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Australia

About 125,000 people are diagnosed with cancer in Australia each year. With population growth and aging this is set to rise to 150,000 new cases each year by 2020.1 in 2 Australian men and 1 in 3 Australian women will be diagnosed with cancer by the age of 85. Cancer is a leading cause of death in Australia. (Source: Cancer Council Australia)

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National Organisations
New South Wales
Northern Territory
Queensland
South Australia
Tasmania
Victoria
Western Australia
Latest Research Publications

National Organisations (32 links)


New South Wales (10 links)


Northern Territory (4 links)


Queensland (10 links)


South Australia (10 links)


Tasmania (3 links)


Victoria (13 links)


Western Australia (8 links)


Latest Research Publications

Scott D, Reid J, Hudson P, et al.
Health care professionals' experience, understanding and perception of need of advanced cancer patients with cachexia and their families: The benefits of a dedicated clinic.
BMC Palliat Care. 2016; 15(1):100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is defined as the on-going loss of skeletal muscle mass that cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support. It is found in up to 80% of patients with advanced cancer and has profound psycho-social consequences for patients and their families. Previous studies demonstrate that many healthcare professionals receive little formal education in cachexia management leading them to feel that they have limited understanding of the syndrome and cannot intervene effectively. This study aims to examine the value of a dedicated cachexia clinic and its influence on staff understanding and practice.
METHODS: An exploratory qualitative study was conducted. The study employed semi-structured interviews with a range of healthcare professionals responsible for designing and delivering cancer care in a large teaching hospital in Australia. This hospital had a dedicated cachexia clinic.
RESULTS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 8 healthcare professionals and senior managers. Four themes were identified: formal and informal education; knowledge and understanding; truth telling in cachexia and palliative care; and, a multi-disciplinary approach. Findings show that improved knowledge and understanding across a staff body can lead to enhanced staff confidence and a willingness to address cancer cachexia and its consequences with patients and their families.
CONCLUSION: Comparisons with similar previous research demonstrate the advantages of providing a structure for staff to gain knowledge about cachexia and how this can contribute to feelings of improved understanding and confidence necessary to respond to the challenge of cachexia.

Atkinson V, Long GV, Menzies AM, et al.
Optimizing combination dabrafenib and trametinib therapy in BRAF mutation-positive advanced melanoma patients: Guidelines from Australian melanoma medical oncologists.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2016; 12 Suppl 7:5-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
BRAF mutations occur commonly in metastatic melanomas and inhibition of mutant BRAF and the downstream kinase MEK results in rapid tumor regression and prolonged survival in patients. Combined therapy with BRAF and MEK inhibition improves response rate, progression free survival and overall survival compared with single agent BRAF inhibition, and reduces the skin toxicity that is seen with BRAF inhibitor monotherapy. However, this combination is associated with an increase in other toxicities, particularly drug-related pyrexia, which affects approximately 50% of patients treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (CombiDT). We provide guidance on managing adverse events likely to arise during treatment with combination BRAF and MEK inhibition with CombiDT: pyrexia, skin conditions, fatigue; and discuss management of CombiDT during surgery and radiotherapy. By improving tolerability and in particular preventing unnecessary treatment cessations or reduction in drug exposure, best outcomes can be achieved for patients undergoing CombiDT therapy.

Abdul-Razak M, Chung H, Wong E, et al.
Sentinel lymph node biopsy for early oral cancers: Westmead Hospital experience.
ANZ J Surg. 2017; 87(1-2):65-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become an alternative option to elective neck dissection (END) for early oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) outside of Australia. We sought to assess the technical feasibility of SLNB and validate its accuracy against that of END in an Australian setting.
METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study consisting of 30 consecutive patients with cT1-2 N0 OCSCC referred to the Head and Neck Cancer Service, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, between 2011 and 2014. All patients underwent SLNB followed by immediate selective neck dissection (levels I-III).
RESULTS: A total of 30 patients were diagnosed with an early clinically node-negative OCSCC (seven cT1 and 23 cT2), with the majority located on the oral tongue. A median of three (range: 1-14) sentinel nodes were identified on lymphoscintigraphy, and all sentinel nodes were successfully retrieved, with 50% having a pathologically positive sentinel node. No false-negative sentinel nodes were identified using selective neck dissection as the gold standard. The negative predictive value (NPV) of SLNB was 100%, with 40% having a sentinel node identified outside the field of planned neck dissection on lymphoscintigraphy. Of these, one patient had a positive sentinel node outside of the ipsilateral supraomohyoid neck dissection template.
CONCLUSION: SLNB for early OCSCC is technically feasible in an Australian setting. It has a high NPV and can potentially identify at-risk lymphatic basins outside the traditional selective neck dissection levels even in well-lateralized lesions.

Hall A, Lynagh M, Tzelepis F, et al.
How can we help haematological cancer survivors cope with the changes they experience as a result of their cancer?
Ann Hematol. 2016; 95(12):2065-2076 [PubMed] Related Publications
Haematological cancer often necessitates that individuals make significant lifestyle and behaviour changes to protect themselves against infections. It is essential that haematological cancer survivors receive the support and information they require to adjust to such changes. This cross-sectional survey of 259 haematological cancer survivors found that over two thirds of haematological cancer survivors would like to receive more detailed information or help with: diet and nutrition that takes into account their diagnosis and treatment, how to manage the symptoms from the cancer and/or treatment, signs and symptoms to be aware of that may indicate a possible infection and appropriate exercise. Over a third of survivors reported that they had to make changes to reduce their chance of infection, with social restriction the most commonly reported area of change survivors made. Improving communication and access to care and providing additional emotional support may assist survivors in making these additional changes. Healthcare providers should use this information to better support haematological cancer survivors in dealing with the effects haematological cancer has on their life.

Lim E, Vardy JL, Oh B, Dhillon HM
Integration of complementary and alternative medicine into cancer-specific supportive care programs in Australia: A scoping study.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2017; 13(1):6-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The main aim of this research was to describe the availability and integration of supportive care programs (SCPs), particularly complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services, for adults in Australian oncology treatment centers.
METHODS: We systematically searched 124 Australian hospitals listed as having an oncology department out of a total of 1157 hospitals listed in the Australian Hospitals and Aged Care Databases (2014), and assessed their website and relevant leaflets. Direct contact was made with a relevant staff member in each hospital. Data were collected regarding the range of SCP and CAM services available.
RESULTS: Of the 124 hospitals, 89 (72%) provide nonspecific guidance to SCP or a staff member (e.g. social worker or care coordinator) who directs patients, advising them about SCP; 35 hospitals (28%) provide active referral to SCP, of which 24 of 35 (69%) include CAM in their service, with individual variation in how it is incorporated. Only 11 (46%) of these 24 CAM incorporated oncology centers in Australia provided systematically integrated CAM programs.
CONCLUSION: The majority of Australian oncology departments do not have CAM incorporated into their services. In those that do, less than half had systemically integrated CAM. The types of CAM available, how they are accessed and how they are integrated varied across hospitals. Further research is required to understand how to successfully and systematically integrate cancer-specific supportive care such as CAM into Australian cancer services.

Alzahrani N, Ferguson JS, Valle SJ, et al.
Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: long-term results at St George Hospital, Australia.
ANZ J Surg. 2016; 86(11):937-941 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) results from the secondary spread of many intraabdominal tumour types, such as colorectal malignancy (colorectal cancer, CRC), disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis (DPAM), appendiceal cancer, ovarian carcinoma, sarcoma or from the occurrence of primary peritoneal disease such as peritoneal mesothelioma. The combination of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has seen improvements in survival in selected cases of these cancers.
METHODS: Between 1996 and 2014, a prospective database of 675 patients was created for the peritonectomy unit at our hospital. In total, 827 peritonectomy procedures (including redo CRS) were performed for the major subgroups of PC: DPAM 220; appendiceal cancer (peritoneal mucinous adenocarcinoma (PMCA)) 191; CRC 234; diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) 73 and others 109. There were 152 redo-peritonectomy procedures within the total mentioned earlier (CRC 26; DPAM 58; DMPM 18; appendix 40; other 10).
RESULTS: The 5-year survivals for DPAM and PMCA were 80% and 42% respectively. The 5-year survivals for appendiceal cancer with peritoneal cancer index (PCI) <10, 10-20 and >20 were 60, 57 and 37% respectively (P = 0.09). The 2- and 5-year survivals for CRC were 56 and 24% respectively. The 5-year survivals for PCI 0-5, 6-10, 11-15 and >15 were 59, 15, 7 and 0% respectively (P = 0.000). The 5-year survival for DMPM with PCI < 10, 10-20 and >20 were 100, 55 and 39% respectively (P = 0.01).
CONCLUSION: CRS in combination with HIPEC provides a chance of long-term survival in selected cases of PC when compared with systemic therapy alone.

Roberts J, Wong J, Haxhimolla H, Kua B
Laparoscopic nephron sparing surgery: an Australian experience.
ANZ J Surg. 2016; 86(11):926-929 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes from our initial experience with laparoscopic nephron sparing surgery (LNSS) for small renal masses in Australian practice.
METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on an initial 50 patients undergoing LNSS. All procedures performed between April 2006 and September 2012 were included with median follow-up of 30 months. Outcomes measured were: positive surgical margin, warm ischaemic time, total operative time, blood transfusion and complications in the first 30 days after surgery.
RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 57 years. The mean pre-operative creatinine was 85 μmol/L and the mean post-operative creatinine was 89 μmol/L. Sixty-four per cent of the tumours were malignant tumours. The mean size of tumours was 2.5 cm. There were two malignant positive surgical margins on histology. The mean total operative time was 224 min and the mean warm ischaemic time was 24 min. Nine patients had complications with Clavien-Dindo grade III or lower. There was no grade IV or V complication. No patients were lost to follow-up and there have been no tumour recurrences to date.
CONCLUSIONS: LNSS is emerging as a viable alternative to open NSS for small renal tumours with lower morbidity and equivalent oncological and functional outcomes. There is, however, a steep learning curve associated with the procedure.

Lam YH, Bright T, Leong M, et al.
Oesophagectomy is a safe option for early adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett's oesophagus.
ANZ J Surg. 2016; 86(11):905-909 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, there has been a shift towards endoscopic treatment of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and T1 stage adenocarcinoma arising in Barrett's oesophagus. Although short-term outcomes are promising, longer-term outcomes remain uncertain and the role of these therapies versus surgery is debated, with surgical mortality rates assumed. However, few studies have specifically determined the outcome for oesophagectomy in the subgroup with HGD or T1 adenocarcinoma. To determine this, we evaluated experience with oesophagectomy for HGD and T1 adenocarcinoma in Barrett's oesophagus.
METHODS: Data were analysed from a prospective audit database for oesophagectomy performed at two public and four associated private hospitals in Adelaide, South Australia. Patients with HGD, T1a and T1b adenocarcinoma who underwent oesophagectomy from 20 February 1998 to 17 February 2012 were identified, and their perioperative, post-operative and survival outcomes were determined.
RESULTS: From 452 oesophagectomy procedures, 63 (13.9%) individuals who underwent surgery for HGD or T1 adenocarcinoma were identified; HGD - 19 (30.1%), T1a - 18 (28.5 %), T1b - 26 (41.3%). Major complications occurred in eight (12.7%) patients including one (1.6%) death following surgery. Five-year survival for HGD and T1a cancers using Kaplan-Meier analysis was not significantly different from a matched general population without cancer.
CONCLUSION: Oesophagectomy for HGD and T1 stage adenocarcinoma in Barrett's oesophagus is associated with favourable outcomes. Outcomes following endoscopic treatments should be benchmarked against these outcomes, not those following oesophagectomy for advanced cancer.

Konstantinova AM, Shelekhova KV, Stewart CJ, et al.
Depth and Patterns of Adnexal Involvement in Primary Extramammary (Anogenital) Paget Disease: A Study of 178 Lesions From 146 Patients.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2016; 38(11):802-808 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare neoplasm usually presenting in the anogenital area, most commonly in the vulva. Adnexal involvement in primary EMPD is a very common feature and serves as a pathway for carcinoma to spread into deeper tissue. The depth of carcinomatous spread along the appendages and the patterns of adnexal involvement were studied in 178 lesions from 146 patients with primary EMPD. Hair follicles and eccrine ducts were the adnexa most commonly affected by carcinoma cells. The maximal depth of involvement was 3.6 mm in this series. When planning topical therapy or developing novel local treatment modalities for EMPD, this potential for significant deep spread along adnexa should be taken into account.

Dent OF, Bokey L, Chapuis PH, et al.
Trends in short-term outcomes after resection of colorectal cancer: 1971-2013.
ANZ J Surg. 2017; 87(1-2):39-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe temporal trends in presentation, surgical management and immediate postoperative outcomes in patients recorded in a registry of colorectal cancer resections that was initiated at Concord Hospital, Sydney, Australia, in 1971. A companion paper describes tumour pathology and long-term recurrence and survival.
METHODS: This report is based on 5217 consecutive resections up to 2013, with no exclusions. Categories in variables examined were expressed as percentages over annual totals of relevant patients or annual mean values. The statistical significance of trends was examined by least squares regression.
RESULTS: The percentage of asymptomatic patients increased over time, whereas urgent presentations declined. Tumour size declined. The percentage of rectal cancers fell but the percentage of low rectal tumours rose. Initially, restorative rectal resections increased rapidly but later remained stable. There was no trend in medical complications, whereas surgical complications declined. Anastomotic leakage after restorative rectal resections declined but it was low and stable for colonic tumours. The rate of early reoperation remained stable, whereas 30-day mortality declined. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer and adjuvant chemotherapy for stages B and C were introduced in 1992 and applied increasingly thereafter.
CONCLUSION: Our findings, based on a 43-year prospective study, indicate sustained trends towards the earlier diagnosis of colorectal cancer and favourable short-term outcomes following bowel resection.

Dent OF, Newland RC, Chan C, et al.
Trends in pathology and long-term outcomes after resection of colorectal cancer: 1971-2013.
ANZ J Surg. 2017; 87(1-2):34-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe temporal trends in tumour pathology and long-term outcomes in 5217 patients recorded in a registry of colorectal cancer resections initiated at Concord Hospital, Sydney, Australia, in 1971.
METHODS: This report is based on consecutive resections up to December 2013, with no exclusions. Categories in variables examined were expressed as percentages over annual totals of relevant patients or annual mean values. The statistical significance of temporal trends was examined by least squares regression.
RESULTS: The percentages of patients with local spread beyond the muscularis propria, nodal metastasis, distant metastasis and tumour in a line of resection all declined significantly. In consequence, the percentage of stage D patients fell, whereas the percentage in stage A rose. Other tumour variables that increased significantly were polypoid morphology, contiguous adenoma and invasion of a free serosal surface. Tumours in which an adherent adjacent structure was partly or completely removed also increased. There were significant declines in high-grade malignancy, venous invasion and tumour size. The recurrence rate for rectal cancers declined significantly, whereas for rectal and colonic cancers combined, both the overall 5-year survival rate and the 5-year cancer-specific survival rate increased markedly.
CONCLUSION: These results show a reduction in adverse pathology findings and favourable trends in recurrence and survival after colorectal cancer resections in a high-incidence country over a period of 43 years.

Alderman CP
Probable Drug-Related Meningioma Detected During the Course of Medication Review Services.
Consult Pharm. 2016; 31(9):500-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is evidence to support a link between treatment with high-dose cyproterone acetate and the development of meningioma. This report describes a case where an elderly man with intellectual disability who was treated with cyproterone for problematic sexual behavior developed a meningioma. The case was the subject of a residential medication management review provided under the auspices of a program funded by the Commonwealth Government of Australia. A discussion of clinical and ethical implications of the case is provided.

von Schuckmann LA, Hughes MC, Green AC, van der Pols JC
Forearm hair density and risk of keratinocyte cancers in Australian adults.
Arch Dermatol Res. 2016; 308(9):617-624 [PubMed] Related Publications
Evidence suggests that progenitor cells of keratinocyte cancers (basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)) may originate from epidermal stem cells including hair follicle stem cells. We hypothesised that, therefore, a relatively higher density of hair follicles on human skin may increase keratinocyte cancer risk. To evaluate this, we assessed density of mid-forearm hair in Australian adults who were randomly selected participants in a community-based cohort study of skin cancer. Hair density was assessed clinically against a set of four standard photographs showing grades of hair density, and incidence data on histologically confirmed BCC and SCC across a 20-year period were collected. Incidence rate ratios were calculated for categories of forearm hair density using multivariable regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex, phenotypic characteristics and markers of chronic sun exposure. Among the 715 participants (43 % male, average age 61 years), 237 developed at least one BCC and 115 persons developed at least one SCC. Participants with dense forearm hair (n = 169, all male) had a higher incidence of BCC (IRR = 2.24, 95 % CI 1.20, 4.18, P = 0.01) and SCC (IRR = 2.80, 95 % CI 1.20, 6.57, P = 0.02) compared to individuals with sparse forearm hair after multivariable adjustment. Stratified analyses showed that among men, those with dense versus sparse hair developed SCC more commonly (IRR = 3.01, 95 % CI 1.03, 8.78, P = 0.04). Women with moderate versus sparse hair density were more likely affected by BCC (IRR = 2.29, 95 % CI 1.05, 5.00, P = 0.038). Thus, our study suggests that in both men and women, a higher density of body hair may be associated with increased BCC and SCC risk.

Ruseckaite R, Sampurno F, Millar J, et al.
Diagnostic and treatment factors associated with poor survival from prostate cancer are differentially distributed between regional and metropolitan Victoria, Australia.
BMC Urol. 2016; 16(1):54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Men diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) in specific regional areas in Victoria, Australia have a poorer five-year survival rate compared to men living elsewhere in Victoria. This study aims to describe patterns-of- presentation and -care for men diagnosed with PCa in a specific regional Victorian area, and compare the outcomes with other Victorian regions.
METHODS: Information on consecutive men diagnosed between 2008 and 2013 was extracted from the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Registry-Victoria. Descriptive analyses summarized diagnostic and treatment patterns of the 7,204 men with PCa in the selected region (n = 373), metropolitan Melbourne (n = 2,565) and remaining areas of Victoria (n = 4,266) to compare risk factors, treatments and time-taken-to-treatment.
RESULTS: Men with PCa in the selected region were more likely to be diagnosed at older age (aged 68.6 vs 66 years in the rest of Victoria), and incidentally rather than through case-finding PSA blood tests. They were more likely to be presented with higher NCCN risk of the disease (High: 26 %, 24 % and 20.3 %; Very high/Metastasis: 11.8 %, 5.2 % and 5.7 % in the study region, metropolitan Melbourne and elsewhere in Victoria, respectively). Men in the selected region were also more likely to have a longer time from diagnosis to treatment (on average 15-30 days longer when compared to the rest of Victoria).
CONCLUSIONS: Poorer outcomes of men with PCa in this specific region might be explained by multiple factors, including clinical-, patient-, and health-system-related. This range of explanatory factors, occurring at multiple points along the pathway of diagnosis and detection, suggests that interventions to improve outcomes for PCa in regional areas such as this need to be systematic. Interventions specifically addressing any one factor in isolation are unlikely to have much effect.

Bayliss D, Duff J, Stricker P, Walker K
Decision-Making in Prostate Cancer: Active Surveillance Over Other Treatment Options.
Urol Nurs. 2016 May-Jun; 36(3):141-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
A qualitative-descriptive study of four patients with prostate cancer used the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing framework to understand how and why men diagnosed with prostate cancer choose active surveillance over other treatment options. In accordance with the literature, it was found that the surgeon or general practitioner's recommendation was the most influential factor when patients are making a treatment decision.

Yaxley JW, Coughlin GD, Chambers SK, et al.
Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy versus open radical retropubic prostatectomy: early outcomes from a randomised controlled phase 3 study.
Lancet. 2016; 388(10049):1057-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The absence of trial data comparing robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy and open radical retropubic prostatectomy is a crucial knowledge gap in uro-oncology. We aimed to compare these two approaches in terms of functional and oncological outcomes and report the early postoperative outcomes at 12 weeks.
METHOD: In this randomised controlled phase 3 study, men who had newly diagnosed clinically localised prostate cancer and who had chosen surgery as their treatment approach, were able to read and speak English, had no previous history of head injury, dementia, or psychiatric illness or no other concurrent cancer, had an estimated life expectancy of 10 years or more, and were aged between 35 years and 70 years were eligible and recruited from the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (Brisbane, QLD). Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy or radical retropubic prostatectomy. Randomisation was computer generated and occurred in blocks of ten. This was an open trial; however, study investigators involved in data analysis were masked to each patient's condition. Further, a masked central pathologist reviewed the biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens. Primary outcomes were urinary function (urinary domain of EPIC) and sexual function (sexual domain of EPIC and IIEF) at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 months and oncological outcome (positive surgical margin status and biochemical and imaging evidence of progression at 24 months). The trial was powered to assess health-related and domain-specific quality of life outcomes over 24 months. We report here the early outcomes at 6 weeks and 12 weeks. The per-protocol populations were included in the primary and safety analyses. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), number ACTRN12611000661976.
FINDINGS: Between Aug 23, 2010, and Nov 25, 2014, 326 men were enrolled, of whom 163 were randomly assigned to radical retropubic prostatectomy and 163 to robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. 18 withdrew (12 assigned to radical retropubic prostatectomy and six assigned to robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy); thus, 151 in the radical retropubic prostatectomy group proceeded to surgery and 157 in the robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy group. 121 assigned to radical retropubic prostatectomy completed the 12 week questionnaire versus 131 assigned to robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. Urinary function scores did not differ significantly between the radical retropubic prostatectomy group and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy group at 6 weeks post-surgery (74·50 vs 71·10; p=0·09) or 12 weeks post-surgery (83·80 vs 82·50; p=0·48). Sexual function scores did not differ significantly between the radical retropubic prostatectomy group and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy group at 6 weeks post-surgery (30·70 vs 32·70; p=0·45) or 12 weeks post-surgery (35·00 vs 38·90; p=0·18). Equivalence testing on the difference between the proportion of positive surgical margins between the two groups (15 [10%] in the radical retropubic prostatectomy group vs 23 [15%] in the robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy group) showed that equality between the two techniques could not be established based on a 90% CI with a Δ of 10%. However, a superiority test showed that the two proportions were not significantly different (p=0·21). 14 patients (9%) in the radical retropubic prostatectomy group versus six (4%) in the robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy group had postoperative complications (p=0·052). 12 (8%) men receiving radical retropubic prostatectomy and three (2%) men receiving robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy experienced intraoperative adverse events.
INTERPRETATION: These two techniques yield similar functional outcomes at 12 weeks. Longer term follow-up is needed. In the interim, we encourage patients to choose an experienced surgeon they trust and with whom they have rapport, rather than a specific surgical approach.
FUNDING: Cancer Council Queensland.

Chng TW, Lee JY, Lee CS, et al.
Validation of the Singapore nomogram for outcome prediction in breast phyllodes tumours: an Australian cohort.
J Clin Pathol. 2016; 69(12):1124-1126 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To validate the utility of the Singapore nomogram for outcome prediction in breast phyllodes tumours.
METHODS: Histological parameters, surgical margin status and clinical follow-up data of 34 women diagnosed with phyllodes tumours were analysed. Biostatistics modelling was performed, and the concordance between predicted and observed survivals was calculated.
RESULTS: Women with a high nomogram score had an increased risk of developing relapse, which was predicted using the parameters defined by the Singapore nomogram.
CONCLUSIONS: The Singapore nomogram is useful in predicting outcome in breast phyllodes tumours when applied to an Australian cohort of 34 women.

Sánchez G, Nova J, Rodriguez-Hernandez AE, et al.
Sun protection for preventing basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016; 7:CD011161 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: 'Keratinocyte cancer' is now the preferred term for the most commonly identified skin cancers basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), which were previously commonly categorised as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Keratinocyte cancer (KC) represents about 95% of malignant skin tumours. Lifestyle changes have led to increased exposure to the sun, which has, in turn, led to a significant increase of new cases of KC, with a worldwide annual incidence of between 3% and 8%. The successful use of preventive measures could mean a significant reduction in the resources used by health systems, compared with the high cost of the treatment of these conditions. At present, there is no information about the quality of the evidence for the use of these sun protection strategies with an assessment of their benefits and risks.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of sun protection strategies (i.e. sunscreen and barrier methods) for preventing keratinocyte cancer (that is, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) of the skin) in the general population.
SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to May 2016: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. We also searched five trial registries and the bibliographies of included studies for further references to relevant trials.
SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of preventive strategies for keratinocyte cancer, such as physical barriers and sunscreens, in the general population (children and adults), which may provide information about benefits and adverse events related to the use of solar protection measures. We did not include trials focused on educational strategies to prevent KC or preventive strategies in high-risk groups. Our prespecified primary outcomes were BCC or cSCC confirmed clinically or by histopathology at any follow-up and adverse events.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies for eligibility using Early Review Organizing Software (EROS). Similarly, two review authors independently used predesigned data collection forms to extract information from the original study reports about the participants, methods of randomisation, blinding, comparisons of interest, number of participants originally randomised by arm, follow-up losses, and outcomes, and they assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreement by consulting a third author and contacted trial investigators of identified trials to obtain additional information. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane.
MAIN RESULTS: We included one RCT (factorial design) that randomised 1621 participants.This study compared the daily application of sunscreen compared with discretionary use of sunscreen, with or without beta-carotene administration, in the general population. The study was undertaken in Australia; 55.2% of participants had fair skin, and they were monitored for 4.5 years for new cases of BCC or cSCC assessed by histopathology. We found this study to be at low risk of bias for domains such as allocation, blinding, and incomplete outcome data. However, we found multiple unclear risks related to other biases, including an unclear assessment of possible interactions between the effects of the different interventions evaluated (that is, sunscreen and beta-carotene). We found no difference in terms of the number of participants developing BCC (n = 1621; risk ratio (RR) 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 1.43) or cSCC (n = 1621; RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.54) when comparing daily application of sunscreen with discretionary use, even when analyses were restricted to groups without beta-carotene supplementation. This evidence was of low quality, which means that there is some certainty that future studies may alter our confidence in this evidence.We reported adverse events in a narrative way and included skin irritation or contact allergy.We identified no studies that evaluated other sun protection measures, such as the use of sun-protective clothing, sunglasses, or hats, or seeking the shade when outdoors.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In this review, we assessed the effect of solar protection in preventing the occurrence of new cases of keratinocyte cancer. We only found one study that was suitable for inclusion. This was a study of sunscreens, so we were unable to assess any other forms of sun protection. The study addressed our prespecified primary outcomes, but not most of our secondary outcomes. We were unable to demonstrate from the available evidence whether sunscreen was effective for the prevention of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC).Our certainty in the evidence was low because there was a lack of histopathological confirmation of BCC or cSCC in a significant percentage of cases. Amongst other sources of bias, it was not clear whether the study authors had assessed any interaction effects between the sunscreen and beta-carotene interventions. We think that further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate.

Stanbury JF, Baade PD, Yu Y, Yu XQ
Impact of geographic area level on measuring socioeconomic disparities in cancer survival in New South Wales, Australia: A period analysis.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2016; 43:56-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Area-based socioeconomic measures are widely used in health research. In theory, the larger the area used the more individual misclassification is introduced, thus biasing the association between such area level measures and health outcomes. In this study, we examined the socioeconomic disparities in cancer survival using two geographic area-based measures to see if the size of the area matters.
METHODS: We used population-based cancer registry data for patients diagnosed with one of 10 major cancers in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during 2004-2008. Patients were assigned index measures of socioeconomic status (SES) based on two area-level units, census Collection District (CD) and Local Government Area (LGA) of their address at diagnosis. Five-year relative survival was estimated using the period approach for patients alive during 2004-2008, for each socioeconomic quintile at each area-level for each cancer. Poisson-regression modelling was used to adjust for socioeconomic quintile, sex, age-group at diagnosis and disease stage at diagnosis. The relative excess risk of death (RER) by socioeconomic quintile derived from this modelling was compared between area-units.
RESULTS: We found extensive disagreement in SES classification between CD and LGA levels across all socioeconomic quintiles, particularly for more disadvantaged groups. In general, more disadvantaged patients had significantly lower survival than the least disadvantaged group for both CD and LGA classifications. The socioeconomic survival disparities detected by CD classification were larger than those detected by LGA. Adjusted RER estimates by SES were similar for most cancers when measured at both area levels.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that classifying patient SES by the widely used Australian geographic unit LGA results in underestimation of survival disparities for several cancers compared to when SES is classified at the geographically smaller CD level. Despite this, our RER of death estimates derived from these survival estimates were generally similar for both CD and LGA level analyses, suggesting that LGAs remain a valuable spatial unit for use in Australian health and social research, though the potential for misclassification must be considered when interpreting research. While data confidentiality concerns increase with the level of geographical precision, the use of smaller area-level health and census data in the future, with appropriate allowance for confidentiality.

Pape R, Spuur KM, Currie G, Greene L
Mammographic parenchymal patterns and breast cancer risk in New South Wales North Coast Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women.
J Med Radiat Sci. 2016; 63(2):81-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was to document the distribution of mammographic parenchymal patterns (MPP) of Indigenous Australian women attending BreastScreen New South Wales (NSW) North Coast, to profile breast cancer risk as it relates to breast density and to explore the correlation between MPP, breast size as described by the posterior nipple line (PNL) and age.
METHODS: Ethics was granted from CQUniversity Human Research Ethics Committee, NSW Population Health Services Research Ethics Committee and the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council Ethics Committee. A quantitative retrospective analysis reviewed 502 screening mammograms against the Tabár I-V MPP classification system. The PNL was measured in millimetres (mm) and the age of the patient documented.
RESULTS: A statistically significant variation in the distribution of MPP (P < 0.0001) was demonstrated, with patterns of I (23.9%), II (45.6%), III (10.4%), IV (15.9%) and V (4.2%). Statistically significant differences were noted in the age of subjects between patterns (P = 0.0002). Patterns I and V demonstrated statistically significant lower ages than II, III and IV (all P < 0.05). Pattern V demonstrated a statistically significant lower age than pattern I (P = 0.0393). Pattern V demonstrated a statistically significant lower PNL value than all other patterns (all P < 0.001/P < 0.0002); pattern II was statistically significantly higher in PNL value than all other patterns (P < 0.002/P < 0.001). No significant relationship was noted between PNL and age.
CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that no identifiable or unique distribution of MPP was noted in this snapshot of Indigenous women. A larger study of Indigenous Australian women is required for validation.

Yusuf F, Leeder S, Wilson A
Recent estimates of the incidence of hysterectomy in New South Wales and trends over the past 30 years.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2016; 56(4):420-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hysterectomy remains one of the frequently used surgical operations on women in Australia despite new therapeutic approaches for most of the common conditions for which hysterectomy is indicated.
AIMS: To determine whether the surgical approach to hysterectomy has changed in New South Wales (NSW) over the period 1981 to 2010-2012.
DATA AND METHODS: De-identified individual records for hysterectomy patients during the three-year period (January 2010 to December 2012) provided by the NSW Ministry of Health were used. Robotic assistance with surgery was not recorded in the hysterectomy data. Analysis largely involved the method of indirect standardisation.
RESULTS: The average annual hysterectomy rate during 2010-2012 was 3.07 per 1000 females per annum; the majority of patients stayed an average of four days in hospital. Total abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies were the two most frequently used procedures. One-in-four procedures involved the use of laparoscopes. Principal diagnoses (in descending order) were disorders of menstruation and other abnormal bleeding, genital prolapse, leiomyoma of uterus, malignant neoplasm of genital organs and endometriosis. While declining trends in hysterectomy rates were noted since 1981, an increasing trend in the use of laparoscopy was evident.
CONCLUSIONS: The 45% decrease in hysterectomy rates was indeed the most striking finding of our analysis. This is probably due to the development of alternative nonsurgical procedures such as oral hormone suppression of menstruation and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system.

Thewes B, Davis E, Girgis A, et al.
Routine screening of Indigenous cancer patients' unmet support needs: a qualitative study of patient and clinician attitudes.
Int J Equity Health. 2016; 15:90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Indigenous Australians have poorer cancer outcomes in terms of incidence mortality and survival compared with non-Indigenous Australians. The factors contributing to this disparity are complex. Identifying and addressing the psychosocial factors and support needs of Indigenous cancer patients may help reduce this disparity. The Supportive Care Needs Assessment Tool for Indigenous People (SCNAT-IP) is a validated 26-item questionnaire developed to assess their unmet supportive care needs. This qualitative study reports on patient and clinician attitudes towards feasibility and acceptability of SCNAT-IP in routine care.
METHODS: Forty-four in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 clinical staff and 34 Indigenous cancer patients with heterogeneous tumours. Participants were recruited from four geographically diverse Australian cancer clinics. Transcripts were imported into qualitative analysis software (NVivo 10 Software), coded and thematic analysis performed.
RESULTS: Indigenous patients (mean age 54.4 years) found the SCNAT-IP beneficial and easy to understand and they felt valued and heard. Clinical staff reported multiple benefits of using the SCNAT-IP. They particularly appreciated its comprehensive and systematic nature as well as the associated opportunities for early intervention. Some staff described improvements in team communication, while both staff and patients reported that new referrals to support services were directly triggered by completion of the SCNAT-IP. There were also inter-cultural benefits, with a positive and bi-directional exchange of information and cultural knowledge reported when using the SCNAT-IP. Although staff identified some potential barriers to using the SCNAT-IP, including the time required, the response format and comprehension difficulties amongst some participants with low English fluency, these were outweighed by the benefits. Some areas for scaled improvement were also identified by staff.
CONCLUSIONS: Staff and patients found the SCNAT-IP to be an acceptable tool and supported universal screening for Indigenous cancer patients. The SCNAT-IP has the potential to help reduce the inequalities in cancer care experienced by Indigenous Australians by identifying and subsequently addressing their unmet support needs. Further research is needed to explore the validity of the SCNAT-IP for Indigenous people from other nations.

Mandaliya H, Ansari Z, Evans T, et al.
Psychosocial Analysis of Cancer Survivors in Rural Australia: Focus on Demographics, Quality of Life and Financial Domains.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(5):2459-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer treatments can have long-term physical, psychological, financial, sexual and cognitive effects that may influence the quality of life. These can vary from urban to rural areas, survival period and according to the type of cancer. We here aimed to describe demographics and psychosocial analysis of cancer survivors three to five years post-treatment in rural Australia and also assess relationships with financial stress and quality of life domains.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 65 participants visiting the outpatient oncology clinic were given a self-administered questionnaire. The inclusion criteria included three to five years post-treatment. Three domains were investigated using standardised and validated tools such as the Standard Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors Scale (QLACS) and the Personal and Household Finances (HILDA) survey. Included were demographic parameters, quality of life, treatment information and well-being.
RESULTS: There was no evidence of associations between any demographic variable and either financial stress or cancer-specific quality of life domains. Financial stress was however significantly associated with the cancer-specific quality of life domains of appearance-related concerns, family related distress, and distress related to recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS: This unique study effectively points to psychosocial aspects of cancer survivors in rural regions of Australia. Although the majority of demographic characteristics were not been found to be associated with financial stress, this latter itself is significantly associated with distress related to family and cancer recurrence. This finding may be of assistance in future studies and also considering plans to fulfil unmet needs.

Lieng H, Gebski VJ, Morgan GJ, Veness MJ
Important prognostic significance of lymph node density in patients with node positive oral tongue cancer.
ANZ J Surg. 2016; 86(9):681-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lymph node density (LND) has been described as a prognostic factor for survival in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, particularly of the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of LND in patients with node positive oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC).
METHODS: Patients with pathological node positive OTSCC were identified in a retrospective review of prospectively collected data. The optimal cut-point for LND was determined using the minimum P-value method and the log-rank test. The impact of this LND cut-point on time to disease progression and overall survival was determined.
RESULTS: In 72 patients with OTSCC, an LND of 14.3% was found to have the greatest separation using the log-rank test (P < 0.001). LND ≤14.3% was predicted for longer time to disease progression with a median time of 73 months compared to 9.4 months in patients with an LND >14.3% (hazard ratio: 3.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.76-6.70; P < 0.001). LND was also a significant predictor of overall survival with a median overall survival with LND ≤14.3% of 82.3 months, compared with 14.7 months in patients with an LND >14.3% (hazard ratio: 3.28; 95% confidence interval: 1.61-6.68; P = 0.001). Patients with an LND >14.3% experienced a higher rate of regional recurrence.
CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm the prognostic significance of LND in patients with node positive OTSCC, with a similar LND cut-point value to other published series. Improving regional control in these high-risk patients may improve outcome.

Woodward N, White M, Pugliano L, et al.
Management of patients treated with pertuzumab in the Australian clinical practice setting.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2016; 12 Suppl 2:5-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Treatment with pertuzumab-trastuzumab-taxane combinations has become the international standard of care for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. In this paper we discuss the practicalities of treating patients with this combination with a particular focus on treatment in the Australian setting.
METHOD: An expert panel was convened to discuss practical aspects for use of pertuzumab in the Australian clinical setting. The findings of this panel are reported in this article.
RESULTS: The combination of pertuzumab-trastuzumab-docetaxel has established efficacy in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, prolonging progression-free and overall survival compared to trastuzumab-taxane combinations. In Australia, combinations of pertuzumab and trastuzumab with docetaxel or paclitaxel are reimbursed. Management of treatment related side-effects such as diarrhea, febrile neutropenia and neuropathy typically include dose reduction or switching taxane. Specific patients with poorer tolerance of chemotherapy such as the elderly or those from Asian backgrounds may require particular management strategies.
CONCLUSIONS: The advent of targeted therapies for women with metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer has markedly improved survival. Combinations of pertuzumab-trastuzumab and a taxane are the standard of care in patients with good performance status. Given prolongation of survival and the importance of quality of life endpoints, the treatment paradigm for patients with metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer is changing rapidly. Careful management of toxicities is required, and dose reduction or switching taxane may be necessary. Further research is required on the efficacy of pertuzumab combinations in patients with brain metastases, and on those who relapse quickly following adjuvant therapy.

van Leeuwen MT, Gurney H, Turner JJ, et al.
Patterns and trends in the incidence of paediatric and adult germ cell tumours in Australia, 1982-2011.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2016; 43:15-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Germ cell tumour (GCT) aetiology is uncertain and comprehensive epidemiological studies of GCT incidence are few.
METHODS: Nationwide data on all malignant GCTs notified to Australian population-based cancer registries during 1982-2011 were obtained. Age- and sex-specific, and World age-standardised incidence rates were calculated for paediatric (0-14) and adult (15+) cases using the latest WHO subtype classification scheme. Temporal trends were examined using Joinpoint regression.
RESULTS: There were 17,279 GCTs (552 paediatric, 16,727 adult). Age-specific incidence in males (all histologies combined) was bimodal, with peaks during infancy for most sites, and second, larger, peaks during young adulthood. Incidence of ovarian tumours peaked at age 15-19. Around half of paediatric tumours were extragonadal, whereas adult tumours were mostly gonadal. Yolk sac tumours and teratomas predominated in infants, whereas germinomas became more frequent towards adulthood. Increasing incidence trends for some adult gonadal tumours have stabilised; the trend for male extragonadal tumours is also declining.
CONCLUSION: Broad similarities in the shape of age-specific incidence curves, particularly for gonadal, central nervous system, and mediastinal tumours provide epidemiological support for commonalities in aetiology among clinically disparate GCT subtypes. Differences in peak ages reflect underlying subtype-specific biological differences. Declining incidence trends for some adult gonadal tumours accords with the global transition in GCT incidence, and supports the possibility of a reduction in prevalence of shared aetiological exposures.

Baade PD, Dasgupta P, Dickman PW, et al.
Quantifying the changes in survival inequality for Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland, Australia.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2016; 43:1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The survival inequality faced by Indigenous Australians after a cancer diagnosis is well documented; what is less understood is whether this inequality has changed over time and what this means in terms of the impact a cancer diagnosis has on Indigenous people. Survival information for all patients identified as either Indigenous (n=3168) or non-Indigenous (n=211,615) and diagnosed in Queensland between 1997 and 2012 were obtained from the Queensland Cancer Registry, with mortality followed up to 31st December, 2013. Flexible parametric survival models were used to quantify changes in the cause-specific survival inequalities and the number of lives that might be saved if these inequalities were removed. Among Indigenous cancer patients, the 5-year cause-specific survival (adjusted by age, sex and broad cancer type) increased from 52.9% in 1997-2006 to 58.6% in 2007-2012, while it improved from 61.0% to 64.9% among non-Indigenous patients. This meant that the adjusted 5-year comparative survival ratio (Indigenous: non-Indigenous) increased from 0.87 [0.83-0.88] to 0.89 [0.87-0.93], with similar improvements in the 1-year comparative survival. Using a simulated cohort corresponding to the number and age-distribution of Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland each year (n=300), based on the 1997-2006 cohort mortality rates, 35 of the 170 deaths due to cancer (21%) expected within five years of diagnosis were due to the Indigenous: non-Indigenous survival inequality. This percentage was similar when applying 2007-2012 cohort mortality rates (19%; 27 out of 140 deaths). Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer still face a poorer survival outlook than their non-Indigenous counterparts, particularly in the first year after diagnosis. The improving survival outcomes among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cancer patients, and the decreasing absolute impact of the Indigenous survival disadvantage, should provide increased motivation to continue and enhance current strategies to further reduce the impact of the survival inequalities faced by Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer.

Huo YR, Glenn D, Liauw W, et al.
Evaluation of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) density as a prognostic factor for percutaneous ablation of pulmonary colorectal metastases.
Eur Radiol. 2017; 27(1):128-137 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prognostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) density and other clinicopathological factors for percutaneous ablation of pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer.
METHODS: CEA density was calculated as: "absolute serum CEA pre-ablation/volume of all lung metastases [mm(3)]". Median CEA density was the cut-off for high and low groups. Cox-regression was used to determine prognostic factors for survival.
RESULTS: A total of 85 patients (102 ablation sessions) were followed for a median of 27 months. High CEA density was significantly associated with worse overall survival compared to low CEA density (adjusted HR: 2.12; 95 % CI: 1.22-3.70, p=0.002; median survival: 25.7 vs. 44.3 months). The interval between primary resection of the colorectal carcinoma and first ablation was also a prognostic factor, a duration >24 months being associated with better survival compared to a shorter interval (0-24 months) (adjusted HR: 0.55; 95 % CI: 0.31-0.98, p=0.04). Moreover, a disease-free interval >24 months was significantly associated with low CEA density compared to a shorter interval (0-24 months) (adjusted OR: 0.29; 95 % CI: 0.11-0.77, p=0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Serum CEA density and interval between primary resection of a colorectal carcinoma and pulmonary ablation are independent prognostic factors for overall survival. In two patients with identical CEA serum levels, the patient with the lower/smaller pulmonary tumour load would have a worse prognosis than the one with the higher/larger pulmonary metastases.
KEY POINTS: • CEA density is an independent prognostic factor for colorectal pulmonary metastases. • A lower CEA density is associated with better overall survival. • CEA may play a functional role in tumour progression. • High CEA density is associated with smaller tumours. • Interval between pulmonary ablation and primary colorectal carcinoma is a prognostic factor.

Chapman S, Azizi L, Luo Q, Sitas F
Has the incidence of brain cancer risen in Australia since the introduction of mobile phones 29 years ago?
Cancer Epidemiol. 2016; 42:199-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mobile phone use in Australia has increased rapidly since its introduction in 1987 with whole population usage being 94% by 2014. We explored the popularly hypothesised association between brain cancer incidence and mobile phone use.
STUDY METHODS: Using national cancer registration data, we examined age and gender specific incidence rates of 19,858 male and 14,222 females diagnosed with brain cancer in Australia between 1982 and 2012, and mobile phone usage data from 1987 to 2012. We modelled expected age specific rates (20-39, 40-59, 60-69, 70-84 years), based on published reports of relative risks (RR) of 1.5 in ever-users of mobile phones, and RR of 2.5 in a proportion of 'heavy users' (19% of all users), assuming a 10-year lag period between use and incidence.
SUMMARY ANSWERS: Age adjusted brain cancer incidence rates (20-84 years, per 100,000) have risen slightly in males (p<0.05) but were stable over 30 years in females (p>0.05) and are higher in males 8.7 (CI=8.1-9.3) than in females, 5.8 (CI=5.3-6.3). Assuming a causal RR of 1.5 and 10-year lag period, the expected incidence rate in males in 2012 would be 11.7 (11-12.4) and in females 7.7 (CI=7.2-8.3), both p<0.01; 1434 cases observed in 2012, vs. 1867 expected. Significant increases in brain cancer incidence were observed (in keeping with modelled rates) only in those aged ≥70 years (both sexes), but the increase in incidence in this age group began from 1982, before the introduction of mobile phones. Modelled expected incidence rates were higher in all age groups in comparison to what was observed. Assuming a causal RR of 2.5 among 'heavy users' gave 2038 expected cases in all age groups.
LIMITATIONS: This is an ecological trends analysis, with no data on individual mobile phone use and outcome.
WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: The observed stability of brain cancer incidence in Australia between 1982 and 2012 in all age groups except in those over 70 years compared to increasing modelled expected estimates, suggests that the observed increases in brain cancer incidence in the older age group are unlikely to be related to mobile phone use. Rather, we hypothesize that the observed increases in brain cancer incidence in Australia are related to the advent of improved diagnostic procedures when computed tomography and related imaging technologies were introduced in the early 1980s.

Sendall MC, Stoneham M, Crane P, et al.
Outdoor workers and sun protection strategies: two case study examples in Queensland, Australia.
Rural Remote Health. 2016 Apr-Jun; 16(2):3558 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Outdoor workers are at risk of developing skin cancer because they are exposed to high levels of harmful ultraviolet radiation. The Outdoor Workers Sun Protection Project investigated sun protection strategies for high risk outdoor workers in rural and regional Australia.
METHODS: Fourteen workplaces (recruitment rate 37%) across four industries in rural and regional Queensland, Australia were recruited to the OWSPP. In 2011-2012, data were collected using pre- and post-intervention interviews and discussion groups. This article presents two workplaces as case study examples.
RESULTS: The flat organisational structure of workplace 1 supported the implementation of the Sun Safety Action Plan (SSAP), whilst the hierarchical organisational nature of workplace 2 delayed implementation of the SSAP. Neither workplace had an existing sun protection policy but both workplaces adopted one. An effect related to the researchers' presence was seen in workplace 1 and to a lesser degree in workplace 2. Overt reciprocity was seen between management and workers in workplace 1 but this was not so evident in workplace 2. In both workplaces, the role of the workplace champion was pivotal to SSAP progression.
CONCLUSIONS: These two case studies highlight a number of contextually bound workplace characteristics related to sun safety. These issues are (1) the structure of workplace, (2) policy, (3) an effect related to the researchers' presence, (4) the workplace champion and (5) reciprocity. There are several recommendations from this article. Workplace health promotion strategies for sun safety need to be contextualised to individual workplaces to take advantage of the strengths of the workplace and to build capacity.

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