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Smoking and Smoking Cessation

Tabacco smoke contains over 70 different carcinogens (cancer causing chemicals). Smoking is by far the most important preventable cause of cancer in the world and accounts for one in four cancer deaths in developed countries (source: Cancer Research UK). The fact that smoking increases risk of lung cancer was established in the 1950s and there is also strong evidence that it causes many other types of cancer including cancers of the mouth, liver, pancreas, stomach, kidney, bladder, cervix, and bowel. As well as causing cancer, smoking also increases risk of cardiovascular disease and other health conditions. The nicotine in tobacco smoke is highly addictive and therefore it is very hard to give up, once you start smoking. There is an abundance of information and advice available on ways to quit, and many countries have schemes and support to help quit.

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Information Patients and the Public (12 links)

Information for Health Professionals / Researchers (7 links)

Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Quan H, Ouyang L, Zhou H, et al.
The effect of preoperative smoking cessation and smoking dose on postoperative complications following radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a retrospective study of 2469 patients.
World J Surg Oncol. 2019; 17(1):61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To investigate whether smoking adversely affects the short-term outcomes and the potential effects of cigarette dose and preoperative smoking cessation, in patients who underwent gastric cancer (GC) surgery.
METHODS: Two thousand, four hundred sixty-nine consecutive patients who underwent radical gastrectomy from November 2010 to July 2018 were included in the present study. Smokers (current or former smokers) were divided into 3 groups in accordance with the duration of smoking cessation preoperatively (≤ 2, 2 to 4, or ≥ 4 weeks) and the cigarette dose (≤ 20, 20 to 40, and ≥ 40 pack-years). The primary endpoint was postoperative complications (surgical site infection, pulmonary problems, bleeding, and others).
RESULTS: A total of 1056 patients (42.8%) were smokers. Compared with non-smokers, smokers had significantly higher overall postoperative complications (11.3% vs 7.5%, P = 0.001), and in particular pulmonary problems. Smokers also had more major complications, needing intensive care unit care, and longer postoperative hospital stays. Multivariate analysis confirmed that smoking (odds ratio = 1.506, 95% confidence interval 1.131-2.004, P = 0.005) was an independent risk factor for postoperative complications. Further subgroup analysis identified that there was a positive relationship between the incidence of complications and cigarette dose, and > 20 pack-years was demonstrated to have increased significantly the risk of complications. Smokers who stopped smoking ≥ 4 weeks before surgery had lower pulmonary problems than those with a shorter period of smoking cessation.
CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative smoking cessation should be encouraged to reduce postoperative complications in GC patients, especially for heavy smokers.

Winters BR, Wen L, Holt SK, et al.
Does the Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer Lead to Higher Rates of Smoking Cessation? Findings from the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey.
J Urol. 2019; 202(2):241-246 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Smoking is the most common risk factor for bladder cancer and it is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The bladder cancer diagnosis represents a teachable moment for smoking cessation. We investigated the likelihood of smoking cessation after bladder cancer diagnosis in a population database.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the 1998 to 2013 SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results)-MHOS (Medicare Health Outcomes Survey) data on all patients diagnosed with incident bladder cancer on whom survey data were available before and after diagnosis. We compared these patients to propensity matched noncancer controls and to a cohort of patients with incident renal cell carcinoma. Differences in smoking cessation were compared between the groups and multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the likelihood of smoking cessation.
RESULTS: We propensity matched 394 patients with newly diagnosed bladder cancer to 1,970 noncancer controls and compared them with 169 patients with incident renal cell carcinoma. Baseline smoking prevalence was more common in patients diagnosed with bladder cancer compared to renal cell carcinoma (16% vs 11%) but the difference was not significant. The smoking cessation rate in patients with bladder cancer was 27% compared with 21% in noncancer controls and 26% in patients with renal cell carcinoma (p = 0.30 and 0.90, respectively). There was no significant difference in the adjusted OR of quitting smoking in patients with bladder cancer vs those with renal cell carcinoma compared to noncancer controls (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.7-2.5 vs OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.4-3.6). Independent predictors of smoking cessation in patients with bladder cancer included age (p = 0.03), African American race (p = 0.03) and college education (p = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Compared to propensity matched noncancer controls smoking cessation did not significantly differ after a diagnosis of bladder cancer. The proportion of individuals who quit was low overall, suggesting that improved efforts are needed to use this teachable moment in patients with bladder cancer.

Zhao S, Chen F, Wang D, et al.
Effect of preoperative smoking cessation on postoperative pain outcomes in elderly patients with high nicotine dependence.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(3):e14209 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of smoking cessation before surgery on postoperative pain and analgesic consumption after thoracoscopic radical resection of lung cancer in elderly patients with high nicotine dependence.
METHODS: A total of 107 male patients, ages 60 to 70 years, undergoing elective thoracoscopic radical lung cancer surgery from July 2017 to July 2018 were enrolled into 3 groups: group A (highly nicotine-dependent and discontinued smoking <3 weeks before surgery, n = 36), group B (highly nicotine-dependent and discontinued smoking >3 weeks before surgery, n = 38), and group C (nonsmokers, n = 33). Postoperative sufentanil consumption, visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores at rest and during cough, rescue analgesia, opioid-related adverse events, and patient satisfaction were assessed from 0 to 48 h postoperatively.
RESULTS: Patient characteristics were comparable among the 3 groups. Sufentanil consumption and VAS pain scores from postoperative 0 to 48 h were significantly higher in groups A and B than in group C. In addition, group B had lower sufentanil consumption and pain scores than group A. No differences in the need for rescue analgesia, patient satisfaction, or occurrence of postoperative adverse events, including nausea, vomiting, respiratory depression, and oversedation, were observed among the 3 groups.
CONCLUSION: Compared with nonsmokers, highly nicotine-dependent male patients who were deprived of cigarettes experienced more severe pain and required treatment with more sufentanil after thoracoscopic radical lung cancer surgery. Moreover, preoperative smoking cessation at least 3 weeks before surgery led to better postoperative pain outcomes than smoking cessation within 3 weeks of surgery.

Mousavi SM, Schmid S, Cerny T, Früh M
Lung cancer and smoking trends in the young in Switzerland: a study based on data of the National Institute for Cancer Epidemiology and Registration and of the Swiss Health Surveys.
Swiss Med Wkly. 2018; 148:w14708 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: We explored the trend in lung cancer incidence rates among a young Swiss population (30–54 years old) by sex from 1990 to 2014 to investigate the birth cohort effect on lung cancer. We evaluated smoking rates from 1992 to 2012 to explain sex differences in lung cancer incidence rates.
METHODS: The data of the Swiss National Institute for Cancer Epidemiology and Registration (NICER) were used. We extracted the data of age-standardized (world) and age-specific incidence rates (per 100,000 people at risk) of trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers by sex and year of diagnosis from 1990 to 2014. The data on tobacco consumption were generated from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office. These data were based on Swiss Health Surveys, involving 5-year intervals from 1992 to 2012.
RESULTS: Incidence rates decreased among men in the age groups 40–44, 45–49, and 50–54 years. An increased rate was seen among women in age group 50–54 years. Among men, rates generally decreased in successive birth cohorts, whereas among women, the rates increased from the cohort born in 1935–1939 up to the 1950s, and then were steady. In the cohort born in 1940–1944 an increased rate was seen until the 1960s, and then they decreased. In the cohort born in 1945–1949 the rates remained steady. Smoking prevalence was higher among men than among women in all age and birth groups. Among men born in the mid-1950s or mid-1960s, smoking prevalence has become higher for younger compared to older men. This pattern was only seen among younger women born in the mid-1960s.
CONCLUSIONS: Decreasing lung cancer incidence rates in young Swiss men but increasing rates in young women reflect the evolution of the smoking epidemic in the world. Our findings indicate an urgent need for implementing prevention strategies that target tobacco cessation and prevention among young women.

Young B, Vedhara K, Kendrick D, et al.
Determinants of motivation to quit in smokers screened for the early detection of lung cancer: a qualitative study.
BMC Public Health. 2018; 18(1):1276 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The promotion of smoking cessation within lung cancer screening could lead to benefits for smoking-related disease and improve cost-effectiveness of screening. Little is known about how smokers respond to lung cancer screening and how this impacts smoking behaviour. We aimed to understand how lung cancer screening influences individual motivations about smoking, including in those who have stopped smoking since screening.
METHODS: Thirty one long-term smokers aged 51-74 took part in semi-structured interviews about smoking. They had been screened with the EarlyCDT-Lung Test (13 positive result; 18 negative) as part of the Early Cancer Detection Test Lung Cancer Scotland Study. They were purposively sampled for interview based on their self-reported post-screening smoking behaviour. Eleven participants had stopped smoking since screening. Verbatim interview transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis.
RESULTS: Two key overarching themes were interpretations of screening test results and emotional responses to those interpretations. Participants' understanding of the risk implied by their test result was often inaccurate, for example a negative result interpreted as an 'all-clear' from lung cancer and a positive result as meaning lung cancer would definitely develop. Those interpretations led to emotional responses (fear, shock, worry, relief, indifference) influencing motivations about smoking. Other themes included a wake-up call causing changes in perceived risk of smoking-related disease, a feeling that now is the time to stop smoking and family influences. There was no clear pattern in smoking motivations in those who received positive or negative test results. Of those who had stopped smoking, some cited screening experiences as the sole motivation, some cited screening along with other coinciding factors, and others cited non-screening reasons. Cues to change were experienced at different stages of the screening process. Some participants indicated they underwent screening to try and stop smoking, while others expressed little or no desire to stop.
CONCLUSIONS: We observed complex and individualised motivations about smoking following lung cancer screening. To be most effective, smoking cessation support in this context should explore understanding of screening test results and may need to be highly tailored to individual emotional responses to screening.

Králíková E, Pánková A, Zvolská K, Perlík F
Treatment of tobacco dependence as a standard part of oncology care.
Cas Lek Cesk. Fall 2018; 157(5):244-247 [PubMed] Related Publications
After the oncological diagnosis, smoking has a major impact on survival, course and effectiveness of oncology treatment, and quality of the further life. Smoking worsens surgery outcomes, reduces the effectiveness of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, increases the risk of side effects of oncology treatment, and increases the incidence of tumor duplication or other comorbidities like venous thrombosis, cardiovascular diseases or infections. The article contains a summary of practical recommendations for oncology patients, including smoke-free environments, the importance of zero exposure to tobacco smoke, clear advice to stop smoking to smokers and offer of tobacco dependence treatment. Except of brief intervention within few tens of seconds up to 10 minutes, intensive treatment should be available, for example in special tobacco-dependence centers. In the documentation smoking status should be recorded including exposure to passive smoking, interventions to smokers (both active and passive) should be empathically repeated. The motivation to treat tobacco dependence should be mainly related to their specific oncological diagnosis, prognosis, course and effectiveness of its treatment. Treatment of tobacco dependence should be an obvious part of quality oncological care by doctors and nurses in intensity according to their time availability. Keywords: tobacco smoking, smoking cessation, nicotine dependence, chemotherapy, pharmacological interactions, adverse effects, cancer.

Luxton NA, Shih P, Rahman MA
Electronic Cigarettes and Smoking Cessation in the Perioperative Period of Cardiothoracic Surgery: Views of Australian Clinicians.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018; 15(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
For patients who smoke, electronic cigarettes may offer a pathway to achieve tobacco abstinence and reduce the risk of postoperative complications. Clinicians have a pivotal role in supporting smoking cessation by patients with lung cancer and coronary artery disease throughout the perioperative period of cardiothoracic surgery. However, the views of Australian cardiothoracic clinicians on electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation are unknown. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 52 cardiothoracic surgeons, anaesthetists, nurses and physiotherapists in six hospitals in Sydney and thematically analysed. Clinicians' knowledge about electronic cigarettes and the regulatory environment surrounding them was limited. Clinicians believed that: electronic cigarettes, though unlikely to be safe, were safer than tobacco cigarettes; electronic cigarettes may have a harm reduction role in public health; and electronic cigarettes were a potential smoking cessation tool for the extraordinary circumstances of surgery. The professional role of a clinician and their views about electronic cigarettes as a perioperative smoking cessation aid had an influence on future clinician-patient interactions. Electronic cigarette use is increasing in Australia and clinicians are likely to receive more frequent questions about electronic cigarettes as a cessation aid. Stronger guidance for clinicians is needed on the topic of electronic cigarettes and cardiothoracic surgery.

Nolan M, Ridgeway JL, Ghosh K, et al.
Design, implementation, and evaluation of an intervention to improve referral to smoking cessation services in breast cancer patients.
Support Care Cancer. 2019; 27(6):2153-2158 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Smoking is a risk factor for poor outcomes following breast reconstructive surgery. This project aimed to design and implement an intervention to consistently refer all breast cancer patients to tobacco treatment services.
METHODS: In formative work, a set of processes for providers to consistently refer patients to a tobacco treatment specialist at the Nicotine Dependence Center (NDC) was designed. Elements included consistent documentation of smoking status, provider advice specific to the benefits of quitting to cancer care, referral to NDC using an "opt-out" strategy that emphasized smoking cessation as a standard part of breast cancer treatment, and reinforcement of the importance of the referral by multiple personnel. The number of referrals to the NDC and number of patients who attended their scheduled NDC appointment were measured before and 1 year after implementation. Qualitative evaluation was performed using semi-structured interviews with participating providers and patients regarding acceptability.
RESULTS: The proportion of smoking patients referred to the NDC increased from 29% (22/75) before the intervention to 74% (20/27) afterward. Among those referred, attendance at the consultation increased from 41% (9/22) to 75% (15/20). This occurred despite provider interviews revealing knowledge gaps about the referral process and evidence of provider adaptation to accommodate personal practice. Feasibility and acceptability of the intervention were high.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that similar referral interventions for all cancer patients should be pursued with the aim of embedding tobacco dependence treatment seamlessly and consistently into the cancer treatment plan of every patient who smokes cigarettes.

Dombrowski M, May M, Spachmann PJ, et al.
Influence of Gender and Age on the Willingness to Reduce Nicotine Consumption-Results of a Survey in Urological Cancer Patients (KRAUT Study).
Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2018; 16(6):e1181-e1187 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Our objective was to investigate whether patients with urologic tumors were aware of smoking as a risk factor for the development and progression of several urologic cancers and the extent of the medical education they had received. Another aim was to investigate whether gender or age influenced patients' willingness to change their smoking habits.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with histologically malignant urologic tumors were enrolled in our questionnaire-based study from September 2013 to December 2014 in 2 urology departments. Patients were asked about their smoking habits and their general understanding of the relationship between smoking and the onset of cancer (urologic cancer and lung cancer). Also, the extent of information they had acquired from a physician was assessed. The descriptive and oncologic data of the patients were recorded.
RESULTS: Of 258 enrolled patients, 186 (72.1%) had never had an informational discussion with a doctor about smoking and their urologic tumor disease. Of the 160 active and former smokers, only 45 (28.1%) were planning to stop or reduce smoking because of their tumor disease. The willingness to change smoking habits was greater for women, with a statistically significant difference (odds ratio, 5.59; P = .002). Younger patients aged <58 years were also more willing to reduce or stop smoking.
CONCLUSION: In our study, most patients with urologic cancer were unaware of smoking as the most probable cause of tumor development. The patients had not received proper counseling from doctors on smoking and the risk it poses for tumor progression. Efforts to balance compliance among the genders and age groups through risk-adapted counseling should be undertaken.

Fernández MI, Brausi M, Clark PE, et al.
Epidemiology, prevention, screening, diagnosis, and evaluation: update of the ICUD-SIU joint consultation on bladder cancer.
World J Urol. 2019; 37(1):3-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To update current recommendations on prevention, screening, diagnosis, and evaluation of bladder cancer (BC) based on a thorough assessment of the most recent literature on these topics.
METHODS: A non-systematic review was performed, including articles until June 2017. A variety of original articles, reviews, and editorials were selected according to their epidemiologic, demographic, and clinical relevance. Assessment of the level of evidence and grade of recommendations was performed according to the International Consultation on Urological Diseases grading system.
RESULTS: BC is the ninth most common cancer worldwide with 430,000 new cases in 2012. Currently, approximately 165,000 people die from the disease annually. Absolute incidence and prevalence of BC are expected to rise significantly during the next decades because of population ageing. Tobacco smoking is still the main risk factor, accounting for about 50% of cases. Smoking cessation is, therefore, the most relevant recommendation in terms of prevention, as the risk of developing BC drops almost 40% within 5 years of cessation. BC screening is not recommended for the general population. BC diagnosis remains mainly based on cystoscopy, but development of new endoscopic and imaging technologies may rapidly change the diagnosis algorithm. The same applies for local, regional, and distant staging modalities.
CONCLUSIONS: A thorough understanding of epidemiology, risk factors, early detection strategies, diagnosis, and evaluation is essential for correct, evidence-based management of BC patients. Recent developments in endoscopic techniques and imaging raise the hope for providing better risk-adopted approaches and thereby improving clinical outcomes.

Symes YR, Westmaas JL, Mayer DK, et al.
The impact of psychosocial characteristics in predicting smoking cessation in long-term cancer survivors: A time-to-event analysis.
Psychooncology. 2018; 27(10):2458-2465 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Smoking poses significant health risks to cancer survivors. Cancer survivorship may heighten psychological distress and reduce social support and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for years after diagnosis, which could inhibit long-term successful smoking cessation. Understanding longitudinal associations between these psychosocial characteristics and successful cessation could help clinicians tailor cessation interventions for their patients.
METHODS: Time-to-event analyses using data from the American Cancer Society Study of Cancer Survivors-I (SCS-I)-a longitudinal nationwide study-examined the relationship of psychosocial characteristics with cessation likelihood and amount of time from diagnosis to quitting in cancer survivors diagnosed 7 to 10 years prior.
RESULTS: Cancer survivors with high physical HRQOL were more likely to quit smoking within 10 years from cancer diagnosis than survivors with low physical HRQOL, controlling for cancer type and number of comorbid conditions at baseline (HR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.10-2.70; P = .02). Survivors with high physical HRQOL also took less time to quit than survivors with low physical HRQOL. Survivors of tobacco-related cancers with low physical HRQOL were the least likely group to quit. No significant relationships between other psychosocial predictors and cessation outcomes were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation programs are needed for all cancer survivors who smoke, but survivors with low physical HRQOL 1 year after diagnosis may need more intensive long-term smoking cessation interventions with multiple check-in points after smoking relapses. Cessation interventions that include strategies to mitigate physical symptoms in those with poor physical HRQOL deserve consideration in research and practice.

Abdelrahim A, Balmer C, Jones J, et al.
Considerations for a head and neck smoking cessation support programme; A qualitative study of the challenges in quitting smoking after treatment for head and neck cancer.
Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2018; 35:54-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Smoking is a major cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), yet many patients who receive a diagnosis continue to smoke. This has an adverse effect on treatment and recovery, and leads to increased risks of recurrence and second cancers. There is evidence that stopping smoking after diagnosis can lead to better outcomes and reversal of risks. However, there is limited evidence for effective smoking cessation interventions in this population, and little about patient opinions regarding quitting smoking and support provided by healthcare professionals.
METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted as part of a larger project with the objective of developing a smoking cessation support programme. Eleven patients who had completed head and neck cancer (HNC) treatment were interviewed about smoking and quitting attempts. Interviews were semi-structured and took place face-to-face or over the phone.
RESULTS: Participants gave detailed accounts of their smoking journey. Thematic analysis of the data led to the identification of 2 overarching themes and four interlinking themes. Themes describe the 'guilty habit' of smoking, perceived 'barriers to quit', the 'teachable moment' of a diagnosis and the contrary 'social motivation' to both smoke and quit.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study highlight some missed needs for this group and major gaps in the support that is available. It is intended that the results will be used to develop a support programme for quitting smoking long term in a way that is useful and relevant to this complex population.

Wang QL, Xie SH, Li WT, Lagergren J
Smoking Cessation and Risk of Esophageal Cancer by Histological Type: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017; 109(12) [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Tobacco smoking strongly increases risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and moderately increases risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. How smoking cessation influences esophageal cancer risk across histological subtypes, time latencies, and geographic regions is not clear.
Methods: Studies were systematically searched on Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Pooled estimates of risk ratios (RRs) were derived using a random effects model. Cochran's Q test and I2 statistic were used to detect heterogeneity.
Results: Among 15 009 studies, 52 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Using nonsmokers as a reference, risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was lower among former smokers (RR = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.71 to 2.45) than among current smokers (RR = 4.18, 95% CI = 3.42 to 5.12). Compared with current smokers, a strong risk reduction was evident after five or more years (RR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.75), and became stronger after 10 or more years (RR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.34 to 0.51) and 20 or more years (RR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.25 to 0.47) following smoking cessation. The risk reduction was strong in Western populations, while weak in Asian populations. Using nonsmokers as reference, the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma was only slightly lower among former smokers (RR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.48 to 1.85) than among current smokers (RR = 2.34, 95% CI = 2.04 to 2.69). The risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma did not show any clear reduction over time after smoking cessation, with a risk ratio of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.52 to 1.01) 20 or more years after smoking cessation, compared with current smokers.
Conclusions: Smoking cessation time-dependently decreases risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, particularly in Western populations, while it has limited influence on the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Kaiser EG, Prochaska JJ, Kendra MS
Tobacco Cessation in Oncology Care.
Oncology. 2018; 95(3):129-137 [PubMed] Related Publications
Globally, tobacco use is a major modifiable risk factor and leading cause of many forms of cancer and cancer death. Tobacco use contributes to poorer prognosis in cancer care. This article reviews the current state of tobacco cessation treatment in oncology. Effective behavioral and pharmacological treatments exist for tobacco cessation, but are not being widely used in oncology treatment settings. Comprehensive tobacco treatment increases success with quitting smoking and can improve oncological and overall health outcomes. This article describes the components of a model treatment program, which includes automatic referrals for all current tobacco users and recent quitters, motivational interviewing during initial and follow-up contacts, combined behavioral and pharmacological interventions for cessation, and systematic follow-up phone calls for relapse prevention.

van Osch FHM, Jochems SHJ, Reulen RC, et al.
The association between smoking cessation before and after diagnosis and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence: a prospective cohort study.
Cancer Causes Control. 2018; 29(7):675-683 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer, but the relationship between smoking cessation after initial treatment and bladder cancer recurrence has been investigated less frequently and not prospectively yet.
METHODS: 722 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients (pTa, pT1, and CIS) from the prospective Bladder Cancer Prognosis Programme (BCPP) cohort, selected in the UK between 2005 and 2011, provided complete data on smoking behavior before and up to 5 years after diagnosis. The impact of smoking behavior on NMIBC recurrence was explored by multivariable Cox regression models investigating time-to-first NMIBC recurrence.
RESULTS: Over a median follow-up period of 4.21 years, 403 pathologically confirmed NMIBC recurrences occurred in 210 patients. Only 25 current smokers at diagnosis quit smoking (14%) during follow-up and smoking cessation after diagnosis did not decrease risk of recurrence compared to continuing smokers (p = 0.352).
CONCLUSIONS: Although quitting smoking after diagnosis might reduce the risk of recurrence based on retrospective evidence, this is not confirmed in this prospective study because the number of NMIBC patients quitting smoking before their first recurrence was too low. Nevertheless, this indicates an important role for urologists and other health care professionals in promoting smoking cessation in NMIBC.

Cheng HM, Liu WC, Chua G, et al.
Impact of a pharmacy-led smoking cessation clinic in a dermatology centre.
Singapore Med J. 2019; 60(1):31-33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and has a deleterious effect on dermatological conditions, such as skin cancers, hidradenitis suppurativa and psoriasis. The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a pharmacist-led smoking cessation clinic in reducing cigarette smoking at a tertiary referral dermatology centre. We described the impact of this clinic to provide guidance on how such a model could be further improved and implemented more widely.
METHODS: In this single-centre, retrospective study, 74 currently smoking patients who received counselling at a structured smoking cessation clinic between January 2010 and March 2013 were identified. Information on baseline demographic characteristics and detailed past medical history, including smoking history, was collected. Follow-up was conducted at two weeks and three months.
RESULTS: At the first follow-up at two weeks, which was attended by 57 patients, 9 (15.8%) had stopped smoking and 26 (45.6%) showed reduction in the number of cigarette sticks smoked per day, with an average reduction of 4.1 cigarette sticks per day. However, a few patients also reported no change or increased number of cigarette sticks smoked per day following counselling.
CONCLUSION: A structured pharmacist-led smoking cessation clinic is effective and can be made a part of the holistic management of dermatological conditions.

Day FL, Sherwood E, Chen TY, et al.
Oncologist provision of smoking cessation support: A national survey of Australian medical and radiation oncologists.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2018; 14(6):431-438 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Continued smoking in patients diagnosed with cancer affects treatment outcomes and overall survival. With national surveys of Australian medical oncologists (MO) and radiation oncologists (RO) we sought to determine current clinical practices, preferences and barriers in providing patient smoking cessation support.
METHODS: Oncologist members of the Medical Oncology Group of Australia (n = 452) and Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (n = 230) were invited to participate in a multiple choice survey exploring smoking cessation practices and beliefs.
RESULTS: The survey response rate was 43%. At first consultations more than 90% of MO and RO regularly asked patients if they smoke or use tobacco products, closely followed by documentation of duration of smoking history and current level of consumption. Less common was asking the patient if they intended to quit (MO 63%, RO 53%) and advising cessation (MO 70%, RO 72%). Less than 50% of oncologists regularly asked about current smoking in follow-up consultations. Although a range of referral options for smoking cessation care were used by oncologists, only 2% of MO and 3% of RO actively managed the patients' smoking cessation themselves and this was the least preferred option. The majority believed they require more training in cessation interventions (67% MO, 57% RO) and cited multiple additional barriers to providing cessation care.
CONCLUSIONS: Oncologists strongly prefer smoking cessation interventions to be managed by other health workers. A collaborative approach with other health professionals is needed to aid the provision of comprehensive smoking cessation care tailored to patients with cancer.

Kathuria H, Leone FT, Neptune ER
Treatment of tobacco dependence: current state of the art.
Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2018; 24(4):327-334 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' requirement to integrate tobacco treatment with lung cancer screening (LCS) has served as a catalyst for motivating pulmonary medicine clinicians to improve upon their ability to effectively treat tobacco dependence. To do so, clinicians need to be well versed in the behavioral and pharmacologic tools that promote smoking cessation.
RECENT FINDINGS: The current review outlines current strategies for treating tobacco dependence, focusing on the important interplay between counseling and pharmacotherapy. Studies that have been found to be particularly effective in patients with smoking-related lung disease and in the LCS setting are reviewed. New therapies that are in the pipeline, as well as novel strategies aimed at improving both adoption and effectiveness of existing therapies, are discussed.
SUMMARY: Treating tobacco dependence improves mortality and quality of life far more than the limited therapies available to treat smoking-related lung disease. Novel strategies to making tobacco treatment services more widely available, particularly to vulnerable patient populations, are needed to further decrease smoking-related morbidity and mortality. The Affordable Care Act's greater focus on prevention represents a moment of opportunity for healthcare providers and systems to engage in these efforts.

Alton D, Eng L, Lu L, et al.
Perceptions of Continued Smoking and Smoking Cessation Among Patients With Cancer.
J Oncol Pract. 2018; 14(5):e269-e279 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis leads to poorer treatment outcomes, survival, and quality of life. We evaluated the perceptions of the effects of continued smoking on quality of life, survival, and fatigue among patients with cancer after a cancer diagnosis and the effects of these perceptions on smoking cessation.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with cancer from all disease subsites from Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (Toronto, Ontario) were surveyed between April 2014 and May 2016 for sociodemographic variables, smoking history, and perceptions of continued smoking on quality of life, survival, and fatigue. Multivariable regression models evaluated the association between patients' perceptions and smoking cessation and the factors influencing patients' perceptions of smoking.
RESULTS: Among 1,121 patients, 277 (23%) were smoking cigarettes up to 1 year before diagnosis, and 54% subsequently quit; 23% had lung cancer, and 27% had head and neck cancers. The majority felt that continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis negatively affected quality of life (83%), survival (86%), and fatigue (82%). Current smokers during the peridiagnosis period were less likely to perceive that continued smoking was harmful when compared with ex-smokers and never-smokers ( P < .01). Among current smokers, perceiving that smoking negatively affected quality of life (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.68 [95% CI, 1.26 to 5.72]; P = .011), survival (aOR, 5.00 [95% CI, 2.19 to 11.43]; P < .001), and fatigue (aOR, 3.57 [95% CI, 1.69 to 7.54]; P < .001) were each strongly associated with smoking cessation. Among all patients, those with a greater smoking history were less likely to believe that smoking was harmful in terms of quality of life (aOR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.98 to 0.99]; P < .001), survival (aOR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.98 to 0.99]; P < .001), and fatigue (aOR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.98 to 0.99]; P < .001).
CONCLUSION: The perceptions of continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis among patients with cancer are strongly associated with smoking cessation. Counseling about the harms of continued smoking in patients with cancer, and in particular among those who have lower risk perceptions, should be considered when developing a smoking cessation program.

Correa JB, Brandon KO, Meltzer LR, et al.
Electronic cigarette use among patients with cancer: Reasons for use, beliefs, and patient-provider communication.
Psychooncology. 2018; 27(7):1757-1764 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Smoking tobacco cigarettes after a cancer diagnosis increases risk for several serious adverse outcomes. Thus, patients can significantly benefit from quitting smoking. Electronic cigarettes are an increasingly popular cessation method. Providers routinely ask about combustible cigarette use, yet little is known about use and communication surrounding e-cigarettes among patients with cancer. This study aims to describe patterns, beliefs, and communication with oncology providers about e-cigarette use of patients with cancer.
METHODS: Patients with cancer (N = 121) who currently used e-cigarettes were surveyed in a cross-sectional study about their patterns and reasons for use, beliefs, and perceptions of risk for e-cigarettes, combustible cigarettes, and nicotine replacement therapies. Patient perspectives on provider communication regarding e-cigarettes were also assessed.
RESULTS: Most participants identified smoking cessation as the reason for initiating (81%) and continuing (60%) e-cigarette use. However, 51% of patients reported current dual use of combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes, and most patients reported never having discussed their use of e-cigarettes with their oncology provider (72%). Patients characterized e-cigarettes as less addictive, less expensive, less stigmatizing, and less likely to impact cancer treatment than combustible cigarettes (Ps < .05), and more satisfying, more useful for quitting smoking, and more effective at reducing cancer-related stress than nicotine replacement therapies (Ps < .05).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cancer who use e-cigarettes have positive attitudes toward these devices and use them to aid in smoking cessation. This study also highlights the need for improved patient-provider communication on the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation.

Yoshida N, Nakamura K, Kuroda D, et al.
Preoperative Smoking Cessation is Integral to the Prevention of Postoperative Morbidities in Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy.
World J Surg. 2018; 42(9):2902-2909 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Preoperative smoking cessation is considered integral to decreasing postoperative morbidities after esophagectomy. To our knowledge, the association of the duration of smoking cessation with the occurrence of postoperative morbidity has never been investigated in minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE).
METHODS: A total of 198 consecutive MIEs for esophageal cancer between June 2011 and December 2017 were eligible for the study. According to the length of smoking cessation, patients were separated into three groups: ≤ 30, 31-90, and ≥ 91 days. Incidence of postoperative morbidities was retrospectively analyzed among the groups.
RESULTS: In patients with smoking cessation ≤ 30 days, morbidities of Clavien-Dindo classification (CDc) ≥ II, severe morbidities of CDc ≥ IIIb, pneumonia, and any pulmonary morbidities were frequently observed. Morbidities of CDc ≥ II, pneumonia, and any pulmonary morbidities increased as the length of cessation became shorter. Smoking cessation ≤ 30 days was a significant risk factor for severe morbidity (hazard ratio [HR] 4.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.993-12.011; P < 0.001). Smoking cessation ≤ 90 days (HR 3.98, 95% CI 1.442-10.971; P = 0.008), past smoking (per 100 increase in Brinkman index), and cardiovascular comorbidity were significant risk factors for pneumonia. Smoking cessation ≤ 30 days (HR 3.13, 95% CI 1.351-7.252; P = 0.008) and past smoking were significant risk factors for any pulmonary morbidity.
CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative smoking cessation is considerably important to prevent postoperative morbidities, even in MIE. At least, preoperative cessation ≥ 31 days is preferable to decrease considerable morbidities after MIE.

Wakiya T, Ishido K, Kudo D, et al.
Smoking cessation contributes to weight gain in patients with hepatobiliopancreatic malignancy.
Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2018; 23:54-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain is well recognized. However, there is no data currently available on the effect of smoking cessation on weight gain in patients with malignancy. The aim of this study was to clarify the body weight (BW) change after smoking cessation in patients with malignancy.
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 159 subjects who underwent hepatobiliopancreatic surgery. The smoking status was determined using questionnaires administered at the initial presentation, and the candidates were divided into two groups: recent quitters and nonsmokers. The change in the BW was compared between these two groups.
RESULTS: There were 134 subjects with malignant disease (84.3%), with a median age of 68 (range: 26-84) years. In the nonsmoker group, 28 of 116 subjects (24.1%) gained weight between the initial presentation and admission. In the recent quitter group, 12 of 18 subjects (66.7%) gained weight in the same period (P < 0.01). Regarding the change in the BW from the initial presentation, recent quitters gained more weight than nonsmokers (+1.7 kg [+2.7%] vs. -1.0 kg [-2.0%], P < 0.01). Furthermore, the improvement from the initial presentation was seen in a higher percentage of recent quitters than nonsmokers with respect to Onodera's prognostic nutritional index (61.1% vs. 36.2%, P = 0.04) and the controlling nutritional status score (38.9% vs. 19.3%, P = 0.07).
CONCLUSIONS: Weight gain due to smoking cessation was observed even in patients with hepatobiliopancreatic malignancy.

Graham AL, Burke MV, Jacobs MA, et al.
An integrated digital/clinical approach to smoking cessation in lung cancer screening: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials. 2017; 18(1):568 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Delivering effective tobacco dependence treatment that is feasible within lung cancer screening (LCS) programs is crucial for realizing the health benefits and cost savings of screening. Large-scale trials and systematic reviews have demonstrated that digital cessation interventions (i.e. web-based and text message) are effective, sustainable over the long-term, scalable, and cost-efficient. Use of digital technologies is commonplace among older adults, making this a feasible approach within LCS programs. Use of cessation treatment has been improved with models that proactively connect smokers to treatment rather than passive referrals. Proactive referral to cessation treatment has been advanced through healthcare systems changes such as modifying the electronic health record to automatically link smokers to treatment.
METHODS: This study evaluates the impact of a proactive enrollment strategy that links LCS-eligible smokers with an evidence-based intervention comprised of a web-based (WEB) program and integrated text messaging (TXT) in a three-arm randomized trial with repeated measures at one, three, six, and 12 months post randomization. The primary outcome is biochemically confirmed abstinence at 12 months post randomization. We will randomize 1650 smokers who present for a clinical LCS to: (1) a usual care control condition (UC) which consists of Ask-Advise-Refer; (2) a digital (WEB + TXT) cessation intervention; or (3) a digital cessation intervention combined with tobacco treatment specialist (TTS) counseling (WEB + TXT + TTS).
DISCUSSION: The scalability and sustainability of a digital intervention may represent the most cost-effective and feasible approach for LCS programs to proactively engage large numbers of smokers in effective cessation treatment. We will also evaluate the impact and cost-effectiveness of adding proven clinical intervention provided by a TTS. We expect that a combined digital/clinical intervention will yield higher quit rates than digital alone, but that it may not be as cost-effective or feasible for LCS programs to implement. This study is innovative in its use of interoperable, digital technologies to deliver a sustainable, scalable, high-impact cessation intervention and to facilitate its integration within clinical practice. It will add to the growing knowledge base about the overall effectiveness of digital interventions and their role in the healthcare delivery system.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03084835 . Registered on 9 March 2017.

Lauridsen SV, Thomsen T, Kaldan G, et al.
Smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy: a qualitative study of cancer patients' experiences.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):793 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite smoking and risky alcohol drinking being modifiable risk factors for cancer as well as postoperative complications, perioperative cessation counselling is often ignored. Little is known about how cancer patients experience smoking and alcohol interventions in relation to surgery. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore how bladder cancer patients experience a perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy.
METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in two urology out-patient clinics. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 11 purposively sampled persons who had received the smoking and alcohol cessation intervention. The analysis followed the steps contained in the thematic network analysis.
RESULTS: Two global themes emerged: "smoking and alcohol cessation was experienced as an integral part of bladder cancer surgery" and "returning to everyday life was a barrier for continued smoking cessation/alcohol reduction". Participants described that during hospitalization their focus shifted to the operation and they did not experience craving to smoke or drink alcohol. Concurrent with improved well-being or experiencing stressful situations, the risk of relapse increased when returning to everyday life.
CONCLUSIONS: The smoking and alcohol cessation intervention was well received by the participants. Cancer surgery served as a kind of refuge and was a useful cue for motivating patients to quit smoking and to reconsider the consequences of risky drinking. These results adds to the sparse evidence of what supports smoking and alcohol cessation in relation to bladder cancer patients undergoing major surgery and point to the need to educate healthcare professionals in offering smoking and alcohol cessation interventions in hospitals. The study also provides knowledge about the intervention in the STOP-OP study and will help guide the design of future smoking and alcohol cessation studies aimed at cancer patients undergoing surgery.

Choi S, Chang J, Kim K, et al.
Effect of Smoking Cessation and Reduction on the Risk of Cancer in Korean Men: A Population Based Study.
Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 50(4):1114-1120 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking habit change on the risk of cancer.
Materials and Methods: From the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, we determined the change in smoking habit between the first (2002 and 2003) and second (2004 and 2005) health examination periods. A total of 143,071 men were categorized into baseline heavy (≥ 20 cigarettes per day), moderate (10-19 cigarettes per day), light (< 10 cigarettes per day) smokers, quitters, and never smokers, after which the change in smoking status was determined during the second health examination. The participants were then followed up from 2006 to 2013 for all cancer, smoking related cancer, and lung cancer.
RESULTS: Compared to heavy continual smokers, heavy smokers who quit had reduced risk of smoking related cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 0.97) and tended to have reduced risk of all cancer (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.00). Moderate smokers who reduced the amount of smoking to light levels had decreased risk of all cancer (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.94), smoking related cancer (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.93), and lung cancer (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.79) compared to heavy continual smokers.
CONCLUSION: Smoking reduction decreases the risk of all cancer, smoking related cancer, and lung cancer. While smoking cessation should be the treatment of choice for smokers, smoking reduction may serve as an alternative strategy for those who cannot quit.

Lima CF, Crastechini E, Dos Santos NC, et al.
Smoking cessation leads to changes in survivin expression in oral mucosa.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2018; 47(3):293-298 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Survivin is an inhibitor protein of apoptosis and plays a role in oral carcinogenesis mechanism.
METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of smoking in survivin expression of oral mucosa of chronic smokers with and without oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The study was composed of three groups: Group 1-26 patients smoking more than 20 cigarettes/day/10 years without either history of oral malignant neoplasia or visible clinical signs in the examined site; Group 2-26 patients with OSCC; Group 3-22 patients surgically treated for OSCC for at least 1 month. The immunohistochemistry was performed with 1 smear for each group and analyzed by microscopy regarding extension, intensity of positive cells for survivin, and intracellular location.
RESULTS: The survivin expression was observed in 100% of the cases in Group 1, 88.5% in Group 2, and 100% in Group 3. Concerning to Groups 1 and 3, the survivin expression with cytoplasmic location occurred in 100%, while in Group 2 occurred in 87.5%. The cytoplasmic and nuclear expression was observed only in Group 2, with 7.69%. The results were correlated with clinical-pathological data by Fischer's exact test with significant relation between smoking cessation and intensity (P = .015) for Group 2.
CONCLUSIONS: The extension and intensity of survivin expression in the cytological smears were related to the smoking cessation in the group with OSCC. However, the smoking history (packs/years) did not influence the survivin expression.

Chang SL, Lo CH, Peng HL, et al.
Factors associated with continued smoking after treatment of oral cavity cancer: An age and survival time-matched study.
J Adv Nurs. 2018; 74(4):926-934 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The aims of this study of people with oral cavity cancer were to compare the social support, depression, nicotine dependence, physical function and social-emotional function of those who continued smoking with those who quit smoking, by matching age and survival time and to identify the predictors of continued smoking during the survival period.
BACKGROUND: People who continue to smoke after cancer treatment may have an impact on treatment response and survival.
DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was conducted.
METHODS: This study compared 92 people with oral cavity cancer who continued smoking with 92 people who quit smoking, with matching for age and survival time between January 2015 - November 2015. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to compare the two groups.
RESULTS: The quit smoking group had significantly more social support, less depression and greater social-emotional function than the continued smoking group. People who were unmarried, received surgery without reconstruction, had poor social support and had poor social-emotional function were more likely to continue smoking.
CONCLUSIONS: People with oral cavity cancer were more likely to continue smoking after the treatment if they had low social support, depression, greater nicotine dependence and poor social-emotional function. Healthcare professionals should pay more attention to social support, psychological status and nicotine dependence of people who were treated for oral cavity cancer.

Saito E, Inoue M, Tsugane S, et al.
Smoking cessation and subsequent risk of cancer: A pooled analysis of eight population-based cohort studies in Japan.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2017; 51:98-108 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although East Asia is one of the largest tobacco-epidemic regions in the world, only a few prospective studies from Asia have investigated the impact of smoking and cessation of smoking on cancer. We aimed to assess the effect of cessation of smoking on the risk of cancer using eight population-based cohort studies in Japan.
METHODS: We analyzed pooled data from eight population-based prospective cohort studies in Japan with more than 320,000 participants to assess the effect of smoking cessation on the risk of total cancers and smoking-related cancers.
RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, cancer risks in men with >21years of smoking cessation before baseline were found to decrease to the same level as never smokers for total cancer (never smokers: reference; former smokers with ≥21 years since smoking cessation: HR, 1.01; 95%CI: 0.91, 1.11). Even men who are heavy smokers (more than 20 pack-years) reported a reduced risk of total cancer (never smokers: reference; former smokers with ≥21 years since smoking cessation: HR, 1.06; 95%CI: 0.92, 1.23). In women, the risk of total cancer did not differ from that of never smokers after 11 years of smoking cessation before baseline (never smokers: reference; former smokers with ≥11 years since smoking cessation: HR, 0.96; 95%CI: 0.74, 1.23).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that longer duration of smoking cessation may attenuate the risk of cancer in both men and women, and that even heavy smokers (more than 20 pack-years) were found to benefit from quitting smoking.

Kathuria H, Detterbeck FC, Fathi JT, et al.
Stakeholder Research Priorities for Smoking Cessation Interventions within Lung Cancer Screening Programs. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017; 196(9):1202-1212 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Smoking cessation counseling in conjunction with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening is recommended in multiple clinical practice guidelines. The best approach for integrating effective smoking cessation interventions within this setting is unknown.
OBJECTIVES: To summarize evidence, identify research gaps, prioritize topics for future research, and propose standardized tools for use in conducting research on smoking cessation interventions within the LDCT lung cancer screening setting.
METHODS: The American Thoracic Society convened a multistakeholder committee with expertise in tobacco dependence treatment and/or LDCT screening. During an in-person meeting, evidence was reviewed, research gaps were identified, and key questions were generated for each of three research domains: (1) target population to study; (2) adaptation, development, and testing of interventions; and (3) implementation of interventions with demonstrated efficacy. We also identified standardized measures for use in conducting this research. A larger stakeholder panel then ranked research questions by perceived importance in an online survey. Final prioritization was generated hierarchically on the basis of average rank assigned.
RESULTS: There was little consensus on which questions within the population domain were of highest priority. Within the intervention domain, research to evaluate the effectiveness in the lung cancer screening setting of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions shown to be effective in other contexts was ranked highest. In the implementation domain, stakeholders prioritized understanding strategies to identify and overcome barriers to integrating smoking cessation in lung cancer screening settings.
CONCLUSIONS: This statement offers an agenda to stimulate research surrounding the integration and implementation of smoking cessation interventions with LDCT lung cancer screening.

Nichols JAA, Grob P, Kite W, et al.
Using a genetic/clinical risk score to stop smoking (GeTSS): randomised controlled trial.
BMC Res Notes. 2017; 10(1):507 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: As genetic tests become cheaper, the possibility of their widespread availability must be considered. This study involves a risk score for lung cancer in smokers that is roughly 50% genetic (50% clinical criteria). The risk score has been shown to be effective as a smoking cessation motivator in hospital recruited subjects (not actively seeking cessation services).
METHODS: This was an RCT set in a United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) smoking cessation clinic. Smokers were identified from medical records. Subjects that wanted to participate were randomised to a test group that was administered a gene-based risk test and given a lung cancer risk score, or a control group where no risk score was performed. Each group had 8 weeks of weekly smoking cessation sessions involving group therapy and advice on smoking cessation pharmacotherapy and follow-up at 6 months. The primary endpoint was smoking cessation at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included ranking of the risk score and other motivators.
RESULTS: 67 subjects attended the smoking cessation clinic. The 6 months quit rates were 29.4%, (10/34; 95% CI 14.1-44.7%) for the test group and 42.9% (12/28; 95% CI 24.6-61.2%) for the controls. The difference is not significant. However, the quit rate for test group subjects with a "very high" risk score was 89% (8/9; 95% CI 68.4-100%) which was significant when compared with the control group (p = 0.023) and test group subjects with moderate risk scores had a 9.5% quit rate (2/21; 95% CI 2.7-28.9%) which was significantly lower than for above moderate risk score 61.5% (8/13; 95% CI 35.5-82.3; p = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: Only the sub-group with the highest risk score showed an increased quit rate. Controls and test group subjects with a moderate risk score were relatively unlikely to have achieved and maintained non-smoker status at 6 months. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01176383 (date of registration: 3 August 2010).

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