Home > Treatments > Biological Therapies > Cancer Growth Inhibitors > Temsirolimus (Torisel)

Found this page useful?

Temsirolimus (Torisel)

Web Resources: Temsirolimus (Torisel)
Latest Research Publications: Temsirolimus (Torisel)

Web Resources: Temsirolimus (Torisel) (6 links)

Latest Research Publications: Temsirolimus (Torisel)

Afriansyah A, Hamid AR, Mochtar CA, Umbas R
Targeted Therapy for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Acta Med Indones. 2016; 48(4):335-347 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the past 10 years, recent development of targeted therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has provided a new hope and significantly enhanced the prognosis of the disease. Three class of targeted therapy were developed, including multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex-1 kinase inhibitors, and the humanized antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibody. Hence, the objective of this article was to critically examine the current evidence of targeted therapy treatment for patients with mRCC. In the majority of trials evaluating targeted therapy, patients were stratified according to Memorial Sloan Kattering Cancer Center (MSKCC) risk model and the recommendation of targeted treatment based on risk features. In first-line setting (no previous treatment), sunitinib, pazopanib, or bevacizumab plus IFN-α were recommended as treatment options for patient with favorable- or intermediate- risk features and clear cell histology. Patients who progressed after previous cytokine therapy would have sorafenib or axitinib as treatment options. Clear-cell mRCC with favorable- or intermediate- risk features and failure with first-line TKI therapy might be treated with sorafenib, everolimus, temsirolimus or axitinib. However, the current evidence did not show the best treatment sequencing after first-line TKI failure. In patients with poor-risk clear-cell and non-clear cell mRCC, temsirolimus was the treatment option supported by phase III clinical trial. In addition, several new drugs, nowadays, are still being investigated and waiting for the result of phase II or III clinical trial, and this might change the standard therapy for mRCC in the future.

Dos Santos M, Brachet PE, Chevreau C, Joly F
Impact of targeted therapies in metastatic renal cell carcinoma on patient-reported outcomes: Methodology of clinical trials and clinical benefit.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2017; 53:53-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Molecular targeted therapies have improved progression-free survival (PFS) without translating systematically into overall survival (OS) for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). In this population, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) have become a significant outcome. We evaluated the methodological quality of the assessment of PROs in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the clinical benefit of the different treatments including survival and quality of life (QoL).
METHODS: A systematic review identified RCTs published between January 2005 and July 2014. They were evaluated according to 11 items derived from the 2013 CONSORT PROs reporting guidelines. Survival outcomes and PROs main results were analyzed and the magnitude of clinical benefit was assessed with the European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS).
RESULTS: 12 RCTs were included with a total of 22 publications. The mean CONSORT score for all items was 4.5 on an 11-point scale. No publication reported the power of the PROs analysis and only one reported a PRO hypothesis. 50% of studies did not interpret PROs in relation to clinical outcomes and only 18% discussed specific limitations of PROs and their implications for generalizability. By adding the QoL criterion to PFS, 4 trials (36.4%) obtained a high level of proven clinical benefit according to the ESMO-MCBS.
CONCLUSION: The methodology for assessing PROs in mRCC is not optimal. Efforts should focus on defining PROs endpoint and increasing the quality of reporting of QoL. New-generation therapies in mRCC should demonstrate a gain not only in survival but also in QoL to be included in the therapeutic arsenal.

Kassem L, Abdel-Rahman O
Targeting mTOR pathway in gynecological malignancies: Biological rationale and systematic review of published data.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016; 108:1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: mTOR inhibitors are widely used in different malignancies with several trials testing their efficacy and safety in gynecological malignancies. We aimed to review the current evidence that support the expansion of using such drugs in the treatment of advanced gynecological cancers.
METHODS: A comprehensive systematic review of literature has been conducted to include prospective trials that used everolimus, temsirolimus or ridaforolimus in the management of gynecological cancers and have available efficacy and toxicity results.
RESULTS: A total of 23 studies including 980 patients were considered eligible for our review. Our review included 16 phase II and 7 phase I studies with the majority of patients having uterine cancers. Regarding Endometrial cancer, the CBR ranged from 21% to 60% and median PFS from 2.8 months to 7.3 months. In Ovarian cancers, CBR ranged from 24% to 50% and median PFS from 3.2 months to 5.9 months. In the single phase II study in cervical cancer the CBR was 61% and median PFS was 3.5 months. The toxicity profile was consistent with what was observed previously in other malignancies with fatigue, mucositis, and hematological toxicities being the most common adverse events observed.
CONCLUSION: mTOR inhibitors seem to be a promising option in the second line management of advanced gynecological cancers with best safety and efficacy outcomes when given as a single agent or in combination with hormonal treatment. More research is needed for better patient selection.

Starbuck KD, Drake RD, Budd GT, Rose PG
Treatment of Advanced Malignant Uterine Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Tumor with mTOR Inhibitors: Single-institution Experience and Review of the Literature.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(11):6161-6164 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uterine perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are rare mesenchymal tumors. Many have malignant behavior, and no successful treatment strategy has been established. Identification of mutations in the tuberous sclerosis 1 (TSC1) and TSC2 genes producing constitutive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway presents an opportunity for targeted therapy. Patients with advanced malignant uterine PEComa treated with mTOR inhibitors were identified and records were retrospectively reviewed for treatment response based on radiographic assessment. Three patients with advanced uterine PEComas underwent debulking surgery followed by mTOR inhibitor therapy; two had a complete response to therapy and disease in one patient progressed.
CONCLUSION: Given the absence of effective therapies for malignant uterine PEComas, targeting the mTOR pathway is a logical strategy to pursue given the known pathobiology involving the Tuberous Sclerosis complex. Treatment of malignant uterine PEComas with mTOR inhibitors was effective in two out of three patients after surgical resection, with durable response.

Garcia CA, Wu S
Attributable Risk of Infection to mTOR Inhibitors Everolimus and Temsirolimus in the Treatment of Cancer.
Cancer Invest. 2016; 34(10):521-530 [PubMed] Related Publications
The risk of infection attributable to mTOR inhibitors has not been determined. Databases from PubMed and abstracts presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology meetings were searched. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials, in which everolimus or temsirolimus was compared with placebo. A total of 12 trials were included. The attributable incidences of all-grade and high-grade infections to mTOR inhibitors were 9.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.8-14.6%) and 2.3% (95% CI: 1.2-4.4%) respectively. The risk varied widely with tumor types (p <.001). There was substantial risk of infection attributable to mTOR inhibitors everolimus and temsirolimus.

Pinto-Leite R, Arantes-Rodrigues R, Sousa N, et al.
mTOR inhibitors in urinary bladder cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):11541-11551 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the great scientific advances that have been made in cancer treatment, there is still much to do, particularly with regard to urinary bladder cancer. Some of the drugs used in urinary bladder cancer treatment have been in use for more than 30 years and show reduced effectiveness and high recurrence rates. There have been several attempts to find new and more effective drugs, to be used alone or in combination with the drugs already in use, in order to overcome this situation.The biologically important mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is altered in cancer and mTOR inhibitors have raised many expectations as potentially important anticancer drugs. In this article, the authors will review the mTOR pathway and present their experiences of the use of some mTOR inhibitors, sirolimus, everolimus and temsirolimus, in isolation and in conjunction with non-mTOR inhibitors cisplatin and gemcitabine, on urinary bladder tumour cell lines. The non-muscle-invasive cell line, 5637, is the only one that exhibits a small alteration in the mTOR and AKT phosphorylation after rapalogs exposure. Also, there was a small inhibition of cell proliferation. With gemcitabine plus everolimus or temsirolimus, the results were encouraging as a more effective response was noticed with both combinations, especially in the 5637 and T24 cell lines. Cisplatin associated with everolimus or temsirolimus also gave promising results, as an antiproliferative effect was observed when the drugs were associated, in particular on the 5637 and HT1376 cell lines. Everolimus or temsirolimus in conjunction with gemcitabine or cisplatin could have an important role to play in urinary bladder cancer treatment, depending on the tumour grading.

Calvo E, Schmidinger M, Heng DY, et al.
Improvement in survival end points of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma through sequential targeted therapy.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2016; 50:109-117 [PubMed] Related Publications
Survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has improved since the advent of targeted therapy. Approved agents include the multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) sunitinib, sorafenib, axitinib, pazopanib, cabozantinib, and lenvatinib (approved in combination with everolimus), the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors everolimus and temsirolimus, and the programmed death-1 (PD-1) targeted immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab. The identification of predictive and prognostic factors of survival is increasing, and both clinical predictive factors and pathology-related prognostic factors are being evaluated. Serum-based biomarkers and certain histologic subtypes of RCC, as well as clinical factors such as dose intensity and the development of some class effect adverse events, have been identified as predictors of survival. Expression levels of microRNAs, expression of chemokine receptor 4, hypermethylation of certain genes, VEGF polymorphisms, and elevation of plasma fibrinogen or d-dimer have been shown to be prognostic indicators of survival. In the future, prognosis and treatment of patients with mRCC might be based on genomic classification, especially of the 4 most commonly mutated genes in RCC (VHL, PBRM1, BAP1, and SETD2). Median overall survival has improved for patients treated with a first-line targeted agent compared with survival of patients treated with first-line interferon-α, and results of clinical trials have shown a survival benefit of sequential treatment with targeted agents. Prognosis of patients with mRCC will likely improve with optimization and individualization of current sequential treatment with targeted agents.

Pompas-Veganzones N, Sandonis V, Perez-Lanzac A, et al.
Myopodin methylation is a prognostic biomarker and predicts antiangiogenic response in advanced kidney cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):14301-14310 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myopodin is a cytoskeleton protein that shuttles to the nucleus depending on the cellular differentiation and stress. It has shown tumor suppressor functions. Myopodin methylation status was useful for staging bladder and colon tumors and predicting clinical outcome. To our knowledge, myopodin has not been tested in kidney cancer to date. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether myopodin methylation status could be clinically useful in renal cancer (1) as a prognostic biomarker and 2) as a predictive factor of response to antiangiogenic therapy in patients with metastatic disease. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reactions (MS-PCR) were used to evaluate myopodin methylation in 88 kidney tumors. These belonged to patients with localized disease and no evidence of disease during follow-up (n = 25) (group 1), and 63 patients under antiangiogenic therapy (sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, and temsirolimus), from which group 2 had non-metastatic disease at diagnosis (n = 32), and group 3 showed metastatic disease at diagnosis (n = 31). Univariate and multivariate Cox analyses were utilized to assess outcome and response to antiangiogenic agents taking progression, disease-specific survival, and overall survival as clinical endpoints. Myopodin was methylated in 50 out of the 88 kidney tumors (56.8 %). Among the 88 cases analyzed, 10 of them recurred (11.4 %), 51 progressed (57.9 %), and 40 died of disease (45.4 %). Myopodin methylation status correlated to MSKCC Risk score (p = 0.050) and the presence of distant metastasis (p = 0.039). Taking all patients, an unmethylated myopodin identified patients with shorter progression-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival. Using also in univariate and multivariate models, an unmethylated myopodin predicted response to antiangiogenic therapy (groups 2 and 3) using progression-free survival, disease-specific, and overall survival as clinical endpoints. Myopodin was revealed hypermethylated in kidney cancer. Myopodin methylation status identified which patients showed a more aggressive clinical behavior and predicted antiangiogenic response. These observations support the clinical utility of an unmethylated myopodin as a prognostic and predictive biomarker in kidney cancer.

Študentová H, Vitásková D, Melichar B
Safety of mTOR inhibitors in breast cancer.
Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2016; 15(8):1075-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Despite advances in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, the lack of response or relapse/progression during the course of therapy continue to present a challenge towards deeper understanding of dysregulated signaling pathways in breast cancer. Consequently, there is an unmet medical need for the development of new agents to overcome the resistance to therapy and improve the treatment outcome.
AREAS COVERED: In this review, the mechanism of action and the role of intracellular PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway inhibition in breast cancer patients are described. Everolimus has been approved in combination with exemestane for the treatment of hormone-receptor-positive advanced breast cancer after failure of nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor therapy. The aim of this paper is to focus on the safety and efficacy of mTOR inhibitors in the treatment of breast cancer. Current strategies of major adverse event management and prevention are delineated.
EXPERT OPINION: Study results demonstrate clearly that the inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway represents a promising approach to improve the efficacy of other targeted therapies in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients with an acceptable safety profile. Although side effects are not uncommon, these are usually mild to moderate in severity and manageable with supportive care and dose adjustments.

Fusco V, Santini D, Armento G, et al.
Osteonecrosis of jaw beyond antiresorptive (bone-targeted) agents: new horizons in oncology.
Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2016; 15(7):925-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a clinically important, potentially painful and debilitating condition, which can affect the quality of life of cancer patients. Since 2003, ONJ appeared as a Bisphosphonate(BP)-related class effect, and the term Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (BRONJ) was widespread.
AREAS COVERED: Under discussion in this review is the fact that ONJ cases have been reported after treatment including antiangiogenic agents and other "targeted therapy", with and without BPs. Consequently, the comprehensive term Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (MRONJ) has been introduced. The clinical aspects and the prognosis of ONJ associated with these new drugs are still less reported, but basing on their pharmacodynamics, they could be different from the well-known BRONJ. Accordingly, recommendations largely in use for BRONJ should be extended to these new forms, but critically applied and with respect to the individual risk assessment.
EXPERT OPINION: There is a high risk of underdiagnoses for ONJ due to a lack of awareness, and too much restrictive or incomplete diagnostic criteria; at the same time, with regard to ONJ associated to the new non -antiresorptive agents, described here, we observe the strong need to improve the defining of any distinguished feature in their diagnosis, prevention and therapy.

Lew S, Chamberlain RS
Risk of Metabolic Complications in Patients with Solid Tumors Treated with mTOR inhibitors: Meta-analysis.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(4):1711-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Numerous trials have described a wide variation of metabolic complications associated with the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi). This analysis aimed to report and critically analyze the risks of mTORi-associated metabolic complications.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive search of all published phase II or III randomized controlled trials were investigated. Outcomes included were adverse effect profiles of hyperglycemia (HGC), hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), and hypercholesterolemia (HCE).
RESULTS: Sixteen phase II/III clinical trials were identified. The overall incidence of all-grade (AG) and high-grade (HG) metabolic complications associated with mTORi were 39.7% and 4.1% respectively. mTORi use was associated with an increased risk of AG (2.97 [2.25-3.92]) and HG HGC (4.08 [2.71-6.14]), AG (2.22 [1.70-2.89]) and HG HTG (1.88 [1.10-3.20]), and AG (2.48 [1.83-3.36]) and HG HCE (4.26 [2.30-7.90]).
CONCLUSION: mTORi are associated with a significantly increased risk of AG and HG HGC, HTG, and HCE. Clinicians should be aware of these risks, perform regular monitoring, and consider alternative anti-neoplastic treatments or adjunctive pharmacological intervention if necessary.

Myers AP, Filiaci VL, Zhang Y, et al.
Tumor mutational analysis of GOG248, a phase II study of temsirolimus or temsirolimus and alternating megestrol acetate and tamoxifen for advanced endometrial cancer (EC): An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
Gynecol Oncol. 2016; 141(1):43-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Rapamycin analogs have reproducible but modest efficacy in endometrial cancer (EC). Identification of molecular biomarkers that predict benefit could guide clinical development.
METHODS: Fixed primary tissue and whole blood were collected prospectively from patients enrolled on GOG 248. DNA was isolated from macro-dissected tumors and blood; next-generation sequence analysis was performed on a panel of cancer related genes. Associations between clinical outcomes [response rate (RR) 20%; progression-free survival (PFS) median 4.9months] and mutations (PTEN, PIK3CA, PIK3R1, KRAS, CTNNB1, AKT1, TSC1, TSC2, NF1, FBXW7) were explored.
RESULTS: Sequencing data was obtained from tumors of 55 of the 73 enrolled pts. Mutation rates were consistent with published reports: mutations in PTEN (45%), PIK3CA (29%), PIK3R1 (24%), K-RAS (16%), CTNNB1 (18%) were common and mutations in AKT1 (4%), TSC1 (2%), TSC2 (2%), NF1 (9%) and FBXW7 (4%) were less common. Increased PFS (HR 0.16; 95% CI 0.01-0.78) and RR (response difference 0.83; 95% CI 0.03-0.99) were noted for AKT1 mutation. An increase in PFS (HR 0.46; 95% CI 0.20-0.97) but not RR (response difference 0.00, 95% CI -0.34-0.34) was identified for CTNNB1 mutation. Both patients with TSC mutations had an objective response. There were no statistically significant associations between mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, PIK3R1, or KRAS and PFS or RR.
CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in AKT1, TSC1 and TSC2 are rare, but may predict clinical benefit from temsirolimus. CTNNB1 mutations were associated with longer PFS on temsirolimus.

Khawaja MR, Nick AM, Madhusudanannair V, et al.
Phase I dose escalation study of temsirolimus in combination with metformin in patients with advanced/refractory cancers.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(5):973-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors like temsirolimus may result in undesirable AKT upregulation. Metformin inhibits mTOR through different mechanisms and may enhance temsirolimus's antitumor activity. We conducted an open-label phase I dose escalation trial of this drug combination in patients with advanced/refractory cancers.
METHODS: Temsirolimus, 25 mg weekly, was combined with an escalating daily dose of metformin (level 1: 500; level 2: 1000; level 3: 1500; level 4: 2000 mg) by utilizing a standard 3 + 3 trial design. Treatment was administered in 28-day cycles following initial 2-week metformin titration during the first cycle.
RESULTS: Twenty-one patients (median age, 56 years) with sarcoma (n = 8), colorectal (n = 3), endometrial (n = 4), uterine carcinosarcoma (n = 2), ovarian (n = 2), and other (n = 2) cancers were enrolled. Patients had received median of four prior systemic treatments. Two dose-limiting toxicities were observed (grade 3 mucositis, grade 3 renal failure); both patients continued treatment after dose modification. Fifty-six percent patients had stable disease as best response; clinical benefit rate was 22 %. Patients continued treatment for median of 11 weeks.
CONCLUSIONS: Combination temsirolimus/metformin was well tolerated with modestly promising effectiveness among this heavily pretreated patient cohort. We recommend a dose of temsirolimus 25 mg weekly and metformin 2000 mg daily for phase II study.

Miller LA, Stemkowski S, Saverno K, et al.
Patterns of Care in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Among a U.S. Payer Population with Commercial or Medicare Advantage Membership.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2016; 22(3):219-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Several systemic therapies are now approved for first- and second-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Although the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines offer physicians evidence-based recommendations for therapy, there are few real-world studies to help inform the utilization of these agents in clinical practice.
OBJECTIVES: To (a) describe the patterns of use associated with systemic therapies for mRCC among Humana members in the United States diagnosed with mRCC, (b) assess consistency with the NCCN guidelines for treatment, and (c) to describe the initial first-line therapy regimen by prescriber specialty and site of care.
METHODS: This was a retrospective study using Humana's claims database of commercially insured patients and patients insured by the Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug plan. The study period was from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2013. Patients with mRCC were identified by ICD-9-CM codes 189.0/189.1 and 196.xx to 199.xx; all patients were between 18 and 89 years of age, had received systemic therapy for their disease, and were followed up for 180 days. Outcome measures included choice of initial systemic therapy, starting and ending doses, first-line treatment persistence and compliance, and choice of second-line therapy. Persistence was measured using time to discontinuation of first-line therapy and proportion of days covered (PDC; the ratio of [total days of drug available minus days of supply of last prescription] to [last prescription date minus first prescription date]). Compliance was measured using the medication possession ratio (MPR; the ratio of [total days supply minus days supply of last prescription] to [last prescription date minus first prescription date]).
RESULTS: A total of 649 patients met all inclusion criteria; 109 were insured by commercial plans and 540 were insured by Medicare. The mean ± SD age of patients was 68.6 ± 9.4 years, and 68.6% were male; Medicare patients were older than commercial patients (71.7 ± 7.4 vs. 56.6 ± 9.1 years, respectively; P < 0.001). The most common comorbidities among the patient population were hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and heart disease. The majority of patients (68.6%) received an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) as their first line of therapy: 43.9% received sunitinib, 14.0% received sorafenib, 10.0% received pazopanib, and 0.6% received axitinib. Mean ± SD time to discontinuation of first-line TKI treatment was 169.1 ± 29.5 days with sunitinib, 160.3 ± 41.1 days with pazopanib, and 160.1 ± 41.4 days with sorafenib. Other first-line therapies included inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (19.7%) and the antivascular endothelial growth factor agent bevacizumab (9.4%). Among patients receiving mTOR inhibitors, 14.8% were started on temsirolimus and 4.9% were started on everolimus. The median starting and ending doses were the same for each drug except for sunitinib. Mean ± SD times to discontinuation of temsirolimus, everolimus, and bevacizumab were 171.8 ± 26.2, 137.0 ± 62.2, and 150.8 ± 56.0 days, respectively. Persistence on first-line regimen as measured by PDC was high (PDC ≥ 80%) for 89% of oral therapies and 77% of injectable therapies; first-line compliance was high (MPR ≥ 80%) for 77% of oral therapies and 68% of injectables. Among patients who received second-line therapy, the most common regimen was everolimus (29.2%), followed by bevacizumab (19.8%), temsirolimus (15.6%), and sunitinib (13.6%). Specialty codes obtained from the database provider identified internal medicine specialists and oncologists as the most common prescribers of TKIs and mTOR inhibitors.
CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of use were similar for each of the prescribed systemic treatments for mRCC, and the majority of patients were highly persistent and compliant with first-line therapies. Time to treatment discontinuation was slightly longer with oral agents compared with injectable drugs.

Le Saux O, Freyer G, Négrier S
First-Line Treatments for Poor-Prognosis Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Experts' Prescribing Practices and Systematic Literature Review.
Clin Drug Investig. 2016; 36(5):389-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: No head-to-head clinical trials are available to help physicians in the decision-making process of first-line therapy in poor-prognosis metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The objectives of our study were to identify experts' prescribing practices and to review available clinical data in first-line therapies for poor-prognosis metastatic RCC (mRCC).
METHODS: Thirteen RCC experts were asked to fill in a self-administered questionnaire evaluating prescribing practices. A systematic review was performed in July 2015 in MEDLINE for clinical trials evaluating first-line strategy in poor-prognosis mRCC.
RESULTS: Ten out of 13 experts completed the questionnaire (76.9%). Sunitinib was the most frequently prescribed first-line therapy (8/10; 80%). The main reason for prescribing sunitinib most frequently was the evidence of effectiveness for the majority (5/8 experts). A total of 21 articles were found suitable. Only one phase III randomized controlled trial in which all patients had a poor prognosis was retrieved. Temsirolimus increases progression-free survival and overall survival compared to IFN-alpha. Increased PFS with sunitinib in poor-prognosis patients was shown in a subgroup analysis of the pivotal trial. An expanded-access trial confirmed this result.
DISCUSSION: Experts tend to prefer sunitinib as first-line therapy even in poor-prognosis mRCC. In light of the systematic review, no targeted therapy appears to be more effective than another. The upcoming challenge is to discover more effective new drugs since the overall survival of poor-prognosis mRCC still remains extremely limited.

Takyar S, Diaz J, Sehgal M, et al.
First-line therapy for treatment-naive patients with advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a systematic review of published randomized controlled trials.
Anticancer Drugs. 2016; 27(5):383-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the recent years, a number of targeted therapies have been approved for first-line treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. A systematic review was conducted to assess the clinical efficacy, safety and effect of all first-line treatments evaluated to date on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A systematic search of Embase, Cochrane and MEDLINE databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (1980-2015) evaluating any targeted therapy/immunotherapy against placebo or any other targeted intervention/immunotherapy in treatment-naive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Conference proceedings from major cancer congresses (2007-2015) were handsearched. Sixteen randomized controlled trials were identified, mostly phase III. Overall, targeted therapies were associated with either improved [sunitinib, bevacizumab+interferon α (IFNα) and temsirolimus] or comparable (sorafenib) progression-free survival (PFS) versus IFNα monotherapy. Sunitinib demonstrated comparable PFS and overall survival to pazopanib, comparable PFS to sorafenib and shorter PFS compared with bevacizumab+IFNα (although no conclusions were made with regard to superiority/inferiority). Compared with sorafenib, tivozanib demonstrated a significantly longer PFS, and both tivozanib and axitinib demonstrated higher response rates. Nintedanib demonstrated comparable PFS and overall survival to sunitinib in a phase II trial. Temsirolimus, sunitinib and sorafenib treatment led to better HRQoL versus IFNα; pazopanib was associated with better HRQoL versus sunitinib. No direct meta-analyses or indirect treatment comparison analysis were undertaken because of noncomparability of the trials. In general, targeted therapies demonstrated favourable clinical efficacy and improved HRQoL compared with IFNα monotherapy. The newer therapies, tivozanib and axitinib (but not nintedanib), appeared to exhibit greater clinical benefit (response rate) than older tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Hashimoto S, Mikami S, Sugino H, et al.
Lysophosphatidic acid activates Arf6 to promote the mesenchymal malignancy of renal cancer.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:10656 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acquisition of mesenchymal properties by cancer cells is critical for their malignant behaviour, but regulators of the mesenchymal molecular machinery and how it is activated remain elusive. Here we show that clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) frequently utilize the Arf6-based mesenchymal pathway to promote invasion and metastasis, similar to breast cancers. In breast cancer cells, ligand-activated receptor tyrosine kinases employ GEP100 to activate Arf6, which then recruits AMAP1; and AMAP1 then binds to the mesenchymal-specific protein EPB41L5, which promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and focal adhesion dynamics. In renal cancer cells, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) activates Arf6 via its G-protein-coupled receptors, in which GTP-Gα12 binds to EFA6. The Arf6-based pathway may also contribute to drug resistance. Our results identify a specific mesenchymal molecular machinery of primary ccRCCs, which is triggered by a product of autotaxin and it is associated with poor outcome of patients.

Patel SB, Stenehjem DD, Gill DM, et al.
Everolimus Versus Temsirolimus in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma After Progression With Previous Systemic Therapies.
Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2016; 14(2):153-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Everolimus is an approved agent for use after disease progression with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKIs) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. With recently published trials showing efficacy of nivolumab and cabozantinib in the second-line therapy setting, the use of everolimus will likely move to the third- or fourth-line therapy setting. Temsirolimus has occasionally been used instead of everolimus for many reasons, including financial considerations, assurance of patient compliance given its intravenous administration, its toxicity profile, patient performance status, and patient or physician preference. However, efficacy of everolimus and temsirolimus in this setting have not been compared in a randomized trial. The results from retrospective studies have been inconsistent.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified patients treated with a first-line VEGFR-TKI for metastatic renal cell carcinoma and then treated with either everolimus or temsirolimus on progression from the databases of 2 large academic cancer centers. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed from the initiation of second-line treatment using the Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS: A total of 90 patients received either everolimus (n = 59; 66%) or temsirolimus (n = 31; 34%) after progression during first-line VEGFR-TKI therapy. The patient and disease characteristics were similar in both groups. The median PFS was not different, but OS was superior with everolimus compared with temsirolimus (24.2 months vs. 12.1 months; hazard ratio, 0.58; P = .047).
CONCLUSION: Our results bolster existing guidelines supporting everolimus over temsirolimus as salvage therapy after previous systemic therapies.

Waqar SN, Baggstrom MQ, Morgensztern D, et al.
A Phase I Trial of Temsirolimus and Pemetrexed in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Chemotherapy. 2016; 61(3):144-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pemetrexed is an antifolate chemotherapeutic agent approved for use in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is implicated in lung cancer development and inhibited by temsirolimus.
METHODS: We performed a phase I study evaluating the combination of pemetrexed and temsirolimus in advanced non-squamous NSCLC.
RESULTS: Eight patients were enrolled in this study. The dose-limiting toxicities included grade 4 thrombocytopenia, grade 3 leukopenia and grade 3 neutropenia. The maximum tolerated dose was determined to be pemetrexed 375 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1 and temsirolimus 25 mg intravenously on days 1, 8 and 15. No objective responses were noted and 3 patients had stable disease as the best response.
CONCLUSION: The combination of pemetrexed and temsirolimus is feasible and well tolerated. This combination may be further evaluated in patients with mTOR pathway activation, particularly in those with TSC1 or STK11 mutations.

Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) Guidelines for the Systemic Therapy of Endometrial (Uterine) Cancer.
Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2015; 44(10):434-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The SCAN gynaecological cancers systemic therapy workgroup aimed to develop Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) clinical practice guidelines for the systemic therapy of endometrial (uterine) cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The workgroup utilised a modified ADAPTE process to calibrate high quality international evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to our local setting.
RESULTS: Three international guidelines were evaluated- those developed by the National Cancer Comprehensive Network (2015), the European Society of Medical Oncology (2013) and the Cancer Council Australia (2011). Recommendations on the role of chemotherapy following surgery in women diagnosed with endometrial cancer, the chemotherapeutic options for women with advanced or recurrent endometrial cancers and the role of chemotherapy in women with uterine papillary serous carcinoma or clear cell carcinoma were developed.
CONCLUSION: These adapted guidelines form the SCAN Guidelines 2015 for the systemic therapy of endometrial (uterine) cancer.

Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) Guidelines for Systemic Therapy of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC).
Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2015; 44(10):406-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The SCAN genitourinary cancer workgroup aimed to develop Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) clinical practice guidelines for systemic therapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The workgroup utilised a modified ADAPTE process to calibrate high quality international evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to our local setting.
RESULTS: Six international guidelines were evaluated- those developed by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2014), the European Association for Urology (2013), the European Society of Medical Oncology (2012), the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (2011), the Canadian Kidney Cancer Forum (2013) and the Asian Oncology Summit (2012). Recommendations on the first-, second- and third-line treatment for mRCC were developed.
CONCLUSION: These adapted guidelines form the SCAN Guidelines 2015 for systemic therapy of mRCC.

Pivonello C, Negri M, De Martino MC, et al.
The dual targeting of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor enhances the mTOR inhibitor-mediated antitumor efficacy in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(9):9718-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deregulation of mTOR and IGF pathways is frequent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), thus mTOR and IGF1R represent suitable therapeutic targets in HCC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mTOR inhibitors (mTORi) and OSI-906, blocker of IGF1R/IR, on HCC cell proliferation, viability, migration and invasion, and alpha-fetoprotein (α-FP) secretion. In HepG2 and HuH-7 we evaluated, the expression of mTOR and IGF pathway components; the effects of Sirolimus, Everolimus, Temsirolimus and OSI-906 on cell proliferation; the effects of Sirolimus, OSI-906, and their combination, on cell secretion, proliferation, viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion and migration. Moreover, intracellular mechanisms underlying these cell functions were evaluated in both cell lines. Our results show that HepG2 and HuH-7 present with the same mRNA expression profile with high levels of IGF2. OSI-906 inhibited cell proliferation at high concentration, while mTORi suppressed cell proliferation in a dose-time dependent manner in both cell lines. The co-treatment showed an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and viability. This effect was not related to induction of apoptosis, but to G0/G1 phase block. Moreover, the co-treatment prevented the Sirolimus-induced AKT activation as escape mechanism. Both agents demonstrated to be differently effective in inhibiting α-FP secretion. Sirolimus, OSI-906, and their combination, blocked cell migration and invasion in HuH-7. These findings indicate that, co-targeting of IGF1R/IR and mTOR pathways could be a novel therapeutic approach in the management of HCC, in order to maximize antitumoral effect and to prevent the early development of resistance mechanisms.

Cheng XF, Liu Q, Zhang XF, et al.
Expression of mTOR and its inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis of breast cancer cells.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2015 Oct-Dec; 29(4):869-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of mTOR in breast cancer and observe the effect of CCI-779 on proliferation and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of mTOR protein in breast cancer tissues and MDA-MB-231 cells. MTT assay was used to assess the effect of CCI-779 on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. Annex-inV-FITC/ PI assay was utilized to evaluate the effect of CCI-779 on apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells. Among the 71 cases of breast cancer tissues, 54.9% were mTOR-positive that exhibited significantly higher expression than the 32 cases of normal tissues (21.9%); mTOR protein was also found to be expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells. The mTOR inhibitor CCI-779 significantly inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells that was dose- and time-dependent. However, CCI-779 was unable to induce apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells as demonstrated with AnnexinV-FITC/PI assay. mTOR plays a key role in the initiation and development of breast cancer, and its inhibitor CCI-779 exerts a strong suppressive activity against MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting its therapeutic potential to treat breast cancer.

Stepanenko AA, Andreieva SV, Korets KV, et al.
mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus and MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 promote chromosomal instability and cell type-dependent phenotype changes of glioblastoma cells.
Gene. 2016; 579(1):58-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the RAF/mitogen-activated and extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways are frequently deregulated in cancer. Temsirolimus (TEM) and its primary active metabolite rapamycin allosterically block mTOR complex 1 substrate recruitment. The context-/experimental setup-dependent opposite effects of rapamycin on the multiple centrosome formation, aneuploidy, DNA damage/repair, proliferation, and invasion were reported. Similarly, the context-dependent either tumor-promoting or suppressing effects of RAF-MEK-ERK pathway and its inhibitors were demonstrated. Drug treatment-mediated stress may promote chromosomal instability (CIN), accelerating changes in the genomic landscape and phenotype diversity. Here, we characterized the genomic and phenotypic changes of U251 and T98G glioblastoma cell lines long-term treated with TEM or U0126, an inhibitor of MEK1/2. TEM significantly increased clonal and non-clonal chromosome aberrations. Both TEM and U0126 affected copy number alterations (CNAs) pattern. A proliferation rate of U251TEM and U251U0126 cells was lower and higher, respectively, than control cells. Colony formation efficiency of U251TEM significantly decreased, whereas U251U0126 did not change. U251TEM and U251U0126 cells decreased migration. In contrast, T98GTEM and T98GU0126 cells did not change proliferation, colony formation efficiency, and migration. Changes in the sensitivity of inhibitor-treated cells to the reduction of the glucose concentration were observed. Our results suggest that CIN and adaptive reprogramming of signal transduction pathways may be responsible for the cell type-dependent phenotype changes of long-term TEM- or U0126-treated tumor cells.

Emons G, Kurzeder C, Schmalfeldt B, et al.
Temsirolimus in women with platinum-refractory/resistant ovarian cancer or advanced/recurrent endometrial carcinoma. A phase II study of the AGO-study group (AGO-GYN8).
Gynecol Oncol. 2016; 140(3):450-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate activity and toxicity of mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus in patients with platinum-refractory/resistant ovarian cancer (OC) or advanced/recurrent endometrial carcinoma (EC).
METHODS: Women with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer were eligible, when they had progression during treatment with a platinum based regimen or within 6 months after receiving a platinum based regimen and a previous taxane treatment. Women with advanced/recurrent EC, no longer amenable to curative surgery and/or radiotherapy were eligible when they had no previous or only adjuvant chemotherapy. Preceding endocrine therapy for metastatic/recurrent disease was allowed. Patients received weekly IV infusions of 25mg temsirolimus. Primary endpoint was progression free survival rate after 4 months (OC) or 6 months (EC). A two stage design was applied.
RESULTS: Forty-four patients (OC: n=22; EC: n=22) were enrolled and received temsirolimus treatment. Median age was 56 years (OC) or 63 years (EC). After eight weeks of treatment, 10 of 21 evaluable patients in the OC cohort and 8 of 20 evaluable patients in the EC cohort had progressive disease. Thus efficacy did not meet the predefined levels during the first stage of recruitment and the trial was stopped. Some patients in both cohorts had long lasting PFS (>7 months). Toxicity of temsirolimus was mild.
CONCLUSIONS: Temsirolimus treatment was well tolerated in our patients, but did not meet the predefined efficacy criteria. In our study as in other trials on rapalogs in OC or EC, a few patients had long lasting disease stabilisations.

El Halabi L, Ghez D, Ribrag V
Novel targeted therapeutics for mantle cell lymphoma--what's on the horizon?
Expert Rev Hematol. 2016; 9(3):271-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Major advances have significantly improved the outcome of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Incorporation of rituximab to CHOP regimen, the adoption of high dose cytarabine with frontline autologous stem cell transplantation in young patients, maintenance rituximab or bortezomib based chemotherapy in elderly patients, improved the disease outcome. Bortezomib, lenalidomide, temsirolimus and ibrutinib have proven their efficacy and are approved for the use in refractory or relapsed MCL patients. Several other molecules are currently being evaluated such as cyclin dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2) and Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Unfortunately, we don't have specific biomarkers that could reveal which of the underlying pathways or genetic alterations are mostly involved in each individual case of MCL. Efforts should be done in this field aiming to an optimal personalized therapy.

Smaletz O
Current management and future directions in the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma-a latin american perspective: 10 years in review.
Int Braz J Urol. 2015 Sep-Oct; 41(5):835-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The worldwide incidence of kidney cancer is estimated at 337,860 new cases per year in the International Agency for Research on Cancer's GLOBOCAN 2012 update, with an estimated 143,369 deaths annually. Over the past 10 years, there have been significant advances in the treatment of advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma, including the development of targeted therapies. Currently recommended first-line treatments include sunitinib, temsirolimus, bevacizumab plus interferon, and pazopanib, or high-dose interleukin-2 or sorafenib for selected patients. Recommended second-line treatments include all of the above agents, as well as everolimus and axitinib. Unfortunately, combination therapies have generally resulted in increased toxicity and little improvement in efficacy. Recent studies focused on identification of predictive biomarkers for responses to specific targeted therapies and have not been successful to date. Despite recent advances in targeted treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, important questions regarding biomarkers of efficacy, and optimal combination and sequencing of agents remain to be answered. This paper reviews literature concerned with first-and second-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and will discuss key issues in Latin America.

McKay RR, Lin X, Albiges L, et al.
Statins and survival outcomes in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Eur J Cancer. 2016; 52:155-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence has demonstrated the anti-neoplastic activity of statins. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of statin use on survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated in the modern therapy era.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of mRCC patients treated on phase II and III clinical trials. Statistical analyses were performed using Cox regression and the Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS: We identified 4736 patients treated with sunitinib (n=1059), sorafenib (n=772), axitinib (n=896), temsirolimus (n=457), temsirolimus+interferon (IFN)-α (n=208), bevacizumab+temsirolimus (n=393), bevacizumab+IFN-α (n=391) or IFN-α (n=560), of whom 511 were statin users. Overall, statin users demonstrated an improved overall survival (OS) compared to non-users (25.6 versus 18.9 months, adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.801, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.659-0.972, p=0.025). When stratified by therapy type, a benefit in OS was demonstrated in statin users compared to non-users in individuals receiving therapy targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (28.4 versus 22.2 months, aHR 0.749, 95% CI 0.584-0.961, p=0.023) or mammalian target of rapamycin (18.6 versus 14.0 months, aHR 0.657, 95% CI 0.445-0.972, p=0.035) but not in those receiving IFN-α (15.6 versus 14.8 months, aHR 1.292, 95% CI 0.703-2.275, p=0.410). Adverse events were similar between users and non-users.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that statin use may be associated with improved survival in patients with mRCC treated in the targeted therapy era. Statins could represent an adjunct therapy for patients with mRCC; however, this is hypothesis generating and requires prospective evaluation.

Chiu JW, Hotte SJ, Kollmannsberger CK, et al.
A phase I trial of ANG1/2-Tie2 inhibitor trebaninib (AMG386) and temsirolimus in advanced solid tumors (PJC008/NCI♯9041).
Invest New Drugs. 2016; 34(1):104-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is crosstalk between the ANG-Tie2 and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. Combined ANG1/2 and mTOR blockade may have additive anti-cancer activity. The combination of trebananib, an inhibitor of ANG1/2-Tie2 interaction, with temsirolimus was evaluated in patients with advanced solid tumors to determine tolerability, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and preliminary antitumor activity.
METHODS: Patients were enrolled using 3 + 3 design, and were given intravenous trebananib and temsirolimus on Day 1, 8, 15 and 22 of a 28-day cycle. Dose limiting toxicities (DLTs) were evaluated during cycle 1. Peripheral blood was collected for evaluation of Tie2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP). Sparse pharmacokinetic (PK) sampling for trebananib drug levels was performed on Day 1 and 8 of cycle 2.
RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were enrolled, 6 at dose level (DL) 1, 7 at DL -1, and 8 at DL -2. No effect of temsirolimus on trebananib PK was observed. The most common treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were: fatigue (81 %), edema (62 %), anorexia (57 %), nausea (52 %), rash (43 %) and mucositis (43 %). The most common grade ≥ 3 AEs included lymphopenia (28 %) and fatigue (28 %). The MTD was exceeded at DL-2. Of 18 response evaluable patients, 1 partial response was observed (ER+/HER2-/PIK3CA mutant breast cancer) and 4 patients had prolonged SD ≥ 24 weeks. No correlation with clinical benefit was observed with change in number TEMs or TP expression in TEMs with treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: The MTD was exceeded at trebananib 10 mg/kg weekly and temsirolimus 20 mg weekly, with frequent overlapping toxicities including fatigue, edema, and anorexia.

Dreyling M, Jurczak W, Jerkeman M, et al.
Ibrutinib versus temsirolimus in patients with relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma: an international, randomised, open-label, phase 3 study.
Lancet. 2016; 387(10020):770-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mantle-cell lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma with a poor prognosis. Both ibrutinib and temsirolimus have shown single-agent activity in patients with relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma. We undertook a phase 3 study to assess the efficacy and safety of ibrutinib versus temsirolimus in relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma.
METHODS: This randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 clinical trial enrolled patients with relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma confirmed by central pathology in 21 countries who had received one or more rituximab-containing treatments. Patients were stratified by previous therapy and simplified mantle-cell lymphoma international prognostic index score, and were randomly assigned with a computer-generated randomisation schedule to receive daily oral ibrutinib 560 mg or intravenous temsirolimus (175 mg on days 1, 8, and 15 of cycle 1; 75 mg on days 1, 8, and 15 of subsequent 21-day cycles). Randomisation was balanced by using randomly permuted blocks. The primary efficacy endpoint was progression-free survival assessed by a masked independent review committee with the primary hypothesis that ibrutinib compared with temsirolimus significantly improves progression-free survival. The analysis followed the intention-to-treat principle. The trial is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT01646021) and with the EU Clinical Trials Register, EudraCT (number 2012-000601-74).
FINDINGS: Between Dec 10, 2012, and Nov 26, 2013, 280 patients were randomised to ibrutinib (n=139) or temsirolimus (n=141). Primary efficacy analysis showed significant improvement in progression-free survival (p<0·0001) for patients treated with ibrutinib versus temsirolimus (hazard ratio 0·43 [95% CI 0·32-0·58]; median progression-free survival 14·6 months [95% CI 10·4-not estimable] vs 6·2 months [4·2-7·9], respectively). Ibrutinib was better tolerated than temsirolimus, with grade 3 or higher treatment-emergent adverse events reported for 94 (68%) versus 121 (87%) patients, and fewer discontinuations of study medication due to adverse events for ibrutinib versus temsirolimus (9 [6%] vs 36 [26%]).
INTERPRETATION: Ibrutinib treatment resulted in significant improvement in progression-free survival and better tolerability versus temsirolimus in patients with relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma. These data lend further support to the positive benefit-risk ratio for ibrutinib in relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma.
FUNDING: Janssen Research & Development, LLC.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

[Home]    Page last updated: 07 March, 2017     © CancerIndex, Established 1996