year LR was 33.1% (95% CI 27-39). No significant difference in non-cancer deaths between PORT vs. non-PORT patients was observed in N2 NSCLC.
CONCLUSION: PORT is worth the controversy because data illustrate that PORT may increase the OS. However, prospective randomized trials are needed to verify this.

Bubendorf L, Büttner R, Al-Dayel F, et al.
Testing for ROS1 in non-small cell lung cancer: a review with recommendations.
Virchows Arch. 2016; 469(5):489-503 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Rearrangements of the ROS1 gene occur in 1-2 % of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Crizotinib, a highly effective inhibitor of ROS1 kinase activity, is now FDA-approved for the treatment of patients with advanced ROS1-positive NSCLC. Consequently, focus on ROS1 testing is growing. Most laboratories currently rely on fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) assays using a dual-colour break-apart probe to detect ROS1 rearrangements. Given the rarity of these rearrangements in NSCLC, detection of elevated ROS1 protein levels by immunohistochemistry may provide cost-effective screening prior to confirmatory FISH testing. Non-in situ testing approaches also hold potential as stand-alone methods or complementary tests, including multiplex real-time PCR assays and next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms which include commercial test kits covering a range of fusion genes. In order to ensure high-quality biomarker testing, appropriate tissue handling, adequate control materials and participation in external quality assessment programmes are essential, irrespective of the testing technique employed. ROS1 testing is often only considered after negative tests for EGFR mutation and ALK gene rearrangement, based on the assumption that these oncogenic driver events tend to be exclusive. However, as the use of ROS1 inhibitors becomes routine, accurate and timely detection of ROS1 gene rearrangements will be critical for the optimal treatment of patients with NSCLC. As NGS techniques are introduced into routine diagnostic practice, ROS1 fusion gene testing will be provided as part of the initial testing package.

Pompe E, van Rikxoort EM, Mets OM, et al.
Follow-up of CT-derived airway wall thickness: Correcting for changes in inspiration level improves reliability.
Eur J Radiol. 2016; 85(11):2008-2013 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Airway wall thickness (AWT) is affected by changes in lung volume. This study evaluated whether correcting AWT on computed tomography (CT) for differences in inspiration level improves measurement agreement, reliability, and power to detect changes over time.
METHODS: Participants of the Dutch-Belgian lung cancer screening trial who underwent 3-month repeat CT for an indeterminate pulmonary nodule were included. AWT on CT was calculated by the square root of the wall area at a theoretical airway with an internal perimeter of 10mm (Pi10). The scan with the highest lung volume was labelled as the reference scan and the scan with the lowest lung volume was labelled as the comparison scan. Pi10 derived from the comparison scan was corrected by multiplying it with the ratio of CT lung volume of the comparison scan to CT lung volume on the reference scan. Agreement of uncorrected and corrected Pi10 was studied with the Bland-Altman method, reliability with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), and power to detect changes over time was calculated.
RESULTS: 315 male participants were included. Limit of agreement and reliability for Pi10 was -0.61 to 0.57mm (ICC=0.87), which improved to -0.38 to 0.37mm (ICC=0.94) after correction for inspiration level. To detect a 15% change over 3 months, 71 subjects are needed for Pi10 and 26 subjects for Pi10 adjusted for inspiration level.
CONCLUSIONS: Correcting Pi10 for differences in inspiration level improves reliability, agreement, and power to detect changes over time.

Novara G, La Falce S, Kungulli A, et al.
Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy.
Int J Surg. 2016; 36(Pt C):554-559 [PubMed] Related Publications
Partial nephrectomy is the standard treatment for small renal masses. Currently, it is commonly performed using minimally invasive approaches, including laparoscopic and robot-assisted techniques. The aim of the present review is to report the surgical technique of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy in full detail as well as available literature results.

Munbauhal G, Seisen T, Gomez FD, et al.
Current perspectives of sentinel lymph node dissection at the time of radical surgery for prostate cancer.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2016; 50:228-239 [PubMed] Related Publications
The sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) concept relies on the accurate detection of primary nodal landing sites and could represent a major advancement towards accurate, non-invasive pelvic staging in prostate cancer (PCa). Different iterations of the technique have now been validated and reproduced mostly in large-volume centres. The existing evidence denotes the feasibility and sensitivity of SLND, with encouraging pre- and intraoperative detection rates of 98% and 96%. Yet, current surgical practice mandates a backup template dissection due to a false negative rate, up to 7.1%, of tracer-guided surgery. In practice, SLND failed to achieve nodal detection in up to 20% of pelvic sidewalls. Despite scarce validated evidence, current consensus mainly attributes these false negative cases to altered prostatic drainage secondary to malignant obliteration of lymphovascular structures. In parallel, multiple SLND studies have highlighted the complex and variable drainage pathways from the prostate, furthering the established anatomical atlases. The most promising approach may therefore rely in magnetic nanoparticles and PCa-targeting ligands. However, in the absence of a clear sentinel node or region for the prostate, formal SLND is difficult to integrate in routine surgical practice for now. As such, tracer-guided dissection is only used as a complementary intervention to highlight first- echelon nodes and aberrant lymphatic pathways found beyond the commonly adopted pelvic lymphadenectomy templates.

Michielsen KL, Vergote I, Dresen R, et al.
Whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of recurrent ovarian cancer: a clinical feasibility study.
Br J Radiol. 2016; 89(1067):20160468 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical feasibility of whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI (WB-DWI/MRI) for diagnosis and prediction of complete tumour resection in patients with suspected recurrent ovarian cancer.
METHODS: 51 females clinically suspected for ovarian cancer recurrence underwent 3-T WB-DWI/MRI in addition to contrast-enhanced CT. WB-DWI/MRI was assessed for detection of tumour recurrence, prediction of tumour extent and complete resection compared with CT. Tumour presence was confirmed by pathology obtained by surgery or biopsy, or by imaging follow-up.
RESULTS: WB-DWI/MRI showed 94% accuracy for detecting ovarian cancer recurrence, compared with 78% for CT (p = 0.008). WB-DWI/MRI showed better sensitivity [% (95% confidence interval)] than CT for detecting involvement of surgically critical tumour sites including mesenteric root infiltration [92 (62-100) vs 31 (10-61)], small bowel [93 (64-100) vs 21 (6-51)], colon carcinomatosis [91 (57-100) vs 27 (7-61)] and unresectable distant metastases [90 (54-99) vs 20 (4-56)]. WB-DWI/MRI correctly predicted complete resection in 33 of 35 (94%) patients eligible for salvage surgery compared with 17 of 35 (49%) for CT (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: WB-DWI/MRI allowed better detection of ovarian cancer recurrence and better prediction of complete resection than CT. Advances in knowledge: WB-DWI/MRI could assist in optimizing treatment planning for recurrent ovarian cancer, particularly by improving patient selection for salvage surgery, thus giving eligible patients the highest chance on prolonged survival and refraining patients who would not benefit from extensive surgery reducing related morbidity and mortality.

Venema CM, Apollonio G, Hospers GA, et al.
Recommendations and Technical Aspects of 16α-[18F]Fluoro-17β-Estradiol PET to Image the Estrogen Receptor In Vivo: The Groningen Experience.
Clin Nucl Med. 2016; 41(11):844-851 [PubMed] Related Publications
The estrogen derivative 16α-F-fluoro-17β-estradiol (FES) is a PET tracer that has been used in a variety of preclinical and clinical studies to detect estrogen receptor (ER) expression, mainly in breast cancer, but also for other oncological indications. As a result of the success of these studies and the potential applications of the tracer, FES starts to be implemented in routine clinical practice. However, the number of centers using this tracer is still limited and many nuclear medicine physicians and medical oncologists are still unaware of the possibilities FES PET imaging offers. The aim of this article is therefore to give an overview of the main indications of FES PET in oncology and to provide recommendations on correct use of this imaging technique. This includes precautions that have to be taken for patient preparation, procedures for the acquisition of the scans, the physiological distribution of the tracer, factors that might influence tracer uptake and guidance for image analysis, quantification of tracer uptake, and reporting of the scans.

Bourgeois S, Gykiere P, Goethals L, et al.
Aspecific Uptake of 68GA-PSMA in Paget Disease of the Bone.
Clin Nucl Med. 2016; 41(11):877-878 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ga-PSMA plays an increasing role in prostate cancer management, but several instances of false positivity have now been recognized. We present a patient with metastatic prostatic carcinoma who also showed overexpression of PSMA in Paget disease of the humerus on Ga-PSMA PET. This probably relates to bone remodeling and increased vascularity. It is important to be aware of this aspecific uptake because its recognition may avoid overstaging and may alter the therapeutic choice.

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