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Pazopanib (Votrient)

Web Resources: Pazopanib (Votrient)
Latest Research Publications: Pazopanib

Web Resources: Pazopanib (Votrient) (6 links)

Latest Research Publications: Pazopanib

Ide S, Sakamoto N, Hara S, et al.
Interstitial Lung Disease Induced by Pazopanib Treatment.
Intern Med. 2017; 56(1):79-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although pneumothorax has been reported to be a major pulmonary adverse event in patients treated with pazopanib, a multikinase inhibitor, drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) has not been reported. A 74-year-old Japanese man who received pazopanib for the treatment of femoral leiomyosarcoma and lung metastasis presented with dyspnea and fatigue. He had mild interstitial pneumonia when pazopanib treatment was initiated. Chest computed tomography revealed progressive bilateral ground-glass opacity (GGO) and traction bronchiectasis. We diagnosed DILD due to pazopanib. The patient's pazopanib treatment was interrupted and a steroid was administered. The symptoms and GGO were improved with treatment. Physicians should be aware of DILD due to pazopanib in patients with pre-existing interstitial lung disease.

Kollár A, Jones RL, Stacchiotti S, et al.
Pazopanib in advanced vascular sarcomas: an EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (STBSG) retrospective analysis.
Acta Oncol. 2017; 56(1):88-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pazopanib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of patients with selective subtypes of advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) who have previously received standard chemotherapy including anthracyclines. Data on the efficacy in vascular sarcomas are limited. The main objective of this study was to investigate the activity of pazopanib in vascular sarcomas.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of patients with advanced vascular sarcomas, including angiosarcoma (AS), epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HE) and intimal sarcoma (IS) treated with pazopanib in real life practice at EORTC centers as well as patients treated within the EORTC phase II and III clinical trials (62043/62072) was performed. Patient and tumor characteristics were collected. Response was assessed according to RECIST 1.1. and survival analysis was performed.
RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were identified, 40 (76.9%), 10 (19.2%) and two (3.8%) with AS, HE and IS, respectively. The response rate was eight (20%), two (20%) and two (100%) in the AS, HE and IS subtypes, respectively. There was no significant difference in response rate between cutaneous and non-cutaneous AS and similarly between radiation-associated and non-radiation-associated AS. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and median overall survival (OS; from commencing pazopanib) were three months (95% CI 2.1-4.4) and 9.9 months (95% CI 6.5-11.3) in AS, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The activity of pazopanib in AS is comparable to its reported activity in other STS subtypes. In this study, the activity of pazopanib was similar in cutaneous/non-cutaneous and in radiation/non-radiation-associated AS. In addition, pazopanib showed promising activity in HE and IS, worthy of further evaluation.

Casanova M, Basso E, Magni C, et al.
Response to pazopanib in two pediatric patients with pretreated relapsing synovial sarcoma.
Tumori. 2017; 103(1):e1-e3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pazopanib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that has proved effective in adults treated for relapsing soft tissue sarcoma and synovial sarcoma in particular. Two cases are reported here of pediatric patients with pretreated relapsing synovial sarcoma whose tumors showed a prolonged response to pazopanib given on compassionate grounds. These results suggest that new agents found effective in adult patients might achieve similar results in adolescents with the same disease. Facilitating the availability of new drugs for children and adolescents is a major challenge for pediatric oncologists.

Subbiah V, Holmes O, Gowen K, et al.
Activity of c-Met/ALK Inhibitor Crizotinib and Multi-Kinase VEGF Inhibitor Pazopanib in Metastatic Gastrointestinal Neuroectodermal Tumor Harboring EWSR1-CREB1 Fusion.
Oncology. 2016; 91(6):348-353 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/10/2017 Related Publications
Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET) is an aggressive rare tumor, primarily occurring in young adults with frequent local-regional metastases and recurrence after local control. The tumor is characterized by the presence of EWSR1-ATF1 or EWSR1-CREB1 and immunohistochemical positivity for S-100 protein without melanocytic marker positivity. Due to poor responses to standard sarcoma regimens, GNET has a poor prognosis, and development of effective systemic therapy is desperately needed to treat these patients. Herein, we present a patient with a small bowel GNET who experienced recurrent hepatic and skeletal metastases after a primary resection. Comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) in the course of clinical care with DNA and RNA sequencing demonstrated the presence of an exon 7 to exon 6 EWSR1-CREB1 fusion in the context of a diploid genome with no other genomic alterations. In a clinical trial, the patient received a combination of 250 mg crizotinib with 600 mg pazopanib quaque die and achieved partial response and durable clinical benefit for over 2.8 years, and with minimal toxicity from therapy. Using a CGP database of over 50,000 samples, we identified 11 additional cases that harbor EWSR1-CREB1 and report clinicopathologic characteristics, as these patients may also benefit from such a regimen.

Boudou-Rouquette P, Tlemsani C, Blanchet B, et al.
Clinical pharmacology, drug-drug interactions and safety of pazopanib: a review.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2016; 12(12):1433-1444 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: In the past decade, treatment options for metastatic renal cell carcinoma and soft-tissue sarcoma have expanded. Pazopanib was discovered during the screening of compounds that suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). As other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), pazopanib is not totally specific for one target since it also inhibits stem-cell factor receptor (cKIT), platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRα, β), VEGFR-1 and -3. Areas covered: Clinical pharmacology, drug-drug interactions and safety data published on pazopanib, between January 2006 and April 2016, are reviewed. Expert opinion: This new therapy has been shown to improve progression-free survival compared with previous approaches, in renal cell cancer and soft-tissue sarcoma. However, some specific sub-populations, such as elderly patients, patients with brain metastases or with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) 2 or comorbidities, are poorly represented in pivotal pazopanib phase III studies. Pazopanib meets criteria defining therapies as candidates for therapeutic drug monitoring: large intra- and inter-patient pharmacokinetic variability, potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship and narrow therapeutic index. Knowledge of predictors that can be used to guide dosing regimens in the target population and in special populations needs to be improved.

Kim MJ, Park SH, Lee JL, et al.
A Korean multi-center, real-world, retrospective study of first-line pazopanib in unselected patients with metastatic renal clear-cell carcinoma.
BMC Urol. 2016; 16(1):46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/10/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The efficacy and/or tolerability of pazopanib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) have been found to differ in Western and Asian populations. This retrospective multicenter study analyzed the results of first-line pazopanib treatment in 93 consecutive patients with mRCC who were treated at the medical oncology departments of three tertiary cancer centers in Seoul, Korea.
METHODS: The decision to administer pazopanib as first-line therapy was at the discretion of the treating physician in all patients with mRCC. Patients enrolled in clinical trials were excluded to ensure that the results would reflect real-world outcomes representative of daily clinical settings. All patients received 800 mg/day pazopanib. Outcomes included response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety.
RESULTS: The 93 patients included72 (77 %) male and 21 (23 %) female individuals, of median age 65 years (range, 19-84 years). The median number of metastatic sites per patient was two (range, 1-5), with the lungs being the most frequently involved site. Most patients had favorable (n = 46) or intermediate (n = 36) risk as determined by Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center criteria. Pazopanib was generally welltolerated: the major hematologic adverse effect was grade 1/2 anemia (14 %); and the most frequently observed non-hematologic toxicity was grade 1/2 mucositis (22 %), followed by hair discoloration and hypertension. Of the 93 patients, three (3 %) showed complete response, 52 (56 %) showed partial response, and 21 (23 %) showed stable disease, making the objective response rate 59 % and the disease control rate 82 %. At a median follow-up of 21 months, the estimated median PFS and OS were 12.2 months (95 % confidence interval, 7.1-17.4 months) and 21.9 months (95 % confidence interval, 12.9-30.9 months), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective study, first-line therapy with pazopanib demonstrated clinically relevant efficacy and tolerability in unselected real-world Korean patients with mRCC. OS and PFS of these Korean patients were similar to those reported in phase III trials.

Kok VC, Kuo JT
Pazopanib as a second-line treatment for non-cytokine-treated metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis of the effect of treatment.
BMC Urol. 2016; 16(1):34 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/10/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The currently recommended treatment algorithm for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who fail the first-line targeted therapy does not normally include pazopanib as a second-line treatment option. It would therefore be of interest to determine the efficiency of pazopanib in this setting in terms of the partial response rate (PRR), disease control rate (DCR), and progression-free survival (PFS).
METHODS: Peer-reviewed clinical reports without language restriction, both full papers and conference abstracts, which assessed the second-line use of pazopanib following failure of first-line non-cytokine-targeted therapy, were included. After the literature retrieval, we conducted a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)-compliant systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of the size of the effect of each outcome measure (PRR, DCR, and PFS). The effect size and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed-effect or random-effects models based on the heterogeneity represented by I(2) of selected studies. Meta-analysis forest plots with a fixed-effect model showing the PRR and DCR were created.
RESULTS: Our results show that there are no available comparative studies on pazopanib second-line treatment. Only phase II trials or retrospective analysis reports were retrievable. Six studies (comprising 217 patients) were included in the qualitative and quantitative analysis. Pazopanib as a second-line treatment resulted in a PRR of 23 % (95 % CI, 17-31 %; I(2) = 52.6 %) and a DCR of 73 % (95 % CI, 65-80 %; I(2) = 0.00 %). The meta-analysis with fixed-effect model revealed that PFS was 6.5 months (95 % CI, 5.6-7.5 months; I(2) = 86.2 %).
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the effectiveness and indication of pazopanib for use in the second-line setting has not yet been examined in-depth; however, this meta-analysis has shown that the treatment effects in terms of PRR, DCR, and PFS may be similar to other well-studied second-line targeted therapies. Rigorous comparative phase III trials testing this hypothesis are required.

Abe K, Yamamoto N, Hayashi K, et al.
Balancing Prolonged Survival with QoL Using Low-dose Pazopanib Maintenance: A Comparison with the PALETTE Study.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(6):2893-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A consensus has not been reached regarding the optimal pazopanib dosing schedule, which we determined in patients who received pazopanib at our Institution.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients who were prescribed pazopanib between 2012 and 2015 were included in this retrospective analysis.
RESULTS: The median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 7.7 months. This time (various doses) was similar to that achieved by high-dose pazopanib in the PALETTE study. The log-rank test revealed no significant differences in the PFS times between the low- and high-dose pazopanib groups, with the majority of patients receiving a dose of 400 mg, indicating that controlling the side-effects might be more critical than administering higher doses.
CONCLUSION: Pazopanib should be started from a low dose with careful increase to avoid pazopanib-related side-effects, which is necessary to provide a balance between the life-prolonging effects of pazopanib and quality of life (QoL) of patients.

Powles T, Sarwar N, Stockdale A, et al.
Safety and Efficacy of Pazopanib Therapy Prior to Planned Nephrectomy in Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cancer.
JAMA Oncol. 2016; 2(10):1303-1309 [PubMed] Related Publications
Importance: The role of cytoreductive nephrectomy in patients with metastatic renal cancer in the era of targeted therapy is uncertain.
Objective: To establish the safety and efficacy of upfront pazopanib therapy prior to cytoreductive nephrectomy in previously untreated patients with metastatic clear cell renal cancer.
Design, Setting, and Participants: Single-arm phase 2 study of 104 previously untreated patients with metastatic clear cell renal cancer recruited between June 2008 and October 2012 at cancer treatment centers with access to nephrectomy services. The minimum follow-up was 30 months.
Interventions: Patients received 12 to 14 weeks of preoperative pazopanib therapy prior to planned cytoreductive nephrectomy and continued pazopanib therapy after surgery. Treatment was stopped at disease progression.
Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was clinical benefit (using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1) prior to surgery (at 12-14 weeks). Secondary end points included surgical complications, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and biomarker analysis.
Results: Of 104 patients recruited, 100 patients were assessable for clinical benefit prior to planned nephrectomy; 80 of 104 (76.9%) were men; median [interquartile range] age, 64 [56-71] years). Overall, 84 of 100 (84% [95% CI, 75%-91%]) gained clinical benefit before planned nephrectomy. The median reduction in the size of the primary tumor was 14.4% (interquartile range, 1.4%-21.1%). No patients were unable to undergo surgery as a result of local progression of disease. Nephrectomy was performed in 63 (61%) of patients; 14 (22%) reported surgical complications. The 2 most common reasons for not undergoing surgery were progression of disease (n = 13) and patient choice (n = 9). There was 1 postoperative surgical death. The median PFS and OS for the whole cohort were 7.1 (95% CI, 6.0-9.2) and 22.7 (95% CI, 14.3-not estimable) months, respectively. Patients with MSKCC poor-risk disease or progressive disease prior to surgery had a poor outcome (median OS, 5.7 [95% CI, 2.6-10.8] and 3.9 [95% CI, 0.5-9.1] months, respectively). Surgical complications were observed in 14 (22%) of the nephrectomies. Biomarker analysis from sequential tissue samples revealed a decrease in CD8 expression (20.00 vs 13.75; P = .05) and significant reduction in expression of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (100 vs 40; P < .001) and C-MET (300 vs 100; P < .001) and increased programmed cell death ligand 1 expression (0 vs 1.5; P < .001) in the immune component. No on-treatment biomarker correlated with response.
Conclusions and Relevance: Nephrectomy after upfront pazopanib therapy could be performed safely and was associated with good outcomes in patients with intermediate-risk metastatic clear cell renal cancer.

Spirina LV, Usynin EA, Kondakova IV, et al.
Effect of Target Therapy on the Content of Transcription and Growth Factors, Protein Kinase TOR, and Activity of Intracellular Proteases in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2016; 160(6):798-801 [PubMed] Related Publications
We analyzed the dynamics of the expression of transcription factors, VEGF and its receptor VEGFR2, serine-threonine protein kinase mTOR and activity of proteasome and calpain in patients with metastatic renal cancer during therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitor Votrient and mTOR blocker Afinitor. The expression of hypoxic nuclear factor HIF-1α in the tumor tissue decreased during therapy with the target preparations. The decrease of VEGF and its receptor VEGFR2 was observed only in patients treated with mTOR inhibitor. The increase in calpain activity in the tumor tissue was observed in both groups. These findings extend our understanding of the mechanism of action of target anticancer preparations as allow considering the studied markers as predictors in choosing optimal therapy.

Beaumont JL, Salsman JM, Diaz J, et al.
Quality-adjusted time without symptoms or toxicity analysis of pazopanib versus sunitinib in patients with renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer. 2016; 122(7):1108-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/10/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In a phase 3, randomized, open-label trial (Pazopanib versus Sunitinib in the Treatment of Locally Advanced and/or Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma, COMPARZ; NCT00720941), pazopanib was found to be noninferior to sunitinib in terms of progression-free survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma with no prior therapy. Overall treatment differences were evaluated in a post hoc analysis with a quality-adjusted time without symptoms or toxicity (Q-TWiST) methodology.
METHODS: Each patient's overall survival was partitioned into 3 mutually exclusive health states: time with grade 3 or 4 toxicity (TOX), time without symptoms of disease or grade 3/4 toxicity of treatment, and time after tumor progression or relapse (REL). The time spent in each state was weighted by a health-state utility associated with that state and summed to calculate the Q-TWiST. A threshold utility analysis was used, and utilities were applied across the range of 0 (similar to death) to 1 (perfect health).
RESULTS: A total of 1110 patients were enrolled (557 on pazopanib and 553 on sunitinib). The mean TOX was 31 days (95% confidence interval, 13-48 days) longer for sunitinib versus pazopanib. In the threshold utility analysis, the difference in the Q-TWiST ranged from -11 days (utility for TOX, 1; utility for REL, 0) to 43 days (utility for TOX, 0; utility for REL, 1) in favor of pazopanib across most utility combinations. Differences were significant in less than half of the utility combinations examined, and this typically occurred when the utility for TOX was lower than the utility for REL.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients randomized to pazopanib had a slightly longer Q-TWiST in comparison with sunitinib patients, and this was primarily due to the reduced length of TOX.

Kim ST, Ahn S, Lee J, et al.
Value of FGFR2 expression for advanced gastric cancer patients receiving pazopanib plus CapeOX (capecitabine and oxaliplatin).
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(6):1231-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to use immunohistochemistry (IHC) to determine the effect of FGFR2 and VEGFR2 expression on treatment outcomes for patients with metastatic or recurrent advanced gastric cancer (AGC) receiving a combination of pazopanib with CapeOx (capecitabine and oxaliplatin).
METHODS: We conducted a single-arm, open-label phase II study to determine the efficacy and toxicity of the combination of pazopanib with CapeOx in 66 patients with metastatic or recurrent AGC (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01130805). IHC analysis of FGFR2 and VEGFR2 was possible in 54 patients (81.8 %).
RESULTS: Among 54 patients, the median age was 51.5 years (range 23-72 years). Male patients were 59.3 %. Seven patients (13.5 %) had tumor tissues that expressed FGFR2 by IHC. No patients had tumors that expressed VEGFR2. Among seven patients with tumors with FGFR2 expression, six achieved partial response (PR) with a 85.7 % response rate and one patient with stable disease. Among 47 patients with tumors without FGFR2 expression, one had complete response and 27 had PR (59.5 %). A significant difference in PFS was seen between patients who were positive and negative for FGFR2 using IHC (8.5 vs. 5.6 months, P = 0.050). By prognostic analysis for PFS, only FGFR2 status by IHC (positive vs. negative) had significant prognostic value for predicting PFS.
CONCLUSIONS: FGFR2 expression by IHC might be a useful biomarker for predicting treatment outcomes of patients with metastatic or recurrent AGC treated with a combination of pazopanib and CapeOx.

Nakamura T, Matsumine A, Kawai A, et al.
The clinical outcome of pazopanib treatment in Japanese patients with relapsed soft tissue sarcoma: A Japanese Musculoskeletal Oncology Group (JMOG) study.
Cancer. 2016; 122(9):1408-16 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/10/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Because the efficacy and safety of pazopanib in Japanese patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) had not been evaluated previously in a large-scale cohort, the authors investigated the efficacy and safety of pazopanib in 156 Japanese patients with relapsed STS. This was a retrospective study based on the collection of real-life, postmarketing surveillance data.
METHODS: Patients received pazopanib with the objective of treating local recurrence (n = 20), metastasis (n = 104), and both (n = 32). The patient median age was 53.8 years. The primary objective of this study was to clarify the efficacy of pazopanib for patients with STS.
RESULTS: The median treatment duration was 28.7 weeks, and the average dose intensity of pazopanib was 609 mg. Adverse events occurred in 127 patients (81.4%). In addition to the main common toxicities, such as hypertension and liver disorder, pneumothorax (n = 11) and thrombocytopenia (n = 16) also were observed. The median progression-free survival for all patients was 15.4 weeks. The median progression-free survival for patients with leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, and liposarcoma was 18.6 weeks, 16.4 weeks, 15.3 weeks, and 8 weeks, respectively. The median survival for all patients was 11.2 months. The median survival for patients with leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, and liposarcoma was 20.1 months, 10.6 months, 9.5 months, and 7.3 months, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: There were apparent differences in the efficacy of pazopanib treatment among histologic types of STS. Pazopanib treatment is a new treatment option; however, adverse events like pneumothorax and thrombocytopenia, which did not occur frequently in the PALETTE study (pazopanib for metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma), should be taken into consideration. Cancer 2016;122:1408-16. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

Diaz J, Sternberg CN, Mehmud F, et al.
Overall Survival Endpoint in Oncology Clinical Trials: Addressing the Effect of Crossover--The Case of Pazopanib in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Oncology. 2016; 90(3):119-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To identify the issues of using overall survival (OS) as a primary endpoint in the presence of crossover and the statistical analyses available to adjust for confounded OS due to crossover in oncology clinical trials.
METHODS: An indirect comparison was conducted between pazopanib and sunitinib in advanced renal cell carcinoma. Statistical adjustment methods were used to estimate the true comparative effectiveness of these treatments. Recently, a head-to-head trial comparing pazopanib and sunitinib was completed. This provided the opportunity to compare the OS treatment effect estimated for pazopanib versus sunitinib using indirect comparison and statistical adjustment techniques with that observed in the head-to-head trial.
RESULTS: Using a rank-preserving structural failure time model to adjust for crossover in the pazopanib registration trial, the indirect comparison of pazopanib versus sunitinib resulted in an OS hazard ratio (HR) of 0.97, while an unadjusted analysis resulted in an OS HR of 1.96. The head-to-head trial reported a final OS HR of 0.92 for pazopanib versus sunitinib.
CONCLUSION: This case study supports the need to adjust for confounded OS due to crossover, which enables trials to meet ethical standards and provides decision makers with a more accurate estimate of treatment benefit.

Demirci NS, Erdem GU, Dogan M, et al.
A rare case: Hallucination associated with pazopanib.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2015 Oct-Dec; 11(4):961-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diarrhea, hyperglycemia, anemia, depigmentation of the hair, and rash are common side effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Neurological side effect like hallucination due to pazopanib is exceptionally rare in literature cases. Herein, we reported a case of hallucination related to pazopanib in a patient with renal cell carcinoma. A 47-year-old male patient with renal cell carcinoma developed repetitive hallucinations on the following days of pazopanib initiation. There was no other significant finding in the differential diagnosis of hallucination. Neurological symptoms disappeared after termination of pazopanib. We aimed to emphasize that neurological side effect like hallucination may rarely occur during the treatment of pazopanib and take note that physicians should be aware of this infrequent side effect in the patients treated with pazopanib.

Kawai A, Araki N, Hiraga H, et al.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III study of pazopanib in patients with soft tissue sarcoma: results from the Japanese subgroup.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2016; 46(3):248-53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/10/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This analysis of the Japanese subpopulation of the PALETTE Phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study investigated efficacy and safety of pazopanib in patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma after failure of standard chemotherapy.
METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either pazopanib 800 mg once daily or placebo, with no subsequent cross-over. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Secondary endpoints included overall survival and overall response rate. Efficacy analysis was by intent-to-treat. Safety was also investigated.
RESULTS: Forty-seven patients received either pazopanib (n = 31) or placebo (n = 16). Median progression-free survival was 7.0 weeks (95% confidence interval: 4.0-11.7) for placebo and 24.7 weeks (95% confidence interval: 8.6-28.1) for pazopanib (hazard ratio = 0.41 [95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.90]; P = 0.002). Median overall survival was 14.9 months (95% confidence interval: 6.8-not calculable) for placebo and 15.4 months (95% confidence interval: 7.9-28.8) for pazopanib (hazard ratio = 0.87 [95% confidence interval: 0.41-1.83]; P = 0.687). More patients receiving pazopanib experienced best response of stable disease versus placebo. Adverse events were similar to the global population; those leading to dose reduction were more common and mean daily dose was lower in the Japanese population versus the global population (45 vs. 32% and 624.4 vs. 700.4 mg, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy and safety of pazopanib observed in the Japanese subpopulation of PALETTE were similar to those in the global population. Pazopanib is a new treatment option for Japanese patients with metastatic non-adipocytic soft tissue sarcoma after chemotherapy.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00753688; GSK study ID: VEG110727; http://www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com/study/VEG110727#ps.

Imbs DC, Diéras V, Bachelot T, et al.
Pharmacokinetic interaction between pazopanib and cisplatin regimen.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(2):385-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: A phase I study combining daily oral pazopanib and cisplatin (given iv every 3 weeks) was performed in order to determine the maximum tolerated dose of both drugs in combination. Pharmacokinetic interactions were evaluated.
METHODS: Plasma pazopanib and ultrafilterable cisplatin concentrations were obtained in 32 patients treated according to four levels of dose corresponding to 200, 400 or 600 mg daily dose of pazopanib and 60 or 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin. Two sequences of treatment were performed in order to explore any interaction of cisplatin on pazopanib pharmacokinetics and inversely. Data were analyzed using the NONMEM program.
RESULTS: Maximum tolerated dose was 400 mg of pazopanib and 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin. Mean (CV % for inter-individual variability) cisplatin clearance was 10.3 L/h (33.2 %) and appeared not to be influenced by pazopanib. However, pazopanib pharmacokinetics was significantly modified by the cisplatin regimen. Mean (CV %) of oral pazopanib clearance was 0.66 L/h (55 %) at Day 0 (before cisplatin administration), 24.8 % lower at Day 1 and 32.9 % lower at Day 2. The interaction is less likely to be due to cisplatin than to a competitive inhibition of pazopanib metabolism and efflux by aprepitant, an antiemetic drug systematically administered with cisplatin. The plasma pazopanib exposures observed at Day 0 with a 400 mg dose were similar to those observed at the recommended dose of pazopanib in monochemotherapy (800 mg) during the first-in-man phase 1 study.
CONCLUSION: The observed pazopanib plasma overexposure probably contributed to the poor tolerance encountered during this phase 1 study.

Ronellenfitsch U, Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss A, Jakob J, et al.
Preoperative therapy with pazopanib in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma: a phase II window-of-opportunity study by the German Interdisciplinary Sarcoma Group (GISG-04/NOPASS).
BMJ Open. 2016; 6(1):e009558 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/10/2017 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: For resectable soft tissue sarcoma (STS), radical surgery, usually combined with radiotherapy, is the mainstay of treatment and the only potentially curative modality. Since surgery is often complicated by large tumour size and extensive tumour vasculature, preoperative treatment strategies with the aim of devitalising the tumour are being explored. One option is treatment with antiangiogenic drugs. The multikinase inhibitor pazopanib, which possesses pronounced antiangiogenic effects, has shown activity in metastatic and unresectable STS, but has so far not been tested in the preoperative setting.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This open-label, multicentre phase II window-of-opportunity trial assesses pazopanib as preoperative treatment of resectable STS. Participants receive a 21-day course of pazopanib 800 mg daily during wait time for surgery. Major eligibility criteria are resectable, high-risk adult STS of any location, or metachronous solitary STS metastasis for which resection is planned, and adequate organ function and performance status. The trial uses an exact single-stage design. The primary end point is metabolic response rate (MRR), that is, the proportion of patients with >50% reduction of the mean standardised uptake value (SUVmean) in post-treatment compared to pre-treatment fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT. The MRR below which the treatment is considered ineffective is 0.2. The MRR above which the treatment warrants further exploration is 0.4. With a type I error of 5% and a power of 80%, the sample size is 35 evaluable patients, with 12 or more responders as threshold. Main secondary end points are histopathological and MRI response, resectability, toxicity, recurrence-free and overall survival. In a translational substudy, endothelial progenitor cells and vascular epithelial growth factor receptor are analysed as potential prognostic and predictive markers.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval by the ethics committee II, University of Heidelberg, Germany (2012-019F-MA), German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (61-3910-4038155) and German Federal Institute for Radiation Protection (Z5-22463/2-2012-007).
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01543802, EudraCT: 2011-003745-18; Pre-results.

Schallier D, Berendes BJ, Lefesvre P, Everaert H
Effective Treatment of Pleural Epitheloid Hemangio-endothelioma with Pazopanib: A Case Report.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(1):351-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
A patient with a pleural epitheloid hemangio-endothelioma (EHE) who failed to respond to six cycles of initial chemotherapy with iphosphamide and epirubicine was treated with pazopanib in second-line. A significant subjective and objective metabolic response on (18)F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography-computed tomography was noted. Based on this observation, the role of vasculoendothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors such as pazopanib (or other tyrosine kinase inhibitors), in the treatment of pleural EHE should be established through prospective collaborative studies as upfront medication and in combination with chemotherapy.

Goldstein D, Rosenberg JE, Figlin RA, et al.
Is change in blood pressure a biomarker of pazopanib and sunitinib efficacy in advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma?
Eur J Cancer. 2016; 53:96-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Pazopanib, an oral antiangiogenic agent, is associated with improved outcomes in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. In this retrospective analysis, we explore hypertension, an on-target adverse event, as a predictive marker.
METHODS: Data from the pazopanib arm of the phase III COMPARZ trial (NCT00720941) comprised the test set. Pooled data from phase II (NCT00244764) and III (NCT00334282) pazopanib trials comprised the validation set. Data from the sunitinib arm of COMPARZ were analysed separately. Measures of efficacy were response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was the primary metric, and systolic hypertension (S-HTN) and diastolic hypertension (D-HTN) were secondary metrics; 4- and 12-week landmark analyses were performed.
RESULTS: Analyses revealed no significant associations at the landmarks between response and MAP. We observed a trend towards improved PFS with S-HTN at week 4 (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.79, P = 0.060) and week 12 (HR = 0.75, P = 0.073) among pazopanib-treated patients in COMPARZ. This trend was not confirmed at week 12 in the validation set or in sunitinib-treated patients. In the test set, there was a trend towards increased OS in patients with S-HTN by week 4 (HR = 0.76, P = 0.062) and with D-HTN by week 4 (HR = 0.71, P = 0.016) but not by week 12. No significant differences in OS were observed in sunitinib-treated patients for S-HTN or D-HTN.
CONCLUSION: Neither hypertension nor any blood pressure elevation above baseline was associated with efficacy outcomes of pazopanib or sunitinib. Accordingly, management of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced hypertension is unlikely to compromise outcome.

Pérez-Valderrama B, Arranz Arija JA, Rodríguez Sánchez A, et al.
Validation of the International Metastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) prognostic model for first-line pazopanib in metastatic renal carcinoma: the Spanish Oncologic Genitourinary Group (SOGUG) SPAZO study.
Ann Oncol. 2016; 27(4):706-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic renal carcinoma (mRCC) treated with first-line pazopanib were not included in the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) prognostic model. SPAZO (NCT02282579) was a nation-wide retrospective observational study designed to assess the effectiveness and validate the IMDC prognostic model in patients treated with first-line pazopanib in clinical practice.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of 278 patients, treated with first-line pazopanib for mRCC in 34 centres in Spain, were locally recorded and externally validated. Mean age was 66 years, there were 68.3% male, 93.5% clear-cell type, 74.8% nephrectomized, and 81.3% had ECOG 0-1. Metastatic sites were: lung 70.9%, lymph node 43.9%, bone 26.3%, soft tissue/skin 20.1%, liver 15.1%, CNS 7.2%, adrenal gland 6.5%, pleura/peritoneum 5.8%, pancreas 5%, and kidney 2.2%. After median follow-up of 23 months, 76.4% had discontinued pazopanib (57.2% due to progression), 47.9% had received second-line targeted therapy, and 48.9% had died.
RESULTS: According to IMDC prognostic model, 19.4% had favourable risk (FR), 57.2% intermediate risk (IR), and 23.4% poor risk (PR). No unexpected toxicities were recorded. Response rate was 30.3% (FR: 44%, IR: 30% PR: 17.3%). Median progression-free survival (whole population) was 11 months (32 in FR, 11 in IR, 4 in PR). Median and 2-year overall survival (whole population) were 22 months and 48.1%, respectively (FR: not reached and 81.6%, IR: 22 and 48.7%, PR: 7 and 18.8%). These estimations and their 95% confidence intervals are fully consistent with the outcomes predicted by the IMDC prognostic model.
CONCLUSION: Our results validate the IMDC model for first-line pazopanib in mRCC and confirm the effectiveness and safety of this treatment.

Koehler K, Liebner D, Chen JL
TP53 mutational status is predictive of pazopanib response in advanced sarcomas.
Ann Oncol. 2016; 27(3):539-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To investigate whether TP53 DNA mutational status impacts progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with advanced sarcomas (soft tissue sarcoma) treated with vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) inhibition.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 19 cases of patients treated at the Ohio State James Comprehensive Cancer Center with advanced sarcoma treated with VEGFR inhibition who also had next-generation sequencing of their tumors (via FoundationOne Heme panel). We evaluated TP53 as well as mutations that were observed in at least 20% of patients and evaluated its contribution to PFS using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of available radiology end points.
RESULTS: Mutations that were observed in at least 20% of patients included TP53 and Rb1. Only TP53 was predictive of PFS in the context of VEGFR inhibition. The PFS of patients with TP53 mutations was significantly greater than TP53 wild-type tumors with the median PFS of 208 versus 136 days, respectively [P = 0.036, hazards ratio 0.38 (95% confidence interval 0.09-0.83)].
CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in TP53 may serve as a predictive biomarker of response to VEGFR inhibition in patients with advanced sarcoma. Larger, prospective studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

Di Desidero T, Xu P, Man S, et al.
Potent efficacy of metronomic topotecan and pazopanib combination therapy in preclinical models of primary or late stage metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(40):42396-410 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metronomic chemotherapy has shown promising activity in numerous preclinical studies and also some phase II clinical studies involving various tumor types, and is currently undergoing phase III trial evaluation. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive histological subtype with limited treatment options and very poor prognosis following progression after standard chemotherapeutic regimens. Herein, we evaluated the potential therapeutic impact and molecular mechanisms of topotecan administered in a continuous low-dose metronomic (LDM) manner, alone or in concurrent combination with pazopanib, an antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), in a triple-negative, primary and metastatic breast cancer orthotopic model; potential molecular mechanisms of efficacy were also studied, especially the impact of hypoxic conditions. The combination of metronomic topotecan and pazopanib significantly enhanced antitumor activity compared to monotherapy with either drug and prolonged survival, even in the advanced metastatic survival setting, with a marked decrease in tumor vascularity, proliferative index, and the induction of apoptosis. Significant changes in tumor angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, HIF1α levels, HIF-1 target genes and ABCG2 were found both in vitro and in tumor tissue. Notably, the pazopanib and metronomic topotecan combination treatment inhibited expression of HIF1α and ABCG2 genes in cells grown under hypoxic conditions, and this was associated with an increased intracellular concentration of the active form of topotecan. Our results suggest a potential novel therapeutic option for the treatment of metastatic triple-negative breast cancer patients.

Imbs DC, Paludetto MN, Négrier S, et al.
Determination of unbound fraction of pazopanib in vitro and in cancer patients reveals albumin as the main binding site.
Invest New Drugs. 2016; 34(1):41-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Pazopanib exhibits wide inter-patient pharmacokinetic variability which may contribute to differences in treatment outcome. Unbound drug concentrations are believed to be more relevant to pharmacological responses than total concentrations. Thus it is desirable to evaluate pazopanib binding on plasma proteins and different factors potentially affecting this process.
METHODS: An equilibrium dialysis method coupled with UPLC-MS/MS assay has been optimized and validated for the determination of pazopanib unbound fraction (fu%) in human plasma. Pazopanib binding in the plasma of healthy volunteers and in isolated protein solutions was investigated. The unbound fraction was determined for 24 cancer patients treated daily with pazopanib.
RESULTS: We found that pazopanib was extensively bound in human plasma (>99.9 %) with a mean fu% value of 0.0106 ± 0.0013 % at 40 μg/mL. Protein binding was concentration independent over a clinically relevant range of concentrations. In isolated protein solutions, pazopanib at 40 μg/mL was mainly bound to albumin (40 g/L) and to a lesser extent to α1-acid glycoprotein (1 g/L) and low density lipoproteins (1.2 g/L), with a mean fu% of 0.0073 ± 0.0022 %, 0.992 ± 0.44 % and 7.4 ± 1.7 % respectively. Inter-patient variability (CV%) of fu% in cancer patients was limited (27.2 %). A correlation was observed between individual unbound fraction values and albuminemia.
CONCLUSIONS: Pazopanib exhibits extensive binding to plasma proteins in human plasma. Variable albumin concentrations, frequently observed in cancer patients, may affect pazopanib unbound fraction with implications for inter-patient variability in drug efficacy and toxicity.

Xu CF, Johnson T, Wang X, et al.
HLA-B*57:01 Confers Susceptibility to Pazopanib-Associated Liver Injury in Patients with Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(6):1371-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pazopanib is an effective treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma and soft-tissue sarcoma. Transaminase elevations have been commonly observed in pazopanib-treated patients. We conducted pharmacogenetic analyses to explore mechanistic insight into pazopanib-induced liver injury.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The discovery analysis tested association between four-digit HLA alleles and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation in pazopanib-treated patients with cancer from eight clinical trials (N = 1,188). We conducted confirmatory analysis using an independent dataset of pazopanib-treated patients from 23 additional trials (N = 1,002). Genome-wide association study (GWAS) for transaminase elevations was also conducted.
RESULTS: The discovery study identified an association between HLA-B*57:01 carriage and ALT elevation [P = 5.0 × 10(-5) for maximum on-treatment ALT (MaxALT); P = 4.8 × 10(-4) for time to ALT > 3× upper limit of normal (ULN) event; P = 4.1 × 10(-5) for time to ALT > 5× ULN event] that is significant after adjustment for number of HLA alleles tested. We confirmed these associations with time to ALT elevation event (P = 8.1 × 10(-4) for ALT > 3× ULN, P = 9.8 × 10(-3) for ALT > 5× ULN) in an independent dataset. In the combined data, HLA-B*57:01 carriage was associated with ALT elevation (P = 4.3 × 10(-5) for MaxALT, P = 5.1 × 10(-6) for time to ALT > 3×ULN event, P = 5.8 × 10(-6) for time to ALT > 5× ULN event). In HLA-B*57:01 carriers and noncarriers, frequency of ALT > 3× ULN was 31% and 19%, respectively, and frequency of ALT > 5× ULN was 18% and 10%, respectively. GWAS revealed a possible borderline association, which requires further evaluation.
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that HLA-B*57:01 carriage confers higher risk of ALT elevation in patients receiving pazopanib and provide novel insight implicating an immune-mediated mechanism for pazopanib-associated hepatotoxicity in some patients.

Migliorini D, Haller S, Merkler D, et al.
Recurrent multiple CNS hemangioblastomas with VHL disease treated with pazopanib: a case report and literature review.
CNS Oncol. 2015; 4(6):387-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hemangioblastoma is a rare benign neoplasm, accounting for less than 2% of all primitive brain tumors. It may arise sporadically in a solitary form, or associated with Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease with multiple tumors. Surgery is the mainstay treatment, but management is challenging in case of recurrent and/or multiple tumors. VHL protein is defective in both forms of hemangioblastoma, leading to the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor, stimulating angiogenesis via VEGF and PDGF mainly. Here, we report a 37-year-old woman's case with recurrent and rapidly progressive VHL-associated hemangioblastomas, causing severe disability. She was treated 24 months with pazopanib, a multityrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) targeting VEGF and PDGF-β pathways. Despite moderate radiological changes, progressive improvement in her clinical condition persisting over 3 years was observed. Inhibiting angiogenesis is a therapeutic option that may improve the quality of life and the autonomy of VHL patients disabled with multiple hemangioblastomas.

Hahn AW, Giri S, Patel D, et al.
Next-Generation Sequencing and In Silico Analysis Facilitate Prolonged Response to Pazopanib in a Patient With Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2015; 13(10):1181-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
With the advent of widespread tumor genetic profiling, an increased number of mutations with unknown significance are being identified. Often, a glut of uninterpretable findings may confuse the clinician and provide little or inappropriate guidance in therapeutic decision-making. This report describes a method of protein modeling by in silico analysis (ie, using computer simulation) that is easily accessible to the practicing clinician without need for further laboratory analysis, which can potentially serve as a guide in therapeutic decisions based on poorly characterized tumor mutations. An example of this model is given wherein poorly characterized KIT, PDGFRB, and ERBB2 mutations were discovered in a patient with treatment-refractory metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. The KIT and PDGFRB mutations were predicted to be pathogenic using in silico analysis, whereas the ERBB2 mutation was predicted to be benign. Based on these findings, the patient was treated with pazopanib and achieved a partial response that lasted for 7.5 months. We propose that in silico analysis be explored as a potential means to further characterize genetic abnormalities found by tumor profiling assays, such as next-generation sequencing.

Munhoz RR, D'Angelo SP, Gounder MM, et al.
A Phase Ib/II Study of Gemcitabine and Docetaxel in Combination With Pazopanib for the Neoadjuvant Treatment of Soft Tissue Sarcomas.
Oncologist. 2015; 20(11):1245-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
LESSONS LEARNED: Our results highlight some of the challenges in the management of soft tissue sarcomas, which requires close cooperation between surgeons and medical oncologists and a careful selection of patients. The incidence of hepatotoxicity was a concerning finding and had been previously reported in patients treated with pazopanib.Although pharmacokinetic analysis was not part of this study, concomitant treatment with pazopanib has been recently reported to increase docetaxel exposure, which may explain the increased toxicity of combination regimens. It remains possible that lower doses of combined gemcitabine, docetaxel, and pazopanib may be tolerable. However, caution should be exercised in future trials investigating similar combinations.
BACKGROUND: For extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STS), surgical resection remains the standard of care, and the addition of chemotherapy is controversial. This was a phase Ib/II trial of neoadjuvant therapy for patients with STS.
METHODS: Patients with high grade, extremity STS of >8 cm and amenable to definitive resection were treated with up to four 21-day cycles of 900 mg/m(2) gemcitabine on days 1 and 8, 75 mg/m(2) docetaxel on day 8, and 400 mg of pazopanib daily (GDP), followed by surgery and, if indicated, radiation therapy. Primary and secondary endpoints (phase Ib portion) were the safety and rate of pathologic response.
RESULTS: The trial was discontinued because of slow accrual after inclusion of five patients (leiomyosarcoma: two; undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma: three). Two patients completed four treatment cycles: one underwent surgery and one had insufficient response and received additional therapies. Three patients discontinued treatment because of toxicity. Grade 3 adverse events included hypertension, fatigue, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation, hoarseness, and myelotoxicity. There were no complete or partial responses. One patient had ≥ 90% pathologic response. Among four patients who underwent resection, three remain free of disease, and one patient eventually relapsed.
CONCLUSION: GDP combination used in the neoadjuvant setting resulted in significant toxicity; despite pathologic responses, no objective responses occurred.

Yanagisawa R, Noguchi M, Fujita K, et al.
Preoperative Treatment With Pazopanib in a Case of Chemotherapy-Resistant Infantile Fibrosarcoma.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016; 63(2):348-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clinical and radiological diagnosis of infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS) is challenging because of its similarity to vascular origin tumors. Treatment involves complete resection. Although chemotherapy may allow more conservative resection, treatment guidelines are not strictly defined. One IFS patient with an unresectable tumor had disease progression during chemotherapy. A primary tumor sample showed high VEGFR-1/2/3 and PDGFR-α/β expression. After pazopanib therapy, most tumor showed necrosis within 29 days and could be removed completely, with no relapse in 8 months post-resection. When IFS features hypervascularity, VEGFR and PDGFR expression may be high, thus allowing consideration of VEGFR inhibitors such as pazopanib.

Duffaud F, Sleijfer S, Litière S, et al.
Hypertension (HTN) as a potential biomarker of efficacy in pazopanib-treated patients with advanced non-adipocytic soft tissue sarcoma. A retrospective study based on European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 62043 and 62072 trials.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(17):2615-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Reliable biomarkers of pazopanib's efficacy in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) are lacking. Hypertension (HTN) is an on-target effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-receptor inhibitors such as pazopanib. We evaluated the association of pazopanib-induced HTN with antitumour efficacy in patients with metastatic non-adipocytic STS.
METHODS: Associations between pazopanib-induced-HTN and antitumour efficacy were retrospectively assessed across 2 prospective studies (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study 62043 and 62072) in metastatic STS patients who received pazopanib 800 mg daily. Only patients with baseline blood pressure (BP)<150/90 mmHg, were included. BP was measured monthly. HTN was reported according to National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events (NCI-CTC AE) grading (v3.0), and as absolute differences compared to baseline. The effect of HTN developing in patients without baseline anti-hypertensive medication was assessed on progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) using a landmark analysis stratified by study; univariately using the Kaplan-Meier method and a log-rank test, and in a multivariate Cox regression model after adjustment for important prognostic factors.
RESULTS: Of the 337 patients eligible for this analysis, 21.7% received anti-hypertensive medication at baseline and had a similar PFS and OS compared to those who did not. In patients without baseline anti-hypertensive medication, 38.6% developed HTN. As the majority of patients developing HTN did so within 5 weeks after initiation of pazopanib (68.6%), this time point was used as landmark. Univariately, there was no effect on PFS or OS from occurrence of HTN within 5 weeks of treatment expressed either in NCI-CTC AE criteria or as maximal differences from baseline in systolic and diastolic BP. Also in multivariate analysis, after adjusting for important prognostic factors, the occurrence of HTN expressed in the different parameters was not associated with PFS and OS.
CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective analysis, pazopanib-induced HTN did not correlate with outcome in pazopanib-treated STS patients. The occurrence of HTN cannot serve as biomarker in this setting.

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