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- British Association of Urological Surgeons
A membership-based organisation and qualified medical practitioners in the field of urological surgery.
- British Uro-oncology Group
Formed in 2004 to meet the needs of clinical and medical oncologists specialising in the field of urology.
- EAU Section of Oncological Urology
A specialist section of the European Association of Urology, established in 2001.
- European Association of Urology
The EAU, founded in 1972, is a membership based organisation for urologists, urologists-in-training and urological scientists. The Web site includes details of membership, conferences, courses, slides and publications.
- Society for Basic Urologic Research
a society of scientists involved in urologic research
- Society of Urologic Oncology
A membership organisation for specialists, established in 1984, for those interested in the care of patients with malignant genitourinary diseases to meet for the purpose of discussion, development, and implementation of ideas to improve care. SUO conforms to the guidelines and bylaws of the American Urological Association (AUA).
- Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Society of Urologic Oncology
journal of the Society of Urologic Oncology
This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).
Ito A, Shintaku I, Satoh M, et al.Prospective randomized phase II trial of a single early intravesical instillation of pirarubicin (THP) in the prevention of bladder recurrence after nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: the THP Monotherapy Study Group Trial.
J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31(11):1422-7 [PubMed
PURPOSE: We evaluated the efficacy of a single early intravesical instillation of pirarubicin (THP) in the prevention of bladder recurrence after nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: From December 2005 to November 2008, 77 patients clinically diagnosed with UUT-UC from 11 institutions participating in the Tohoku Urological Evidence-Based Medicine Study Group were preoperatively enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive or not receive a single instillation of THP (30 mg in 30 mL of saline) into the bladder within 48 hours after nephroureterectomy. Cystoscopy and urinary cytology were repeated every 3 months for 2 years or until the occurrence of first bladder recurrence.
RESULTS: Seventy-two patients were evaluable for efficacy analysis, 21 of whom had a subsequent bladder recurrence. Significantly fewer patients who received THP had a recurrence compared with the control group (16.9% at 1 year and 16.9% at 2 years in the THP group v 31.8% at 1 year and 42.2% at 2 years in the control group; log-rank P = .025). No remarkable adverse events were observed in the THP-treated group. Based on multivariate analysis, THP instillation (hazard rate [HR], 0.26; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.91; P = .035) and open surgery (HR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.84; P = .024) were independently predictive of a reduced incidence of bladder recurrence.
CONCLUSION: In this prospective randomized phase II study, a single intravesical instillation of THP seemed to reduce bladder recurrence after nephroureterectomy. A phase III, large-scale, multicenter study is needed to confirm these observations.
Balar AV, Apolo AB, Ostrovnaya I, et al.Phase II study of gemcitabine, carboplatin, and bevacizumab in patients with advanced unresectable or metastatic urothelial cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31(6):724-30 [PubMed
] Article available free on PMC
PURPOSE: Although gemcitabine and carboplatin (GCa) is a standard option for patients with advanced urothelial cancer (UC) who are ineligible for cisplatin, outcomes remain poor. This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab with GCa in advanced UC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with Karnofsky performance status of 60% to 70%, creatinine clearance less than 60 mL/min, visceral metastasis, or solitary kidney were eligible and received a lead-in dose of bevacizumab 10 mg/kg followed 2 weeks later by gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 and carboplatin at area under the [concentration-time] curve (AUC) 5.0 or 4.5 and bevacizumab 15 mg/kg on day 1 every 21 days for six cycles. Patients achieving at least stable disease (SD) continued bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 21 days for 18 additional cycles. The study was powered to detect a 50% improvement in median progression-free survival (PFS) over a historical control.
RESULTS: Fifty-one patients, median age 67 years (range, 42 to 83 years), were enrolled onto the study and were evaluable for toxicity. Twenty (39%) experienced grade 3 to 4 toxicity, and 10 (20%) had thromboembolic events (deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism). Four received one or fewer cycles leaving 47 evaluable for outcomes. Twenty-three (49%) achieved response (three complete; 20 partial), and 11 had SD. Median PFS was 6.5 months (95% CI, 4.7 to 7.8 months); PFS was greater in the carboplatin AUC 5.0 group (P = .04). Median overall survival (OS) was 13.9 months.
CONCLUSION: The 95% one-sided lower confidence bound of 4.77 months for median PFS did not meet the predesignated PFS of more than 4.8 months considered sufficient for further study. Median OS was greater than expected. An ongoing phase III trial in patients who are eligible for therapy with cisplatin will define the role of bevacizumab in UC.
Sternberg CN, Hawkins RE, Wagstaff J, et al.A randomised, double-blind phase III study of pazopanib in patients with advanced and/or metastatic renal cell carcinoma: final overall survival results and safety update.
Eur J Cancer. 2013; 49(6):1287-96 [PubMed
BACKGROUND: In this randomised phase III study (VEG105192; NCT00334282), pazopanib previously demonstrated statistically and clinically meaningful improvement of progression-free survival versus placebo in patients with advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Final overall survival (OS) and updated safety results are now reported.
METHODS: Treatment-naive or cytokine-pretreated mRCC patients (n=435) stratified and randomised (2:1) to pazopanib 800 mg daily or placebo, were treated until disease progression, death or unacceptable toxicity. Upon progression, placebo patients could receive pazopanib through an open-label study. Final OS in the intent-to-treat population was analysed using a stratified log-rank test. Rank-preserving structural failure time (RPSFT) and inverse probability of censoring weighted (IPCW) analyses were performed post-hoc to adjust for crossover.
FINDINGS: The difference in final OS between pazopanib- and placebo-treated patients was not statistically significant (22.9 versus 20.5 months, respectively; hazard ratio [HR]=0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-1.16; one-sided P=.224). Early and frequent crossover from placebo to pazopanib and prolonged duration of crossover treatment confounded the OS analysis. In IPCW analyses, pazopanib decreased mortality (HR=0.504; 95% CI, 0.315-0.762; two-sided P=.002). Similar, albeit non-significant, results were obtained in RPSFT analyses (HR=0.43; 95% CI, 0.215-1.388; two-sided P=.172). Since the last cutoff, cumulative exposure to pazopanib increased by 30%. The pazopanib safety profile showed no new safety signals or changes in the type, frequency and severity of adverse events.
INTERPRETATION: Although no significant difference in OS was observed in this study, extensive crossover from placebo to pazopanib confounded final OS analysis. Post-hoc analyses adjusting for crossover suggest OS benefit with pazopanib treatment for mRCC patients.
Takaki H, Nakatsuka A, Uraki J, et al.Renal cell carcinoma: radiofrequency ablation with a multiple-electrode switching system--a phase II clinical study.
Radiology. 2013; 267(1):285-92 [PubMed
PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation with a multiple-electrode switching system for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: From November 2009 to December 2010, 33 patients (mean age, 70.7 years; range, 44-86 years) with histologically proved RCCs--including 24 men (mean age, 69.5 years [range, 44-86 years]) and nine women (mean age, 74.1 years [range, 64-83 years])--were enrolled in this phase II study. The institutional review board approved the study after patients provided written informed consent. The mean maximum tumor diameter was 2.9 cm ± 1.0 (standard deviation) (range, 1.5-5.0 cm). Radiofrequency ablation was conducted with a multiple-electrode switching system. The primary endpoint was evaluated with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Secondary endpoints were changes in renal function, technique effectiveness, local tumor progression, and survival. Changes in renal function were evaluated by using the Mann-Whitney U test.
RESULTS: No severe adverse events occurred, but three of 33 patients (9%) had grade 2 adverse events. Although the mean glomerular filtration rate at 1 year after radiofrequency ablation was similar to the baseline value in 26 patients with bilateral kidneys (P = .14), it was decreased significantly in six patients with a single kidney (P = .03). Tumor enhancement disappeared after a single radiofrequency session in 31 patients and after two radiofrequency sessions in the other two patients (rates of primary and secondary technique effectiveness, 94% [31 of 33] and 100% [33 of 33], respectively). No local tumor progression was found during the mean follow-up of 20.0 months (range, 11.6-27.6 months). The respective 1-year overall and RCC-related survival rates were 97% (95% confidence interval: 91%, 100%) and 100%.
CONCLUSION: Radiofrequency ablation with a multiple-electrode switching system is safe and effective for treatment of RCCs. However, further study is warranted to determine whether this technology is superior to other previously described methods.
Kang HC, Tan KS, Keefe SM, et al.MRI assessment of early tumor response in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with sorafenib.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013; 200(1):120-6 [PubMed
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine early MRI changes in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with the antiangiogenic agent sorafenib and to identify MRI biomarkers of RCC response to sorafenib.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients with RCC were evaluated by MRI before and 3-12 weeks after commencing treatment with sorafenib. Two experienced MR radiologists, blinded to treatment status, independently graded tumor appearance on T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and gadolinium-enhanced images. The proportional odds mixed model was used to compare qualitative appearance of tumors before and after therapy. Time-to-progression was correlated with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.0 and MR-modified Choi criteria, incorporating changes in both tumor enhancement and size.
RESULTS: After sorafenib therapy, there was a significant increase in T1 signal intensity of tumors (p < 0.0001) and a significant decrease in degree of tumor enhancement (p < 0.0001). The sum of unidimensional tumor diameters decreased significantly after therapy (p = 0.005). However, the average decrease in size at early follow-up was 13%, and all patients except one had stable disease by RECIST 1.0. Early responders defined by MR-modified Choi criteria had increased time-to-progression compared with nonresponders, whereas early RECIST evaluation did not predict clinical outcome.
CONCLUSION: Decreased enhancement and T1 shortening of tumors on MRI may be useful biomarkers of RCC response to angiogenesis inhibitors. Response criteria combining early changes in size and enhancement lead to better correlation with clinical outcome compared with size decrease alone.
Gigante M, Li G, Ferlay C, et al.Prognostic value of serum CA9 in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma under targeted therapy.
Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(12):5447-51 [PubMed
AIM: Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) has been found to be one of most powerful biomarkers for clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The serum CA9 is detectable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential prognostic role of serum CA9 in patients with metastatic clear-cell RCC patients under targeted therapy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum samples came from the randomized phase 2 TORAVA trial. All patients received a targeted therapy (arm A designed as experimental group: temsirolimus and bevacizumab combination; arm B: sunitinib; arm C: interferon-alfa and bevacizumab). Seventy cases of metastatic clear-cell RCC were analyzed. There were 49 males and 21 females. The age ranged from 33.5 to 79.1 years with a median of 61.2 years. Serum samples were collected before treatment. Serum CA9 was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation of the serum CA9 levels with the clinical parameters, treatment response and overall survival was analyzed. Overall survival estimates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test.
RESULTS: Serum concentrations of CA9 ranged between 0 and 897.3 pg/ml, with an average of 94.4±176.6 pg/ml. There was no association between serum CA9 and clinical parameters such as Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status (p=0.367) or Motzer classification (p=0.431). The serum CA9 levels were lower in the response group (64.7±104.7 pg/ml) than the no-response group (108.2±203.8 pg/ml), but the difference was not statisticlly significant (p=0.366). For the patient group overall, the Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that high serum CA9 levels were significantly associated with shorter overall survival (hazard ratio=2.65, 95% confidence interval=1.19-5.92, log-rank test p=0.0136). For the major group of patients treated with temsirolimus and bevacizumab, the Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that high serum CA9 levels were significantly associated with shorter overall survival (p=0.0006).
CONCLUSION: Serum CA9 levels may be of clinical interest to predict the outcome for patients under targeted therapy for metastatic clear-cell RCC. CA9 may be used to select patients with metastatic clear cell RCC for clinical trials.
Choueiri TK, Vaishampayan U, Rosenberg JE, et al.Phase II and biomarker study of the dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitor foretinib in patients with papillary renal cell carcinoma.
J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31(2):181-6 [PubMed
] Article available free on PMC
PURPOSE: Foretinib is an oral multikinase inhibitor targeting MET, VEGF, RON, AXL, and TIE-2 receptors. Activating mutations or amplifications in MET have been described in patients with papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of foretinib in patients with PRCC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were enrolled onto the study in two cohorts with different dosing schedules of foretinib: cohort A, 240 mg once per day on days 1 through 5 every 14 days (intermittent arm); cohort B, 80 mg daily (daily dosing arm). Patients were stratified on the basis of MET pathway activation (germline or somatic MET mutation, MET [7q31] amplification, or gain of chromosome 7). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR).
RESULTS: Overall, 74 patients were enrolled, with 37 in each dosing cohort. ORR by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.0 was 13.5%, median progression-free survival was 9.3 months, and median overall survival was not reached. The presence of a germline MET mutation was highly predictive of a response (five of 10 v five of 57 patients with and without germline MET mutations, respectively). The most frequent adverse events of any grade associated with foretinib were fatigue, hypertension, gastrointestinal toxicities, and nonfatal pulmonary emboli.
CONCLUSION: Foretinib demonstrated activity in patients with advanced PRCC with a manageable toxicity profile and a high response rate in patients with germline MET mutations.
Tunio MA, Hashmi A, Qayyum A, et al.Low-dose thalidomide in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
J Pak Med Assoc. 2012; 62(9):876-9 [PubMed
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of thalidomide in patients with metastic renal cell carcinoma and the efficacy, toxicity and response rates to thalidomide.
METHODS: The phase-II clinical trial study was conducted at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi between November 2008, and April 2009, comprising 80 patients with metastic renal cell carcinoma who had either progressed on or were not suitable for immunotherapy/biologic therapy. After institutional approval and informed consent, the patients received thalidomide 400mg daily. Thalidomide was continued until the time of disease progression or documented severe toxicity. Primary endpoints were the safety, response, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). SPSS version 16.0 was used for statistical analysis.
RESULTS: The median follow-up was 18 months (15-20); median age was 51.11 years (range 23-73). Three were 59 (73.8%) males. The bone (n=83; 47.5%), lungs (n=26; 32.5%) and lymph nodes (n=8; 10%) were frequent sites of distant metastases. Of the patients, 32 (40%) had previous different systemic treatments. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were; fatigue (n=34; 42.5%), sensory neuropathy (n=8; 10%), deep venous thrombosis (n=7; 8.8%) and gastrointestinal upset (n=6; 7.5%). Response rates were available for 75 patients: partial 48 (60%); stable disease 12 (15%); progression 15 (18.8%); while 5 (6.2%) were not evaluated. Median progression free survival and overall survival rates were 7 months and 19 months respectively.
CONCLUSION: Low-dose thalidomide resulted in manageable toxicity, better response rates, progression free survival and overall survival in the study population. Further large randomised trials are warranted.
Korhonen P, Zuber E, Branson M, et al.Correcting overall survival for the impact of crossover via a rank-preserving structural failure time (RPSFT) model in the RECORD-1 trial of everolimus in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma.
J Biopharm Stat. 2012; 22(6):1258-71 [PubMed
Clinical trials in oncology often allow patients randomized to placebo to cross over to the active treatment arm after disease progression, leading to underestimation of the treatment effect on overall survival as per the intention-to-treat analysis. We illustrate the statistical aspects and practical use of the rank-preserving structural failure time (RPSFT) model with the Fleming-Harrington family of tests to estimate the crossover-corrected treatment effect, and to assess its sensitivity to various weighting schemes in the RECORD-1 trial. The results suggest that the benefit demonstrated in progression-free survival is likely to translate into a robust overall survival benefit.
Kowalski M, Guindon J, Brazas L, et al.A phase II study of oportuzumab monatox: an immunotoxin therapy for patients with noninvasive urothelial carcinoma in situ previously treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin.
J Urol. 2012; 188(5):1712-8 [PubMed
PURPOSE: A phase II study was performed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of intravesical oportuzumab monatox in patients with urothelial carcinoma in situ of the bladder. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin treatment had previously failed in all patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 46 patients received 1 induction cycle of 6 (cohort 1) or 12 (cohort 2) weekly intravesical oportuzumab monatox (VB4-845) instillations of 30 mg, followed by up to 3 maintenance cycles of 3 weekly administrations every 3 months.
RESULTS: A complete response to oportuzumab monatox was seen in 9 of 22 patients (41%) in cohort 1 and 9 of 23 (39%) in cohort 2 at the 3-month evaluation. A total of 20 patients (44%) achieved a complete response. Two other patients without carcinoma in situ who achieved a complete response were not included in the study due to the development of noninvasive papillary (Ta) disease. Median time to recurrence in patients who achieved a complete response was 274 and 408 days in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. Overall 7 patients (16%) remained disease-free. Post-study assessment demonstrated that these patients were still disease-free at last followup (18 to 25 months). The most common adverse events were mild to moderate reversible bladder symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS: Oportuzumab monatox was effective and well tolerated in patients with bacillus Calmette-Guérin refractory carcinoma in situ of the bladder. These results demonstrate the clinical benefit of oportuzumab monatox and support its continued development for the second line treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.
Eisen T, Joensuu H, Nathan PD, et al.Regorafenib for patients with previously untreated metastatic or unresectable renal-cell carcinoma: a single-group phase 2 trial.
Lancet Oncol. 2012; 13(10):1055-62 [PubMed
BACKGROUND: Regorafenib inhibits VEGF receptors 1, 2, and 3 and PDGF receptors like other anti-angiogenic tyrosine-kinase inhibitors approved for treatment of advanced renal-cell cancer. Regorafenib also inhibits other potentially important angiogenic kinases like TIE2, activation of which is thought to be important in tumour escape mechanisms. This phase 2, open-label, non-randomised study assessed the safety and efficacy of the multikinase inhibitor regorafenib for treatment of renal-cell carcinoma.
METHODS: Patients were recruited from 18 academic oncology centres across Europe and USA. Patients with previously untreated metastatic or unresectable clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma received oral regorafenib (160 mg per day) in repeating cycles of 3 weeks on, 1 week off until disease progression or until patients met the criteria for removal from study. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved an objective overall response, assessed in all patients who were evaluable for response. The trial has finished. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00664326.
FINDINGS: The study was done between April 30, 2008, and June 1, 2011. We screened 64 patients, of whom 49 received regorafenib. Median duration of treatment was 7·1 months (range 0·7-34·4, IQR 2·5-18·0) and at the time of data cutoff, six patients (12%) were still receiving treatment. 48 patients were assessable for tumour response. 19 patients (39·6%, 90% CI 27·7-52·5) had an objective response, all of which were partial responses. Drug-related adverse events occurred in 48 patients (98%) and drug-related serious adverse events in 17 (35%). Grade 3 drug-related adverse events were common, most frequently hand and foot skin reaction (16 patients, 33%), diarrhoea (five patients, 10%), renal failure (five patients, 10%), fatigue (four patients, 8%), and hypertension (three patients, 6%). Two patients had grade 4 treatment-related adverse events: two cardiac ischaemia or infarction, one hypomagnesaemia, and one pain in the chest or thorax. Four patients died during study treatment or within 30 days of last dose, of which two were deemed likely to be related to the study drug.
INTERPRETATION: Regorafenib has antitumour activity as first-line treatment for metastatic or unresectable renal-cell carcinoma. The drug's safety profile requires close monitoring.
Kunieda F, Kitamura H, Niwakawa M, et al.Watchful waiting versus intravesical BCG therapy for high-grade pT1 bladder cancer with pT0 histology after second transurethral resection: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG1019.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2012; 42(11):1094-8 [PubMed
A Phase III clinical trial has been started in Japan to determine the optimal treatment strategy for patients with high-grade pT1 bladder cancer who have pT0 histology after second transurethral resection. The aim of this trial is to demonstrate the non-inferiority of relapse-free survival (excluding Tis or Ta intravesical recurrence) for watchful waiting compared with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for pT0 after second transurethral resection. Patients with high-grade pT1 bladder cancer at the first registration and pT0 after second transurethral resection at the second registration are randomized to either a watchful waiting arm or an intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy arm. A total of 575 patients at the first registration and 260 patients at the second registration will be accrued for this study from 38 institutions over 5 years. The primary endpoint is relapse-free survival (excluding Tis or Ta intravesical recurrence), and the secondary endpoints are overall survival, metastasis-free survival with bladder preserved, annual proportion of intravesical relapse-free survival, annual proportion of T2 or deeper relapse-free survival, adverse events and serious adverse events.
Wong YN, Litwin S, Vaughn D, et al.Phase II trial of cetuximab with or without paclitaxel in patients with advanced urothelial tract carcinoma.
J Clin Oncol. 2012; 30(28):3545-51 [PubMed
] Article available free on PMC
PURPOSE: The benefit of salvage chemotherapy is modest in metastatic urothelial cancer. We conducted a randomized, noncomparative phase II study to measure the efficacy of cetuximab with or without paclitaxel in patients with previously treated urothelial cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with metastatic urothelial cancer who received one line of chemotherapy in the perioperative or metastatic setting were randomly assigned to 4-week cycles of cetuximab 250 mg/m(2) with or without paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) per week. We used early progression as an indicator of futility. Either arm would close if seven of the initial 15 patients in that arm progressed at the first disease evaluation at 8 weeks.
RESULTS: We enrolled 39 evaluable patients. The single-agent cetuximab arm closed after nine of the first 11 patients progressed by 8 weeks. The combination arm completed the full accrual of 28 patients, of whom 22 patients (78.5%) had visceral disease. Twelve of 28 patients had progression-free survival greater than 16 weeks. The overall response rate was 25% (95% CI, 11% to 45%; three complete responses and four partial responses). The median progression-free survival was 16.4 weeks (95% CI, 12 to 25.1 weeks), and the median overall survival was 42 weeks (95% CI, 30.4 to 78 weeks). Treatment-related grade 3 and 4 adverse events that occurred in at least two patients were rash (six cases), fatigue (five cases), and low magnesium (three cases).
CONCLUSION: Although it had limited activity as a single agent, cetuximab appears to augment the antitumor activity of paclitaxel in previously treated urothelial cancers. The cetuximab and paclitaxel combination merits additional study to establish its role in the treatment of urothelial cancers.
Siefker-Radtke AO, Dinney CP, Shen Y, et al.A phase 2 clinical trial of sequential neoadjuvant chemotherapy with ifosfamide, doxorubicin, and gemcitabine followed by cisplatin, gemcitabine, and ifosfamide in locally advanced urothelial cancer: final results.
Cancer. 2013; 119(3):540-7 [PubMed
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves the survival of patients with high-risk urothelial cancer. However, the lack of curative alternatives to cisplatin-based chemotherapy is limiting for patients with neuropathy or hearing loss. Sequential chemotherapy also has not been well studied in the neoadjuvant setting. The authors explored sequential neoadjuvant ifosfamide-based chemotherapy in a patient cohort at high risk of noncurative cystectomy.
METHODS: Patients with muscle-invasive cancer and lymphovascular invasion, hydronephrosis, clinical T3b and T4a (cT3b-4a) disease (defined as a 3-dimensional mass on examination under anesthetic or invasion into local organs), micropapillary tumors, or upper tract disease received 3 cycles of combined ifosfamide, doxorubicin, and gemcitabine followed by 4 cycles of combined cisplatin, gemcitabine, and ifosfamide. The primary endpoint was downstaging to pT1N0M0 disease or lower.
RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 85.3 months, the 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates for all 65 patients were 63% and 68%, respectively (95% confidence interval: 5-year OS rate, 0.52%-0.76%; 5-year DSS rate, 0.58%-0.81%). Pathologic downstaging to pT1N0 disease or lower occurred in 50% of patients who underwent cystectomy and in 60% of patients who underwent nephroureterectomy and was correlated with the 5-year OS rate (pT1N0 disease or lower, 87%; pT2-pT3aN0 disease, 67%; and pT3b disease or higher or lymph node-negative disease, 27%; P ≤ .001 for pT1 or lower vs pT2 or higher). Variant histology was associated with an inferior 5-year DSS rate (50% vs 83% in pure transitional cell carcinoma; P = .02). The most frequent grade 3 toxicities were infection (38%), febrile neutropenia (22%), and mucositis (18%). There were 3 grade 4 toxicities (myocardial infarction, thrombocytopenia, and vomiting) and 1 grade 5 toxicity in a patient who refused antibiotics for pneumonia.
CONCLUSIONS: Sequential therapy was active and maintained the historic expectation of achieving a cure. The current results strongly reinforced previous experience suggesting that pathologic downstaging to pT1N0 disease or less is a useful surrogate for eventual cure in patients with urothelial cancer.
Sun Y, Rha S, Lee SH, et al.Phase II study of the safety and efficacy of temsirolimus in East Asian patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2012; 42(9):836-44 [PubMed
OBJECTIVE: Temsirolimus, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, is approved for treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma in the USA and Europe. Temsirolimus was not yet evaluated in East Asian patients.
METHODS: This non-randomized Phase II study enrolled 82 patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma [20 (24%) Japanese, 30 (37%) Korean and 32 (39%) Chinese patients; median age (range): 55 (26-83) years]. Most (71%) received prior systemic therapy for metastatic disease; two-thirds were intermediate risk. Six Japanese patients received intravenous temsirolimus 20 mg/m(2) weekly for tolerability assessment (Group A); the remaining 76 received a 25 mg flat dose weekly (Group B). Temsirolimus was dosed once weekly. Primary efficacy end point was the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors-defined clinical benefit rate in the intent-to-treat population.
RESULTS: In the entire population, regardless of treatment group, the clinical benefit rate was 48% (95% confidence interval: 36, 59). Objective response rate was 11% (95% confidence interval: 5, 20), median progression-free survival was 7.3 months (95% confidence interval: 4.0, 9.2) and median time to treatment failure was 5.4 months (95% confidence interval: 3.5, 7.4). No patient in Group A demonstrated dose-limiting toxicity. The most frequent Grade 3 or 4 drug-related adverse events were anemia, hyperglycemia, hypophosphatemia and stomatitis (5% each). Serious adverse events reported in ≥ 5% of patients were pneumonia (9%) and interstitial lung disease (7%). Temsirolimus and its major metabolite, sirolimus, were long-lived throughout the dosage interval, with no evidence of accumulation.
CONCLUSION: Temsirolimus was well tolerated and showed promising activity in Japanese, Korean and Chinese patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.
Necchi A, Mariani L, Zaffaroni N, et al.Pazopanib in advanced and platinum-resistant urothelial cancer: an open-label, single group, phase 2 trial.
Lancet Oncol. 2012; 13(8):810-6 [PubMed
BACKGROUND: The development of new drugs for patients with refractory urothelial cancer is still an unmet medical need. Preclinical evidence lends support to a rationale for targeting of the VEGF or platelet-derived growth-factor axis. We therefore investigated the activity and safety of pazopanib, a multitarget drug with antiangiogenic activity, in patients with urothelial cancer.
METHODS: In an open-label, single-group, phase 2 study, patients (aged ≥18 years) with relapsed or refractory urothelial cancer were given pazopanib 800 mg per day, orally. They were treated until disease progression or prohibitive toxicity occurred. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved a confirmed objective response, defined as complete or partial response, after independent review, and was analysed by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01031875.
FINDINGS: The trial has been completed. 21 (51%) of 41 patients enrolled were given pazopanib as third-line or further-line treatment. 26 (63%) patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 or 2. Seven patients had a confirmed objective response (17·1%, 95% CI 7·2-32·1), all of which were partial responses. The most frequent treatment-related grade 3 adverse events were hypertension (three [7%]), fatigue (two [5%]), and gastrointestinal and vaginal fistulisations (two each [5%]). One patient died as a result of duodenal fistulisation that was related to tissue response of bulky tumour masses.
INTERPRETATION: Pazopanib has single-agent activity in patients with heavily pretreated metastatic urothelial cancer, and warrants further study in this setting. Particular attention should be paid to patients with bulky tumour masses adjacent to viscera because fistulisation is probably related to the response to pazopanib and is the most frequent serious adverse event.
FUNDING: Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori provided the grant. GlaxoSmithKline provided the study drug and provided funding for the independent radiological review.
Tannir NM, Plimack E, Ng C, et al.A phase 2 trial of sunitinib in patients with advanced non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Eur Urol. 2012; 62(6):1013-9 [PubMed
BACKGROUND: Sunitinib is a standard-of-care treatment in advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Retrospective and expanded access data suggest sunitinib has activity in advanced non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (nccRCC).
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively determine the clinical efficacy and safety of sunitinib in patients with advanced nccRCC.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This is a single-arm phase 2 trial with a two-stage design. Eligibility criteria included pathologically confirmed nccRCC or ccRCC with ≥ 20% sarcomatoid histology, performance status 0-2, measurable disease, a maximum of two prior systemic therapies, and no prior treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors directed against the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors.
INTERVENTION: Patients received sunitinib 50mg daily on a 4-wk on, 2-wk off schedule. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Primary end points were objective response rate (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points were safety and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Fifty-seven patients were eligible (nccRCC histology: papillary, 27; chromophobe, 5; unclassified, 8; collecting duct or medullary carcinoma, 6; sarcomatoid, 7; and others, 4). Median PFS for 55 evaluable patients was 2.7 mo (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-5.4). Two patients with chromophobe and one patient with unclassified histology had a confirmed partial response (5% ORR). Median PFS for patients with papillary histology was 1.6 mo (95% CI, 1.4-5.4). Median PFS for patients with chromophobe histology was 12.7 mo (95% CI, 8.5-NA). Median OS for all patients was 16.8 mo (95% CI, 10.7-26.3). Treatment-emergent adverse events were consistent with sunitinib's mechanism of action. The nonrandomized design and small number of patients are limitations of this study.
CONCLUSIONS: The differential response of chromophobe histology to sunitinib suggests a therapeutically relevant biological heterogeneity exists within nccRCC. The low ORR and short PFS with sunitinib in the other nccRCC subtypes underscore the need to enroll patients with these diverse tumors in clinical trials.
Powles T, Sarwar N, Jones R, et al.An indirect comparison of the toxicity of sunitinib and pazopanib in metastatic clear cell renal cancer.
Eur J Cancer. 2012; 48(17):3171-6 [PubMed
BACKGROUND: Both sunitinib and pazopanib are widely used as first line therapy in metastatic renal cancer (mRCC). The efficacy of these agents appears similar but they may have distinct toxicity profiles. In this study we compare the severity of symptomatic and asymptomatic toxicity associated with sunitinib and pazopanib.
METHODS: Two sequential prospective single arm phase II studies investigated either 12 weeks of sunitinib (n=43) or pazopanib (n=34) prior to nephrectomy in untreated mRCC. Toxicity was defined as either symptomatic (hand and foot syndrome, mucositis, nausea, fatigue, diarrhoea, oedema, headache, pain, anorexia and change in taste) or asymptomatic (liver toxicity or haematological toxicity). Pazopanib (800 mg once daily (OD)) and sunitinib (50 mg 4/2) were given. Regular Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) toxicity assessment was performed during the first 12 weeks of therapy.
RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the overall number of toxic events (grade 1-4) for sunitinib and pazopanib (mean number of toxic events/patients: 1.97 versus 1.96: p>0.05). Increased grade 2-4 symptomatic toxicity events occurred with sunitinib (hazard ratio (HR) 1.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-2.56] p<0.03). Sunitinib was associated with an increased grade 2-4 mucositis (16% versus 0% p=0.02) and fatigue (42% versus 15% p=0.01). Pazopanib was associated with more frequent grade 1 diarrhoea (39% versus 12%: p=0.03). Dose reductions for symptomatic toxicity occurred more frequently with sunitinib (26% versus 6% p<0.05). There was no difference in the occurrence of asymptomatic toxicity.
CONCLUSION: This indirect analysis suggests sunitinib and pazopanib have distinct toxicity profiles which may help guide patient's choice. Further comparative data from randomised trials are awaited.
A 2-week maintenance regimen of intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette-Guerin is safe, adherent and effective in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a prospective, multicenter phase II clinical trial.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2012; 42(9):813-9 [PubMed
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety and efficacy of a maintenance regimen of bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy including 6-week induction and 2-week maintenance instillation for patients with recurrent or multiple Ta, T1 tumors or carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder.
METHODS: This study was performed as single-arm multi-institutional study. The enrolled patients had been diagnosed with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, including the presence of at least two bladder tumors, single tumors recurring within 12 months of follow-up, any Grade 3 Stage Ta or T1 tumor, and primary or recurrent biopsy proven carcinoma in situ. Patients received 81 mg intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (Connaught strain). The instillation was repeated once a week for another 5 weeks, followed by once a week for 2 weeks at months 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36, for a total of 20 instillations in 3 years.
RESULTS: From 28 hospitals, 202 patients were registered. A total of 186 patients matched the inclusion criteria: 139 patients in the Ta/T1group and 47 patients in the carcinoma in situ group. At the 4-year median point of follow-up, recurrence-free survival rates in the Ta/T1 group and the carcinoma in situ group were 76.7 and 77.7%, respectively. Completion rates for maintenance therapy in both groups at months 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 were 81.7, 68.9, 58.1, 42.5 and 35.0%, respectively. Common toxicities were pain on urination, urinary frequency and gross hematuria. There was no treatment-related death.
CONCLUSIONS: This regimen may be feasible in patients with Ta/T1 tumor or carcinoma in situ; however, future Phase III randomized study is needed to determine whether this regimen would be truly safe and effective compared with 3-week maintenance regimen.
Harrop R, Treasure P, de Belin J, et al.Analysis of pre-treatment markers predictive of treatment benefit for the therapeutic cancer vaccine MVA-5T4 (TroVax).
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2012; 61(12):2283-94 [PubMed
Cancer vaccines such as MVA-5T4 (TroVax(®)) must induce an efficacious immune response to deliver therapeutic benefit. The identification of biomarkers that impact on the clinical and/or immunological efficacy of cancer vaccines is required in order to select patients who are most likely to benefit from this treatment modality. Here, we sought to identify a predictor of treatment benefit for renal cancer patients treated with MVA-5T4. Statistical modeling was undertaken using data from a phase III trial in which patients requiring first-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma were randomized 1:1 to receive MVA-5T4 or placebo alongside sunitinib, IL-2 or IFN-α. Numerous pre-treatment factors associated with inflammatory anemia (e.g., CRP, hemoglobin, hematocrit, IL-6, ferritin, platelets) demonstrated a significant relationship with tumor burden and patient survival. From these prognostic factors, the pre-treatment mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) was found to be the best predictor of treatment benefit (P < 0.01) for MVA-5T4 treated patients and also correlated positively with tumor shrinkage (P < 0.001). Furthermore, MCHC levels showed a significant positive association with 5T4 antibody response (P = 0.01). The latter result was confirmed using an independent data set comprising phase II trials of MVA-5T4 in patients with colorectal, renal and prostate cancers. Retrospective analyses demonstrated that RCC patients who had very large tumor burdens and low MCHC levels received little or no benefit from treatment with MVA-5T4; however, patients with smaller tumor burdens and normal MCHC levels received substantial benefit from treatment with MVA-5T4.
Rini B, Szczylik C, Tannir NM, et al.AMG 386 in combination with sorafenib in patients with metastatic clear cell carcinoma of the kidney: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study.
Cancer. 2012; 118(24):6152-61 [PubMed
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the tolerability and antitumor activity of AMG 386, a peptibody (a peptide Fc fusion) that neutralizes the interaction of angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 with Tie2 (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2), plus sorafenib in patients with clear cell metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in a randomized controlled study.
METHODS: Previously untreated patients with mRCC were randomized 1:1:1 to receive sorafenib 400 mg orally twice daily plus intravenous AMG 386 at 10 mg/kg (arm A) or 3 mg/kg (arm B) or placebo (arm C) once weekly (qw). Patients in arm C could receive open-label AMG 386 at 10 mg/kg qw plus sorafenib following disease progression. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS).
RESULTS: A total of 152 patients were randomized. Median PFS was 9.0, 8.5, and 9.0 months in arms A, B, and C, respectively (hazard ratio for arms A and B vs arm C, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-1.30; P = .523). The objective response rate (95% CI) for arms A, B, and C, respectively, was 38% (25%-53%), 37% (24%-52%), and 25% (14%-40%). Among 30 patients in arm C who had disease progression and subsequently received open-label AMG 386 at 10 mg/kg qw, the objective response rate was 3% (95% CI, 0%-17%). Frequently occurring adverse events (AEs) included diarrhea (arms A/B/C, 70%/67%/56%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (52%/47%/54%), alopecia (50%/45%/50%), and hypertension (42%/49%/46%). Fifteen patients had grade 4 AEs (arms A/B/C, n = 3/7/5); 4 had fatal AEs (n = 2/1/1), with 1 (abdominal pain, arm B) considered possibly related to AMG 386.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with mRCC, AMG 386 plus sorafenib was tolerable but did not significantly improve PFS compared with placebo plus sorafenib.
Cho DC, Hutson TE, Samlowski W, et al.Two phase 2 trials of the novel Akt inhibitor perifosine in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma after progression on vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy.
Cancer. 2012; 118(24):6055-62 [PubMed
BACKGROUND: The clinical activity of allosteric inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) may be limited by upstream activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt resulting from mTOR1 inhibition. On the basis of this rationale, 2 independent phase 2 trials (Perifosine 228 and 231) were conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of the novel Akt inhibitor perifosine in patients with advanced RCC who had failed on previous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted therapy.
METHODS: In the Perifosine 228 trial, 24 patients with advanced RCC received oral perifosine (100 mg daily). Perifosine 231 enrolled 2 groups that received daily oral perifosine (100 mg daily): Group A comprised 32 patients who had received no prior mTOR inhibitor, and Group B comprised 18 patients who had received 1 prior mTOR inhibitor.
RESULTS: In the Perifosine 228 trial, 1 patient achieved a partial response (objective response rate, 4%; 95% confidence interval, 0.7%-20%), and 11 patients (46%) had stable disease as their best response. The median progression-free survival was 14.2 weeks (95% confidence interval, 7.7-21.6 weeks). In the Perifosine 231 trial, 5 patients achieved a partial response (objective response rate, 10%; 95% confidence interval, 4.5%-22.2%) and 16 patients (32%) had stable disease as their best response. The median progression-free survival was 14 weeks (95% confidence interval, 12.9, 20.7 weeks). Overall, perifosine was well tolerated, and there were very few grade 3 and 4 events. The most common toxicities included nausea, diarrhea, musculoskeletal pain, and fatigue.
CONCLUSIONS: Although perifosine demonstrated activity in patients with advanced RCC after failure on VEGF-targeted therapy, its activity was not superior to currently available second-line agents. Nonetheless, perifosine may be worthy of further study in RCC in combination with other currently available therapies.
Colombo R, Rocchini L, Suardi N, et al.Neoadjuvant short-term intensive intravesical mitomycin C regimen compared with weekly schedule for low-grade recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: preliminary results of a randomised phase 2 study.
Eur Urol. 2012; 62(5):797-802 [PubMed
BACKGROUND: The schedule for intravesical chemotherapy administration has not been definitively established in patients with low-grade recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).
OBJECTIVE: To assess both the feasibility and the efficacy of a short-term intensive schedule of neoadjuvant intravesical chemotherapy in patients with recurrent NMIBC.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomised phase 2 clinical study included 54 patients with recurrent NMIBC who were submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy intravesical instillations according to two different timing schedules. The study was performed at a tertiary care referral centre.
INTERVENTION: Intravesical mitomycin C (MMC) 40 mg/40 ml was administered according to a schedule of either one instillation per week for 6 wk (group 1) or three instillations per week for 2 wk (group 2) prior to transurethral resection (TUR). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Local and systemic toxicity were investigated using the US National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v.4.0 questionnaire at each instillation and the SF-36 questionnaire at randomisation and before TUR. A video-recorded cystoscopy and TUR were performed within 14 d after treatment completion.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Groups 1 and 2 each were assigned 27 cases. Two patients (7.4%) in group 2 could not complete the scheduled treatment because of severe lower urinary tract symptoms. No statistically significant difference in SF-36 domain score was documented pre- and post-treatment between groups. Likewise, no statistically significant difference in treatment-related toxicity according to the CTCAE v.4 questionnaire was registered. Twelve patients (44.4%) in group 1 and 19 patients (70.4%) in group 2 (p=0.04) had complete tumour response. The small number of patients included represents the main limitation of the study.
CONCLUSIONS: The intensive short-term schedule of neoadjuvant chemotherapy is safe and without additional toxicity compared with the weekly regimen. The increased ablative effect may be explained by the improved adherence of the scheduled timing to the duplication rate of tumour cells.
Lammers RJ, Witjes WP, Janzing-Pastors MH, et al.Intracutaneous and intravesical immunotherapy with keyhole limpet hemocyanin compared with intravesical mitomycin in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: results from a prospective randomized phase III trial.
J Clin Oncol. 2012; 30(18):2273-9 [PubMed
PURPOSE: Despite current treatment after transurethral resection of a bladder tumor, recurrences and progression remain a problem. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was beneficial in earlier studies. In this study, safety and efficacy of KLH were compared with that of mitomycin (MM).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with intermediate- and high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) without carcinoma in situ were enrolled in a randomized phase III trial. In all, 283 patients were randomly assigned for 16 adjuvant intravesical instillations with KLH after preimmunization, and 270 patients were randomly assigned for 11 adjuvant intravesical instillations with MM. Primary outcome measurement was recurrence-free survival (RFS). Secondary outcome measurements were progression-free survival, adverse events (AEs), and the effect of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response on clinical outcome.
RESULTS: There were significantly more pT1 tumors in the MM group (P = .01). In a log-rank test, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis, KLH was less effective than MM regarding RFS (all P < .001). Progression was uncommon (n = 20). In univariate Cox regression analyses, KLH tended to prevent progression more effectively than MM, but in multivariate Cox regression analyses, this could not be shown. AEs were common but mild. Fever, flu-like symptoms, and fatigue occurred significantly more after KLH treatment. Allergic reactions and other skin disorders occurred significantly more after MM treatment. Significantly more DTH-positive patients developed a recurrence than DTH-negative patients.
CONCLUSION: KLH had a different safety profile and was inferior to MM in preventing NMIBC recurrences. KLH tended to be more effective than MM in preventing progression. More research is needed to clarify the immunologic effects of KLH and the effects of KLH on progression.
Patil S, Figlin RA, Hutson TE, et al.Q-TWiST analysis to estimate overall benefit for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated in a phase III trial of sunitinib vs interferon-α.
Br J Cancer. 2012; 106(10):1587-90 [PubMed
] Article available free on PMC
BACKGROUND: In a randomised phase III trial of treatment-naive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, sunitinib showed significant improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) compared with interferon (IFN)-α. We assessed between-treatment differences in overall benefit using a quality-adjusted Time Without Symptoms of disease progression or Toxicity of treatment (TWiST; Gelber and Goldhirsch) analysis.
METHODS: In this analysis, in which only grade 3/4 treatment-related toxicities were included, overall survival was partitioned into three health states: toxicity (time with toxicity after randomisation and before progression), time without symptoms of disease progression or toxicity, and time from progression until death. Between-treatment differences in the mean duration of each state were calculated. A threshold utility analysis was used to assess quality-adjusted TWiST (Q-TWiST) outcomes.
RESULTS: Q-TWiST scores showed that quality-adjusted survival time was greater with sunitinib than with IFN-α, even though certain grade 3/4 toxicities occurred more frequently with sunitinib. For both treatments, the mean number of days with toxicity was small compared with PFS. This effect was more pronounced with sunitinib in which time spent without progression or toxicity was 151 days greater than with IFN-α.
CONCLUSION: Patients randomised to sunitinib had longer clinical benefit, defined as Q-TWiST scores, than patients randomised to IFN-α.
Amato R, Zhai J, Willis J, et al.A phase II trial of intrapatient dose-escalated sorafenib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2012; 10(3):153-8 [PubMed
PURPOSE: Sorafenib has been demonstrated as second-line therapy, with limited significant adverse events at a dose of 400 mg twice a day (b.i.d.) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. This study evaluated the ability of patients to dose-escalate, response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival.
METHODS: The initial dose of sorafenib was 400 mg b.i.d.. Dose escalation of sorafenib to 600 mg b.i.d. occurred from days 29-56 and increased to 800 mg b.i.d. on day 57 and beyond as tolerated. Dose modifications were performed for toxicity per the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 3.0. The patients were evaluated every 2 cycles (8 weeks) by using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.0.
RESULTS: Forty-four patients were evaluable for response. Median age was 62.5 years, 39 patients had a Karnofsky Perfomance Status of 100%. Twenty-two patients received no prior therapy. Of the evaluable patients, 42 were dose escalated to 600 mg b.i.d., and 74% (31) of these were further dose escalated to 800 mg b.i.d.. Eight patients had a complete response (CR), 13 patients demonstrated a partial response (PR), and 21 patients had stable disease. Common treatment-related adverse events included hypertension, hand-foot syndrome, skin rash, diarrhea, dry skin, alopecia, and facial redness.
DISCUSSION: The majority of patients were escalated to 600 mg b.i.d. or 800 mg b.i.d.. Intrapatient dose-escalated sorafenib has promising antitumor activity as demonstrated by a 48% CR-PR rate (21 patients). Antitumor activity is further suggested by a prolonged PFS ≥6 months in 64% (28) of patients. Significant antitumor activity and reversible adverse events has been demonstrated in escalated doses of sorafenib.
James ND, Hussain SA, Hall E, et al.Radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2012; 366(16):1477-88 [PubMed
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is an alternative to cystectomy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. In other disease sites, synchronous chemoradiotherapy has been associated with increased local control and improved survival, as compared with radiotherapy alone.
METHODS: In this multicenter, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 360 patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer to undergo radiotherapy with or without synchronous chemotherapy. The regimen consisted of fluorouracil (500 mg per square meter of body-surface area per day) during fractions 1 to 5 and 16 to 20 of radiotherapy and mitomycin C (12 mg per square meter) on day 1. Patients were also randomly assigned to undergo either whole-bladder radiotherapy or modified-volume radiotherapy (in which the volume of bladder receiving full-dose radiotherapy was reduced) in a partial 2-by-2 factorial design (results not reported here). The primary end point was survival free of locoregional disease. Secondary end points included overall survival and toxic effects.
RESULTS: At 2 years, rates of locoregional disease-free survival were 67% (95% confidence interval [CI], 59 to 74) in the chemoradiotherapy group and 54% (95% CI, 46 to 62) in the radiotherapy group. With a median follow-up of 69.9 months, the hazard ratio in the chemoradiotherapy group was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.48 to 0.96; P=0.03). Five-year rates of overall survival were 48% (95% CI, 40 to 55) in the chemoradiotherapy group and 35% (95% CI, 28 to 43) in the radiotherapy group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.09; P=0.16). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events were slightly more common in the chemoradiotherapy group than in the radiotherapy group during treatment (36.0% vs. 27.5%, P=0.07) but not during follow-up (8.3% vs. 15.7%, P=0.07).
CONCLUSIONS: Synchronous chemotherapy with fluorouracil and mitomycin C combined with radiotherapy significantly improved locoregional control of bladder cancer, as compared with radiotherapy alone, with no significant increase in adverse events. (Funded by Cancer Research U.K.; BC2001 Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN68324339.).
Nosov DA, Esteves B, Lipatov ON, et al.Antitumor activity and safety of tivozanib (AV-951) in a phase II randomized discontinuation trial in patients with renal cell carcinoma.
J Clin Oncol. 2012; 30(14):1678-85 [PubMed
PURPOSE: The antitumor activity and safety of tivozanib, which is a potent and selective vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, -2, and -3 inhibitor, was assessed in patients with advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this phase II, randomized discontinuation trial, 272 patients received open-label tivozanib 1.5 mg/d (one cycle equaled three treatment weeks followed by a 1-week break) orally for 16 weeks. Thereafter, 78 patients who demonstrated ≥ 25% tumor shrinkage continued to take tivozanib, and 118 patients with less than 25% tumor change were randomly assigned to receive tivozanib or a placebo in a double-blind manner; patients with ≥ 25% tumor growth were discontinued. Primary end points included safety, the objective response rate (ORR) at 16 weeks, and the percentage of randomly assigned patients who remained progression free after 12 weeks of double-blind treatment; secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS).
RESULTS: Of 272 patients enrolled onto the study, 83% of patients had clear-cell histology, 73% of patients had undergone nephrectomy, and 54% of patients were treatment naive. The ORR after 16 weeks of tivozanib treatment was 18% (95% CI, 14% to 23%). Of the 118 randomized patients, significantly more patients who were randomly assigned to receive double-blind tivozanib remained progression free after 12 weeks versus patients who received the placebo (49% v 21%; P = .001). Throughout the study, the ORR was 24% (95% CI, 19% to 30%), and the median PFS was 11.7 months (95% CI, 8.3 to 14.3 months) in the overall study population. The most common grade 3 and 4 treatment-related adverse event was hypertension (12%).
CONCLUSION: Tivozanib was active and well tolerated in patients with advanced RCC. These data support additional development of tivozanib in advanced RCC.
Seront E, Rottey S, Sautois B, et al.Phase II study of everolimus in patients with locally advanced or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelial tract: clinical activity, molecular response, and biomarkers.
Ann Oncol. 2012; 23(10):2663-70 [PubMed
BACKGROUND: This phase II study assessed the safety and efficacy of everolimus, an oral mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor in advanced transitional carcinoma cell (TCC) after failure of platinum-based therapy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with advanced TCC received everolimus 10 mg/day until progressive disease (PD) or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was the disease control rate (DCR), defined as either stable disease (SD), partial response (PR), or complete response at 8 weeks. Angiogenesis-related proteins were detected in plasma and changes during everolimus treatment were analyzed. PTEN expression and PIK3CA mutations were correlated to disease control.
RESULTS: Two confirmed PR and eight SD were observed, resulting in a DCR of 27% at 8 weeks. Everolimus was well tolerated. Compared with patients with noncontrolled disease, we observed in patients with controlled disease a significant higher baseline level of angiopoietin-1 and a significant early plasma decrease in angiopoietin-1, endoglin, and platelet-derived growth factor-AB. PTEN loss was observed only in patients with PD.
CONCLUSIONS: Everolimus showed clinical activity in advanced TCC. The profile of the plasma angiogenesis-related proteins suggested a role of the everolimus antiangiogenic properties in disease control. PTEN loss might be associated with everolimus resistance.
Bracarda S, Hutson TE, Porta C, et al.Everolimus in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients intolerant to previous VEGFr-TKI therapy: a RECORD-1 subgroup analysis.
Br J Cancer. 2012; 106(9):1475-80 [PubMed
] Article available free on PMC
BACKGROUND: A relevant percentage of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma develop intolerance to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFr-TKIs) and require careful selection of subsequent treatment. This retrospective analysis evaluated the safety and efficacy of everolimus in patients enrolled in the phase-III RECORD-1 trial who discontinued previous VEGFr-TKI therapy because of toxicity.
METHODS: Patients with an adverse event (AE) as their primary reason for discontinuation of previous VEGFr-TKI therapy were included. Median progression-free survival (PFS) for VEGFr-TKI-intolerant patients in each arm was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and effect on PFS (hazard ratio (HR)) was calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model.
RESULTS: In VEGFr-TKI-intolerant patients (n=58, 14%), median PFS was 5.4 months with everolimus and 1.9 months with placebo (HR: 0.32; P=0.004). In sunitinib-intolerant patients (n=26), median PFS was 5.1 months with everolimus and 2.8 months with placebo (HR: 0.28; P=0.033). Grade 3/4 AEs reported with everolimus in VEGFr-TKI-intolerant patients included infections (16%), fatigue (7%) and stomatitis (4%). The toxicity profile of everolimus was similar in the VEGFr-TKI-intolerant and overall study populations.
CONCLUSION: Everolimus is well tolerated and efficacious with no increased toxicity in patients intolerant to VEGFr-TKI therapy.
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