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STK11; serine/threonine kinase 11 (19p13.3)

Gene Summary

Gene:STK11; serine/threonine kinase 11
Aliases: PJS, LKB1, hLKB1
Location:19p13.3
Summary:This gene, which encodes a member of the serine/threonine kinase family, regulates cell polarity and functions as a tumor suppressor. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the growth of polyps in the gastrointestinal tract, pigmented macules on the skin and mouth, and other neoplasms. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:serine/threonine-protein kinase STK11
HPRD
Source:NCBI
Updated:14 December, 2014

Gene
Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (47)

Pathways:

What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- Adipocytokine signaling pathway KEGG
- mTOR signaling pathway KEGG
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Adolescents
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Mutation
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Base Sequence
  • Genotype
  • DNA Methylation
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Messenger RNA
  • Exons
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Lung Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Phosphorylation
  • BRAF
  • Breast Cancer
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • SMAD4
  • Phenotype
  • Pedigree
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Apoptosis
  • PTEN
  • Missense Mutation
  • Gene Deletion
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • RTPCR
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Chromosome 19
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Cancer DNA
  • AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Nuclear Proteins
Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (4)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Lung CancerSTK11 and Lung Cancer View Publications69
Breast CancerSTK11 and Breast Cancer View Publications43
Lung Cancer, Non-Small CellSTK11 and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer View Publications28
Pancreatic CancerSTK11 and Pancreatic Cancer View Publications28

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: STK11 (cancer-related)

Goodwin JM, Svensson RU, Lou HJ, et al.
An AMPK-independent signaling pathway downstream of the LKB1 tumor suppressor controls Snail1 and metastatic potential.
Mol Cell. 2014; 55(3):436-50 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/08/2015 Related Publications
The serine/threonine kinase LKB1 is a tumor suppressor whose loss is associated with increased metastatic potential. In an effort to define biochemical signatures of metastasis associated with LKB1 loss, we discovered that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition transcription factor Snail1 was uniquely upregulated upon LKB1 deficiency across cell types. The ability of LKB1 to suppress Snail1 levels was independent of AMPK but required the related kinases MARK1 and MARK4. In a screen for substrates of these kinases involved in Snail regulation, we identified the scaffolding protein DIXDC1. Similar to loss of LKB1, DIXDC1 depletion results in upregulation of Snail1 in a FAK-dependent manner, leading to increased cell invasion. MARK1 phosphorylation of DIXDC1 is required for its localization to focal adhesions and ability to suppress metastasis in mice. DIXDC1 is frequently downregulated in human cancers, which correlates with poor survival. This study defines an AMPK-independent phosphorylation cascade essential for LKB1-dependent control of metastatic behavior.

Related: Lung Cancer Risk Factors and Prevention of Lung Cancer Signal Transduction


Simbolo M, Mian C, Barollo S, et al.
High-throughput mutation profiling improves diagnostic stratification of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas.
Virchows Arch. 2014; 465(1):73-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) harbors RET gene somatic mutations in up to 50 % of cases, and RAS family gene mutations occur in about 10 %. A timely and comprehensive characterization of molecular alterations is needed to improve MTC diagnostic stratification and design-tailored therapeutic approaches. Twenty surgically resected sporadic MTCs, previously analyzed for RET mutations by Sanger sequencing using DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, were investigated for intragenic mutations in 50 cancer-associated genes applying a multigene Ion AmpliSeq next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Thirteen (65 %) MTCs harbored a RET mutation; 10 were detected at both Sanger and NGS sequencing, while 3 undetected by Sanger were revealed by NGS. One of the 13 RET-mutated cases also showed an F354L germline mutation in STK11. Of the seven RET wild-type MTCs, four cases (57.1 %) harbored a RAS mutation: three in HRAS (all Q61R) and one in KRAS (G12R). The three remaining MTCs (15 %) resulted as wild-type for all the 50 cancer-related genes. Follow-up was available in all but one RET-mutated case. At the end of follow-up, 7 of 12 (58 %) RET-mutated patients had relapsed, while the 4 RAS-mutated MTC patients were disease-free. Two of the three patients with MTC wild-type for all 50 genes relapsed during the follow-up period. Detection of mutations by NGS has the potential to improve the diagnostic stratification of sporadic MTC.

Related: RET Thyroid Cancer


Liu X, Mody K, de Abreu FB, et al.
Molecular profiling of appendiceal epithelial tumors using massively parallel sequencing to identify somatic mutations.
Clin Chem. 2014; 60(7):1004-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Some epithelial neoplasms of the appendix, including low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm and adenocarcinoma, can result in pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP). Little is known about the mutational spectra of these tumor types and whether mutations may be of clinical significance with respect to therapeutic selection. In this study, we identified somatic mutations using the Ion Torrent AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2.
METHODS: Specimens consisted of 3 nonneoplastic retention cysts/mucocele, 15 low-grade mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs), 8 low-grade/well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinomas with pseudomyxoma peritonei, and 12 adenocarcinomas with/without goblet cell/signet ring cell features. Barcoded libraries were prepared from up to 10 ng of extracted DNA and multiplexed on single 318 chips for sequencing. Data analysis was performed using Golden Helix SVS. Variants that remained after the analysis pipeline were individually interrogated using the Integrative Genomics Viewer.
RESULTS: A single Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) mutation was detected in the mucocele group. Eight mutations were identified in the V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and GNAS complex locus (GNAS) genes among LAMN samples. Additional gene mutations were identified in the AKT1 (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1), APC (adenomatous polyposis coli), JAK3, MET (met proto-oncogene), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PIK3CA), RB1 (retinoblastoma 1), STK11 (serine/threonine kinase 11), and tumor protein p53 (TP53) genes. Among the PMPs, 6 mutations were detected in the KRAS gene and also in the GNAS, TP53, and RB1 genes. Appendiceal cancers showed mutations in the APC, ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), KRAS, IDH1 [isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (NADP+)], NRAS [neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog], PIK3CA, SMAD4 (SMAD family member 4), and TP53 genes.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest molecular heterogeneity among epithelial tumors of the appendix. Next generation sequencing efforts have identified mutational spectra in several subtypes of these tumors that may suggest a phenotypic heterogeneity showing mutations that are relevant for targeted therapies.

Related: Appendix Cancers Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumours


Zhang X, Chen H, Wang X, et al.
Expression and transcriptional profiling of the LKB1 tumor suppressor in cervical cancer cells.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 134(2):372-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the biological activities of LKB1, examine LKB1 protein expression and identify LKB1-regulated genes that may serve as therapeutic targets in cervical cancer.
METHODS: Proliferation of cervical cancer HeLa cells expressing LKB1 was examined. LKB1 expression in normal cervical tissues and cervical cancers was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression profiles of cervical cancer HeLa cells stably expressing LKB1 were analyzed by microarray. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed using Gene Ontology (GO) terms and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) PATHWAY database. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate the microarray data. The expression of lipid phosphatase inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) was confirmed by western blotting.
RESULTS: Expression of LKB1 inhibited HeLa cell proliferation, activated AMPK and was lost in more than 50% of cervical carcinomas. More than 200 genes were differentially expressed between HeLa cells with and without LKB1. Bioinformatics analysis with GO annotation indicated that LKB1 plays a role in receiving diverse stimuli and converting them into molecular signals. KEGG PATHWAY analysis showed that 8 pathways were significantly regulated. These include arginine and proline metabolism and inositol phosphate metabolism. The differential expression of 7 randomly selected genes was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, the steady-state level of INPP4B protein was up-regulated in LKB1-overexpressing cells.
CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes LKB1 as an important tumor suppressor in cervical cancer and sheds light on a novel signaling pathway regulated by LKB1.

Related: Cervical Cancer


Li L, Yu C, Ren J, et al.
Synergistic effects of eukaryotic coexpression plasmid carrying LKB1 and FUS1 genes on lung cancer in vitro and in vivo.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(6):895-907 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: LKB1 and FUS1 are two kinds of new tumor suppressor genes as well as early-stage genes in lung cancer. Recent studies showed that LKB1 and FUS1 play important roles in lung carcinogenesis process. We hypothesized that combined gene therapy with LKB1 and FUS1 could inhibit lung cancer growth and development synergistically.
METHODS: In this study, two kinds of tumor suppressor genes, LKB1 and FUS1, were constructed in an eukaryotic coexpression plasmid pVITRO(2), and then, we evaluated the synergistic effects of the two genes on anticancer activity and explored the relevant molecular mechanisms.
RESULTS: We defined coexpression of LKB1 and FUS1 could synergistically inhibited lung cancer cells growth,invasion and migration and induced the cell apoptosis and arrested cell cycle in vitro. Intratumoral administration of liposomes: pVITRO(2)–LKB1–FUS1 complex (LPs–pVITRO(2)–LKB1–FUS1) into subcutaneous lung tumor xenograft resulted in more significant inhibition of tumor growth. Furthermore, intravenous injection of LPs–pVITRO(2)–LKB1–FUS1 into mice bearing experimental A549 lung metastasis demonstrated synergistic decrease in the number of metastatic tumor nodules. Finally, combined treatment with LKB1 and FUS1 prolonged overall survival in lung tumor-bearing mice. Further study showed tha tthe synergistic anti-lung cancer effects of coexpression ofLKB1 and FUS1 might be related to upregulation of p-p53, p-AMPK and downregulation of p-mTOR, p-FAK, MMPs, NEDD9, VEGF/R and PDGF/R.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that combined therapy with eukaryotic coexpression plasmid carrying LKB1 and FUS1 genes may be a novel and efficient treatment strategy for human lung cancer.

Related: Apoptosis Lung Cancer


Dai L, Fu L, Liu D, et al.
Novel and recurrent mutations of STK11 gene in six Chinese cases with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
Dig Dis Sci. 2014; 59(8):1856-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11) gene is the main causal gene in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). Abnormal STK11 may increase cancer risk of PJS patients via affecting its target proteins such as P53, AMPK, and PTEN. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of six Chinese PJS patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected from four Chinese PJS families and two sporadic patients. The entire coding region of the STK11 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by direct sequencing. Functions of mutants were assessed by PolyPhen-2, Swiss-Model software, and luciferase reporter assay.
RESULTS: Novel mutations (c.842_843insC, c.804_805insG, and c.922T>G) and recurrent mutations (c.526G>A, c.180C>G, and c.1062C>G) were identified. Missense mutation c.922T>G and c.526G>A were predicted as probably damaging by PolyPhen-2, while c.1062C>G was benign. Mutation c.108C>G was a nonsense mutation. The 284Ter mutants of c.842_843insC and c.804_805insG significantly diminished the capacity of P53 activity in 293FT cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that STK11 gene mutations underlie Chinese patients with PJS. Mutation involving partial kinase domain disrupts normal function of STK11. Our results also enlarge the spectrum of STK11 variants in PJS patients.


Javle M, Rashid A, Churi C, et al.
Molecular characterization of gallbladder cancer using somatic mutation profiling.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(4):701-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gallbladder cancer is relatively uncommon, with a high incidence in certain geographic locations, including Latin America, East and South Asia, and Eastern Europe. Molecular characterization of this disease has been limited, and targeted therapy options for advanced disease remain an open area of investigation. In the present study, surgical pathology obtained from resected gallbladder cancer cases (n = 72) was examined for the presence of targetable, somatic mutations. All cases were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE). Two approaches were used: (a) mass spectroscopy-based profiling for 159 point ("hot spot") mutations in 33 genes commonly involved in solid tumors and (b) next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform that examined the complete coding sequence of in 182 cancer-related genes. Fifty-seven cases were analyzed for hot spot mutations; and 15, for NGS. Fourteen hot spot mutations were identified in 9 cases. Of these, KRAS mutation was significantly associated with poor survival on multivariate analysis. Other targetable mutations included PIK3CA (n = 2) and ALK (n = 1). On NGS, 26 mutations were noted in 15 cases. TP53 and PI3 kinase pathway (STK11, RICTOR, TSC2) mutations were common. One case had FGF10 amplification, whereas another had FGF3-TACC gene fusion, not previously described in gallbladder cancer. In conclusion, somatic mutation profiling using archival FFPE samples from gallbladder cancer is feasible. NGS, in particular, may be a useful platform for identifying novel mutations for targeted therapy.

Related: Gallbladder Cancer


Pradella LM, Evangelisti C, Ligorio C, et al.
A novel deleterious PTEN mutation in a patient with early-onset bilateral breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: An early age at Breast Cancer (BC) onset may be a hallmark of inherited predisposition, but BRCA1/2 mutations are only found in a minority of younger BC patients. Among the others, a fraction may carry mutations in rarer BC genes, such as TP53, STK11, CDH1 and PTEN. As the identification of women harboring such mutations allows for targeted risk-management, the knowledge of associated manifestations and an accurate clinical and family history evaluation are warranted.
CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a woman who developed an infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast at the age of 32, a contralateral BC at age 36 and another BC of the right breast at 40. When she was 39 years-old, during a dermatological examination, mucocutaneous features suggestive of Cowden Syndrome, a disorder associated to germ-line PTEN mutations, were noticed. PTEN genetic testing revealed the novel c.71A > T (p.Asp24Val) mutation, whose deleterious effect, suggested by conservation data and in silico tools, was definitely demonstrated by the incapacity of mutant PTEN to inhibit Akt phosphorylation when used to complement PTEN-null cells. In BC tissue, despite the absence of LOH or somatic mutations of PTEN, Akt phosphorylation was markedly increased in comparison to normal tissue, thus implying additional somatic events into the deregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and, presumably, into carcinogenesis. Hence, known oncogenic mutations in PIK3CA (exons 10 and 21) and AKT1 (exon 2) were screened in tumor DNA with negative results, which suggests that the responsible somatic event(s) is a different, uncommon one.
CONCLUSION: This case stresses the importance of clinical/genetic assessment of early-onset BC patients in order to identify mutation carriers, who are at high risk of new events, so requiring tailored management. Moreover, it revealed a novel PTEN mutation with pathogenic effect, pointing out, however, the need for further efforts to elucidate the molecular steps of PTEN-associated carcinogenesis.

Related: Breast Cancer PTEN AKT1 Signal Transduction


Kobayashi Y, Masuda K, Kimura T, et al.
A tumor of the uterine cervix with a complex histology in a Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patient with genomic deletion of the STK11 exon 1 region.
Future Oncol. 2014; 10(2):171-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) have a risk of complicating malignant tumors, including cancer of the uterine cervix. Mutations in the STK11 gene have been identified as being responsible for PJS. However, the genotype-phenotype correlation in PJS is poorly understood, especially with respect to malignant tumors. Here, we report a detailed analysis of a case of a cervical tumor in a PJS patient showing a large genomic deletion in exon 1 of STK11 without human papillomavirus infection. Histological examination revealed a complex histology consisting of three components: lobular endocervical gland hyperplasia (LEGH), minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and mucinous adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry for STK11 was positive in the LEGH and MDA components, while that of the mucinous adenocarcinoma stained very faintly. These findings support a close relationship among LEGH, MDA and mucinous adenocarcinoma and imply that inactivation of STK11 may occur during progression from MDA to mucinous adenocarcinoma.

Related: Cervical Cancer


Tan DS, Camilleri-Broët S, Tan EH, et al.
Intertumor heterogeneity of non-small-cell lung carcinomas revealed by multiplexed mutation profiling and integrative genomics.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(5):1092-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a heterogeneous disease, with a burden of genomic alterations exceeding most other tumors. The goal of our study was to evaluate the frequencies of co-occurring mutations and copy-number aberrations (CNAs) within the same tumor and to evaluate their potential clinical impact. Mass-spectrometry based mutation profiling using a customized lung cancer panel evaluating 214 mutations across 26 key NSCLC genes was performed on 230 nonsquamous NSCLC and integrated with genome-wide CNAs and clinical variables. Among the 138 cases having at least one mutation, one-third (41, 29.7%) showed two or more mutations, either in the same gene (double mutation) or in different genes (co-mutations). In epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant cancers, there was a double mutation in 18% and co-mutations in the following genes: TP53 (10%), PIK3CA (8%), STK11 (6%) and MET (4%). Significant relationships were detected between EGFR mutation and 1p, 7p copy gains (harboring the EGFR gene) as well as 13q copy loss. KRAS mutation was significantly related with 1q gain and 3q loss. For Stage I, tumors harboring at least one mutation or PIK3CA mutation were significantly correlated with poor prognosis (p-value = 0.02). When combining CNAs and mutational status, patients having both KRAS mutation and the highest related CNA (3q22.3 copy loss) showed a significant poorer prognosis (p-value = 0.03). Our study highlights the clinical relevance of studying tumor complexity by integrative genomic analysis and the need for developing assays that broadly screen for both "actionable" mutations and copy-number alterations to improve precision of stratified treatment approaches.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer MET gene TP53 KRAS gene EGFR


Gong F, Liu H, Li J, et al.
Peroxiredoxin 1 is involved in disassembly of flagella and cilia.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 444(3):420-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cilia/flagella are evolutionarily conserved cellular organelles. In this study, we demonstrated that Dunaliella salina Peroxiredoxin 1 (DsPrdx1) localized to the flagella and basal bodies, and was involved in flagellar disassembly. The link between DsPrdx1 and flagella of Dunaliella salina (D. salina) encouraged us to explore the function of its human homologue, Homo sapiens Peroxiredoxin 1 (HsPrdx1) in development and physiology. Our results showed that HsPrdx1 was overexpressed, and cilia were lost in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells compared with the non-cancerous esophageal epithelial cells Het-1A. Furthermore, when HsPrdx1 was knocked down by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentivirus in ESCC cells, the phenotype of cilia lost can be reversed, and the expression levels of tumor suppressor genes LKB1 and p-AMPK were increased, and the activity of the oncogene Aurora A was inhibited compared with those in cells transfected with scrambe-shRNA lentivirus. These findings firstly showed that Prdx1 is involved in disassembly of flagella and cilia, and suggested that the abnormal expression of the cilia-related gene including Prdx1 may affect both ciliogenesis and cancernogenesis.

Related: Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer


Kim HR, Cho BC, Shim HS, et al.
Prediction for response duration to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in EGFR mutated never smoker lung adenocarcinoma.
Lung Cancer. 2014; 83(3):374-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, ∼ 20-30% exhibit de novo resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The aim of this study was to examine whether mutations in the EGFR-downstream genes may be associated with de novo resistance to EGFR-TKIs in EGFR mutation-positive patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-eight never-smoker adenocarcinoma patients with an activating EGFR mutation were included in the mutational analysis and 55 patients treated with EGFR-TKIs were analyzed for the treatment outcomes to EGFR-TKIs. We concurrently analyzed mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT and STK11, which are all EGFR-downstream genes. Mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT, and STK11 were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing.
RESULTS: PIK3CA mutations were detected in 4.4% (3/68) of patients, PTEN mutations in 16.1% (11/68), AKT mutations in 5.9% (4/68), and STK11 mutations in 13.2% (9/68). One patient with an activating exon 21 L858R mutation concomitantly had an exon 20 T790M mutation in EGFR. The proportion of patients who had mutations in EGFR-downstream genes was 32.4% (22/68). When we analyzed the treatment outcome of 55 patients treated with EGFR-TKI, the presence of mutations in EGFR-downstream genes correlated with a poor overall response rate to EGFR-TKIs (63.6 vs.14.5% in patients with mutation in EGFR-downstream gene, P<0.0001), shorter median progression-free survival (12.0 vs. 3.0 months, P=0.060), and shorter median overall survival (18.9 vs. 25.0 months, P=0.048).
CONCLUSION: Mutations in the EGFR-downstream genes may confer resistance to EGFR-TKIs and result in poor treatment outcomes in never-smoker adenocarcinoma patients with activating EGFR mutations.

Related: Lung Cancer PTEN EGFR


Richetta AG, Silvestri V, Giancristoforo S, et al.
Mutational profiling in melanocytic tumors: multiple somatic mutations and clinical implications.
Oncology. 2014; 86(2):104-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we analyzed multiple somatic mutations in 10 genes relevant in melanoma tumorigenesis and targeted therapies. Overall, 45% of the tumors showed mutations and, in particular, 33% had multiple mutations. Based on our results, we conclude that the assessment of mutation status of multiple genes, including CDKN2A, could provide a genetic profile that can be useful as a prognostic and therapeutic marker in melanocytic tumors.

Related: CDKN2A Melanoma Skin Cancer NRAS


Fang R, Zheng C, Sun Y, et al.
Integrative genomic analysis reveals a high frequency of LKB1 genetic alteration in Chinese lung adenocarcinomas.
J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9(2):254-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) genetic alteration in lung cancer involves not only point mutations and small deletion of several base pairs but also exonic loss. However, most of recent studies in LKB1 gene status only focus on point mutations and small deletion, and thus may underestimate the actual frequency of LKB1 genetic alteration in lung cancer. Thus, an integrative analysis of LKB1 genetic alteration is timely and important for providing a better estimate for the incidence of genetic alterations in this important tumor suppressor gene. One hundred and seven lung adenocarcinomas with more than 70% tumor have been analyzed for mutation of LKB1 as well as LKB1 large deletions detection by using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis. These samples were also analyzed for EGFR, KRAS, HER2, BRAF, ALK, ROS1, and RET status in stepwise method. Among 107 lung adenocarcinomas analyzed, 29 (27.1%) harbored LKB1 genetic alteration. Twenty-three (21.5%) harbored LKB1 large exonic deletions and eight (7.48%) had LKB1 points mutations, two samples harbored both LKB1 large exonic deletions and point mutations. Eighty-seven samples (81.31%) harbored known driver mutations and 20 samples (18.69%) had no identifiable driver mutations. A high rate of LKB1 genetic alteration in Chinese lung adenocarcinomas is revealed by the integrative analysis of point mutation and exonic deletion. Moreover, LKB1 genetic alterations are concurrent with EGFR, KRAS, HER2, and CD74-ROS fusions.

Related: Lung Cancer


Ojesina AI, Lichtenstein L, Freeman SS, et al.
Landscape of genomic alterations in cervical carcinomas.
Nature. 2014; 506(7488):371-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/08/2015 Related Publications
Cervical cancer is responsible for 10-15% of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The aetiological role of infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) in cervical carcinomas is well established. Previous studies have also implicated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53, STK11 and KRAS as well as several copy-number alterations in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas. Here we report whole-exome sequencing analysis of 115 cervical carcinoma-normal paired samples, transcriptome sequencing of 79 cases and whole-genome sequencing of 14 tumour-normal pairs. Previously unknown somatic mutations in 79 primary squamous cell carcinomas include recurrent E322K substitutions in the MAPK1 gene (8%), inactivating mutations in the HLA-B gene (9%), and mutations in EP300 (16%), FBXW7 (15%), NFE2L2 (4%), TP53 (5%) and ERBB2 (6%). We also observe somatic ELF3 (13%) and CBFB (8%) mutations in 24 adenocarcinomas. Squamous cell carcinomas have higher frequencies of somatic nucleotide substitutions occurring at cytosines preceded by thymines (Tp*C sites) than adenocarcinomas. Gene expression levels at HPV integration sites were statistically significantly higher in tumours with HPV integration compared with expression of the same genes in tumours without viral integration at the same site. These data demonstrate several recurrent genomic alterations in cervical carcinomas that suggest new strategies to combat this disease.

Related: EP300 gene HLA-B NFE2L2 gene TP53 Cervical Cancer FBXW7 gene


Zhao RX, Xu ZX
Targeting the LKB1 tumor suppressor.
Curr Drug Targets. 2014; 15(1):32-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
LKB1 (also known as serine-threonine kinase 11, STK11) is a tumor suppressor, which is mutated or deleted in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) and in a variety of cancers. Physiologically, LKB1 possesses multiple cellular functions in the regulation of cell bioenergetics metabolism, cell cycle arrest, embryo development, cell polarity, and apoptosis. New studies demonstrated that LKB1 may also play a role in the maintenance of function and dynamics of hematopoietic stem cells. Over the past years, personalized therapy targeting specific genetic aberrations has attracted intense interests. Within this review, several agents with potential activity against aberrant LKB1 signaling have been discussed. Potential strategies and challenges in targeting LKB1 inactivation are also considered.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction


Mohseni M, Sun J, Lau A, et al.
A genetic screen identifies an LKB1-MARK signalling axis controlling the Hippo-YAP pathway.
Nat Cell Biol. 2014; 16(1):108-17 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
The Hippo-YAP pathway is an emerging signalling cascade involved in the regulation of stem cell activity and organ size. To identify components of this pathway, we performed an RNAi-based kinome screen in human cells. Our screen identified several kinases not previously associated with Hippo signalling that control multiple cellular processes. One of the hits, LKB1, is a common tumour suppressor whose mechanism of action is only partially understood. We demonstrate that LKB1 acts through its substrates of the microtubule affinity-regulating kinase family to regulate the localization of the polarity determinant Scribble and the activity of the core Hippo kinases. Our data also indicate that YAP is functionally important for the tumour suppressive effects of LKB1. Our results identify a signalling axis that links YAP activation with LKB1 mutations, and have implications for the treatment of LKB1-mutant human malignancies. In addition, our findings provide insight into upstream signals of the Hippo-YAP signalling cascade.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction Signal Transduction


Yiannakopoulou E
Etiology of familial breast cancer with undetected BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations: clinical implications.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2014; 37(1):1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Familial breast cancer accounts for 20-30 % of all breast cancer cases. Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes account for the majority of high risk families with both early onset breast cancer and ovarian cancer. Most of the families with less than six breast cancer cases and no ovarian cancer do not carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations that can be detected using routine sequencing protocols. Here, we aimed to review the etiology of familial breast cancer in cases without BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.
RESULTS: After excluding BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, factors proposed to contribute to familial breast cancer include: chance clustering of apparently sporadic cases, shared lifestyle, monogenic inheritance, i.e., dominant gene mutations associated with a high risk (TP53, PTEN, STK11), dominant gene mutations associated with a relatively low risk (ATM, BRIP1, RLB2), recessive gene mutations associated with horizontal inheritance patterns (sister-sister), and polygenic inheritance where susceptibility to familial breast cancer is thought to be conferred by a large number of low risk alleles.
CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggests that in the majority of cases with BRCA1 and BRCA2 negative familial breast cancer the etiology is due to interactions of intermediate or low risk alleles with environmental and lifestyle factors. Thus, a careful selection of patients submitted to genetic testing is needed. Clearly, further research is required to fully elucidate the etiology of non-BRCA familial breast cancer.

Related: Breast Cancer


Mayba O, Gnad F, Peyton M, et al.
Integrative analysis of two cell lines derived from a non-small-lung cancer patient--a panomics approach.
Pac Symp Biocomput. 2014; :75-86 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
Cancer cells derived from different stages of tumor progression may exhibit distinct biological properties, as exemplified by the paired lung cancer cell lines H1993 and H2073. While H1993 was derived from chemo-naive metastasized tumor, H2073 originated from the chemo-resistant primary tumor from the same patient and exhibits strikingly different drug response profile. To understand the underlying genetic and epigenetic bases for their biological properties, we investigated these cells using a wide range of large-scale methods including whole genome sequencing, RNA sequencing, SNP array, DNA methylation array, and de novo genome assembly. We conducted an integrative analysis of both cell lines to distinguish between potential driver and passenger alterations. Although many genes are mutated in these cell lines, the combination of DNA- and RNA-based variant information strongly implicates a small number of genes including TP53 and STK11 as likely drivers. Likewise, we found a diverse set of genes differentially expressed between these cell lines, but only a fraction can be attributed to changes in DNA copy number or methylation. This set included the ABC transporter ABCC4, implicated in drug resistance, and the metastasis associated MET oncogene. While the rich data content allowed us to reduce the space of hypotheses that could explain most of the observed biological properties, we also caution there is a lack of statistical power and inherent limitations in such single patient case studies.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer


Okon IS, Coughlan KA, Zou MH
Liver kinase B1 expression promotes phosphatase activity and abrogation of receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation in human cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(3):1639-48 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/01/2015 Related Publications
Aberrant receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation (pRTK) has been associated with diverse pathological conditions, including human neoplasms. In lung cancer, frequent liver kinase B1 (LKB1) mutations correlate with tumor progression, but potential links with pRTK remain unknown. Heightened and sustained receptor activation was demonstrated by LKB1-deficient A549 (lung) and HeLaS3 (cervical) cancer cell lines. Depletion (siRNA) of endogenous LKB1 expression in H1792 lung cancer cells also correlated with increased pRTK. However, ectopic LKB1 expression in A549 and HeLaS3 cell lines, as well as H1975 activating-EGF receptor mutant lung cancer cell resulted in dephosphorylation of several tumor-enhancing RTKs, including EGF receptor, ErbB2, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met), EphA2, rearranged during transfection (RET), and insulin-like growth factor I receptor. Receptor abrogation correlated with attenuation of phospho-Akt and increased apoptosis. Global phosphatase inhibition by orthovanadate or depletion of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) resulted in the recovery of receptor phosphorylation. Specifically, the activity of SHP-2, PTP-1β, and PTP-PEST was enhanced by LKB1-expressing cells. Our findings provide novel insight on how LKB1 loss of expression or function promotes aberrant RTK signaling and rapid growth of cancer cells.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction AKT1 Signal Transduction


Tchekmedyian A, Amos CI, Bale SJ, et al.
Findings from the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome registry of uruguay.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e79639 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/01/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is characterized by intestinal polyposis, mucocutaneous pigmentation and an increased cancer risk, usually caused by mutations of the STK11 gene. This study collected epidemiological, clinical and genetic data from all Uruguayan PJS patients.
METHODS: Clinical data were obtained from public and private medical centers and updated annually. Sequencing of the STK11 gene in one member of each family was performed.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: 25 cases in 11 unrelated families were registered (15 males, 10 females). The average age of diagnosis and death was 18 and 41 years respectively. All patients had characteristic PJS pigmentation and gastrointestinal polyps. 72% required urgent surgery due to intestinal obstruction. 3 families had multiple cases of seizure disorder, representing 20% of cases. 28% developed cancer and two patients had more than one cancer. An STK11 mutation was found in 8 of the 9 families analyzed. A unique M136K missense mutation was noted in one family. Comparing annual live births and PJS birth records from 1970 to 2009 yielded an incidence of 1 in 155,000.
CONCLUSION: The Uruguayan Registry for Peutz-Jeghers patients showed a high chance of emergent surgery, epilepsy, cancer and shortened life expectancy. The M136K missense mutation is a newly reported STK 11 mutation.


Kim HS, Mendiratta S, Kim J, et al.
Systematic identification of molecular subtype-selective vulnerabilities in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Cell. 2013; 155(3):552-66 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/01/2015 Related Publications
Context-specific molecular vulnerabilities that arise during tumor evolution represent an attractive intervention target class. However, the frequency and diversity of somatic lesions detected among lung tumors can confound efforts to identify these targets. To confront this challenge, we have applied parallel screening of chemical and genetic perturbations within a panel of molecularly annotated NSCLC lines to identify intervention opportunities tightly linked to molecular response indicators predictive of target sensitivity. Anchoring this analysis on a matched tumor/normal cell model from a lung adenocarcinoma patient identified three distinct target/response-indicator pairings that are represented with significant frequencies (6%-16%) in the patient population. These include NLRP3 mutation/inflammasome activation-dependent FLIP addiction, co-occurring KRAS and LKB1 mutation-driven COPI addiction, and selective sensitivity to a synthetic indolotriazine that is specified by a seven-gene expression signature. Target efficacies were validated in vivo, and mechanism-of-action studies informed generalizable principles underpinning cancer cell biology.

Related: CASP8 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer


Scarpa A, Sikora K, Fassan M, et al.
Molecular typing of lung adenocarcinoma on cytological samples using a multigene next generation sequencing panel.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e80478 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/01/2015 Related Publications
Identification of driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma has led to development of targeted agents that are already approved for clinical use or are in clinical trials. Therefore, the number of biomarkers that will be needed to assess is expected to rapidly increase. This calls for the implementation of methods probing the mutational status of multiple genes for inoperable cases, for which limited cytological or bioptic material is available. Cytology specimens from 38 lung adenocarcinomas were subjected to the simultaneous assessment of 504 mutational hotspots of 22 lung cancer-associated genes using 10 nanograms of DNA and Ion Torrent PGM next-generation sequencing. Thirty-six cases were successfully sequenced (95%). In 24/36 cases (67%) at least one mutated gene was observed, including EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, BRAF, TP53, PTEN, MET, SMAD4, FGFR3, STK11, MAP2K1. EGFR and KRAS mutations, respectively found in 6/36 (16%) and 10/36 (28%) cases, were mutually exclusive. Nine samples (25%) showed concurrent alterations in different genes. The next-generation sequencing test used is superior to current standard methodologies, as it interrogates multiple genes and requires limited amounts of DNA. Its applicability to routine cytology samples might allow a significant increase in the fraction of lung cancer patients eligible for personalized therapy.

Related: Lung Cancer


Jin Y, Li F, Zheng C, et al.
NEDD9 promotes lung cancer metastasis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(10):2294-304 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis is the major cause for high mortality of lung cancer with the underlying mechanisms poorly understood. The scaffolding protein neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9 (NEDD9) has been identified as a pro-metastasis gene in several types of cancers including melanoma and breast cancer. However, the exact role and related mechanism of NEDD9 in regulating lung cancer metastasis still remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that NEDD9 knockdown significantly inhibits migration, invasion and metastasis of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The pro-metastasis role of Nedd9 in lung cancer is further supported by studies in mice models of spontaneous cancer metastasis. Moreover, we find that NEDD9 promotes lung cancer cell migration and invasion through the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) potentially via focal adhesion kinase activation. More importantly, NEDD9 expression inversely correlates with E-cadherin expression in human lung cancer specimens, consistent with the findings from in vitro studies. Taken together, this study highlights that NEDD9 is an important mediator promotes lung cancer metastasis via EMT.

Related: Lung Cancer


Tanwar PS, Mohapatra G, Chiang S, et al.
Loss of LKB1 and PTEN tumor suppressor genes in the ovarian surface epithelium induces papillary serous ovarian cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(3):546-53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Epithelial ovarian cancer presents mostly with serous, endometrioid or mucinous histology but is treated as a single disease. The development of histotype-specific therapy has been challenging because of the relative lack of studies attributing disrupted pathways to a distinct histotype differentiation. mTOR activation is frequently associated with poor prognosis in serous ovarian cancer, which is the most common and most deadly histotype. However, the mechanisms dysregulating mTOR in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer are unknown. We detected copy number loss and correlated lower expression levels of LKB1, TSC1, TSC2 and PTEN tumor suppressor genes for upstream regulators of mTOR activity in up to 80% in primary ovarian serous tumor databases, with LKB1 allelic loss-predominant. Reduced LKB1 protein was usually associated with increased mTOR activity in both serous ovarian cancer cell lines and primary tumors. Conditional deletion of Lkb1 in murine ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells caused papillary hyperplasia and shedding but not tumors. Simultaneous deletion of Lkb1 and Pten, however, led to development of high-grade ovarian serous histotype tumors with 100% penetrance that expressed WT1, ERα, PAX8, TP53 and cytokeratin 8, typical markers used in the differential diagnosis of serous ovarian cancer. Neither hysterectomy nor salpingectomy interfered with progression of ovarian tumorigenesis, suggesting that neither uterine nor Fallopian tube epithelial cells were contributing to tumorigenesis. These results implicate LKB1 loss in the OSE in the pathogenesis of serous ovarian cancer and provide a compelling rationale for investigating the therapeutic potential of targeting LKB1 signaling in patients with this deadly disease.

Related: Ovarian Cancer PTEN


Kelleher FC, O'Sullivan H
Oxford and the Savannah: can the hippo provide an explanation for Peto's paradox?
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(3):557-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peto's paradox is the counterintuitive finding that increasing body mass and thereby cell number does not correlate with an increase in cancer incidence across different species. The Hippo signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved system that determines organ size by regulating apoptosis and cell proliferation. It also affects cell growth by microRNA-29 (miR-29)-mediated cross-talk to the mTOR signaling pathway. Whether these pathways that decide organ size could explain this paradox merits consideration. Inactivation of most genes of the Hippo pathway in Drosophila melanogaster genetic screens causes excessive tissue-specific growth of developing tissues. Altered Hippo pathway activity is frequently found in diverse tumor types, but mutations of component pathway genes are rare. Most Hippo pathway components are encoded by tumor suppressor genes (TSG), but an exception is the downstream effector gene called YAP. Activity of the Hippo pathway causes deactivating phosphorylation of YES-associated protein (YAP) with nuclear exclusion. YAP can also be phosphorylated at a second site, S127, by AKT. YAP induces the expression of genes responsible for proliferation and suppression of apoptosis. Resolving Peto's paradox may serendipitously provide new insights into the biology and treatment of cancer. This article considers Hippo signaling and Peto's paradox in the context of TSG-oncogene computed models. Interspecies differences in dietary composition, metabolic rates, and anabolic processes are also discussed in the context of Hippo-mTOR signaling. The metabolically important LKB1-AMPK (liver kinase B1-AMP activated protein kinase) signaling axis that suppresses the mTOR pathway is also considered.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction Signal Transduction


Moon HS, Mantzoros CS
Adiponectin and metformin additively attenuate IL1β-induced malignant potential of colon cancer.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2013; 20(6):849-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both adiponectin (AD) and metformin (Met) have been proposed to downregulate cell proliferation of colon cancer cells, but whether their effect might be additive has not been studied to date. Genetic studies in humans have suggested an important role for interleukin 1β (IL1β) in cancer pathogenesis. Direct evidence that IL1β contributes to the development of colon cancer has not yet been fully confirmed and no previous studies have evaluated how IL1β may interact with AD and/or Met to regulate malignant potential and intracellular signaling pathways in human and mouse colon cancer cells. We conducted in vitro studies using human (LoVo) and mouse (MCA38) colon cancer cell lines to evaluate whether AD and Met alone or in combination may antagonize IL1β-regulated malignant potential in human and mouse colon cancer cell lines. IL1β increased malignant potential and regulated the expression of tumor suppressor (p53) and cell cycle regulatory genes (p21, p27, and cyclin E2) in human and mouse colon cancer cell lines. These effects were reversed by co-administration of AD and/or Met and were additively altered by AD and Met in combination in a STAT3- and AMPK/LKB1-dependent manner. We also observed using fluorescence activated cell sorter analysis that IL1β-regulated cell cycle progression is altered by AD and Met alone or in combination. Our novel mechanistic studies provide evidence for an important role for IL1β in colon cancer and suggest that AD and/or Met might be useful agents in the management or chemoprevention of IL1β-induced colon carcinogenesis.

Related: Apoptosis


Wang HH, Xie NN, Li QY, et al.
Exome sequencing revealed novel germline mutations in Chinese Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patients.
Dig Dis Sci. 2014; 59(1):64-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant disorder which predisposes to the development of various cancers. Germline mutation in the serine/threonine kinase 11 gene (STK11) is known as one of the major causes of PJS. However, a notable proportion of PJS samples do not carry any mutation in STK11, suggesting possible genetic heterogeneity in the disease and the existence of other causative variants.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In order to identify other germline variants in the coding regions of the genome that are associated with PJS, we performed exome sequencing in three Chinese individuals with PJS and identified 16 common germline variants (12 protein-coding including STK11, 4 in pre-microRNAs). We further validated protein-coding variants in six PJS individuals (three with wild-type STK11) and predicted the functional impact. As result, we found that 7 coding variants are likely to have functional impacts. Especially, we identified 2 new germline variants which are represented in all six PJS samples and are independent of STK11 mutation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided an exomic view of PJS. The germline variants identified in our analysis may help to resolve the complex genetic background of the disease and thus lead to the discovery of novel causative variants of PJS.


Meng J, Majidi M, Fang B, et al.
The tumor suppressor gene TUSC2 (FUS1) sensitizes NSCLC to the AKT inhibitor MK2206 in LKB1-dependent manner.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77067 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
TUSC2-defective gene expression is detected in the majority of lung cancers and is associated with worse overall survival. We analyzed the effects of TUSC2 re-expression on tumor cell sensitivity to the AKT inhibitor, MK2206, and explored their mutual signaling connections, in vitro and in vivo. TUSC2 transient expression in three LKB1-defective non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines combined with MK2206 treatment resulted in increased repression of cell viability and colony formation, and increased apoptotic activity. In contrast, TUSC2 did not affect the response to MK2206 treatment for two LKB1-wild type NSCLC cell lines. In vivo, TUSC2 systemic delivery, by nanoparticle gene transfer, combined with MK2206 treatment markedly inhibited growth of tumors in a human LKB1-defective H322 lung cancer xenograft mouse model. Biochemical analysis showed that TUSC2 transient expression in LKB1-defective NSCLC cells significantly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and enzymatic activity. More importantly, AMPK gene knockdown abrogated TUSC2-MK2206 cooperation, as evidenced by reduced sensitivity to the combined treatment. Together, TUSC2 re-expression and MK2206 treatment was more effective in inhibiting the phosphorylation and kinase activities of AKT and mTOR proteins than either single agent alone. In conclusion, these findings support the hypothesis that TUSC2 expression status is a biological variable that potentiates MK2206 sensitivity in LKB1-defective NSCLC cells, and identifies the AMPK/AKT/mTOR signaling axis as an important regulator of this activity.

Related: Apoptosis Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer AKT1


Pearce EL, Poffenberger MC, Chang CH, Jones RG
Fueling immunity: insights into metabolism and lymphocyte function.
Science. 2013; 342(6155):1242454 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymphocytes face major metabolic challenges upon activation. They must meet the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of increased cell proliferation and also adapt to changing environmental conditions, in which nutrients and oxygen may be limiting. An emerging theme in immunology is that metabolic reprogramming and lymphocyte activation are intricately linked. However, why T cells adopt specific metabolic programs and the impact that these programs have on T cell function and, ultimately, immunological outcome remain unclear. Research on tumor cell metabolism has provided valuable insight into metabolic pathways important for cell proliferation and the influence of metabolites themselves on signal transduction and epigenetic programming. In this Review, we highlight emerging concepts regarding metabolic reprogramming in proliferating cells and discuss their potential impact on T cell fate and function.

Related: Mitochondrial Mutations in Cancer Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction


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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. STK11, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/STK11.htm Accessed: date

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