HLA-B

Gene Summary

Gene:HLA-B; major histocompatibility complex, class I, B
Aliases: AS, HLAB, B-4901
Location:6p21.33
Summary:HLA-B belongs to the HLA class I heavy chain paralogues. This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain (beta-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is anchored in the membrane. Class I molecules play a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. They are expressed in nearly all cells. The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and its gene contains 8 exons. Exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exon 2 and 3 encode the alpha1 and alpha2 domains, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the alpha3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane region and exons 6 and 7 encode the cytoplasmic tail. Polymorphisms within exon 2 and exon 3 are responsible for the peptide binding specificity of each class one molecule. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow and kidney transplantation. Hundreds of HLA-B alleles have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:major histocompatibility complex, class I, B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HLA-B (cancer-related)

Grünebach F, Huster AL, Vogel W, Klein R
Confirmation and next-generation sequencing of allele HLA-B*35:279 found in a family of a leukaemia patient with Western Asia origin.
Int J Immunogenet. 2017; 44(1):32-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The confirmation of novel allele HLA-B*35:279 in a family of a leukaemia patient with Western Asia origin is reported. Moreover, next-generation sequencing (NGS) resulted in whole-gene sequence data and revealed the inheritance of HLA-B*35:279 on the paternal haplotype.

Lai J, Zhou Z, Tang XJ, et al.
A Tumor-Specific Neo-Antigen Caused by a Frameshift Mutation in BAP1 Is a Potential Personalized Biomarker in Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive rare malignancy associated with asbestos exposure. A better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of MPM will help develop a targeted therapy strategy. Oncogene targeted depth sequencing was performed on a tumor sample and paired peripheral blood DNA from a patient with malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum. Four somatic base-substitutions in NOTCH2, NSD1, PDE4DIP, and ATP10B and 1 insert frameshift mutation in BAP1 were validated by the Sanger method at the transcriptional level. A 13-amino acids neo-peptide of the truncated Bap1 protein, which was produced as a result of this novel frameshift mutation, was predicted to be presented by this patient's HLA-B protein. The polyclonal antibody of the synthesized 13-mer neo-peptide was produced in rabbits. Western blotting results showed a good antibody-neoantigen specificity, and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining with the antibody of the neo-peptide clearly differentiated neoplastic cells from normal cells. A search of the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database also revealed that 53.2% of mutations in BAP1 were frameshift indels with neo-peptide formation. An identified tumor-specific neo-antigen could be the potential molecular biomarker for personalized diagnosis to precisely subtype rare malignancies such as MPM.

Nishimura M, Toyoda M, Takenaka K, et al.
The combination of HLA-B*15:01 and DRB1*15:01 is associated with gemcitabine plus erlotinib-induced interstitial lung disease in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(6):1165-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: In a phase III study of gemcitabine plus erlotinib for advanced pancreatic cancer conducted in Canada, the incidence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) was 3.5 %. However, the incidence of ILD was reported as high as 8.5 % in a Japanese phase II study. These results suggest the influence of ethnic factors in the association of the use of gemcitabine plus erlotinib with the incidence of ILD. Here, we conducted a prospective study to analyze the relationship between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and ILD in Japanese patients with advanced pancreatic cancer receiving gemcitabine plus erlotinib.
METHODS: Patients were treated with gemcitabine (1000 mg/m(2); administered by intravenous infusion on days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks) and erlotinib (given orally at 100 mg/day). We compared the frequencies of HLA alleles in patients who did and did not develop ILD.
RESULTS: A total of 57 patients were treated, and 4 patients (7.0 %) developed ILD. The combination of HLA-B*15:01 and DRB1*15:01 was observed in 2 of 4 patients (50 %) with ILD and in only 1 of 53 patients without ILD (2 %) resulting in odds ratio of 52.0 (95 % CI 3.2-842.5; p = 0.011).
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the combination of HLA-B*15:01 and DRB1*15:01 is associated with ILD in Japanese patients with advanced pancreatic cancer receiving gemcitabine plus erlotinib.

Han ZD, Dong LN, Wang W, et al.
Identification of a novel HLA-B*54:34 allele by polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing in a Chinese leukemia patient.
HLA. 2016; 87(3):180-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
HLA-B*54:34 is different from HLA-A*54:01:01 by a single nucleotide substitution at position 343 G>A.

Morishima S, Kashiwase K, Matsuo K, et al.
High-risk HLA alleles for severe acute graft-versus-host disease and mortality in unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation.
Haematologica. 2016; 101(4):491-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
HLA molecules play an important role for immunoreactivity in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To elucidate the effect of specific HLA alleles on acute graft-versus-host disease, we conducted a retrospective analysis using 6967 Japanese patients transplanted with T-cell-replete marrow from an unrelated donor. Using unbiased searches of patient and donor HLA alleles, patient and/or donor HLA-B*51:01 (patient: HR, 1.37,P<0.001; donor: HR, 1.35,P<0.001) and patient HLA-C*14:02 (HR, 1.35,P<0.001) were significantly associated with an increased risk of severe acute graft-versus-host disease. The finding that donor HLA-C*14:02 was not associated with severe acute graft-versus-host disease prompted us to elucidate the relation of these high-risk HLA alleles with patient and donor HLA-C allele mismatches. In comparison to HLA-C allele match, patient mismatched HLA-C*14:02 showed the highest risk of severe acute graft-versus-host disease (HR, 3.61,P<0.001) and transplant-related mortality (HR, 2.53,P<0.001) among all patient mismatched HLA-C alleles. Although patient HLA-C*14:02 and donor HLA-C*15:02 mismatch was usually KIR2DL-ligand mismatch in the graft-versus-host direction, the risk of patient mismatched HLA-C*14:02 for severe acute graft-versus-host disease was obvious regardless of KIR2DL-ligand matching. The effect of patient and/or donor HLA-B*51:01 on acute graft-versus-host disease was attributed not only to strong linkage disequilibrium of HLA-C*14:02 and -B*51:01, but also to the effect of HLA-B*51:01 itself. With regard to clinical implications, patient mismatched HLA-C*14:02 proved to be a potent risk factor for severe acute graft-versus-host disease and mortality, and should be considered a non-permissive HLA-C mismatch in donor selection for unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Vineretsky KA, Karagas MR, Christensen BC, et al.
Skin Cancer Risk Is Modified by KIR/HLA Interactions That Influence the Activation of Natural Killer Immune Cells.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(2):370-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Natural killer (NK)-cell phenotype is partially mediated through binding of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) with HLA class I ligands. The KIR gene family is highly polymorphic and not well captured by standard genome-wide association study approaches. Here, we tested the hypothesis that variations in KIR gene content combined with HLA class I ligand status is associated with keratinocyte skin cancers using a population-based study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We conducted an interaction analysis of KIR gene content variation and HLA-B (Bw4 vs. Bw6) and HLA-C (C1 vs. C2). KIR centromeric B haplotype was associated with significant risk of multiple BCC tumors (OR, 2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.21), and there was a significant interaction between HLA-C and the activating gene KIR2DS3 for BCC (Pinteraction = 0.005). Furthermore, there was significant interaction between HLA-B and telomeric KIR B haplotype (containing the activating genes KIR3DS1 and KIR2DS1) as well as HLA-B and the activating KIR gene KIR2DS5 (Pinteraction 0.001 and 0.012, respectively). Similar but greatly attenuated associations were observed for SCC. Moreover, previous in vitro models demonstrated that p53 is required for upregulation of NK ligands, and accordingly, we observed there was a strong association between the KIR B haplotype and p53 alteration in BCC tumors, with a higher likelihood that KIR B carriers harbor abnormal p53 (P < 0.004). Taken together, our data suggest that functional interactions between KIR and HLA modify risks of BCC and SCC and that KIR encoded by the B genes provides selective pressure for altered p53 in BCC tumors.

Xu CF, Johnson T, Wang X, et al.
HLA-B*57:01 Confers Susceptibility to Pazopanib-Associated Liver Injury in Patients with Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(6):1371-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pazopanib is an effective treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma and soft-tissue sarcoma. Transaminase elevations have been commonly observed in pazopanib-treated patients. We conducted pharmacogenetic analyses to explore mechanistic insight into pazopanib-induced liver injury.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The discovery analysis tested association between four-digit HLA alleles and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation in pazopanib-treated patients with cancer from eight clinical trials (N = 1,188). We conducted confirmatory analysis using an independent dataset of pazopanib-treated patients from 23 additional trials (N = 1,002). Genome-wide association study (GWAS) for transaminase elevations was also conducted.
RESULTS: The discovery study identified an association between HLA-B*57:01 carriage and ALT elevation [P = 5.0 × 10(-5) for maximum on-treatment ALT (MaxALT); P = 4.8 × 10(-4) for time to ALT > 3× upper limit of normal (ULN) event; P = 4.1 × 10(-5) for time to ALT > 5× ULN event] that is significant after adjustment for number of HLA alleles tested. We confirmed these associations with time to ALT elevation event (P = 8.1 × 10(-4) for ALT > 3× ULN, P = 9.8 × 10(-3) for ALT > 5× ULN) in an independent dataset. In the combined data, HLA-B*57:01 carriage was associated with ALT elevation (P = 4.3 × 10(-5) for MaxALT, P = 5.1 × 10(-6) for time to ALT > 3×ULN event, P = 5.8 × 10(-6) for time to ALT > 5× ULN event). In HLA-B*57:01 carriers and noncarriers, frequency of ALT > 3× ULN was 31% and 19%, respectively, and frequency of ALT > 5× ULN was 18% and 10%, respectively. GWAS revealed a possible borderline association, which requires further evaluation.
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that HLA-B*57:01 carriage confers higher risk of ALT elevation in patients receiving pazopanib and provide novel insight implicating an immune-mediated mechanism for pazopanib-associated hepatotoxicity in some patients.

Galleze A, Raache R, Amroun H, et al.
HLA Polymorphism in Algerian Children With Lymphomas.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2015; 37(8):e458-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are the 2 types of lymphoma that represent the third most common childhood malignancy. Multiple etiological factors are involved in lymphoma pathogenesis, including viral infection, immune deficiencies, environmental agents, and genetic factors. Strong arguments supporting a genetic linkage between the susceptibility to lymphomas and human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are reported and give an idea about susceptibility or protection from the disease.
METHODS: Seventy-one cases were included in this study: 36 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 35 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. Their ages ranged from 4 to 18 years. The control group consisted of 70 unrelated healthy individuals, with a mean age of 5 to 17 years. The genotype of HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ alleles was typed by means of PCR sequence-specific priming.
RESULTS: HLA-B*18, HLA-DRB1*03, *07, and HLA-DQB1*02 were significantly increased in patients with lymphomas when compared with controls, whereas HLA-DRB1*13 and DQB1*03 were significantly decreased when compared with controls.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that HLA-B*18, DRB1*03, *07, and DQB1*02 may contribute to lymphoma susceptibility, whereas HLA-DRB1*13 and DQB1*03 may confer protection to lymphoma in the Algerian population.

Goedert JJ, Martin MP, Vitale F, et al.
Risk of Classic Kaposi Sarcoma With Combinations of Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor and Human Leukocyte Antigen Loci: A Population-Based Case-control Study.
J Infect Dis. 2016; 213(3):432-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a complication of KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. Other oncogenic viral infections and malignancies are associated with certain HLA alleles and their natural killer (NK) cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligands. We tested whether HLA-KIR influences the risk of KSHV infection or KS.
METHODS: In population-based case-control studies, we compared HLA class I and KIR gene frequencies in 250 classic (non-AIDS) KS cases, 280 KSHV-seropositive controls, and 576 KSHV-seronegative controls composing discovery and validation cohorts. Logistic regression was used to calculate sex- and age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals.
RESULTS: In both the discovery and validation cohorts, KS was associated with HLA-A*11:01 (adjusted OR for the combined cohorts, 0.4; P = .002) and HLA-C*07:01 (adjusted OR, 1.6; P = .002). Consistent associations across cohorts were also observed with activating KIR3DS1 plus HLA-B Bw4-80I and homozygosity for HLA-C group 1. With KIR3DS1 plus HLA-B Bw4-80I, the KSHV seroprevalence was 40% lower (adjusted OR for the combined cohorts, 0.6; P = .01), but the KS risk was 2-fold higher (adjusted OR, 2.1; P = .002). Similarly, the KSHV seroprevalence was 40% lower (adjusted OR, 0.6; P = .01) but the KS risk 80% higher with HLA-C group 1 homozygosity (adjusted OR, 1.8; P = .005).
CONCLUSIONS: KIR-mediated NK cell activation may decrease then risk of KSHV infection but enhance KSHV dissemination and progression to KS if infection occurs.

Frøsig TM
Elucidating the immunological effects of 5-azacytidine treatment in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and identifying new conditional ligands and T-cell epitopes of relevance in melanoma.
Dan Med J. 2015; 62(8):B5144 [PubMed] Related Publications
This review is focused on research within three different areas of tumor immunology: discovery of new T-cell epitopes and a new immunological antigen (reported in Paper I and II), elucidation of the immunological effects of treatment with a hypomethylating drug (reported in Paper III) and discovery of new conditional ligands (reported in Paper IV). Many melanoma-associated T-cell epitopes have been described, but 45% of these are restricted to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2, leaving the remaining 36 different HLA molecules with only a few described T-cell epitopes each. Therefore we wanted to expand the number of T-cell epitopes restricted to HLA-A1, -A3, -A11 and -B7, all HLA molecules frequently expressed in Caucasians in Western Europe and Northern America. In Paper I we focused on the proteins gp100, Mart1, MAGE-A3, NY-ESO-1, tyrosinase and TRP-2, all melanoma-associated antigens frequently recognized by T cells from HLA-A2 patients. On contrary, in Paper II we wanted to investigate the protein Nodal as a novel immunological target. We took advantage of a T-cell epitope mapping platform in which HLA ligands are predicted by computer-based algorithms, further tested in the laboratory by an ELISA-based method and used for flow cytometry-based detection of specific T-cell responses by use of combinatorial encoded major histocompatibility (MHC) class I multimers. This procedure resulted in 127 (Paper I) and 32 (Paper II) confirmed HLA ligands, respectively, which we used for screening of the T-cell recognition within peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from melanoma patients. As spontaneous tumor-specific T-cell responses tend to be of very low frequency and probably below the detection threshold of the method, we incorporated a T-cell enrichment step prior to the detection of these responses. Our screening of 39 melanoma patients resulted in 26 (17 different) T-cell responses against the common melanoma-associated antigens and 10 (8 different) T-cell responses against Nodal. We were further able to show processing and presentation on the cell-surface in K562 and melanoma cells expressing relevant protein and HLA molecules of four of these peptide sequences from tyrosinase, gp100 (2 peptides) and Nodal, respectively. However, one of the gp100 peptides has previously been described as a T-cell epitope. In addition to identifying new melanoma-associated T-cell epitopes we could thus describe Nodal as a new immunological antigen found of relevance in melanoma patients. In Paper III we wanted to investigate if the hypomethylating drug 5-azactytidine (Vidaza, Celgene Inc.) modulates the immune system in patients with myeloproliferative diseases. It has previ-ously been shown that 5-azacytidine-mediated demethylation of gene promoter regions results in enhanced transcription and expression of tumor suppressor genes and cancer-testis antigens. Cancer-testis antigens have frequently been recognized by T-cells in many cancers, and we hypothesized that 5-azacytidine treat-ment in the clinic would increase their frequency with resulting enhanced anti-tumor reactivity. We investigated separately the effect on T cells and tumor cells, and found that tumor cells af-fected by the treatment were better recognized, resulting in higher numbers of activated T cells, than tumor cells not exposed to 5-azacytidine. No effects were observed on the T-cell population. A screen of the T-cell recognition of 43 cancer-testis antigens in blood from our patients revealed increased T-cell recognition upon start of therapy which, though, stabilized or declined at later time points. We further investigated the general immune effector and inhibitory cell populations and found only minor effects of drug exposure, suggesting that 5-azacytidine primarily affects the tumor cells. From these results we are currently initiating a phase I clinical trial of cancer-testis antigen-peptide vaccination in combination with 5-azacytidine therapy for patients with myeloproliferative diseases. In Paper IV we wanted to expand the library of conditional ligands for use with the UV light-mediated peptide-exchange method. This method enables high-throughput generation of MHC class I molecules with different peptide-specificities. These MHC monomers can be multimerized and used for detection of specific T cell populations by flow or mass cytometry. The HLA molecules are highly genetically variable and this necessitates unique design of conditional ligands for each HLA molecule. Thus, to screen for the T-cell recognition in a given setting within all patients or healthy donors present in a cohort, a broad library of conditional ligands is needed. We designed and evaluated conditional ligands for HLA-B*08:01, HLA-B*35:01 and HLA-B*44:02/03/05, all HLA-B molecules present in high frequency among Caucasians. In addition, we provided proof for the use of a conditional ligand first designed for HLA-B*15:02 in complex with HLA-B*15:01. We compared the staining patterns of HLA-B*15:01 and HLA-B*15:02 MHC multimers and found remarkable dissimilarities, although the two heavy chains in these MHC molecules only differ in a few amino acid positions.

Patiroglu T, Akar HH
Relationships of Human Leukocyte Antigen-A, -B, -DRB1 Alleles, and Haplotypes in 129 Ethnic Turkish Patients With Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia.
Lab Med. 2015; 46(3):195-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequencies of HLA class I (A, B) and class II (DRB1) alleles in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and to compare them with the frequencies of those alleles in unrelated, healthy ethnic Turkish control subjects.
METHOD: We investigated the relationship of HLA alleles in 129 ethnic Turkish patients with AML and 126 unrelated, healthy, ethnic Turkish controls using the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP) method via Luminex technology.
RESULTS: Allele frequencies of HLA-A*23, HLA-A*68, HLA-B*13, HLA-B*40, and HLA-DRB1*01 were lower in patients with AML compared with control individuals (P =.04, P =.02, P =.005, P = 02, and P =.02, respectively). In contrast, the HLA-DRB1*15 allele frequency was higher than in the controls (P =.01). The most commonly observed haplotype was A*01/B*08/DRB1*03 (5.4% vs 0.8%; P =.03) in patients with AML. In contrast, the most commonly observed haplotype was A*02/B*35/DRB1*04 (2.3% vs 3.2%) in controls. We could not find any haplotypes negatively associated with AML. Also, the homozygosity of HLA-A*01 and HLA-A*02 alleles were higher in patients with AML compared with controls (P =.046; P =.001, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: The HLA-DRB1*15 allele, the A*01/B*08/DRB1*03 haplotypes, and the homozygosity of HLA-A*01 and HLA-A*02 may play a presumptive predisposing factor in AML. Also, the HLA-A*23, HLA-A*68, HLA-B*13, HLA-B*40, and HLA-DRB1*01 alleles have been found to be negatively associated with AML.

McAulay KA, Jarrett RF
Human leukocyte antigens and genetic susceptibility to lymphoma.
Tissue Antigens. 2015; 86(2):98-113 [PubMed] Related Publications
Familial aggregation, coupled with ethnic variation in incidence, suggests that inherited susceptibility plays a role in the development of lymphoma, and the search for genetic risk factors has highlighted the contribution of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. In a landmark study published almost 50 years ago, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) was the first disease to be associated with HLA variation. It is now clear that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive and -negative HL are strongly associated with specific HLA polymorphisms but these differ by EBV status of the tumours. HLA class I alleles are consistently associated with EBV-positive HL while a polymorphism in HLA class II is the strongest predictor of risk of EBV-negative HL. Recent investigations, particularly genome-wide association studies (GWAS), have also revealed associations between HLA and common types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Follicular lymphoma is strongly associated with two distinct haplotypes in HLA class II whereas diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is most strongly associated with HLA-B*08. Although chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is associated with variation in HLA class II, the strongest signals in GWAS are from non-HLA polymorphisms, suggesting that inherited susceptibility is explained by co-inheritance of multiple low risk variants. Associations between B-cell derived lymphoma and HLA variation suggest that antigen presentation, or lack of, plays an important role in disease pathogenesis but the precise mechanisms have yet to be elucidated.

Beksac K, Beksac M, Dalva K, et al.
Impact of "Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor /Ligand" Genotypes on Outcome following Surgery among Patients with Colorectal Cancer: Activating KIRs Are Associated with Long-Term Disease Free Survival.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0132526 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Approximately 30% of patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer develop recurrence following surgery. How individual regulation of host mediated anti-tumor cytotoxicity is modified by the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIRs) genotype is essential for prediction of outcome. We analyzed the frequency of KIR and KIR ligand Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I genotypes, and their effects on recurrence and disease-free survival (DFS). Out of randomly selected 87 colorectal cancer patients who underwent R0 resection operations between 2005 and 2008, 29 patients whose cancers progressed within a median five-year follow-up period were compared with 58 patients with no recurrence within the same time period. Recurrent cases shared similar tumor stages with non-recurrent cases, but had different localizations. We used DNA isolated from pathological archival lymphoid and tumor tissues for KIR and KIR ligand (HLA-C, group C1, group C2, and HLA-A-Bw4) genotyping. Among cases with recurrence, KIR2DL1 (inhibitory KIR) and A-Bw4 (ligand for inhibitory KIR3DL1) were observed more frequently (p=0.017 and p=0.024); and KIR2DS2 and KIR2DS3 (both activating KIRs) were observed less frequently (p=0.005 and p=0.043). Similarly, in the non-recurrent group, inhibitory KIR-ligand combinations 2DL1-C2 and 2DL3-C1 were less frequent, while the activating combination 2DS2-C1 was more frequent. The lack of KIR2DL1, 2DL1-C2, and 2DL3-C1 improved disease-free survival (DFS) (100% vs. 62.3%, p=0.05; 93.8% vs. 60.0%, p=0.035; 73.6% vs. 55.9%, p=0.07). The presence of KIR2DS2, 2DS3, and 2DS2-C1 improved DFS (77.8% vs. 48.5%, p=0.01; 79.4% vs. 58.5%, p=0.003; 76.9% vs. 51.4%, p=0.023). KIR2DS3 reduced the risk of recurrence (HR=0.263, 95% CI = 0.080-0.863, p=0.028). The number of activating KIRs are correlated strongly with DFS, none/ one/ two KIR : 54/77/98 months (p=0.004). In conclusion the inheritance of increasing numbers of activating KIRs and lack of inhibitory KIRs, independent of tumor localization or stage, is associated with long-term DFS.

Srivastava RM, Trivedi S, Concha-Benavente F, et al.
STAT1-Induced HLA Class I Upregulation Enhances Immunogenicity and Clinical Response to Anti-EGFR mAb Cetuximab Therapy in HNC Patients.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2015; 3(8):936-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The goal of this study was to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying cetuximab-mediated upregulation of HLA class I antigen-processing machinery components in head and neck cancer (HNC) cells and to determine the clinical significance of these changes in cetuximab-treated HNC patients. Flow cytometry, signaling studies, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed using HNC cells treated with cetuximab alone or with Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-bearing lymphocytes to establish the mechanism of EGFR-dependent regulation of HLA APM expression. A prospective phase II clinical trial of neoadjuvant cetuximab was used to correlate HLA class I expression with clinical response in HNC patients. EGFR blockade triggered STAT1 activation and HLA upregulation, in a src homology-containing protein (SHP)-2-dependent fashion, more prominently in HLA-B/C than in HLA-A alleles. EGFR signaling blockade also enhanced IFNγ receptor 1 (IFNAR) expression, augmenting induction of HLA class I and TAP1/2 expression by IFNγ, which was abrogated in STAT1(-/-) cells. Cetuximab enhanced HNC cell recognition by EGFR853-861-specific CTLs, and notably enhanced surface presentation of a non-EGFR peptide (MAGE-3271-279). HLA class I upregulation was significantly associated with clinical response in cetuximab-treated HNC patients. EGFR induces HLA downregulation through SHP-2/STAT1 suppression. Reversal of HLA class I downregulation was more prominent in clinical responders to cetuximab therapy, supporting an important role for adaptive immunity in cetuximab antitumor activity. Abrogating EGFR-induced immune escape mechanisms and restoring STAT1 signaling to reverse HLA downregulation using cetuximab should be combined with strategies to enhance adaptive cellular immunity.

Park BG, Park Y, Yoon CE, et al.
A new HLA-B*15 allele, HLA-B*15:263, identified in a Korean individual.
Tissue Antigens. 2015; 86(1):58-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
HLA-B*15:263 differs from HLA-B*15:18:01 by a single nucleotide exchange at position 824, C>G (codon 251 TCT>TGT).

Li X, Zou H, Li M, Chen Q
A novel null HLA allele, HLA-DRB1*15:115N, identified in a Chinese family.
Tissue Antigens. 2015; 86(1):69-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
The novel allele HLA-DRB1*15:115N differs from HLA-B*15:80N by a nucleotide substitution at position 227 T > A.

Wang L, Wei B, Hu G, et al.
Screening of differentially expressed genes associated with human glioblastoma and functional analysis using a DNA microarray.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(2):1991-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant type of human glioma, and has a poor prognosis. Screening differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in brain tumor samples and normal brain samples is of importance for identifying GBM and to design specific-targeting drugs. The transcriptional profile of GSE30563, containing three genechips of brain tumor samples and three genechips of normal brain samples, was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus to identify the DEGs. The differences in the expression of the DEGs in the two different samples were compared through hierarchical biclustering. The co-expression coefficient of the DEGs was calculated using the information from COXPRESdb, the network of the DEGs was constructed and functional enrichment and pathway analysis were performed. Finally, the transcription factors of important DEGs were predicted. A total of 1,006 DEGs, including 368 upregulated and 638 downregulated DEGs, were identified. A close correlation was demonstrated between six important genes, associated with immune response, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DPA1, HLA-B, HLA-DMA and HLA-DRA, and the immune response. Allograft rejection was selected as the most significant pathway. A total of 17 transcription factors, including nuclear factor (NF)-κB and NF-κB1, and their binding sites containing these six DEGs, were also identified. The DEGs, including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, DQβ1, MHC class II, DRβ1, MHC class IB, MHC class II, DMα, MHC class II, DPα1, MHC class II, DRα, may provide novel targets for the diagnosis and treatment of GBM. The transcription factors of these six genes and their binding sites may also provide evidence and direction for identifying target-specific drugs.

Campillo JA, López-Hernández R, Martínez-Banaclocha H, et al.
MHC class I chain-related gene a diversity in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma from southeastern Spain.
Dis Markers. 2015; 2015:831864 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A limited number of studies have been performed so far on the polymorphism in the transmembrane region (exon 5) of the major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) in patients with melanoma. However, the influence of MICA polymorphism in extracellular domains (exons 2, 3, and 4) has not been investigated on melanoma disease. This study aims to characterize the influence of extracellular MICA polymorphism, and its previously described linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B locus, on patients with cutaneous melanoma from southeastern Spain. For this purpose, MICA and HLA-B genotyping was performed in 233 patients and 200 ethnically matched controls by luminex technology. Patients were classified according to the presence of methionine or valine at codon 129 of MICA gene. We found a high frequency of MICA(*)009 in melanoma patients compared with controls (P = 0.002, Pc = 0.03). Our results also showed an association between MICA(*)009 and HLA-B(*)51 alleles in both patients and controls. This association was stronger in patients than controls (P = 0.015). However, a multivariate logistic regression model showed that neither MICA(*)009 nor the combination MICA(*)009/HLA-B(*)51 was associated with melanoma susceptibility. No relationship was observed between MICA-129 dimorphism and melanoma nor when MICA polymorphism was evaluated according to clinical findings at diagnosis.

Brazzelli V, Rivetti N, Badulli C, et al.
Mycosis fungoides: association of KIR ligands and HLA-DQB1*05 with bad prognosis of the disease.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2016; 30(2):266-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. We previously reported that the prognosis of MF patients is not only related on clinical variables but it is also associated with peculiar HLA alleles. Until today, the association of HLA ligands for KIR with the prognosis of the disease has not yet been analysed.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the frequency of HLA ligands for killer cell Immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) in MF patients, evaluating if the presence of particular HLA alleles that are ligands for KIR may have prognostic value.
METHODS: The study includes 46 Caucasian MF patients that, between 1993 and 1997, underwent HLA genomic typing. All patients were diagnosed and followed up from 1977 to 2012 (mean follow-up of 11 years).
RESULTS: MF patients have been divided into two groups (long survivors and dead patients). We noticed that the HLA-Bw6/Bw6 specificity increased among the group of seven dead patients compared to the group of 39 long survivors (71.4% vs. 41.0%, P = ns, OR = 3.59), while in the long survivors group the HLA- Bw4/Bw4 specificity increased when compared to dead patients (23.0% vs. 0%, P = ns). Moreover, we observed that six of the seven dead patients had HLA-DQB1*05; the phenotypic frequency of this HLA allele, in dead and long survivors patients, was 85.7% and 23.0% respectively (P = 0.004; OR = 20).
CONCLUSION: Our observations suggest that the presence of the HLA-DQB1*05 alleles characterizes the patients with the poorest prognosis in MF. In addition, absence of the KIR-ligand epitope HLA-B Bw4 showed a trend of being more prominent in MF patients with the poorest prognosis.

Johnson PC, McAulay KA, Montgomery D, et al.
Modeling HLA associations with EBV-positive and -negative Hodgkin lymphoma suggests distinct mechanisms in disease pathogenesis.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 137(5):1066-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
HLA genotyping and genome wide association studies provide strong evidence for associations between Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Analysis of these associations is complicated by the extensive linkage disequilibrium within the major histocompatibility region and recent data suggesting that associations with EBV-positive and EBV-negative cHL are largely distinct. To distinguish independent and therefore potentially causal associations from associations confounded by linkage disequilibrium, we applied a variable selection regression modeling procedure to directly typed HLA class I and II genes and selected SNPs from EBV-stratified patient subgroups. In final models, HLA-A*01:01 and B*37:01 were associated with an increased risk of EBV-positive cHL whereas DRB1*15:01 and DPB1*01:01 were associated with decreased risk. Effects were independent of a prior history of infectious mononucleosis. For EBV-negative cHL the class II SNP rs6903608 remained the strongest predictor of disease risk after adjusting for the effects of common HLA alleles. Associations with "all cHL" and differences by case EBV status reflected the subgroup analysis. In conclusion, this study extends previous findings by identifying novel HLA associations with EBV-stratified subgroups of cHL, highlighting those alleles likely to be biologically relevant and strengthening evidence implicating genetic variation associated with the SNP rs6903608.

Pritchard AL, Hastie ML, Neller M, et al.
Exploration of peptides bound to MHC class I molecules in melanoma.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2015; 28(3):281-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Advancements in high-resolution HPLC and mass spectrometry have reinvigorated the application of this technology to identify peptides eluted from immunopurified MHC class I molecules. Three melanoma cell lines were assessed using w6/32 isolation, peptide elution and HPLC purification; peptides were identified by mass spectrometry. A total of 13,829 peptides were identified; 83-87% of these were 8-11 mers. Only approximately 15% have been described before. Subcellular locations of the source proteins showed even sampling; mRNA expression and total protein length were predictive of the number of peptides detected from a single protein. HLA-type binding prediction for 10,078 9/10 mer peptides assigned 88-95% to a patient-specific HLA subtype, revealing a disparity in strength of predicted binding. HLA-B*27-specific isolation successfully identified some peptides not found using w6/32. Sixty peptides were selected for immune screening, based on source protein and predicted HLA binding; no new peptides recognized by antimelanoma T cells were discovered. Additionally, mass spectrometry was unable to identify several epitopes targeted ex vivo by one patient's T cells.

Tao S, He Y, Zhang W, et al.
Comparison of the KIR3DS1/Bw4 distribution in Chinese healthy and acute myeloid leukemia individuals.
Hum Immunol. 2015; 76(2-3):79-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor (KIR) 3DS1 is one of the most important activating receptors and some studies revealed that KIR3DS1 combined with HLA ligand was not related to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but rare data was reported in Chinese population. In this study, KIR3DS1 gene polymorphisms and HLA-Bw4 were investigated in 189 Chinese AML patients compared with 166 healthy individuals. The results showed that the distributions of KIR3DS1, Bw4, 3DS1/Bw4 and 3DS1/Bw4-80I were insignificantly different between AML and healthy individuals. This study suggests that the presence of 3DS1 and HLA-Bw4 ligands have no effect on AML disease.

Vijai J, Wang Z, Berndt SI, et al.
A genome-wide association study of marginal zone lymphoma shows association to the HLA region.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:5751 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is the third most common subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Here we perform a two-stage GWAS of 1,281 MZL cases and 7,127 controls of European ancestry and identify two independent loci near BTNL2 (rs9461741, P=3.95 × 10(-15)) and HLA-B (rs2922994, P=2.43 × 10(-9)) in the HLA region significantly associated with MZL risk. This is the first evidence that genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex influences MZL susceptibility.

Sheyhidin I, Hasim A, Zheng F, Ma H
Epigenetic changes within the promoter regions of antigen processing machinery family genes in Kazakh primary esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(23):10299-306 [PubMed] Related Publications
The esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is thought to develop through a multi-stage process. Epigenetic gene silencing constitutes an alternative or complementary mechanism to mutational events in tumorigenesis. Posttranscriptional regulation of human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) and antigen processing machinery (APM) proteins expression may be associated with novel epigenetic modifications in cancer development. In the present study, we determined the expression levels of HLA-I antigen and APM components by immunohistochemistry. Then by a bisulfite-sequencing PCR (BSP) approach, we identified target CpG islands methylated at the gene promoter region of APM family genes in a ESCC cell line (ECa109), and further quantitative analysis of CpG site specific methylation of these genes in cases of Kazakh primary ESCCs with corresponding non-cancerous esophageal tissues using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Here we showed that the development of ESCCs was accompanied by partial or total loss of protein expression of HLA-B, TAP2, LMP7, tapasin and ERp57. The results demonstrated that although no statistical significance was found of global target CpG fragment methylation level sof HLA-B, TAP2, tapasin and ERp57 genes between ESCC and corresponding non-cancerous esophageal tissues, there was significant differences in the methylation level of several single sites between the two groups. Of thesse only the global methylation level of LMP7 gene target fragments was statistically higher (0.0517±0.0357) in Kazakh esophageal cancer than in neighboring normal tissues (0.0380±0.0214, p<0.05). Our results suggest that multiple CpG sites, but not methylation of every site leads to down regulation or deletion of gene expression. Only some of them result in genetic transcription, and silencing of HLA-B, ERp57, and LMP7 expression through hypermethylation of the promoters or other mechanisms may contribute to mechanisms of tumor escape from immune surveillance in Kazakh esophageal carcinogenesis.

Sayad A, Akbari MT, Mehdizadeh M, et al.
HLA-A*26 and susceptility of iranian patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Iran J Immunol. 2014; 11(4):269-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) includes a wide range of diseases with different clinical and biological features. NHL is usually presented as localized or generalized lymphadenopathy. It has been suggested that the HLA class I and II are associated with susceptibility to NHL. Different ethnic groups have been found to have different HLA class I and II alleles which affect NHL.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of HLA class I and class II with Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Iranian patients.
METHODS: We performed a case-control genotyping study on 75 Iranian NHL patients who were selected from among the patients referred to the Bone Marrow Transplantation Department of Taleghani Hospital and 120 apparently healthy control subjects using the SSP-PCR by a commercial kit.
RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that the HLA-A*26 (p: 0.026; OR: 8.5) and HLA-B*35 (p: 0.022; OR: 0.375) alleles had positive and negative associations with NHL disease, respectively. HLA-DRB1*13 allele showed decrease of frequency in patients in comparison with the controls, but it did not remain significant after correction.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results conclude that HLA-A*26 may represent as a genetic susceptibility factors in Iranian patients with Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a finding which generally supports contribution of genetic factors in the etiology of this disorder. In addition, these results may be useful in designing a peptide based vaccine for the Iranian NHL patients with HLA-A*26.

Morishima Y, Kashiwase K, Matsuo K, et al.
Biological significance of HLA locus matching in unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation.
Blood. 2015; 125(7):1189-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We hypothesized that the compatibility of each HLA loci between donor and patient induced divergent transplant-related immunologic responses, which attributed to the individualized manifestation of clinical outcomes. Here, we analyzed 7898 Japanese pairs transplanted with T-cell-replete marrow from an unrelated donor with complete HLA allele typing data. Multivariable competing risk regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relative risk (RR) of clinical outcomes after transplantation. A significant RR of HLA allele mismatch compared with match was seen with HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DPB1 for grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and HLA-C for chronic GVHD. Of note, only HLA-C and HLA-DPB1 mismatch reduced leukemia relapse, and this graft-versus-leukemia effect of HLA-DPB1 was independent of chronic GVHD. HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 double (DRB1_DQB1) mismatch was revealed to be a significant RR for acute GVHD and mortality, whereas single mismatch was not. Thus, the number of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPB1, and DRB1_DQB1 mismatches showed a clear-cut risk difference for acute GVHD, whereas the number of mismatches for HLA-A, -B, -C, and DRB1_DQB1 showed the same for mortality. In conclusion, we determined the biological response to HLA locus mismatch in transplant-related immunologic events, and provide a rationale for use of a personalized algorithm for unrelated donor selection.

Djajadiningrat RS, Horenblas S, Heideman DA, et al.
Classic and nonclassic HLA class I expression in penile cancer and relation to HPV status and clinical outcome.
J Urol. 2015; 193(4):1245-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Loss of expression of HLA class I is a mechanism of immune evasion in various cancers that is often associated with a worse patient outcome. We analyzed HLA expression in a large cohort with penile cancer in relation to clinical outcome.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used penile cancer tissue blocks from 168 patients who underwent surgical resection between 2000 and 2009 to construct tissue microarrays. Immunohistochemical staining was done with antibodies directed against classic and nonclassic HLA molecules. HLA expression was scored semiquantitatively, divided into 3 expression groups and correlated with clinicopathological variables, including HPV and survival. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models.
RESULTS: Complete and partial loss of total classic HLA class I was observed in 32% and 50% of cases, and up-regulation of HLA-E and G in 16% and 13%, respectively. When corrected for relevant clinical parameters, partial HLA-A loss was significantly associated with decreased survival overall (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.6) and in HPV negative patients alone (HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-8.4). Abnormal HLA-B/C, E or G expression levels were not associated with survival.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first study to describe a link between HLA expression and the clinical outcome of penile cancer. HLA down-regulation occurs frequently and partial loss of HLA-A is an independent predictor of poor survival in HPV negative patients. Complete understanding of the mechanisms and relevance of HLA down-regulation and immune evasion in regard to the clinical outcome will contribute to the future design of immunotherapy interventions.

Jahn L, Hombrink P, Hassan C, et al.
Therapeutic targeting of the BCR-associated protein CD79b in a TCR-based approach is hampered by aberrant expression of CD79b.
Blood. 2015; 125(6):949-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Immunotherapy of B-cell malignancies using CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells or CD20-targeted therapeutic monoclonal antibodies has shown clinical efficacy. However, refractory disease and the emergence of antigen-loss tumor escape variants after treatment demonstrate the need to target additional antigens. Here we aimed to target the B-cell receptor-associated protein CD79b by a T-cell receptor (TCR)-based approach. Because thymic selection depletes high-avidity T cells recognizing CD79b-derived peptides presented in self-HLA molecules, we aimed to isolate T cells recognizing these peptides presented in allogeneic HLA. Peptide-HLA tetramers composed of CD79b peptides bound to either HLA-A2 or HLA-B7 were used to isolate T-cell clones from HLA-A*0201 and B*0702-negative individuals. For 3 distinct T-cell clones, CD79b specificity was confirmed through CD79b gene transduction and CD79b-specific shRNA knockdown. The CD79b-specific T-cell clones were highly reactive against CD79b-expressing primary B-cell malignancies, whereas no recognition of nonhematopoietic cells was observed. Although lacking CD79b-cell surface expression, intermediate reactivity toward monocytes, hematopoietic progenitor cells, and T-cells was observed. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed low CD79b gene expression in these cell types. Therefore, aberrant gene expression must be taken into consideration when selecting common, apparently lineage-specific self-antigens as targets for TCR-based immunotherapies.

Liu D, Zhao ZG, Jiao ZL, Li HJ
Identifying differential expression genes and single nucleotide variations using RNA-seq in metastatic melanoma.
Genet Mol Res. 2014; 13(4):8153-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma is a malignant tumor and one of the most frequent metastatic cancers. This study was conducted to identify differential expression genes (DEGs) and single nucleotide variations (SNVs) in metastatic melanoma. We analyzed microarray data of GSE23056 downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus, including two normal samples (skinN1 and skinN2) and 2 metastatic melanoma samples (skinT and lymphT). We not only compared DEGs in metastatic melanoma samples with normal samples (lymphT_skinN and skinT_skinN), but also compared DEGs between two metastatic melanoma types (lymphT_skinT). SNVs were identified by using Burrows-Wheeler Aligner and Cufflinks in metastatic melanoma samples using RNA-seq. Sequence Alignment/Map tools and the ANNOVAR software were used to analyze and annotate SNVs. We identified 18 significantly common DEGs in lymphT_skinN and skinT_skinN and one common gene, YBX1, in lymphT_skinN, skinT_skinN, and lymphT_skinT. We identified 49,534, 48,118, 63,812, and 33,096 SNVs in skinN1, skinN2, skinT, and lymphT, respectively. Twenty-nine SNVs were located in exonic regions of two DEGs, HLA-B and TSPAN10. SNVs that exist only in tumors were located in MARVELD1, SLC16A3, and VAV3. The DEGs screened in our study are potential biomarkers for metastatic melanoma therapy.

Yoon J
Acute myeloid leukemia is a disease associated with HLA-C3.
Acta Haematol. 2015; 133(2):164-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We aimed to observe human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations with human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a large population, in order to investigate the roles of HLA in leukemogenesis. Furthermore, we examined the HLA association according to morphological, cytogenetic, immunological, and clinical classifications.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed HLA genotyping, bone marrow studies, cytogenetic analyses, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses. A clinical outcome database was constructed, and the HLA frequency, gene frequency, relative risk (RR), linkage disequilibrium, and the 2-locus and 3-locus haplotype frequency using the Mattiuz formula were calculated. For the healthy controls, Korean HLA data published by Park and co-workers were used.
RESULTS: AML was found to be associated with HLA-C3 (RR = 1.46; p < 0.001). In the French-American-British (FAB) classification, acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4) was associated with HLA-C3 (47.2 vs. 74.1%; RR = 3.13; p = 0.005), in cytogenetic classification, del(9), which is frequently observed in AML-M4, was also associated with HLA-C3 (47.2 vs. 100%; RR = 13.43; p = 0.024), and in clinical classification, incomplete remission was associated with HLA-C3 as well (47.2 vs. 63.2%; RR = 1.92; p = 0.002). No correlations between AML and immunological classifications were observed. Moreover, and in terms of 2-locus haplotypes, AML was found to be associated with HLA-C3/B62 (HLA-C3 gene frequency 0.3415; HLA-B62 gene frequency 0.1361; linkage disequilibrium 0.0136; haplotype frequency 4.15 vs. 6.0%; p < 0.05). In clinical classification, incomplete remission (linkage disequilibrium 0.0136; haplotype frequency 4.15 vs. 13.6%; p = 0.013) and relapse (linkage disequilibrium 0.0136; haplotype frequency 4.15 vs. 71.0%; p = 0.044) were associated with HLA-C3/B62, whereas no association was observed for FAB, cytogenetic and immunological classifications. No association was observed for the 3-locus haplotype.
CONCLUSION: The HLA-C3 antigen and the 2-locus haplotype are associated with AML.

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