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Obinutuzumab (Gazyva)

Obinutuzumab ia a humanised monoclonal antibody designed to attach to CD20, a protein found only on B-cells. It attacks targeted cells both directly and together with the body's immune system.

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Web Resources: Obinutuzumab
Latest Research Publications

Web Resources: Obinutuzumab (7 links)

Latest Research Publications

Fischer K, Al-Sawaf O, Bahlo J, et al.
Venetoclax and Obinutuzumab in Patients with CLL and Coexisting Conditions.
N Engl J Med. 2019; 380(23):2225-2236 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax has shown activity in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but its efficacy in combination with other agents in patients with CLL and coexisting conditions is not known.
METHODS: In this open-label, phase 3 trial, we investigated fixed-duration treatment with venetoclax and obinutuzumab in patients with previously untreated CLL and coexisting conditions. Patients with a score of greater than 6 on the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (scores range from 0 to 56, with higher scores indicating more impaired function of organ systems) or a calculated creatinine clearance of less than 70 ml per minute were randomly assigned to receive venetoclax-obinutuzumab or chlorambucil-obinutuzumab. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. The safety of each regimen was also evaluated.
RESULTS: In total, 432 patients (median age, 72 years; median Cumulative Illness Rating Scale score, 8; median creatinine clearance, 66.4 ml per minute) underwent randomization, with 216 assigned to each group. After a median follow-up of 28.1 months, 30 primary end-point events (disease progression or death) had occurred in the venetoclax-obinutuzumab group and 77 had occurred in the chlorambucil-obinutuzumab group (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23 to 0.53; P<0.001). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the percentage of patients with progression-free survival at 24 months was significantly higher in the venetoclax-obinutuzumab group than in the chlorambucil-obinutuzumab group: 88.2% (95% CI, 83.7 to 92.6) as compared with 64.1% (95% CI, 57.4 to 70.8). This benefit was also observed in patients with
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with untreated CLL and coexisting conditions, venetoclax-obinutuzumab was associated with longer progression-free survival than chlorambucil-obinutuzumab. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche and AbbVie; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02242942.).

Opat S, Dickinson M, Cheah CY, et al.
Management of patients with follicular lymphoma treated first line with obinutuzumab.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2019; 15 Suppl 3:3-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, obinutuzumab was included in the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme for use in first line, advanced or bulky stage 2, follicular lymphoma, providing more immunochemotherapy treatment options available than ever before. Rituximab with chemotherapy has been the standard of care since reimbursement in the late 1990s; however, obinutuzumab-based regimens have shown superior progression-free survival in comparison to rituximab-based options, albeit at an increased risk of grade ≥3 adverse events. As median overall survival approaches 20 years or more, the long-term effects and sequencing of any strategy should be considered. Here we discuss the considerations for selection of front-line therapy, based on evidence and local Australian clinician experience, in the management of first line follicular lymphoma.

von Tresckow J, Cramer P, Bahlo J, et al.
CLL2-BIG: sequential treatment with bendamustine, ibrutinib and obinutuzumab (GA101) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Leukemia. 2019; 33(5):1161-1172 [PubMed] Related Publications
Obinutuzumab (GA101) and ibrutinib show excellent efficacy for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Preclinical investigations and a complementary safety profile were in support of testing their combined use. The exploratory CLL2-BIG-trial evaluated a sequential combination therapy following a recently proposed strategy. Two courses of bendamustine were used for debulking in patients with a high tumor load, followed by six courses of induction therapy with ibrutinib and GA101, followed by an MRD-triggered maintenance phase. The results of a pre-planned analysis at the end of the induction phase are presented. 61 patients were included, 30 previously untreated and 31 with relapsed/refractory CLL. 44 patients received bendamustine. During induction, neutropenia (14.8%) and thrombocytopenia (13.1%) were the most common CTC grade 3 and 4 events. One fatality (duodenitis) occurred. The overall response rate was 100%. 54.1% of patients achieved a partial remission, 41% a clinical complete remission (cCR) without confirmation by CT scan or bone marrow (BM) biopsy according to protocol and 4.9% a cCR with incomplete recovery of the BM. 29 patients (47.5%) had no detectable (<10

Kusumoto S, Arcaini L, Hong X, et al.
Risk of HBV reactivation in patients with B-cell lymphomas receiving obinutuzumab or rituximab immunochemotherapy.
Blood. 2019; 133(2):137-146 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation was assessed in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients with resolved HBV infection (hepatitis B surface antigen negative, hepatitis B core antibody positive) who received obinutuzumab- or rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy in the phase 3 GOYA and GALLIUM studies. HBV DNA monitoring was undertaken monthly to 1 year after the last dose of study drug. In case of HBV reactivation (confirmed, HBV DNA ≥29 IU/mL), immunochemotherapy was withheld and nucleos(t)ide analog treatment (preemptive NAT) started. Immunochemotherapy was restarted if HBV DNA became undetectable or reactivation was not confirmed, and discontinued if HBV DNA exceeded 100 IU/mL on NAT. Prophylactic NAT was allowed by investigator discretion. Among 326 patients with resolved HBV infection, 27 (8.2%) had HBV reactivation, occurring a median of 125 days (interquartile range, 85-331 days) after the first dose. In 232 patients without prophylactic NAT, 25 (10.8%) had HBV reactivation; all received preemptive NAT. Ninety-four patients received prophylactic NAT; 2 (2.1%) had HBV reactivation. No patients developed HBV-related hepatitis. On multivariate Cox analysis, detectable HBV DNA at baseline was strongly associated with an increased risk of reactivation (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 18.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.04-54.93;

Neumann F, Acker F, Schormann C, et al.
Determination of optimum vitamin D3 levels for NK cell-mediated rituximab- and obinutuzumab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2018; 67(11):1709-1718 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vitamin D3 (25-OH-D3) deficiency impairs rituximab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and the outcome of patients with diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphomas (DLBCL). Since the optimum 25-OH-D3 serum levels for NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) are unknown, we determined the 25-OH-D3 serum levels associated with maximum NK cell-mediated ADCC. CD20 antibody-loaded CD20

Cramer P, von Tresckow J, Bahlo J, et al.
Bendamustine followed by obinutuzumab and venetoclax in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL2-BAG): primary endpoint analysis of a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial.
Lancet Oncol. 2018; 19(9):1215-1228 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Targeted agents such as the type II anti-CD20 antibody obinutuzumab and the B-cell lymphoma-2 antagonist venetoclax have shown impressive therapeutic activity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The CLL2-BAG trial was initiated to investigate the combination of these two agents in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
METHODS: In this ongoing multicentre, open-label, investigator-initiated phase 2 trial, patients (aged ≥18 years) with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia requiring treatment according to the 2008 International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (IWCLL) criteria and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 were enrolled at 16 sites in Germany. Patients with a relevant tumour load (absolute lymphocyte count ≥25 000 cells per μL or lymph nodes with a diameter of ≥5 cm) received sequential treatment of debulking with two cycles of bendamustine (70 mg/m
FINDINGS: Between May 6, 2015, and Jan 4, 2016, 66 patients were enrolled (35 treatment naive and 31 with relapsed or refractory disease), three of whom were excluded from the efficacy analysis because they received fewer than two induction cycles. Of the remaining 63 patients in the efficacy-evaluable population, 34 patients (54%) were treatment naive and 29 (46%) had relapsed or refractory disease. At data cutoff (Feb 28, 2017), all patients had completed induction treatment. At the end of the induction, 60 (95%) of 63 patients (95% CI 87-99) had responded, including all 34 patients in the treatment-naive cohort and 26 [90%] of 29 relapsed or refractory patients. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events during debulking were neutropenia and anaemia (five [11%] of 47 patients each), and thrombocytopenia and infection (three [6%] each). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events during induction were neutropenia (29 [44%] of 66 patients), infection (nine [14%]), thrombocytopenia (eight [12%]), infusion-related reactions (five [8%]), and secondary primary malignancy (four [6%]). 89 serious adverse events, including 69 related to study treatment, were reported. These serious adverse events were also mainly infections (four cases in four patients during debulking and 18 cases in 11 patients during induction) and cytopenia (four cases in four patients during debulking and ten cases in seven patients in induction). Five relapsed or refractory patients died: three cases of sepsis were deemed related to study treatment, whereas two deaths from Richter's transformation were not.
INTERPRETATION: The sequential application of bendamustine and obinutuzumab combined with venetoclax caused no unexpected or cumulative toxicities. The high proportion of patients who achieved overall responses, both treatment-naive and relapsed or refractory patients irrespective of physical fitness and genetic risk factors, compare favourably to established chronic lymphocytic leukaemia therapies. Further follow-up will help to define whether the remissions with eradication of minimal residual disease achieved with this combination are durable after treatment discontinuation.
FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche and AbbVie.

Rogers KA, Huang Y, Ruppert AS, et al.
Phase 1b study of obinutuzumab, ibrutinib, and venetoclax in relapsed and refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Blood. 2018; 132(15):1568-1572 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/10/2019 Related Publications
Targeted therapies including the engineered afucosylated anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab, Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib, and B-cell lymphoma protein 2 inhibitor venetoclax have demonstrated significant clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and, based on their complementary mechanisms, are ideal for combination. However, combining venetoclax with other active agents raises safety concerns, as it may increase the risk for tumor lysis syndrome. To minimize this risk, we designed and implemented a fixed-duration regimen using sequentially administered obinutuzumab followed by ibrutinib (cycle 2) and venetoclax (cycle 3), for a total of fourteen 28-day cycles. This phase 1b study included 12 patients with relapsed or refractory CLL. We tested 3 dose levels of venetoclax and identified the doses of all 3 agents approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in the combination. Adverse events were consistent with known toxicities of the individual agents, with hematologic adverse events being most frequent. No clinically significant tumor lysis syndrome occurred. The overall response rate was 92% (95% confidence interval, 62%-100%), with 42% (5/12) achieving a complete remission or complete remission with incomplete marrow recovery. There were 6 patients with no detectable CLL in both the blood and bone marrow at the end of treatment. We found this regimen to be safe and tolerable in CLL, and capable of inducing deep responses, justifying future study in our ongoing phase 2 cohorts of relapsed or refractory and treatment-naive patients, as well as larger phase 3 trials currently in planning. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02427451.

Morschhauser F, Salles G, Le Gouill S, et al.
An open-label phase 1b study of obinutuzumab plus lenalidomide in relapsed/refractory follicular B-cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2018; 132(14):1486-1494 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/10/2019 Related Publications
Obinutuzumab is a type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity better than rituximab. Given promising results with lenalidomide and rituximab, this phase 1b study assessed the safety and efficacy of lenalidomide combined with obinutuzumab (GALEN). Patients age ≥18 years with relapsed or refractory (R/R) follicular lymphoma (FL) after rituximab-containing therapy received escalating doses (10 [n = 7], 15 [n = 3], 20 [n = 6], and 25 mg [n = 3]) of daily oral lenalidomide on days 1 to 21 of cycle 1 and on days 2 to 22 of cycles 2 to 6 (28-day cycles). Obinutuzumab 1000 mg IV was administered on days 8, 15, and 22 (cycle 1) and on day 1 (cycles 2-6). Dose was escalated in a 3 + 3 design based on dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) during cycle 1 to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). We observed 164 adverse events (AEs), of which 139 were grade 1/2. The most common AEs were constipation (52.6%), neutropenia (47.4%), and asthenia (36.8%); 64.3% (9 of 14) of the grade 3/4 AEs were neutropenia/neutrophil decrease, but without any febrile neutropenia. Four DLTs occurred in 2 patients, all deemed unrelated to treatment. MTD was not reached. Twelve patients (63.2%) responded: 8 complete, 3 unconfirmed complete, and 1 partial response. Oral lenalidomide plus obinutuzumab is well tolerated and effective in R/R FL. The recommended dose of lenalidomide was established at 20 mg based on the risk of grade 3/4 neutropenia from cycle 2. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01582776.

Ohmachi K, Ando K, Kinoshita T, et al.
Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of shorter duration of infusion of obinutuzumab in Japanese patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: final results of the phase II GATS study.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2018; 48(8):736-742 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/10/2019 Related Publications
Background: Shorter duration of infusion of monoclonal antibody treatments may reduce treatment burden and improve healthcare resource utilization.
Methods: This phase II study recruited Japanese patients with previously untreated CD20+ B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients received intravenous obinutuzumab 1000 mg by regular infusion on Days 1, 8 and 15 of Cycle 1, followed by 90-min shorter duration of infusion in up to seven subsequent cycles, provided they received ≥3 regular infusions without any grade ≥3 infusion-related reactions and had a lymphocyte count <5.0 × 109 cells/l. Standard cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone chemotherapy was given in Cycles 1-6. The primary endpoints were as follows: incidence of grade ≥3 infusion-related reactions in Cycle 2 in patients who started shorter duration of infusion in Cycle 2, serum obinutuzumab concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters and the time course of cytokine release. Adverse events and serious adverse events were monitored.
Results: Of 35 patients treated, 28 completed eight cycles; 31 started shorter duration of infusion in Cycle 2 and two patients in subsequent cycles. Two patients discontinued before starting shorter duration of infusion. No grade ≥3 infusion-related reactions occurred in Cycle 2. Twenty-one infusion-related reactions (all grades 1-2) were reported in 17/35 (49%) patients overall, mostly in Cycle 1 (18/21 infusion-related reactions [86%]). Grade ≥3 AEs occurring in ≥10% of patients included neutropenia/neutrophil count decreased (66%) and leukopenia/white blood cell count decreased (23%). Steady-state pharmacokinetics of obinutuzumab were attained in Cycle 2 and were not affected by shorter duration of infusion. No relevant cytokine elevations were reported with shorter duration of infusion.
Conclusions: Regular infusion and shorter duration of infusion of obinutuzumab have comparable tolerability and pharmacokinetics in Japanese patients.

Ohmachi K, Tobinai K, Kinoshita T, et al.
Efficacy and safety of obinutuzumab in patients with previously untreated follicular lymphoma: a subgroup analysis of patients enrolled in Japan in the randomized phase III GALLIUM trial.
Int J Hematol. 2018; 108(5):499-509 [PubMed] Related Publications
GALLIUM is a global phase III study that demonstrated a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) with obinutuzumab plus chemotherapy (G-chemo) versus rituximab plus chemotherapy (R-chemo) in previously untreated patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). In this single-country subgroup analysis, we explored patterns of efficacy and safety in patients enrolled in the GALLIUM study in Japan (Japanese subgroup). Patients were randomized to open-label induction treatment with G-chemo or R-chemo. Responders received maintenance monotherapy with their randomized antibody for up to 2 years. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed PFS. Overall, 123 patients with FL were randomized in the Japanese subgroup (G-chemo, n = 65; R-chemo, n = 58). The majority of patients received cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy (82.9 vs 33.1% in the global GALLIUM FL population). PFS at 3 years was 89.9% (G-chemo) vs. 74.7% (R-chemo); hazard ratio 0.42; 95% confidence interval 0.15, 1.15; P = 0.08. Higher rates of grade 3-5 adverse events (96.9 vs. 89.7%) and serious adverse events (35.4 vs. 22.4%) were observed with G-chemo vs R-chemo, respectively. Neutropenia was frequent in the Japanese subgroup (92.3% G-chemo; 79.3% R-chemo). Overall, the results in the Japanese subgroup were consistent with those in the global GALLIUM population.

Haukaas FS, Ohna A, Krivasi T
Cost-Effectiveness of Obinutuzumab in Combination with Bendamustine Followed by Obinutuzumab Maintenance versus Bendamustine Alone in Treatment of Patients with Rituximab-Refractory Follicular Lymphoma in Norway.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2018; 16(4):569-577 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of obinutuzumab in combination with bendamustine followed by obinituzumab maintenance (Obin-Benda) compared to bendamustine alone (Benda) in patients with refractory follicular lymphoma (FL) in a Norwegian setting.
METHODS: A three-state area-under-the-curve (AUC) model was developed. The states included were progression-free-survival (PFS), progressed disease (PD), and death. Each state had costs and utilities assigned to it. The pivotal phase III randomized controlled trial GADOLIN was used for clinical input in the model along with Norwegian cost estimates. The trial demonstrated that Obin-Benda improved overall survival (OS), with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.67 (95% CI 0.47-0.96), and reduced the likelihood of progression or death (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.39-0.69) compared to Benda. The model used EQ-5D data collected in the GADOLIN trial, with UK tariffs assigned to the EQ-5D scores.
RESULTS: The total quality adjusted life-years (QALYs) for the patients on Obin-Benda were estimated to be 4.67, compared to 3.65 for Benda, while the total costs were estimated to be €98,849 and €51,570, respectively. Obin-Benda had an incremental gain of 1.02 QALYs compared to Benda, at an additional cost of €47,279. The estimated deterministic incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was €46,438 per QALY gained, while the probabilistic ICER was €46,887 per QALY gained (95% CI €34,772-€59,443). The results were robust to changes in various sensitivity and scenario analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: The cost-effectiveness threshold in Norway is not public, but based on previous decisions it is estimated to be up to approximately €89,000 per QALY (NOK 800,000). The results of the analysis indicate that obinutuzumab in combination with bendamustine followed by obinutuzumab maintenance may be cost-effective compared to bendamustine alone in Norway.

Guzauskas GF, Masaquel A, Reyes C, et al.
Cost-effectiveness of obinutuzumab plus bendamustine followed by obinutuzumab monotherapy for the treatment of follicular lymphoma patients who relapse after or are refractory to a rituximab-containing regimen in the US.
J Med Econ. 2018; 21(10):960-967 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Obinutuzumab (GA101, G) was approved in February 2016 by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat follicular lymphoma (FL) patients who relapsed after, or are refractory to (R/R), a rituximab-containing regimen (R/R-rituximab). In the GADOLIN trial, R/R-rituximab patients who received G plus bendamustine (B) followed by G-monotherapy (G + B) for up to 2 years had significantly improved progression-free survival and overall survival compared to patients receiving B-monotherapy. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness of G + B vs B-monotherapy for R/R-rituximab FL patients from a US payer perspective.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient outcomes were simulated using a 3-state area under the curve model including progression-free survival, progressive disease, and death. This study used R/R-rituximab data from the National LymphoCare Study to extrapolate the GADOLIN trial's refractory FL progression-free and overall survival data to a R/R-rituximab FL population. Drug utilization and adverse events were based on trial data, and costs were based on Medicare reimbursements and drug wholesale acquisition costs in 2016. Utility estimates were derived from published literature. Post-progression treatment costs were based on observed post-progression therapies in GADOLIN. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess model uncertainty.
RESULTS: G + B resulted in an increase in quality-adjusted life years relative to B-monotherapy of 1.24 (95% CR = 0.61-1.87); the incremental total cost was $58,100 (95% CR = $54,500-$61,500). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $47,000 per QALY gained, and, based on probabilistic simulations, there was a 98% probability that G + B was cost-effective at the $100,000 per QALY threshold.
LIMITATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS: This US-based analysis suggests that treatment with G + B compared to B-monotherapy is likely cost-effective in R/R-rituximab FL patients. Modeling a R/R-rituximab population based on a synthesis of GADOLIN and the National LymphoCare Study data introduces uncertainty in the analysis. However, the findings were robust to sensitivity analyses.

Hiddemann W, Barbui AM, Canales MA, et al.
Immunochemotherapy With Obinutuzumab or Rituximab for Previously Untreated Follicular Lymphoma in the GALLIUM Study: Influence of Chemotherapy on Efficacy and Safety.
J Clin Oncol. 2018; 36(23):2395-2404 [PubMed] Related Publications
Purpose The GALLIUM study ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01332968) showed that obinutuzumab (GA101; G) significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in previously untreated patients with follicular lymphoma relative to rituximab (R) when combined with cyclophosphamide (C), doxorubicin, vincristine (V), and prednisone (P; CHOP); CVP; or bendamustine. This report focuses on the impact of chemotherapy backbone on efficacy and safety. Patients and Methods A total of 1,202 patients with previously untreated follicular lymphoma (grades 1 to 3a), advanced disease (stage III or IV, or stage II with tumor diameter ≥ 7 cm), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 to 2, and requiring treatment were randomly assigned 1:1 to G 1,000 mg on days 1, 8, and 15 of cycle 1 and day 1 of subsequent cycles or R 375 mg/m

Qin Y, Song Y, Shen Z, et al.
Safety and efficacy of obinutuzumab in Chinese patients with B-cell lymphomas: a secondary analysis of the GERSHWIN trial.
Cancer Commun (Lond). 2018; 38(1):31 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell lymphomas have limited treatment options. GERSHWIN is an open-label, single-arm, phase Ib study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in Chinese patients with histologically documented CD20
METHODS: Patients received 1000 mg obinutuzumab intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 of cycle 1 (CLL patients; first dose split over 2 days), and on day 1 of cycles 2-8. Each cycle lasted for 21 days; the treatment period was 24 weeks. All subjects receiving at least one dose of obinutuzumab were included in the analysis of safety, efficacy, as well as pharmacodynamics.
RESULTS: A total of 48 patients (> 18 years of age) were enrolled (CLL: 12; DLBCL: 23; FL: 13). The subjects received a median of two lines of anticancer treatment prior to the enrollment. Thirty-five patients (72.9%) had at least one adverse event (AE). The most frequent AE was infusion-related reactions (15 patients; 31.3%), followed by pyrexia (11 patients; 22.9%). Treatment-related AEs were reported in 28 patients (58.3%), and included one death (interstitial lung disease). End-of-treatment (EoT) response rate was 33.3%. Best overall response rate was 47.9%. Most CLL patients achieved a partial response at EoT (58.3%). CD19
CONCLUSIONS: The safety and efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy in Chinese patients with B-cell lymphomas were similar to that observed in previous studies in non-Chinese patients; no new safety signals were observed. Clinical trial registration ID NCT01680991.

Stilgenbauer S, Leblond V, Foà R, et al.
Obinutuzumab plus bendamustine in previously untreated patients with CLL: a subgroup analysis of the GREEN study.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(8):1778-1786 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/10/2019 Related Publications
GREEN (NCT01905943) is a non-randomized, open-label phase IIIb study investigating obinutuzumab alone or plus chemotherapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We report a preplanned subgroup analysis of 158 previously untreated CLL patients receiving obinutuzumab-bendamustine (G-B). Patients received six 28-day cycles (C) of G-B: obinutuzumab day (D)1/D2 of C1 (25 mg D1/975 mg D2), 1000 mg D8 and D15 of C1, and D1 of C2-6; and bendamustine 70/90 mg/m

Freeman CL, Sehn LH
A tale of two antibodies: obinutuzumab versus rituximab.
Br J Haematol. 2018; 182(1):29-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
While rituximab has dramatically improved outcomes for patients with CD20

García-Muñoz R, Aguinaga L, Feliu J, et al.
Obinutuzumab induces depletion of NK cells in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Immunotherapy. 2018; 10(6):491-499 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Obinutuzumab induces NK cell antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.
OBJECTIVE: Investigate the effects on the human immune system after obinutuzumab monotherapy treatment in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
METHOD: To evaluate these effects, we analyzed the distribution of CD4
RESULTS: After the first 1000 mg obinutuzumab infusion (cycle 1 day 2), CD4
CONCLUSION: Obinutuzumab induces depletion of NK cells in CLL.

Sinha R, Redekop WK
Cost-Effectiveness of Ibrutinib Compared With Obinutuzumab With Chlorambucil in Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients With Comorbidities in the United Kingdom.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2018; 18(2):e131-e142 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ibrutinib shows superiority over obinutuzumab with chlorambucil (G-Clb) in untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with comorbidities who cannot tolerate fludarabine-based therapy. However, ibrutinib is relatively more expensive than G-Clb. In this study we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of ibrutinib compared with G-Clb from the United Kingdom (UK) health care perspective.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 3-state semi-Markov model was parameterized to estimate the lifetime costs and benefits associated with ibrutinib compared with G-Clb as first-line treatment. Idelalisib with rituximab was considered as second-line treatment. Unit costs were derived from standard sources, (dis)utilities from UK elicitation studies, progression-free survival, progression, and death from clinical trials, and postprogression survival and background mortality from published sources. Additional analyses included threshold analyses with ibrutinib and idelalisib at various discount rates, and scenario analysis with ibrutinib as second-line treatment after G-Clb.
RESULTS: An average gain of 1.49 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) was estimated for ibrutinib compared with G-Clb at an average additional cost of £112,835 per patient. To be cost-effective as per the UK thresholds, ibrutinib needs to be discounted at 30%, 40%, and 50% if idelalisib is discounted at 0%, 25%, and 50% respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £75,648 and £-143,279 per QALY gained for the base-case and scenario analyses, respectively. Sensitivity analyses showed the robustness of the results.
CONCLUSION: As per base-case analyses, an adequate discount on ibrutinib is required to make it cost-effective as per the UK thresholds. The scenario analysis substantiates ibrutinib's cost-savings for the UK National Health Services and advocates patient's access to ibrutinib in the UK.

Marcus R, Davies A, Ando K, et al.
Obinutuzumab for the First-Line Treatment of Follicular Lymphoma.
N Engl J Med. 2017; 377(14):1331-1344 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Rituximab-based immunochemotherapy has improved outcomes in patients with follicular lymphoma. Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. We compared rituximab-based chemotherapy with obinutuzumab-based chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated advanced-stage follicular lymphoma.
METHODS: We randomly assigned patients to undergo induction treatment with obinutuzumab-based chemotherapy or rituximab-based chemotherapy. Patients with a response received maintenance treatment for up to 2 years with the same antibody that they had received in induction. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival.
RESULTS: A total of 1202 patients with follicular lymphoma underwent randomization (601 patients in each group). After a median follow-up of 34.5 months (range, 0 to 54.5), a planned interim analysis showed that obinutuzumab-based chemotherapy resulted in a significantly lower risk of progression, relapse, or death than rituximab-based chemotherapy (estimated 3-year rate of progression-free survival, 80.0% vs. 73.3%; hazard ratio for progression, relapse, or death, 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51 to 0.85; P=0.001). Similar results were seen with regard to independently reviewed progression-free survival and other time-to-event end points. Response rates were similar in the two groups (88.5% in the obinutuzumab group and 86.9% in the rituximab group). Adverse events of grade 3 to 5 were more frequent in the obinutuzumab group than in the rituximab group (74.6% vs. 67.8%), as were serious adverse events (46.1% vs. 39.9%). The rates of adverse events resulting in death were similar in the two groups (4.0% in the obinutuzumab group and 3.4% in the rituximab group). The most common adverse events were infusion-related events that were considered by the investigators to be largely due to obinutuzumab in 353 of 595 patients (59.3%; 95% CI, 55.3 to 63.2) and to rituximab in 292 of 597 patients (48.9%; 95% CI, 44.9 to 52.9; P<0.001). Nausea and neutropenia were common. A total of 35 patients (5.8%) in the obinutuzumab group and 46 (7.7%) in the rituximab group died.
CONCLUSIONS: Obinutuzumab-based immunochemotherapy and maintenance therapy resulted in longer progression-free survival than rituximab-based therapy. High-grade adverse events were more common with obinutuzumab-based chemotherapy. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche; GALLIUM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01332968 .).

Zettlitz KA, Tavaré R, Knowles SM, et al.
ImmunoPET of Malignant and Normal B Cells with
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(23):7242-7252 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/10/2019 Related Publications

Said R, Tsimberidou AM
Obinutuzumab for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.
Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2017; 17(11):1463-1470 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/10/2019 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Chemoimmunotherapeutic regimens using the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab improved significantly the survival rates in various B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The next-generation CD20 antibody obinutuzumab represents an addition to the drug armamentarium used for the therapeutic management of patients with LPDs. Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss the biochemical and conformational engineering of obinutuzumab to increase antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and direct cell death. They also describe the available preclinical data on obinutuzumab's role in B-cell LPDs. Furthermore, the authors summarize the Phase I and II clinical trials of obinutuzumab, focusing on the main pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics, the most common clinically significant adverse events, dose optimization, and clinical outcomes of patients with CLL and other B-cell LPDs treated with obinutuzumab as monotherapy or in combination with other agents. To put these data in perspective, the use of obinutuzumab is compared with that of rituximab in CLL and other B-cell LPDs. Expert opinion: Clinical trials have demonstrated that obinutuzumab is well tolerated. The novel mechanism of action of obinutuzumab is associated with significant efficacy in CLL and other B-cell LPDs. Ongoing clinical trials are expected to determine the optimal use of obinutuzumab in these diseases.

Russell A, Yaraskavitch M, Fok D, et al.
Obinutuzumab Plus Chlorambucil in a Patient with Severe Myasthenia Gravis and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.
J Neuromuscul Dis. 2017; 4(3):251-257 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction, characterized by fatigable weakness of the extraocular, bulbar, and limb musculature; prevalence is estimated at 14 to 32 per 100,000 in North America. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common type of leukemia in adults, resulting from clonal expansion of B-cells in blood, marrow, and secondary lymphoid tissues. The simultaneous presentation of MG and CLL is exceedingly rare. This article presents the case of 71-year-old man diagnosed simultaneously with MG and CLL. His MG was severe and refractory to treatment; therefore, a strategy of treating his coexisting CLL with obinutuzumab and chlorambucil was pursued. Following 6 cycles of obinutuzumab and chlorambucil, his CLL is in remission and his MG is almost entirely undetectable. This is the first case report describing the use of obinutuzumab, a novel anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, in a patient with concurrent MG and CLL.

Klein C, Bacac M, Umana P, Fingerle-Rowson G
Combination therapy with the type II anti-CD20 antibody obinutuzumab.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2017; 26(10):1145-1162 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Obinutuzumab is a novel humanized type II glycoengineered anti-CD20 antibody approved for first-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in combination with chlorambucil and for treatment of rituximab-refractory follicular lymphoma (FL). Areas covered: We describe current preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the combination of obinutuzumab with not only chemotherapy but also novel targeted therapies for B-cell hematologic malignancies, and its application in chemoimmunotherapy. We also provide an overview of the current clinical trial landscape investigating novel combination therapies based on obinutuzumab. Expert opinion: Within the next 10 years the treatment of B-cell malignancies with obinutuzumab is expected to increasingly move towards chemotherapy-free regimens. Novel combinations of obinutuzumab will be explored with targeted therapies, antibody-drug conjugates, and/or other immunotherapeutic agents, with the aim to achieve clinically meaningful improvements in efficacy and patient safety.

Vitolo U, Trněný M, Belada D, et al.
Obinutuzumab or Rituximab Plus Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone in Previously Untreated Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.
J Clin Oncol. 2017; 35(31):3529-3537 [PubMed] Related Publications
Purpose Rituximab (R) plus CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) chemotherapy is the standard of care in previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Obinutuzumab (G) is a glycoengineered, type II, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. GOYA was a randomized phase III study that compared G-CHOP with R-CHOP in patients with previously untreated advanced-stage DLBCL. Methods Patients (N = 1,418) were randomly assigned to receive eight 21-day cycles of G (n = 706) or R (n = 712), plus six or eight cycles of CHOP. Primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). Results After median observation of 29 months, the number of investigator-assessed PFS events was similar between G (201; 28.5%) and R (215; 30.2%), stratified hazard ratio was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.76 to 1.11; P = .39), and 3-year PFS rates were 70% and 67%, respectively. Secondary end points of independently reviewed PFS, other time-to-event end points, and tumor response rates were similar between arms. In exploratory subgroup analyses, patients with germinal-center B cell-like subtype had a better PFS than did patients with activated B cell-like subtype, irrespective of treatment. Frequencies of grade 3 to 5 adverse events (AEs; 73.7% v 64.7%, respectively) and serious AEs (42.6% v 37.6%, respectively) were higher with G-CHOP compared with R-CHOP. Fatal AE frequencies were 5.8% for G-CHOP and 4.3% for R-CHOP. The most common AEs were neutropenia (G-CHOP, 48.3%; R-CHOP, 40.7%), infusion-related reactions (G-CHOP, 36.1%; R-CHOP, 23.5%), nausea (G-CHOP, 29.4%; R-CHOP, 28.3%), and constipation (G-CHOP, 23.4%; R-CHOP, 24.5%). Conclusion G-CHOP did not improve PFS compared with R-CHOP in patients with previously untreated DLBCL. AEs reported with G were consistent with the known safety profile. Biomarker analyses may help define a future role for G in DLBCL.

Oughton JB, Collett L, Howard DR, et al.
GA101 (obinutuzumab) monocLonal Antibody as Consolidation Therapy In CLL (GALACTIC) trial: study protocol for a phase II/III randomised controlled trial.
Trials. 2017; 18(1):353 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukaemia. Achieving minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity in CLL is an independent predictor of survival even with a variety of different treatment approaches and regardless of the line of therapy.
METHODS/DESIGN: GA101 (obinutuzumab) monocLonal Antibody as Consolidation Therapy In CLL (GALACTIC) is a seamless phase II/III, multi-centre, randomised, controlled, open, parallel-group trial for patients with CLL who have recently responded to chemotherapy. Participants will be randomised to receive either obinutuzumab (GA-101) consolidation or no treatment (as is standard). The phase II trial will assess safety and short-term efficacy in order to advise on continuation to a phase III trial. The primary objective for phase III is to assess the effect of consolidation therapy on progression-free survival (PFS). One hundred eighty-eight participants are planned to be recruited from forty research centres in the United Kingdom.
DISCUSSION: There is evidence that achieving MRD eradication with alemtuzumab consolidation is associated with improvements in survival and time to progression. This trial will assess whether obinutuzumab is safe in a consolidation setting and effective at eradicating MRD and improving PFS.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, 64035629 . Registered on 12 January 2015. EudraCT, 2014-000880-42 . Registered on 12 November 2014.

Skopelja-Gardner S, Jones JD, Hamilton BJ, et al.
Role for ZAP-70 Signaling in the Differential Effector Functions of Rituximab and Obinutuzumab (GA101) in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells.
J Immunol. 2017; 199(4):1275-1282 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rituximab (RTX) has been the hallmark anti-CD20 mAb for the treatment of B cell neoplasms, including B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Recently, a novel humanized anti-CD20 mAb obinutuzumab (GA101) has been implemented as first-line CLL therapy. Treatment of CLL patients with RTX is associated with CD20 loss via an FcγR-mediated process, trogocytosis. RTX-induced trogocytosis has been characterized as both the means of resistance to therapy, via loss of cell surface target proteins (antigenic modulation), as well as a process that alters B cell phenotype and function. This study investigates the nature and clinical relevance of GA101-mediated trogocytosis. In this study, we demonstrate that GA101 is a more potent mediator of trogocytosis than RTX in vitro in both normal B cells and B-CLL cells. Qualitative differences in the effector function of these anti-CD20 Abs appear specific to B-CLL cells. GA101-mediated CD19 and CD20 trogocytosis from B-CLL cells is associated with its ability to induce homotypic adhesion (HA). The degree of HA varies between CLL patients and positively correlates with the expression of ZAP-70, a BCR-associated kinase. Deregulation of ZAP-70 using tyrosine kinase inhibitors, gefitinib or ibrutinib, diminishes HA formation and trogocytosis by GA101. Taken together, these findings elucidate the differences in trogocytosis and HA formation mediated by anti-CD20 mAbs RTX and GA101, as well as provide a novel link between ZAP-70 expression and these effector functions.

Tam C, Kuss B, Opat S, et al.
Management of patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with obinutuzumab and chlorambucil.
Intern Med J. 2017; 47 Suppl 4:5-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) are generally older, with many considered 'unfit' for fludarabine-cyclophosphamide-rituximab therapy. In these patients, the combination of obinutuzumab-chlorambucil may be an appropriate therapeutic choice. Obinutuzumab-chlorambucil has been demonstrated to improve overall survival rates compared to chlorambucil alone and to improve progression-free survival and overall response rates compared to rituximab-chlorambucil. This combination can lead to certain toxicities that need to be addressed through appropriate patient selection, pre-medication and management. In this paper, we discuss evidence-based and author-recommended practical management of first-line CLL patients receiving obinutuzumab-chlorambucil.

Cartron G, Watier H
Obinutuzumab: what is there to learn from clinical trials?
Blood. 2017; 130(5):581-589 [PubMed] Related Publications
Obinutuzumab (OBZ) is a recombinant type II anti-CD20 and immunoglobulin G1 Fc-optimized monoclonal antibody (mAb), recently approved in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; B-cell CLL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). Rituximab (RTX) is frequently considered as its "ancestor" and OBZ clinical development was justified by the importance of FcγRIIIA-mediated mechanisms in RTX clinical activity. However, RTX differs from OBZ in 2 critical independent properties: being a type I anti-CD20 mAb and not being Fc-optimized. Moreover, the use of a different dosing regimen for RTX and OBZ further complicates any interpretation of clinical results. The results obtained for OBZ in CLL provide new arguments for FcγRIIIA-mediated mechanisms when the target antigen is expressed at a low density. Results of OBZ in FL confirm the interest for FcγRIIIA-mediated mechanisms, with some limitations, some of them being possibly due to lack of OBZ-induced complement activation. The situation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is deceiving, as the possible gains of activity of OBZ appear to be annihilated by the lack of complement activation. Although RTX was by chance an anti-CD20 mAb with equilibrated pharmacodynamic properties, the reinforcement of some of these properties, which has been done at the expense of complement activation, has conferred an advantage in some B-cell disorders while restricting OBZ indications. The OBZ story nicely demonstrates that the future of naked mAbs is to design agents with optimized and tailored properties, and that this must be done step by step, with a full clinical validation.

Van Sanden S, Baculea S, Diels J, Cote S
Comparative Efficacy of Ibrutinib Versus Obinutuzumab + Chlorambucil in First-Line Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Matching-Adjusted Indirect Comparison.
Adv Ther. 2017; 34(7):1650-1661 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/10/2019 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Ibrutinib (ibr) monotherapy and the combination of obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil (obi) are approved for previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). No trials directly comparing their efficacy are available. Therefore a matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC) was performed to provide insight into their relative efficacy in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). MAIC attempts to adjust for between-trial differences in factors known or suspected to influence treatment effects, to minimize bias.
METHODS: A MAIC within a Bayesian framework was conducted using individual patient data from the RESONATE-2 study of ibr versus chlorambucil and published data from the CLL11 study of obi versus chlorambucil. Both studies were conducted in patients ineligible for full-dose fludarabine-based therapy. After matching, the reweighted adjusted relative efficacy measure of ibr versus chlorambucil from RESONATE-2 [hazard ratio (HR), 95% credible interval (CrI)] was compared with that of obi versus chlorambucil from CLL11 for each endpoint, using a Bayesian indirect comparison.
RESULTS: Our results suggest that in a population with similar average baseline characteristics to CLL11, ibr would improve PFS and OS outcomes compared to obi. Before matching, the HRs for ibr versus obi were 0.48 [CrI = 0.22-1.02, p(HR <1) = 97%], 0.85 [CrI = 0.44-1.63, p(HR <1) = 69%], and 0.40 [CrI = 0.10-1.54, p(HR <1) = 91%] for PFS by investigator assessment, PFS by independent review committee, and OS, respectively. After matching on all available characteristics the HRs decreased to 0.12 [CrI = 0.02-0.97, p(HR <1) = 98%], 0.24 [CrI = 0.04-1.35, p(HR <1) = 95%], and 0.21 [CrI = <0.01-8.89, p(HR <1) = 79%], respectively. There was a large variance around the treatment effect for OS due to the low number of deaths.
CONCLUSION: Our analysis suggests that ibrutinib is highly likely to provide greater PFS benefit than obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil in older or less fit patients with previously untreated CLL. There is also an indication of improvement in OS, albeit with a higher uncertainty due to the low number of events.
FUNDING: Janssen-Cilag Ltd.

Lachowiez C, Deodhar A, Kozin E, Spurgeon S
Obinutuzumab is Effective in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Rheumatoid Arthritis After Rituximab Failure: A Case Report.
Am J Case Rep. 2017; 18:516-519 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia affecting older adults. As such, many of these patients suffer from co-existing disease states, and the provider must take these comorbidities into account when determining a treatment regimen. The widespread use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has drastically changed the treatment landscape of multiple diseases, ranging from leukemia to autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. CASE REPORT We present the case of a patient who had progression of his CLL and rheumatoid symptoms on rituximab therapy, and was subsequently treated with the second-generation anti-CD20 antibody obinutuzumab. Obinutuzumab therapy was associated with simultaneous sustained remission of both disease states, allowing for discontinuation of all other disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and prolonged remission of his CLL. CONCLUSIONS While anti-CD20 antibodies have a clear role in the treatment of leukemia and inflammatory conditions, the success of obinutuzumab in RA has not been fully evaluated. We present this case as further evidence of the strong role of anti-CD 20 therapy in multiple conditions, and the unique opportunity for control of simultaneous disease states through targeted inhibition of shared common pathways.

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