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FGFR2; fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (10q26)

Gene Summary

Gene:FGFR2; fibroblast growth factor receptor 2
Aliases: BEK, JWS, BBDS, CEK3, CFD1, ECT1, KGFR, TK14, TK25, BFR-1, CD332, K-SAM
Location:10q26
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, where amino acid sequence is highly conserved between members and throughout evolution. FGFR family members differ from one another in their ligand affinities and tissue distribution. A full-length representative protein consists of an extracellular region, composed of three immunoglobulin-like domains, a single hydrophobic membrane-spanning segment and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain. The extracellular portion of the protein interacts with fibroblast growth factors, setting in motion a cascade of downstream signals, ultimately influencing mitogenesis and differentiation. This particular family member is a high-affinity receptor for acidic, basic and/or keratinocyte growth factor, depending on the isoform. Mutations in this gene are associated with Crouzon syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, Craniosynostosis, Apert syndrome, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome, Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, and syndromic craniosynostosis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:fibroblast growth factor receptor 2
HPRD
Source:NCBI
Updated:14 December, 2014

Gene
Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (117)

Pathways:

What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- MAPK signaling pathway KEGG
- Regulation of actin cytoskeleton KEGG
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Survival Rate
  • Mutation
  • Up-Regulation
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Transfection
  • Receptor, erbB-2
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Alleles
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor
  • Gene Amplification
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3
  • Receptors, Growth Factor
  • Tissue Plasminogen Activator
  • Case-Control Studies
  • RTPCR
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Tumor Stem Cell Assay
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 7
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • FGFR1
  • Genotype
  • FGFR2
  • Transcription
  • Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3
  • Messenger RNA
  • Chromosome 10
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Turbinates
  • Breast Cancer
  • Base Sequence
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • Receptor, erbB-3
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Antineoplastic Agents
Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (3)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Breast CancerFGFR2 and Breast Cancer View Publications157
Stomach CancerFGFR2 and Stomach Cancer View Publications41
Bladder CancerFGFR2 and Bladder Cancer View Publications11

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: FGFR2 (cancer-related)

Shike M, Doane AS, Russo L, et al.
The effects of soy supplementation on gene expression in breast cancer: a randomized placebo-controlled study.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(9) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There are conflicting reports on the impact of soy on breast carcinogenesis. This study examines the effects of soy supplementation on breast cancer-related genes and pathways.
METHODS: Women (n = 140) with early-stage breast cancer were randomly assigned to soy protein supplementation (n = 70) or placebo (n = 70) for 7 to 30 days, from diagnosis until surgery. Adherence was determined by plasma isoflavones: genistein and daidzein. Gene expression changes were evaluated by NanoString in pre- and posttreatment tumor tissue. Genome-wide expression analysis was performed on posttreatment tissue. Proliferation (Ki67) and apoptosis (Cas3) were assessed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Plasma isoflavones rose in the soy group (two-sided Wilcoxon rank-sum test, P < .001) and did not change in the placebo group. In paired analysis of pre- and posttreatment samples, 21 genes (out of 202) showed altered expression (two-sided Student's t-test, P < .05). Several genes including FANCC and UGT2A1 revealed different magnitude and direction of expression changes between the two groups (two-sided Student's t-test, P < .05). A high-genistein signature consisting of 126 differentially expressed genes was identified from microarray analysis of tumors. This signature was characterized by overexpression (>2-fold) of cell cycle transcripts, including those that promote cell proliferation, such as FGFR2, E2F5, BUB1, CCNB2, MYBL2, CDK1, and CDC20 (P < .01). Soy intake did not result in statistically significant changes in Ki67 or Cas3.
CONCLUSIONS: Gene expression associated with soy intake and high plasma genistein defines a signature characterized by overexpression of FGFR2 and genes that drive cell cycle and proliferation pathways. These findings raise the concerns that in a subset of women soy could adversely affect gene expression in breast cancer.

Related: Apoptosis Breast Cancer CASP3 MKI67


Das K, Gunasegaran B, Tan IB, et al.
Mutually exclusive FGFR2, HER2, and KRAS gene amplifications in gastric cancer revealed by multicolour FISH.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 353(2):167-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of global cancer mortality. Previous genomic studies have reported that several RTK-RAS pathway components are amplified in GC, with individual tumours often amplifying one component and not others ("mutual exclusivity"). Here, we sought to validate these findings for three RTK/RAS components (FGFR2, HER2, KRAS) using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) on a series of gastric tumours, cell lines and patient-derived xenografts. Applying dual-colour FISH on 137 gastric tumours (89 FFPE surgical resections and 48 diagnostic biopsies), we observed FGFR2 amplification in 7.3% and HER2 amplification in 2.2% of GCs. GCs exhibiting FGFR2 amplification were associated with high tumour grade (p = 0.034). In FISH positive tumours, striking differences in copy number levels between cancer cells in the same tumour were observed, suggesting intra-tumour heterogeneity. Using a multicolour FISH assay allowing simultaneous detection of FGFR2, HER2, and KRAS amplifications, we confirmed that these components exhibited a mutually exclusive pattern of gene amplification across patients. The FISH data were also strongly correlated with Q-PCR levels and at the protein level by immunohistochemistry. Our data confirm that RTK/RAS components are mutually exclusively amplified in GC, and demonstrate the feasibility of identifying multiple aneuploidies using a single FISH assay. Application of this assay to GC samples, particularly diagnostic biopsies, may facilitate enrollment of GC patients into clinical trials evaluating RTK/RAS directed therapies. However, the presence of intra-tumour heterogeneity may require multiple biopsy samples to be obtained per patient before a definitive diagnosis can be attained.

Related: FISH Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer KRAS gene


Yu M, Bardia A, Aceto N, et al.
Cancer therapy. Ex vivo culture of circulating breast tumor cells for individualized testing of drug susceptibility.
Science. 2014; 345(6193):216-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are present at low concentrations in the peripheral blood of patients with solid tumors. It has been proposed that the isolation, ex vivo culture, and characterization of CTCs may provide an opportunity to noninvasively monitor the changing patterns of drug susceptibility in individual patients as their tumors acquire new mutations. In a proof-of-concept study, we established CTC cultures from six patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Three of five CTC lines tested were tumorigenic in mice. Genome sequencing of the CTC lines revealed preexisting mutations in the PIK3CA gene and newly acquired mutations in the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1), PIK3CA gene, and fibroblast growth factor receptor gene (FGFR2), among others. Drug sensitivity testing of CTC lines with multiple mutations revealed potential new therapeutic targets. With optimization of CTC culture conditions, this strategy may help identify the best therapies for individual cancer patients over the course of their disease.

Related: Breast Cancer ESR1


Matsuda Y, Yoshimura H, Suzuki T, et al.
Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 attenuates proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(9):1212-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The alternative splicing of the extracellular domain of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-2 generates the IIIb and IIIc isoforms. Expression of FGFR-2 IIIb correlates with vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) expression and venous invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). By contrast, FGFR-2 IIIc expression correlates with faster development of liver metastasis after surgery, and increased proliferation rates and invasion of the cancer. In this study, we analyzed the expression and roles of total FGFR-2 (both isoforms) to determine the effectiveness of FGFR-2-targeting therapy for PDAC. Immunohistochemically, FGFR-2 was highly expressed in 25/48 (52.1%) PDAC cases, and correlated with advanced stage cancer. In FISH analysis, FGFR2 was amplified in 3/7 PDAC cell lines. We stably transfected an FGFR-2 shRNA targeting the IIIb and IIIc isoforms into FGFR2-amplified PDAC cells. The proliferation rates, migration, and invasion of FGFR-2-shRNA-transfected cells were lower than those of control cells in vitro. In response to FGF-2, FGFR-2-shRNA-transfected cells showed decreased phosphorylation of ERK compared with control cells. The FGFR-2-shRNA-transfected cells also expressed lower levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-A than control cells, and formed smaller s.c. tumors in nude mice. These findings suggest that FGFR-2 is a therapeutic target for inhibition in PDAC.

Related: Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer Signal Transduction VEGFA


Wilkerson MD, Cabanski CR, Sun W, et al.
Integrated RNA and DNA sequencing improves mutation detection in low purity tumors.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42(13):e107 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Identifying somatic mutations is critical for cancer genome characterization and for prioritizing patient treatment. DNA whole exome sequencing (DNA-WES) is currently the most popular technology; however, this yields low sensitivity in low purity tumors. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) covers the expressed exome with depth proportional to expression. We hypothesized that integrating DNA-WES and RNA-seq would enable superior mutation detection versus DNA-WES alone. We developed a first-of-its-kind method, called UNCeqR, that detects somatic mutations by integrating patient-matched RNA-seq and DNA-WES. In simulation, the integrated DNA and RNA model outperformed the DNA-WES only model. Validation by patient-matched whole genome sequencing demonstrated superior performance of the integrated model over DNA-WES only models, including a published method and published mutation profiles. Genome-wide mutational analysis of breast and lung cancer cohorts (n = 871) revealed remarkable tumor genomics properties. Low purity tumors experienced the largest gains in mutation detection by integrating RNA-seq and DNA-WES. RNA provided greater mutation signal than DNA in expressed mutations. Compared to earlier studies on this cohort, UNCeqR increased mutation rates of driver and therapeutically targeted genes (e.g. PIK3CA, ERBB2 and FGFR2). In summary, integrating RNA-seq with DNA-WES increases mutation detection performance, especially for low purity tumors.

Related: Breast Cancer Lung Cancer Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction


Li W, Li K, Zhao L, Zou H
Bioinformatics analysis reveals disturbance mechanism of MAPK signaling pathway and cell cycle in Glioblastoma multiforme.
Gene. 2014; 547(2):346-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: To analyze the reversal gene pairs and identify featured reversal genes related to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway and cell cycle in Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) to reveal its pathogenetic mechanism.
METHODS: We downloaded the gene expression profile GSE4290 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 81 gene chips of GBM and 23 gene chips of controls. The t test was used to analyze the DEGs (differentially expressed genes) between 23 normal and 81 GBM samples. Then some perturbing metabolic pathways, including MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases) and cell cycle signaling pathway, were extracted from KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway database. Cancer genes were obtained from the database of Cancer Gene Census. The reversal gene pairs between DEGs and cancer genes were further analyzed in MAPK and cell cycle signaling pathway.
RESULTS: A total 8523 DEGs were obtained including 4090 up-regulated and 4433 down-regulated genes. Among them, ras-related protein rab-13(RAB13), neuroblastoma breakpoint family member 10 (NBPF10) and disks large homologue 4 (DLG4) were found to be involved in GBM for the first time. We obtained MAPK and cell cycle signaling pathways from KEGG database. By analyzing perturbing mechanism in these two pathways, we identified several reversal gene pairs, including NRAS (neuroblastoma RAS) and CDK2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2), CCND1 (cyclin D1) and FGFR (fibroblast growth factor receptor). Further analysis showed that NRAS and CDK2 were positively related with GBM. However, FGFR2 and CCND1 were negatively related with GBM.
INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that newly identified DEGs and featured reversal gene pairs participated in MAPK and cell cycle signaling pathway may provide a new therapeutic line of approach to GBM.

Related: NRAS


Rettew AN, Getty PJ, Greenfield EM
Receptor tyrosine kinases in osteosarcoma: not just the usual suspects.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014; 804:47-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite aggressive surgical and chemotherapy protocols, survival rates for osteosarcoma patients have not improved over the last 30 years. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents are needed. Receptor tyrosine kinases have emerged as targets for the development of new cancer therapies since their activation leads to enhanced proliferation, survival, and metastasis. In fact, aberrant expression and activation of RTKs have been associated with the progression of many cancers. Studies from our lab using phosphoproteomic screening identified RTKs that are activated and thus may contribute to the signaling within metastatic human osteosarcoma cells. Functional genomic screening using siRNA was performed to distinguish which of the activated RTKs contribute to in vitro phenotypes associated with metastatic potential (motility, invasion, colony formation, and cell growth). The resulting RTK hits were then validated using independent validation experiments. From these results, we identified four RTKs (Axl, EphB2, FGFR2, and Ret) that have not been previously studied in osteosarcoma and provide targets for the development of novel therapeutics.

Related: Bone Cancers RET EPHB2 Signal Transduction AXL


Serizawa M, Koh Y, Kenmotsu H, et al.
Assessment of mutational profile of Japanese lung adenocarcinoma patients by multitarget assays: a prospective, single-institute study.
Cancer. 2014; 120(10):1471-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Integration of mutational profiling to identify driver genetic alterations in a clinical setting is necessary to facilitate personalized lung cancer medicine. A tumor genotyping panel was developed and the Shizuoka Lung Cancer Mutation Study was initiated as a prospective tumor genotyping study. This study reports the frequency of driver genetic alterations in Japanese lung adenocarcinoma patients, and clinicopathologic correlations with each genotype.
METHODS: Between July 2011 and January 2013, 411 lung adenocarcinoma patients admitted to the Shizuoka Cancer Center were included in this study with their written informed consent. Surgically resected tissues, tumor biopsies, and/or body cavity fluids were collected and tested for 23 hotspot sites of driver mutations in 9 genes (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, NRAS, MEK1, AKT1, PTEN, and HER2), gene amplifications in 5 genes (EGFR, MET, PIK3CA, FGFR1, and FGFR2), and ALK, ROS1, and RET fusions.
RESULTS: Genetic alterations were detected in 54.3% (223 of 411) of all patients. The most common genetic alterations detected in this study were EGFR mutations (35.0%) followed by KRAS mutations (8.5%) and ALK fusions (5.0%). Concurrent genetic alterations were detected in 22 patients (5.4%), and EGFR mutations were observed in 16 patients as the most common partner for concurrent genetic alteration. Significantly more concurrent genetic alterations were observed in older patients.
CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the largest reports of a prospective tumor genotyping study on Japanese patients with adenocarcinoma. These data suggest that mutational profiling data using a multimutational testing platform would be valuable for expanding the range of molecular-targeted therapeutics in lung cancer.

Related: Lung Cancer KRAS gene EGFR


Monsma DJ, Cherba DM, Richardson PJ, et al.
Using a rhabdomyosarcoma patient-derived xenograft to examine precision medicine approaches and model acquired resistance.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014; 61(9):1570-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Precision (Personalized) medicine has the potential to revolutionize patient health care especially for many cancers where the fundamental disease etiology remains either elusive or has no available therapy. Here we outline a study in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, in which we use gene expression profiling and a series of drug prediction algorithms combined with a matched patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model to test bioinformatically predicted therapies.
PROCEDURE: A PDX model was developed from a patient biopsy and a number of drugs identified using gene expression analysis in combination with drug prediction algorithms. Drugs chosen from each of the predictive methodologies, along with the patient's standard-of-care therapy (ICE-T), were tested in vivo in the PDX tumor. A second study was initiated using the tumors that re-grew following the ICE-T treatment. Further expression analysis identified additional therapies with potential anti-tumor efficacy.
RESULTS: A number of the predicted therapies were found to be active against the tumors in particular BGJ398 (FGFR2) and ICE-T. Re-transplanted ICE-T treated tumorgrafts demonstrated a decreased response to ICE-T recapitulating the patient's refractory disease. Gene expression profiling of the ICE-T treated tumorgrafts identified cytarabine (SLC29A1) as a potential therapy, which was shown, along with BGJ398, to be highly active in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates that PDX models are suitable surrogates for testing potential therapeutic strategies based on gene expression analysis, modeling clinical drug resistance and hold the potential to assist in guiding prospective patient care.

Related: Cytarabine



AKT isoform-specific signals regulate RNA processing in lung cancer.
Cancer Discov. 2014; 4(3):OF17 [PubMed] Related Publications
IWS1 phosphorylation by AKT1 and AKT3 shifts splicing towards a tumorigenic FGFR2 isoform.

Related: Lung Cancer AKT1 Signal Transduction


Parker BC, Engels M, Annala M, Zhang W
Emergence of FGFR family gene fusions as therapeutic targets in a wide spectrum of solid tumours.
J Pathol. 2014; 232(1):4-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
The emergence of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family fusions across diverse cancers has brought attention to FGFR-derived cancer therapies. The discovery of the first recurrent FGFR fusion in glioblastoma was followed by discoveries of FGFR fusions in bladder, lung, breast, thyroid, oral, and prostate cancers. Drug targeting of FGFR fusions has shown promising results and should soon be translating into clinical trials. FGFR fusions form as a result of various mechanisms – predominantly deletion for FGFR1, translocation for FGFR2, and tandem duplication for FGFR3. The ability to exploit the unique targetability of FGFR fusions proves that FGFR-derived therapies could have a promising future in cancer therapeutics. Drug targeting of fusion genes has proven to be an extremely effective therapeutic approach for cancers such as the recurrent BCR–ABL1 fusion in chronic myeloid leukaemia. The recent discovery of recurrent FGFR family fusions in several cancer types has brought to attention the unique therapeutic potential for FGFR-positive patients. Understanding the diverse mechanisms of FGFR fusion formation and their oncogenic potential will shed light on the impact of FGFR-derived therapy in the future.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction FGFR1 gene Signal Transduction


Agarwal D, Pineda S, Michailidou K, et al.
FGF receptor genes and breast cancer susceptibility: results from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(4):1088-100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/02/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.
METHODS: Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53 835 cases and 50 156 controls, of which 89 050 (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) were of European ancestry, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression.
RESULTS: Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk was observed for SNPs in the FGF receptor genes. The strongest evidence in European women was for rs743682 in FGFR3; the estimated per-allele odds ratio was 1.05 (95% confidence interval=1.02-1.09, P=0.0020), which is substantially lower than that observed for SNPs in FGFR2.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that common variants in the other FGF receptors are not associated with risk of breast cancer to the degree observed for FGFR2.

Related: Breast Cancer FGFR1 gene


Liu YJ, Shen D, Yin X, et al.
HER2, MET and FGFR2 oncogenic driver alterations define distinct molecular segments for targeted therapies in gastric carcinoma.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(5):1169-78 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Since the approval of trastuzumab, targeted therapies are emerging as promising treatment options for the disease. This study aimed to explore the molecular segmentation of several known therapeutics targets, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), MET and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), within GC using clinically approved or investigational kits and scoring criteria. Knowledge of how these markers are segmented in the same cohort of GC patients could improve future clinical trial designs.
METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and FISH methods, overexpression and amplification of HER2, FGFR2 and MET were profiled in a cohort of Chinese GC samples. The correlations between anti-tumour sensitivity and the molecular segments of HER2, MET and FGFR2 alterations were further tested in a panel of GC cell lines and the patient-derived GC xenograft (PDGCX) model using the targeted inhibitors.
RESULTS: Of 172 GC patients, positivity for HER2, MET and FGFR2 alternations was found in 23 (13.4%), 21 (12.2%) and 9 (5.2%) patients, respectively. Positivity for MET was found in 3 of 23 HER2-positive GC patients. Co-positivity for FGFR2 and MET was found in 1 GC patient, and amplification of the two genes was found in different tumour cells. Our study in a panel of GC cell lines showed that in most cell lines, amplification or high expression of a particular molecular marker was mutually exclusive and in vitro sensitivity to the targeted agents lapatinib, PD173074 and crizotinib was only observed in cell lines with the corresponding high expression of the drugs' target protein. SGC031, an MET-positive PDGCX mouse model, responded to crizotinib but not to lapatinib or PD173074.
CONCLUSIONS: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, MET and FGFR2 oncogenic driver alterations (gene amplification and overexpression) occur in three largely distinct molecular segments in GC. A significant proportion of HER2-negative patients may potentially benefit from MET- or FGFR2-targeted therapies.

Related: MET gene Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer Lapatinib (Tyverb) Crizotinib (Xalkori)


André F, Bachelot T, Commo F, et al.
Comparative genomic hybridisation array and DNA sequencing to direct treatment of metastatic breast cancer: a multicentre, prospective trial (SAFIR01/UNICANCER).
Lancet Oncol. 2014; 15(3):267-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is characterised by genomic alterations. We did a multicentre molecular screening study to identify abnormalities in individual patients with the aim of providing targeted therapy matched to individuals' genomic alterations.
METHODS: From June 16, 2011, to July 30, 2012, we recruited patients who had breast cancer with a metastasis accessible for biopsy in 18 centres in France. Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) array and Sanger sequencing on PIK3CA (exon 10 and 21) and AKT1 (exon 4) were used to assess metastatic biopsy samples in five centres. Therapeutic targets were decided on the basis of identified genomic alterations. The primary objective was to include 30% of patients in clinical trials testing a targeted therapy and, therefore, the primary outcome was the proportion of patients to whom a targeted therapy could be offered. For the primary endpoint, the analyses were done on the overall population registered for the trial. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01414933.
FINDINGS: 423 patients were included, and biopsy samples were obtained from 407 (metastatic breast cancer was not found in four). CGH array and Sanger sequencing were feasible in 283 (67%) and 297 (70%) patients, respectively. A targetable genomic alteration was identified in 195 (46%) patients, most frequently in PIK3CA (74 [25%] of 297 identified genomic alterations), CCND1 (53 [19%]), and FGFR1 (36 [13%]). 117 (39%) of 297 patients with genomic tests available presented with rare genomic alterations (defined as occurring in less than 5% of the general population), including AKT1 mutations, and EGFR, MDM2, FGFR2, AKT2, IGF1R, and MET high-level amplifications. Therapy could be personalised in 55 (13%) of 423 patients. Of the 43 patients who were assessable and received targeted therapy, four (9%) had an objective response, and nine others (21%) had stable disease for more than 16 weeks. Serious (grade 3 or higher) adverse events related to biopsy were reported in four (1%) of enrolled patients, including pneumothorax (grade 3, one patient), pain (grade 3, one patient), haematoma (grade 3, one patient), and haemorrhagic shock (grade 3, one patient).
INTERPRETATION: Personalisation of medicine for metastatic breast cancer is feasible, including for rare genomic alterations.
FUNDING: French National Cancer Institute, Breast Cancer Research Foundation, Odyssea, Operation Parrains Chercheurs.

Related: Breast Cancer CGH ERBB2 (HER2)


Tajiri R, Ooi A, Fujimura T, et al.
Intratumoral heterogeneous amplification of ERBB2 and subclonal genetic diversity in gastric cancers revealed by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(4):725-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
A humanized monoclonal antibody against ERBB2 is used in neoadjuvant therapy for patients with gastric cancer. A critical factor in determining patient eligibility and predicting outcomes of this therapy is the intratumoral heterogeneity of ERBB2 amplification in gastric adenocarcinomas. The aims of this study are to assess the underlying mechanisms of intratumoral heterogeneity of ERBB2 amplification; to characterize the diversity of coamplified oncogenes such as EGFR, FGFR2, MET, MYC, CCND1, and MDM2; and to examine the usefulness of multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in the semicomprehensive detection of these gene amplifications. A combined analysis of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ERBB2-amplified cancer cells in 51 of 475 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gastric adenocarcinomas. The fraction of amplification-positive cells in each tumor ranged from less than 10% to almost 100%. Intratumoral heterogeneity of ERBB2 amplification, defined as less than 50% of cancer cells positive for ERBB2 amplification, was found in 41% (21/51) of ERBB2-amplified tumors. The combined analysis of MLPA and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that ERBB2 was coamplified with EGFR in 7 tumors, FGFR2 in 1 tumor, and FGFR2 and MET in 1 tumor; however, the respective genes were amplified in mutually exclusive cells. Coamplified ERBB2 and MYC coexisted within single nuclei in 4 tumors, and one of these cases had suspected coamplification in the same amplicon of ERBB2 with MYC. In conclusion, the amplification status of ERBB2 and other genes can be obtained semicomprehensively by MLPA and could be useful to plan individualized molecularly targeted therapy against gastric cancers.

Related: ERBB2 (HER2) FISH Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer


Sanidas I, Polytarchou C, Hatziapostolou M, et al.
Phosphoproteomics screen reveals akt isoform-specific signals linking RNA processing to lung cancer.
Mol Cell. 2014; 53(4):577-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2015 Related Publications
The three Akt isoforms are functionally distinct. Here we show that their phosphoproteomes also differ, suggesting that their functional differences are due to differences in target specificity. One of the top cellular functions differentially regulated by Akt isoforms is RNA processing. IWS1, an RNA processing regulator, is phosphorylated by Akt3 and Akt1 at Ser720/Thr721. The latter is required for the recruitment of SETD2 to the RNA Pol II complex. SETD2 trimethylates histone H3 at K36 during transcription, creating a docking site for MRG15 and PTB. H3K36me3-bound MRG15 and PTB regulate FGFR-2 splicing, which controls tumor growth and invasiveness downstream of IWS1 phosphorylation. Twenty-one of the twenty-four non-small-cell-lung carcinomas we analyzed express IWS1. More importantly, the stoichiometry of IWS1 phosphorylation in these tumors correlates with the FGFR-2 splicing pattern and with Akt phosphorylation and Akt3 expression. These data identify an Akt isoform-dependent regulatory mechanism for RNA processing and demonstrate its role in lung cancer.

Related: Lung Cancer AKT1


Su X, Zhan P, Gavine PR, et al.
FGFR2 amplification has prognostic significance in gastric cancer: results from a large international multicentre study.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(4):967-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/02/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In preclinical gastric cancer (GC) models, FGFR2 amplification was associated with increased tumour cell proliferation and survival, and drugs targeting this pathway are now in clinical trials.
METHODS: FGFR2 FISH was performed on 961 GCs from the United Kingdom, China and Korea, and the relationship with clinicopathological data and overlap with HER2 amplification were analysed.
RESULTS: The prevalence of FGFR2 amplification was similar between the three cohorts (UK 7.4%, China 4.6% and Korea 4.2%), and intratumoral heterogeneity was observed in 24% of FGFR2 amplified cases. FGFR2 amplification was associated with lymph node metastases (P<0.0001). FGFR2 amplification and polysomy were associated with poor overall survival (OS) in the Korean (OS: 1.83 vs 6.17 years, P=0.0073) and UK (OS: 0.45 vs 1.9 years, P<0.0001) cohorts, and FGFR2 amplification was an independent marker of poor survival in the UK cohort (P=0.0002). Co-amplification of FGFR2 and HER2 was rare, and when high-level amplifications did co-occur these were detected in distinct areas of the tumour.
CONCLUSION: A similar incidence of FGFR2 amplification was found in Asian and UK GCs and was associated with lymphatic invasion and poor prognosis. This study also shows that HER2 and FGFR2 amplifications are mostly exclusive.

Related: FISH Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer


Pease M, Ling C, Mack WJ, et al.
The role of epigenetic modification in tumorigenesis and progression of pituitary adenomas: a systematic review of the literature.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e82619 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/02/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are commonly occurring neoplasms with diverse endocrine and neurological effects. Although somatic gene mutations are uncommon in sporadic PAs, recent studies lend support to epigenetic modification as a potential cause of tumorigenesis and tumor progression.
METHODS: A systematic literature review of the PubMed and Google Scholar databases was conducted to identify abstracts (n=1,082) pertaining to key targets and mechanisms implicated in epigenetic dysregulation of PAs published between 1993-2013. Data regarding histopathological subtype, target genes, mode of epigenetic modification, and clinical correlation were recorded and analyzed.
RESULTS: Of the 47 that studies met inclusion criteria and focused on epigenomic assessment of PAs, only 2 were genome-scale analyses. Current evidence supports epigenetic alteration in at least 24 PA genes, which were categorized into four groups based on function and epigenetic alteration: 1) Sixteen tumor suppressor genes silenced via DNA methylation; 2) Two oncogenes overexpressed via histone acetylation and hypomethylation; 3) Three imprinted genes with selective allelic silencing; and 4) One epigenome writer inducing abnormal genome-scale activity and 5) Two transcription regulators indirectly modifying the genome. Of these, 5 genes (CDKN2A, GADD45y, FGFR2, caspase-8, and PTAG) showed particular susceptibility to epigenetic modification, with abnormal DNA methylation in >50% of PA samples. Several genes displayed correlations between epigenetic modification and clinically relevant parameters, including invasiveness (CDKN2A; DAPK; Rb1), sex (MAGE-A3), tumor size (GNAS1), and histopathological subtype (CDKN2A; MEG3; p27; RASSF1A; Rb1).
CONCLUSIONS: Epigenetic modification of selected PA genes may play a key role in tumorigenesis and progression, which may translate into important diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

Related: Pituitary Tumors


Betts G, Valentine H, Pritchard S, et al.
FGFR2, HER2 and cMet in gastric adenocarcinoma: detection, prognostic significance and assessment of downstream pathway activation.
Virchows Arch. 2014; 464(2):145-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Receptor tyrosine kinase pathways are potential therapeutic targets in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. We evaluated HER2 and cMet protein expression, and FGFR2 gene amplification to assess their prognostic significance, and downstream mediators pS6 and pERK for their potential utility as pharmacodynamic biomarkers in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Tissue microarrays were constructed from resection samples of 184 patients who underwent surgery for gastric/gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Tissue cores were obtained from the tumour body (TB), luminal surface (LS) and invasive edge (IE), and immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FGFR2) analysis was performed. FGFR2 amplification was identified in 2 % of cases and associated with worse survival (P = 0.005). HER2 overexpression was observed in 10 % of cases and associated with increased survival (P = 0.041). cMet overexpression was observed in 4 % of cases and associated with worse survival (P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only cMet retained significance (P = 0.006). pS6 and pERK expression were observed in 73 % and 30 % of tumours, respectively, with no association with survival. HER2 (P = 0.004) and pERK (P = 0.001) expression differed between tumour regions with HER2 expression increased in the LS compared with the TB and IE. These findings confirm subpopulations in gastric adenocarcinoma with poor outcome that may benefit from specific therapeutic strategies. However, we found heterogeneous HER2, pS6 and pERK overexpression, which presents challenges for their use as predictive biomarkers in gastric biopsies. The potential downstream pharmacodynamic markers pS6 and pERK were expressed across tumour regions, providing evidence that resections and biopsies would yield comparative results in clinical trials.

Related: FISH MET gene Signal Transduction Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer


Meyer KB, O'Reilly M, Michailidou K, et al.
Fine-scale mapping of the FGFR2 breast cancer risk locus: putative functional variants differentially bind FOXA1 and E2F1.
Am J Hum Genet. 2013; 93(6):1046-60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/02/2015 Related Publications
The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of European ancestry, 9 Asian ancestry studies (n = 13,983), and 2 African ancestry studies (n = 2,028) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified three statistically independent risk signals within the locus. Within risk signals 1 and 3, genetic analysis identified five and two variants, respectively, highly correlated with the most strongly associated SNPs. By using a combination of genetic fine mapping, data on DNase hypersensitivity, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to study protein-DNA binding, we identified rs35054928, rs2981578, and rs45631563 as putative functional SNPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that FOXA1 preferentially bound to the risk-associated allele (C) of rs2981578 and was able to recruit ERα to this site in an allele-specific manner, whereas E2F1 preferentially bound the risk variant of rs35054928. The risk alleles were preferentially found in open chromatin and bound by Ser5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, suggesting that the risk alleles are associated with changes in transcription. Chromatin conformation capture demonstrated that the risk region was able to interact with the promoter of FGFR2, the likely target gene of this risk region. A role for FOXA1 in mediating breast cancer susceptibility at this locus is consistent with the finding that the FGFR2 risk locus primarily predisposes to estrogen-receptor-positive disease.

Related: Breast Cancer E2F1 Transcription Factor


Robbez-Masson LJ, Bödör C, Jones JL, et al.
Functional analysis of a breast cancer-associated FGFR2 single nucleotide polymorphism using zinc finger mediated genome editing.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e78839 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/02/2015 Related Publications
Genome wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) as one of the highest ranking risk alleles in terms of development of breast cancer. The potential effect of these SNPs, in intron two, was postulated to be due to the differential binding of cis-regulatory elements, such as transcription factors, since all the SNPs in linkage disequilibrium were located in a regulatory DNA region. A Runx2 binding site was reported to be functional only in the minor, disease associated allele of rs2981578, resulting in increased expression of FGFR2 in cancers from patients homozygous for that allele. Moreover, the increased risk conferred by the minor FGFR2 allele associates most strongly in oestrogen receptor alpha positive (ERα) breast tumours, suggesting a potential interaction between ERα and FGFR signalling. Here, we have developed a human cell line model system to study the effect of the putative functional SNP, rs2981578, on cell behaviour. MCF7 cells, an ERα positive breast cancer cell line homozygous for the wild-type allele were edited using a Zinc Finger Nuclease approach. Unexpectedly, the acquisition of a single risk allele in MCF7 clones failed to affect proliferation or cell cycle progression. Binding of Runx2 to the risk allele was not observed. However FOXA1 binding, an important ERα partner, appeared decreased at the rs2981578 locus in the risk allele cells. Differences in allele specific expression (ASE) of FGFR2 were not observed in a panel of 72 ERα positive breast cancer samples. Thus, the apparent increased risk of developing ERα positive breast cancer seems not to be caused by rs2981578 alone. Rather, the observed increased risk of developing breast cancer might be the result of a coordinated effect of multiple SNPs forming a risk haplotype in the second intron of FGFR2.

Related: Breast Cancer Signal Transduction ESR1


Dienstmann R, Rodon J, Prat A, et al.
Genomic aberrations in the FGFR pathway: opportunities for targeted therapies in solid tumors.
Ann Oncol. 2014; 25(3):552-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) cascade plays crucial roles in tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration and survival. Accumulating evidence suggests that in some tumor types, FGFRs are bona fide oncogenes to which cancer cells are addicted. Because FGFR inhibition can reduce proliferation and induce cell death in a variety of in vitro and in vivo tumor models harboring FGFR aberrations, a growing number of research groups have selected FGFRs as targets for anticancer drug development. Multikinase FGFR/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors have shown promising activity in breast cancer patients with FGFR1 and/or FGF3 amplification. Early clinical trials with selective FGFR inhibitors, which may overcome the toxicity constraints raised by multitarget kinase inhibition, are recruiting patients with known FGFR(1-4) status based on genomic screens. Preliminary signs of antitumor activity have been demonstrated in some tumor types, including squamous cell lung carcinomas. Rational combination of targeted therapies is expected to further increase the efficacy of selective FGFR inhibitors. Herein, we discuss unsolved questions in the clinical development of these agents and suggest guidelines for management of hyperphosphatemia, a class-specific mechanism-based toxicity. In addition, we propose standardized definitions for FGFR1 and FGFR2 gene amplification based on in situ hybridization methods. Extended access to next-generation sequencing platforms will facilitate the identification of diseases in which somatic FGFR(1-4) mutations, amplifications and fusions are potentially driving cancer cell viability, further strengthening the role of FGFR signaling in cancer biology and providing more possibilities for the therapeutic application of FGFR inhibitors.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction FGFR1 gene FGF3


Rosenberg JE, Bambury RM, Van Allen EM, et al.
A phase II trial of AS1411 (a novel nucleolin-targeted DNA aptamer) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Invest New Drugs. 2014; 32(1):178-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA aptamers represent a novel strategy in anti-cancer medicine. AS1411, a DNA aptamer targeting nucleolin (a protein which is overexpressed in many tumor types), was evaluated in patients with metastatic, clear-cell, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who had failed treatment with ≥1 prior tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
METHODS: In this phase II, single-arm study, AS1411 was administered at 40 mg/kg/day by continuous intravenous infusion on days 1-4 of a 28-day cycle, for two cycles. Primary endpoint was overall response rate; progression-free survival (PFS) and safety were secondary endpoints.
RESULTS: 35 patients were enrolled and treated. One patient (2.9 %) had a response to treatment. The response was dramatic (84 % reduction in tumor burden by RECIST 1.0 criteria) and durable (patient remains free of progression 2 years after completing therapy). Whole exome sequencing of this patient's tumor revealed missense mutations in the mTOR and FGFR2 genes which is of interest because nucleolin is known to upregulate mTOR pathway activity by enhancing AKT1 mRNA translation. No other responses were seen. Thirty-four percent of patients had an AS1411-related adverse event, all of which were mild or moderate.
CONCLUSIONS: AS1411 appears to have minimal activity in unselected patients with metastatic RCC. However, rare, dramatic and durable responses can be observed and toxicity is low. One patient in this study had an excellent response and was found to have FGFR2 and mTOR mutations which will be of interest in future efforts to discover and validate predictive biomarkers of response to nucleolin targeted compounds. DNA aptamers represent a novel way to target cancer cells at a molecular level and continue to be developed with a view to improving treatment and imaging in cancer medicine.

Related: Kidney Cancer


O'Brien KM, Cole SR, Poole C, et al.
Replication of breast cancer susceptibility loci in whites and African Americans using a Bayesian approach.
Am J Epidemiol. 2014; 179(3):382-94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene analyses have led to the discovery of several dozen genetic polymorphisms associated with breast cancer susceptibility, many of which are considered well-established risk factors for the disease. Despite attempts to replicate these same variant-disease associations in African Americans, the evaluable populations are often too small to produce precise or consistent results. We estimated the associations between 83 previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and breast cancer among Carolina Breast Cancer Study (1993-2001) participants using maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and hierarchical methods. The selected SNPs were previous GWAS hits (n = 22), near-hits (n = 19), otherwise well-established risk loci (n = 5), or located in the same genes as selected variants (n = 37). We successfully replicated 18 GWAS-identified SNPs in whites (n = 2,352) and 10 in African Americans (n = 1,447). SNPs in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2) and the TOC high mobility group box family member 3 gene (TOX3) were strongly associated with breast cancer in both races. SNPs in the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S30 gene (MRPS30), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 gene (MAP3K1), zinc finger, MIZ-type containing 1 gene (ZMIZ1), and H19, imprinted maternally expressed transcript gene (H19) were associated with breast cancer in whites, and SNPs in the estrogen receptor 1 gene (ESR1) and H19 gene were associated with breast cancer in African Americans. We provide precise and well-informed race-stratified odds ratios for key breast cancer-related SNPs. Our results demonstrate the utility of Bayesian methods in genetic epidemiology and provide support for their application in small, etiologically driven investigations.

Related: Breast Cancer


Wöhrle S, Weiss A, Ito M, et al.
Fibroblast growth factor receptors as novel therapeutic targets in SNF5-deleted malignant rhabdoid tumors.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77652 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are aggressive pediatric cancers arising in brain, kidney and soft tissues, which are characterized by loss of the tumor suppressor SNF5/SMARCB1. MRTs are poorly responsive to chemotherapy and thus a high unmet clinical need exists for novel therapies for MRT patients. SNF5 is a core subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex which affects gene expression by nucleosome remodeling. Here, we report that loss of SNF5 function correlates with increased expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in MRT cell lines and primary tumors and that re-expression of SNF5 in MRT cells causes a marked repression of FGFR expression. Conversely, siRNA-mediated impairment of SWI/SNF function leads to elevated levels of FGFR2 in human fibroblasts. In vivo, treatment with NVP-BGJ398, a selective FGFR inhibitor, blocks progression of a murine MRT model. Hence, we identify FGFR signaling as an aberrantly activated oncogenic pathway in MRTs and propose pharmacological inhibition of FGFRs as a potential novel clinical therapy for MRTs.

Related: Malignant Rhabdoid Tumour Signal Transduction


O'Brien KM, Cole SR, Engel LS, et al.
Breast cancer subtypes and previously established genetic risk factors: a bayesian approach.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014; 23(1):84-97 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gene expression analyses indicate that breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with at least five immunohistologic subtypes. Despite growing evidence that these subtypes are etiologically and prognostically distinct, few studies have investigated whether they have divergent genetic risk factors. To help fill in this gap in our understanding, we examined associations between breast cancer subtypes and previously established susceptibility loci among white and African-American women in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.
METHODS: We used Bayesian polytomous logistic regression to estimate ORs and 95% posterior intervals for the association between each of 78 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and five breast cancer subtypes. Subtypes were defined using five immunohistochemical markers: estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (HER1/2), and cytokeratin (CK) 5/6.
RESULTS: Several SNPs in TNRC9/TOX3 were associated with luminal A (ER/PR+, HER2-) or basal-like breast cancer (ER-, PR-, HER2-, HER1, or CK 5/6+), and one SNP (rs3104746) was associated with both. SNPs in FGFR2 were associated with luminal A, luminal B (ER/PR+, HER2+), or HER2+/ER- disease, but none were associated with basal-like disease. We also observed subtype differences in the effects of SNPs in 2q35, 4p, TLR1, MAP3K1, ESR1, CDKN2A/B, ANKRD16, and ZM1Z1.
CONCLUSION AND IMPACT: We found evidence that genetic risk factors for breast cancer vary by subtype and further clarified the role of several key susceptibility genes. .

Related: Breast Cancer


Pilato B, De Summa S, Danza K, et al.
Genetic risk transmission in a family affected by familial breast cancer.
J Hum Genet. 2014; 59(1):51-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast Cancer is the most common malignancy among women. Family history is the strongest single predictor of breast cancer risk, and thus great attention has been focused on BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes whose mutations lead to a high risk of developing this disease. Today, only 25% of high- and moderate-risk genes are known, suggesting the importance of the discovery of new risk modifiers. Therefore, the investigation of new polygenic alterations is of great importance, especially if considered high- and moderate-risk variants. In this study, the transmission of BRCA1-2 polymorphisms in association with the transmission of polymorphisms in the genes NUMA1, CCND1, COX11, FGFR2, TNRC9 and SLC4A7 were examined in all members of a family with the BRCA2 c.6447_6448dup mutation. This is the first study about the transmission of high-risk polygenic variants in all members of a family with a strong history of breast cancer. The results about the possible polygenic variant associations that could increase and modify the risk suggested the importance to search new variants to better manage patients and their family members.

Related: Breast Cancer BRCA1 BRCA2


Ozgöz A, Samli H, Oztürk KH, et al.
An investigation of the effects of FGFR2 and B7-H4 polymorphisms in breast cancer.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2013 Jul-Sep; 9(3):370-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Polymorphisms in FGFR2 are important markers for breast cancer susceptibility in the general population. CHEK2 and FGFR2 polymorphisms with known susceptibility alleles of BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, and TP53, can be investigated as potential modifiers of high penetrant risk alleles. Although the B7-H4 gene is highly expressed in many different tumors, there is one published study showing the association of polymorphisms with breast cancer. We aimed to investigate FGFR2 and B7-H4 polymorphisms in breast cancer in the Turkish community.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a group of 31 cases diagnosed with breast cancer and 30 healthy women with matched ages, the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1219648, rs2981582 in FGFR2 gene were identified by sequence analysis and the SNPs rs10754339, rs10801935, and rs3738414 in the B7-H4 gene were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS.
RESULTS: Although statistically not significant, the frequency of FGFR2 heterozygous polymorphisms in the group with breast cancer was detected to be higher. In the B7-H4 SNP rs10801935, polymorphic AA, and AG genotype distributions were found in higher frequencies in the breast cancer patients. In contrast to the results of a published study, the present study shows that B7-H4 rs3738414 polymorphism GG genotype was found in higher frequency in the control group than the breast cancer group and the result was statistically significant (P=0.018).
CONCLUSION: Larger scale studies are necessary to determine the prevalence of these polymorphisms and association with breast cancer in Turkish community, as this study is the first study performed.

Related: Breast Cancer


Arai Y, Totoki Y, Hosoda F, et al.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 tyrosine kinase fusions define a unique molecular subtype of cholangiocarcinoma.
Hepatology. 2014; 59(4):1427-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Cholangiocarcinoma is an intractable cancer, with limited therapeutic options, in which the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor development remain poorly understood. Identification of a novel driver oncogene and applying it to targeted therapies for molecularly defined cancers might lead to improvements in the outcome of patients. We performed massively parallel whole transcriptome sequencing in eight specimens from cholangiocarcinoma patients without KRAS/BRAF/ROS1 alterations and identified two fusion kinase genes, FGFR2-AHCYL1 and FGFR2-BICC1. In reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) screening, the FGFR2 fusion was detected in nine patients with cholangiocarcinoma (9/102), exclusively in the intrahepatic subtype (9/66, 13.6%), rarely in colorectal (1/149) and hepatocellular carcinoma (1/96), and none in gastric cancer (0/212). The rearrangements were mutually exclusive with KRAS/BRAF mutations. Expression of the fusion kinases in NIH3T3 cells activated MAPK and conferred anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumorigenesis of subcutaneous transplanted cells in immune-compromised mice. This transforming ability was attributable to its kinase activity. Treatment with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) kinase inhibitors BGJ398 and PD173074 effectively suppressed transformation.
CONCLUSION: FGFR2 fusions occur in 13.6% of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The expression pattern of these fusions in association with sensitivity to FGFR inhibitors warrant a new molecular classification of cholangiocarcinoma and suggest a new therapeutic approach to the disease.

Related: Extra-Hepatic Bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Liver Cancer Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer


Ueda J, Matsuda Y, Yamahatsu K, et al.
Epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 is a favorable prognostic factor in pancreatic cancer that attenuates pancreatic metastases.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(36):4485-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/03/2015 Related Publications
Epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 (ESRP1) binds the FGFR-2 auxiliary cis-element ISE/ISS-3, located in the intron between exon IIIb and IIIc, and primarily promotes FGFR-2 IIIb expression. Here we assessed the role of ESRP1 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-ESRP1, FGFR-2 IIIb and FGFR-2 IIIc antibodies in 123 PDAC cases. ESRP1 expression vector and small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting ESRP1 were transfected into human PDAC cells, and cell growth, migration and invasion were analyzed. In vivo heterotopic and orthotopic implantations using ESRP1 overexpression clones were performed and effects on pancreatic tumor volumes and hepatic and pulmonary metastases determined. ESRP1 immunoreactivity was strong in the nuclei of cancer cells in well-to-moderately differentiated PDACs but weak in poorly differentiated cancers. Well-to-moderately differentiated cancers also exhibited high FGFR-2 IIIb and low FGFR-2 IIIc expression, whereas this ratio was reversed in the poorly differentiated cancers. Increased ESRP1 expression was associated with longer survival in comparison with low ESRP1 expression, and PANC-1 cells engineered to express ESRP1 exhibited increased FGFR-2 IIIb expression and decreased migration and invasion in vitro, whereas ESRP1 siRNA-transfected KLM-1 cells exhibited increased FGFR-2 IIIc expression and increased cell growth, migration and invasion. In vivo, ESRP1-overexpressing clones formed significantly fewer liver metastases as compared with control clones. ESRP1 regulates the expression pattern of FGFR-2 isoforms, attenuates cell growth, migration, invasion and metastasis, and is a favorable prognostic factor in PDAC. Therefore, devising mechanisms to upregulate ESRP1 may exert a beneficial therapeutic effect in PDAC.

Related: Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer


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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. FGFR2 gene, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/FGFR2.htm Accessed: date

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