Home > Treatments > Chemotherapy > Drugs > Mitomycin


"An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis." (MeSH 2013)

Found this page useful?

Web Resources: Mitomycin
Latest Research Publications

Web Resources: Mitomycin (6 links)

Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Hassan M, Qureshi A, Nasir H
Recurrent verrucous carcinoma of the urinary bladder after transurethral resection followed by intravesical mitomycin, and a review of the literature.
BMJ Case Rep. 2016; 2016 [PubMed] Related Publications
Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a locally invasive, non-metastasising well differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is very rare in the urinary bladder and mostly associated with schistosomiasis. It has a characteristic multilobular appearance with small surface projections on contrast cystogram. Owing to its bland cytology, it is a challenging diagnosis. We report a case of VC of the bladder-unrelated to schistosomiasis and involving the prostate-that recurred after transurethral resection of the tumour and prostate followed by six doses of intravesical mitomycin. To the best of our knowledge, no such case has been reported from Pakistan.

Kalamkar C, Radke N, Mukherjee A, Radke S
Xeroderma pigmentosum with bilateral ocular surface squamous neoplasia and review of the literature.
BMJ Case Rep. 2016; 2016 [PubMed] Related Publications
Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare genetic disorder associated with various ocular malignancies. Here we report a single paediatric case of xeroderma pigmentosum with bilateral ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) presenting with diffuse lesion in one eye and a large mass in the other eye. Diffuse OSSN in one eye was treated with topical chemotherapy using mitomycin-C (0.04%) and the large OSSN in the other eye was treated with a combination of surgery and topical chemotherapy. Long-term follow-up and a multimodality treatment approach are necessary to identify and manage recurrences of OSSN in XP.

Ko JC, Chen JC, Wang TJ, et al.
Astaxanthin down-regulates Rad51 expression via inactivation of AKT kinase to enhance mitomycin C-induced cytotoxicity in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2016; 105:91-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exhibit a wide range of beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. However, the molecular mechanism of astaxanthin-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Rad51 plays a central role in homologous recombination, and studies show that chemo-resistant carcinomas exhibit high levels of Rad51 expression. In this study, astaxanthin treatment inhibited cell viability and proliferation of two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1703. Astaxanthin treatment (2.5-20 μM) decreased Rad51 expression and phospho-AKT(Ser473) protein level in a time and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active AKT (AKT-CA) vector rescued the decreased Rad51 mRNA and protein levels in astaxanthin-treated NSCLC cells. Combined treatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin) further decreased the Rad51 expression in astaxanthin-exposed A549 and H1703 cells. Knockdown of Rad51 expression by transfection with si-Rad51 RNA or cotreatment with LY294002 further enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of astaxanthin. Additionally, mitomycin C (MMC) as an anti-tumor antibiotic is widely used in clinical NSCLC chemotherapy. Combination of MMC and astaxanthin synergistically resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced phospho-AKT(Ser473) level and Rad51 expression. Overexpression of AKT-CA or Flag-tagged Rad51 reversed the astaxanthin and MMC-induced synergistic cytotoxicity. In contrast, pretreatment with LY294002 further decreased the cell viability in astaxanthin and MMC co-treated cells. In conclusion, astaxanthin enhances MMC-induced cytotoxicity by decreasing Rad51 expression and AKT activation. These findings may provide rationale to combine astaxanthin with MMC for the treatment of NSCLC.

Villalona-Calero MA, Duan W, Zhao W, et al.
Veliparib Alone or in Combination with Mitomycin C in Patients with Solid Tumors With Functional Deficiency in Homologous Recombination Repair.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2016; 108(7) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: BRCA germline mutations are being targeted for development of PARP inhibitors. BRCA genes collaborate with several others in the Fanconi Anemia (FA) pathway. We screened cancer patients' tumors for FA functional defects then aimed to establish the safety/feasibility of administering PARP inhibitors as monotherapy and combined with a DNA-breaking agent.
METHODS: Patients underwent FA functional screening for the presence (or lack) of tumor FancD2 nuclear foci formation on their archival tumor material, utilizing a newly developed method (Fanconi Anemia triple-stain immunofluorescence [FATSI]), performed in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified laboratory. FATSI-negative patients were selected for enrollment in a two-arm dose escalation trial of veliparib, or veliparib/mitomycin-C (MMC).
RESULTS: One hundred eighty-five of 643 (28.7%) screened patients were FATSI-negative. Sixty-one received veliparib or veliparib/MMC through 14 dose levels. Moderate/severe toxicities included fatigue (DLT at veliparib 400mg BID), diarrhea, and thrombocytopenia. Recommended doses are 300mg BID veliparib and veliparib 200mg BID for 21 days following 10mg/m(2) MMC every 28 days. Six antitumor responses occurred, five in the combination arm (3 breast, 1 ovarian, 1 endometrial [uterine], and 1 non-small cell lung cancer). Two patients have received 36 and 60 cycles to date. BRCA germline analysis among 51 patients revealed five deleterious mutations while a targeted FA sequencing gene panel showed missense/nonsense mutations in 29 of 49 FATSI-negative tumor specimens.
CONCLUSIONS: FATSI screening showed that a substantial number of patients' tumors have FA functional deficiency, which led to germline alterations in several patients' tumors. Veliparib alone or with MMC was safely administered to these patients and produced clinical benefit in some. However, a better understanding of resistance mechanisms in this setting is needed.

Carvalho DR
Improving Access to Adjuvant Intravesical Therapy for Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer in a Community Hospital.
Urol Nurs. 2015 Nov-Dec; 35(6):287-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Relative to the high incidence of bladder cancer in Connecticut, an analysis of practice patterns in treatment of early stage bladder cancer was undertaken in a 275-bed community hospital, to determine if the practice patterns mirrored National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. A nurse-led performance improvement project followed. Subsequently change in bladder cancer recurrence rates related to change in practice patterns was assessed.

Patil Y, Amitay Y, Ohana P, et al.
Targeting of pegylated liposomal mitomycin-C prodrug to the folate receptor of cancer cells: Intracellular activation and enhanced cytotoxicity.
J Control Release. 2016; 225:87-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mitomycin C (MMC) is a powerful anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-tumor antibiotic, often active against multidrug resistant cells. Despite a broad spectrum of antitumor activity, MMC clinical use is relatively limited due to its fast clearance and dose-limiting toxicity. To exploit the potential antitumor activity of MMC and reduce its toxicity we have previously developed a formulation of pegylated liposomes with a lipophilic prodrug of MMC (PL-MLP), activated by endogenous reducing agents which are abundant in the tumor cell environment in the form of different thiols. PL-MLP has minimal in vitro cytotoxicity unless reducing agents are added to the cell culture to activate the prodrug. In the present study, we hypothesized that targeting PL-MLP via folate receptors will facilitate intracellular activation of prodrug and enhance cytotoxic activity without added reducing agents. We grafted a lipophilic folate conjugate (folate-PEG(5000)-DSPE) to formulate folate targeted liposomes (FT-PL-MLP) and examined in vitro cell uptake and cytotoxic activity in cancer cell lines with high folate receptors (HiFR). 3H-cholesterol-hexadecyl ether (3H-Chol)-radiolabeled liposomes were prepared to study liposome-cell binding in parallel to cellular uptake of prodrug MLP. 3H-Chol and MLP cell uptake levels were 4-fold and 9-fold greater in KB HiFR cells when FT-PL-MLP is compared to non-targeted PL-MLP liposomes. The cytotoxic activity of FT-PL-MLP liposomes was significantly increased up to ~5-fold compared with PL-MLP liposomes in all tested HiFR expressing cell lines. The enhanced uptake and intracytoplasmic liposome delivery was confirmed by confocal fluorescence studies with Rhodamine-labeled liposomes. In vivo, no significant differences in pharmacokinetics and biodistribution were observed when PL-MLP was compared to FT-PL-MLP by the intravenous route. However, when liposomes were directly injected into the peritoneal cavity of mice with malignant ascites of J6456 HiFR lymphoma cells, the tumor cell levels of MLP were significantly greater with the folate-targeted liposomes. Thus, folate targeting enhances liposome uptake by tumor cells enabling intracellular activation of prodrug in the absence of exogenous reducing agents, and leading to increased cytotoxicity. These results may be particularly relevant to the application of folate-targeted PL-MLP in intracavitary or intravesical treatment of cancer.

Feng TS, Rusnack S, Kaminski J, Fleshner P
Appendicovesical Fistula Following Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor With Mitomycin C.
Urology. 2016; 89:e1-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
Appendicovesical fistula is a rare entity, with only 116 cases reported to date. It is an uncommon form of enterovesical fistula and often associated with a history of appendicitis. It can present as pneumaturia, fecaluria, and recurrent urinary tract infections, not unlike symptoms of enterovesical fistulas. We present a novel case of appendicovesical fistula developing after transurethral resection of bladder tumor and instillation of mitomycin C. Treatment included laparoscopic appendectomy and bladder repair.

Almstedt K, Fasching PA, Scharl A, et al.
Mitomycin C and Capecitabine (MiX Trial) for Therapy of Patients with Metastasized, Breast Cancer Pretreated with Anthracycline.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(1):419-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this single-arm, prospective, multicenter phase II trial (MiX) was to increase treatment options for women with metastatic breast cancer pretreated with anthracycline and taxane by evaluation of the efficacy and toxicity of the combination of mitomycin C and capecitabine.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 03/2004 to 06/2007, a total of 39 patients were recruited and received mitomycin C in combination with capecitabine. The primary end-point was to determinate the tumor response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors and the rate of toxicities (safety). The secondary study objective was the evaluation of the time to progression (i.e. efficacy).
RESULTS: The median time to progression was 9.3 months (95% confidence interval=6.6-12.0 months) and the median survival was 12.8 months (95% confidence interval=6.8-18.8 months). Most treatment-related adverse events were mild to moderate.
CONCLUSION: Mitomycin C and capecitabine is a good taxane-free option in patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracycline.

Ojha R, Jha V, Singh SK
Gemcitabine and mitomycin induced autophagy regulates cancer stem cell pool in urothelial carcinoma cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1863(2):347-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is characterized by therapeutic resistance and frequent tumor relapse. It has been suggested that UC are driven by a rare subset of cancer stem cells (CSCs). In order to understand UC recurrence post therapy, we investigated the behavior of urothelial CSCs after exposure to commonly used chemotherapeutic agents, gemcitabine (GC) and mitomycin (MM). Although, the role of autophagy in CSC maintenance is well documented, the relationship of autophagy and CSCs with respect to drug resistance remains elusive. In the present study, we found that both GC and MM increased the percentage of CSCs in primary cultured urothelial carcinoma cells (UCC). These CSCs exhibited higher autophagy flux and higher expression of glycolytic genes. Inhibition of autophagy led to decrease in the expression of glycolysis genes. Inhibition of autophagy and glycolysis caused decrease in expression of stemness genes (Oct-4, Nanog), drug resistance genes (ABCG2, MDR1) and sensitized CSCs to GC and MM induced apoptosis. This finding suggests that autophagy and glycolysis may play a central role in drug resistance. Altogether, we conclude that autophagy may support cell survival by buffering bioenergetic demands for maintenance of high glycolytic flux in CSCs. Therefore, autophagy-based, "customized" combinatorial approaches may provide a new method to counter CSC-driven resistance and may prevent relapse in UC. The synergistic cytotoxic effect of GC/ MM with autophagy inhibitor (chloroquine) or with glycolytic inhibitor (2-deoxyglucose) may be of help in improving the outcome in patients with urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder.

Bahouth Z, Halachmi S, Moskovitz B, Nativ O
The role of hyperthermia as a treatment for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2016; 16(2):189-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a high tendency for recurrence and progression. Currently, all known intravesical agents are associated with adverse effects (AEs) and limited efficacy. The combination of hyperthermia (HT) with intravesical Mitomycin C (MMC) chemotherapy has been shown to improve outcomes. The added efficacy of HT to MMC was first shown in preclinical studies. The reports on patients with NMIBC have indicated that the treatment is safe and well tolerated. Several clinical studies reported the efficacy of radiofrequency-induced chemotherapy effect (RITE) in the treatment of patients with NMIBC. This modality was shown to be superior to MMC alone. RITE was effective also in patients with high-risk NMIBC, including those who failed Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). This study provides an updated review of literature regarding the use of RITE in patients with NMIBC.

Leon O, Guren MG, Radu C, et al.
Phase I study of cetuximab in combination with 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin C and radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced anal cancer.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(18):2740-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and mitomycin C (MMC)-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is standard treatment for anal squamous cell carcinoma. In this phase I study cetuximab was added and the primary aim was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 5FU and MMC in this combination.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with locally advanced anal cancer, T2 (≥4 cm)-4N0-3M0, received weekly standard doses of cetuximab starting 1 week before CRT. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) was given to 57.5/54.0/48.6 Gy in 27 fractions to primary tumour/lymph node metastases/adjuvant lymph node regions. 5FU/MMC was given concomitantly on RT weeks 1 and 5 according to a predefined dose escalation schedule.
RESULTS: Thirteen patients were enrolled. Two patients discontinued cetuximab due to hypersensitivity reaction. The median age was 65 years (range 46-70), nine were females, and 85% had stage IIIB disease. Dose-limiting toxicity events (diarrheoa, febrile neutropenia and thrombocytopenia) occurred in 3 of 11 patients. The most common grade 3-4 side-effects were radiation dermatitis (63%), haematologic toxicity (54%), and diarrheoa (36%). No treatment-related deaths occurred. Three months following completion of treatment, ten patients (91%) had a local complete remission (CR), but two patients had developed liver metastases, yielding a total CR rate of 73%.
CONCLUSION: The MTDs were determined as 5FU 800 mg/m(2) on RT days 1-4 and 29-32 and MMC 8 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 29 when combined with IMRT/VMAT with SIB and cetuximab in locally advanced anal cancer.

Singh SV, Ajay AK, Mohammad N, et al.
Proteasomal inhibition sensitizes cervical cancer cells to mitomycin C-induced bystander effect: the role of tumor microenvironment.
Cell Death Dis. 2015; 6:e1934 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2017 Related Publications
Inaccessibility of drugs to poorly vascularized strata of tumor is one of the limiting factors in cancer therapy. With the advent of bystander effect (BE), it is possible to perpetuate the cellular damage from drug-exposed cells to the unexposed ones. However, the role of infiltrating tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), an integral part of the tumor microenvironment, in further intensifying BE remains obscure. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of mitomycin C (MMC), a chemotherapeutic drug, to induce BE in cervical carcinoma. By using cervical cancer cells and differentiated macrophages, we demonstrate that MMC induces the expression of FasL via upregulation of PPARγ in both cell types (effector cells) in vitro, but it failed to induce bystander killing in cervical cancer cells. This effect was primarily owing to the proteasomal degradation of death receptors in the cervical cancer cells. Pre-treatment of cervical cancer cells with MG132, a proteasomal inhibitor, facilitates MMC-mediated bystander killing in co-culture and condition medium transfer experiments. In NOD/SCID mice bearing xenografted HeLa tumors administered with the combination of MMC and MG132, tumor progression was significantly reduced in comparison with those treated with either agent alone. FasL expression was increased in TAMs, and the enhanced level of Fas was observed in these tumor sections, thereby causing increased apoptosis. These findings suggest that restoration of death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway in tumor cells with concomitant activation of TAMs could effectively restrict tumor growth.

Kuijpers AM, Hauptmann M, Aalbers AG, et al.
Cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: The learning curve reassessed.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2016; 42(2):244-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CytoReductive Surgery and Hyperthermic IntraPEritoneal Chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) is now the preferred treatment of many peritoneal surface malignancies. In this retrospective study we aimed to analyze how several performance indicators changed during the first 100 CRS-HIPEC procedures in hospitals which recently introduced this treatment, and compare those with an experienced institution.
METHODS: The first consecutive 100 CRS-HIPEC procedures of three institutions were compared to those of the pioneer hospital. The training provided by the pioneer hospital consisted of hands-on training during the first ten procedures; hereafter guidance was available on consult basis. Operation characteristics, morbidity and completeness of cytoreduction were evaluated by case sequence. Locally-estimated-scatter-plot smoothing was used to evaluate the learning curve.
RESULTS: From four institutions 372 cases were included. A macroscopic complete cytoreduction was reached in 66% of the cases in the pioneer hospital and in 86% in the new hospitals (p < 0.001). Complete cytoreduction rates were higher at start off in the new institutions compared with the experienced institution and increased significantly in the first 100 procedures. The new hospitals started with lower morbidity than the experienced hospital, which did not significantly decrease during the study period.
CONCLUSION: New institutions that were trained and mentored by an experienced CRS-HIPEC hospital performed better from the beginning with regard to complete cytoreduction and morbidity rate with than the experienced center. An improvement in complete cytoreduction rate during the first 100 procedures was observed in the new institutions.

Balcı M, Yağcı R, Güler E, et al.
Corneal melanosis successfully treated using topical mitomycin-C and alcohol corneal epitheliectomy: a 3-year follow-up case report.
Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2015 Jul-Aug; 78(4):255-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a case of primary acquired corneal melanosis without atypia associated with corneal haze in a patient with a history of limbal malignant melanoma and the effect of mitomycin-C. A 75-year-old woman with a history of limbal malignant melanoma presented with loss of vision in right eye. Corneal examination showed a patchy melanotic pigmentation with a central haze. Topical mitomycin-C improved visual acuity and corneal haze. However, the pigmented lesions persisted, and they were removed with alcohol corneal epitheliectomy. Histopathological examination demonstrated primary acquired melanosis without atypia. The lesions were successfully removed, and there were no recurrences during the follow-up period of 36 months. The association of conjunctival and corneal melanosis without atypia is a rare condition. In addition, co-existence of central corneal haze and melanosis may decrease visual acuity. Topical mitomycin-C and alcohol corneal epitheliectomy can be useful treatments in this condition.

Song X, Dilly AK, Choudry HA, et al.
Hypoxia Promotes Synergy between Mitomycin C and Bortezomib through a Coordinated Process of Bcl-xL Phosphorylation and Mitochondrial Translocation of p53.
Mol Cancer Res. 2015; 13(12):1533-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2017 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis (CPC) exhibits severe tumor hypoxia, leading to drug resistance and disease aggressiveness. This study demonstrates that the combination of the chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induced synergistic cytotoxicity and apoptosis, which was even more effective under hypoxia in colorectal cancer cells. The combination of mitomycin C and bortezomib at sublethal doses induced activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and resulted in Bcl-xL phosphorylation at Serine 62, leading to dissociation of Bcl-xL from proapoptotic Bak. Interestingly, the intracellular level of p53 became elevated and p53 translocated to the mitochondria during the combinatorial treatment, in particular under hypoxia. The coordinated action of Bcl-xL phosphorylation and p53 translocation to the mitochondria resulted in conformational activation of Bak oligomerization, facilitating cytochrome c release and apoptosis induction. In addition, the combinatorial treatment with mitomycin C and bortezomib significantly inhibited intraperitoneal tumor growth in LS174T cells and increased apoptosis, especially under hypoxic conditions in vivo. This study provides a preclinical rationale for the use of combination therapies for CPC patients.
IMPLICATIONS: The combination of a chemotherapy agent and proteasome inhibitor at sublethal doses induced synergistic apoptosis, in particular under hypoxia, in vitro and in vivo through coordinated action of Bcl-xL and p53 on Bak activation.

Zhou Q, Ye M, Lu Y, et al.
Curcumin Improves the Tumoricidal Effect of Mitomycin C by Suppressing ABCG2 Expression in Stem Cell-Like Breast Cancer Cells.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0136694 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2017 Related Publications
Cancer cells with stem cell-like properties contribute to the development of resistance to chemotherapy and eventually to tumor relapses. The current study investigated the potential of curcumin to reduce breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) population for sensitizing breast cancer cells to mitomycin C (MMC) both in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin improved the sensitivity of paclitaxel, cisplatin, and doxorubicin in breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, as shown by the more than 2-fold decrease in the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of these chemotherapeutic agents. In addition, curcumin sensitized the BCSCs of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 to MMC by 5- and 15-fold, respectively. The BCSCs could not grow to the fifth generation in the presence of curcumin and MMC. MMC or curcumin alone only marginally reduced the BCSC population in the mammospheres; however, together, they reduced the BCSC population in CD44+CD24-/low cells by more than 75% (29.34% to 6.86%). Curcumin sensitized BCSCs through a reduction in the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCG2 and ABCC1. We demonstrated that fumitremorgin C, a selective ABCG2 inhibitor, reduced BCSC survival to a similar degree as curcumin did. Curcumin sensitized breast cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs by reducing the BCSC population mainly through a reduction in the expression of ABCG2.

Sooriakumaran P, Chiocchia V, Dutton S, et al.
Predictive Factors for Time to Progression after Hyperthermic Mitomycin C Treatment for High-Risk Non-Muscle Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder: An Observational Cohort Study of 97 Patients.
Urol Int. 2016; 96(1):83-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Hyperthermic mitomycin (HM) is a novel treatment modality for selected patients with high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). We sought to determine predictors of response to this therapy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A longitudinal, cohort study of 97 patients with high-risk NMIBC treated with ≥4 HM instillations on a prophylactic schedule was conducted. The primary outcome was time-to-progression survival; secondary outcomes were overall survival, cancer-specific survival, and adverse events. Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, Cox proportional hazards modelling, and univariate and multivariable regression were performed.
RESULTS: The presence of initial complete response (CR; no evidence of disease at first check video-cystoscopy and urine cytology) post-HM treatment was an independent predictor of good response to HM. Female patients and those without carcinoma in situ (CIS) also appeared to respond better to the intervention. The overall bladder preservation rate at a median of 27 months was 81.4%; 17/97 (17.5%) patients died during the course of the study.
CONCLUSIONS: High-risk NMIBC patients can be safely treated with HM and have good oncological outcome. However, those without an initial CR have a poor prognosis and should be counselled towards adopting other treatment methodologies such as cystectomy. Female gender and lack of CIS may be good prognostic indicators for response to HM.

Ko JC, Wang TJ, Chang PY, et al.
Minocycline enhances mitomycin C-induced cytotoxicity through down-regulating ERK1/2-mediated Rad51 expression in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2015; 97(3):331-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Minocycline is a semisynthetic tetracycline derivative; it has anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects distinct from its antimicrobial function. However, the molecular mechanism of minocycline-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Rad51 plays a central role in homologous recombination and high levels of Rad51 expression are observed in chemo- or radioresistant carcinomas. Our previous studies have shown that the MKK1/2-ERK1/2 signal pathway maintains the expression of Rad51 in NSCLC cells. In this study, minocycline treatment inhibited cell viability and proliferation of two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1975. Treatment with minocycline decreased Rad51 mRNA and protein levels through MKK1/2-ERK1/2 inactivation. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active MKK1 (MKK1-CA) vectors significantly rescued the decreased Rad51 protein and mRNA levels in minocycline-treated NSCLC cells. However, combined treatment with MKK1/2 inhibitor U0126 and minocycline further decreased the Rad51 expression and cell viability of NSCLC cells. Knocking down Rad51 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of Rad51 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of minocycline. Mitomycin C (MMC) is typically used as a first or second line regimen to treat NSCLC. Compared to a single agent alone, MMC combined with minocycline resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced activation of phospho-ERK1/2, and reduced Rad51 protein levels. Overexpression of MKK1-CA or Flag-tagged Rad51 could reverse the minocycline and MMC-induced synergistic cytotoxicity. These findings may have implications for the rational design of future drug regimens incorporating minocycline and MMC for the treatment of NSCLC.

Rouprêt M, Babjuk M, Compérat E, et al.
European Association of Urology Guidelines on Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Cell Carcinoma: 2015 Update.
Eur Urol. 2015; 68(5):868-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: The European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines panel on upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma (UTUC) has prepared updated guidelines to aid clinicians in the current evidence-based management of UTUC and to incorporate recommendations into clinical practice.
OBJECTIVE: To provide a brief overview of the EAU guidelines on UTUC as an aid to clinicians.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The recommendations provided in the current guidelines are based on a thorough review of available UTUC guidelines and articles identified following a systematic search of Medline. Data on urothelial malignancies and UTUC were searched using these keywords: urinary tract cancer; urothelial carcinomas; upper urinary tract, carcinoma; renal pelvis; ureter; bladder cancer; chemotherapy; nephroureterectomy; adjuvant treatment; instillation; neoadjuvant treatment; recurrence; risk factors; and survival. References were weighted by a panel of experts.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Due to the rarity of UTUC, there are insufficient data to provide strong recommendations (ie, grade A). However, the results of recent multicentre studies are now available, and there is a growing interest in UTUC. The 2009 TNM classification is recommended. Recommendations are given for diagnosis and risk stratification as well as radical and conservative treatment, and prognostic factors are discussed. A single postoperative dose of intravesical mitomycin after nephroureterectomy reduces the risk of bladder tumour recurrence. Recommendations are also provided for patient follow-up after different therapeutic strategies.
CONCLUSIONS: These guidelines contain information on the management of individual patients according to a current standardised approach. Urologists should take into account the specific clinical characteristics of each patient when determining the optimal treatment regimen, based on the proposed risk stratification of these tumours.
PATIENT SUMMARY: Urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract is rare, but because 60% of these tumours are invasive at diagnosis, an appropriate diagnosis is most important. A number of known risk factors exist.

Golan T, Grenader T, Ohana P, et al.
Pegylated liposomal mitomycin C prodrug enhances tolerance of mitomycin C: a phase 1 study in advanced solid tumor patients.
Cancer Med. 2015; 4(10):1472-83 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2017 Related Publications
Mitomycin C (MMC) has potent cytotoxicity but cumulative toxicity limits widespread use. In animals, pegylated liposomal mitomycin C lipid-based prodrug (PL-MLP) was well tolerated and more effective than free MMC. We evaluated PL-MLP in patients with advanced cancer. Twenty-seven patients were treated in escalating dose cohorts of 0.5-3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.15-1.03 mg/kg MMC) every 4 weeks for up to 12 cycles, unless disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. Pharmacokinetics were assessed during cycles 1 and 3. Per protocol maximum tolerated dose was not reached at 3.5 mg/kg. However, prolonged thrombocytopenia developed after repeated doses of 3 mg/kg or cumulative doses of 10-12 mg/kg. Dose-related grade 3 or higher adverse events included fatigue, anemia, and decreased platelets. Cmax and AUC0-∞ increased linearly over the dose range 0.5-2.0 mg/kg, and greater than linearly from 2.5 to 3.5 mg/kg; there were no significant differences in clearance of MLP between cycles 1 and 3. Median t1/2 was 23 h among dose cohorts, with no trend by dose or cycle. One patient had a partial response. Stable disease was observed in 10 patients across all dose levels. PL-MLP has a long circulation time, was well tolerated, and can be administered to heavily pretreated patients at a single dose of 3.0 mg/kg and cumulative dose of 10-12 mg/kg before development of prolonged thrombocytopenia; this is nearly threefold the equivalent dose of MMC tolerated historically. This formulation may be active in a variety of tumor types and is better tolerated than free MMC.

Geijsen ED, de Reijke TM, Koning CC, et al.
Combining Mitomycin C and Regional 70 MHz Hyperthermia in Patients with Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Pilot Study.
J Urol. 2015; 194(5):1202-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Despite intravesical therapy with immunotherapy or chemotherapy intermediate and high risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer is associated with a high risk of recurrence and progression to muscle invasive bladder carcinoma. While intravesical hyperthermia combined with mitomycin C has proved effective to treat nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, there is less experience with invasive regional 70 MHz hyperthermia and mitomycin C. Therefore, we examined the safety and feasibility of this treatment combination for intermediate and high risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2009 and 2011, 20 patients with intermediate and high risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer were treated with intravesical mitomycin C (40 mg) combined with regional hyperthermia. Treatment consisted of 6 weekly sessions followed by a maintenance period of 1 year with 1 hyperthermia-mitomycin C session every 3 months. Regional hyperthermia was administered using a 70 MHz phased array system with 4 antennas. Toxicity was scored using CTC (Common Toxicity Criteria) 3.0.
RESULTS: The records of 18 of 20 patients could be analyzed. Median followup was 46 months. Of the 18 patients 15 (83%) completed the induction period of 6 treatments. Four patients (22%) discontinued treatment because of physical complaints without exceeding grade 2 toxicity. Toxicity scored according to CTC 3.0 was limited to grade 1 in 43% of cases and grade 2 in 14%. Mean T90 and T50 bladder temperatures were 40.6C and 41.6C, respectively. The 24-month recurrence-free survival rate was 78%.
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with regional hyperthermia combined with mitomycin C in patients with intermediate and high risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer is feasible with low toxicity and excellent bladder temperatures.

Perros F, Günther S, Ranchoux B, et al.
Mitomycin-Induced Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease: Evidence From Human Disease and Animal Models.
Circulation. 2015; 132(9):834-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is an uncommon form of pulmonary hypertension characterized by the obstruction of small pulmonary veins and a dismal prognosis. PVOD may be sporadic or heritable because of biallelic mutations of the EIF2AK4 gene coding for GCN2. Isolated case reports suggest that chemotherapy may be a risk factor for PVOD.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We reported on the clinical, functional, and hemodynamic characteristics and outcomes of 7 cases of PVOD induced by mitomycin-C (MMC) therapy from the French Pulmonary Hypertension Registry. All patients displayed squamous anal cancer and were treated with MMC alone or MMC plus 5-fluoruracil. The estimated annual incidence of PVOD in the French population that have anal cancer is 3.9 of 1000 patients, which is much higher than the incidence of PVOD in the general population (0.5/million per year). In rats, intraperitoneal administration of MMC induced PVOD, as demonstrated by pulmonary hypertension at right-heart catheterization at days 21 to 35 and major remodeling of small pulmonary veins associated with foci of intense microvascular endothelial-cell proliferation of the capillary bed. In rats, MMC administration was associated with dose-dependent depletion of pulmonary GCN2 content and decreased smad1/5/8 signaling. Amifostine prevented the development of MMC-induced PVOD in rats.
CONCLUSIONS: MMC therapy is a potent inducer of PVOD in humans and rats. Amifostine prevents MMC-induced PVOD in rats and should be tested as a preventive therapy for MMC-induced PVOD in humans. MMC-induced PVOD in rats represents a unique model to test novel therapies in this devastating orphan disease.

Kemmel V, Mercoli HA, Meyer N, et al.
Mitomycin C Pharmacokinetics as Predictor of Severe Neutropenia in Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Therapy.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2015; 22 Suppl 3:S873-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is an approach to overcome peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal adenocarcinoma. Mitomycin C (MMC) is frequently used but not devoid of toxicity, of which the most common and feared is neutropenia. Our study explores the clinical and surgical risk factors of neutropenia and a possible link between MMC pharmacokinetics and neutropenia as HIPEC's supervention.
METHODS: A total of 45 patients undergoing CRS-HIPEC for peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin between 2004 and 2010 were followed. For each patient, MMC was measured in plasma at different times during HIPEC and the area under the MMC concentration-time curve (MMC-AUC) was calculated.
RESULTS: The incidence of neutropenia was 40 %. No demographic, clinical, or surgical factors increased the risk of neutropenia. However, we found that the occurrence of neutropenia and its gravity increased in direct correlation with an increase in MMC plasma concentration 30 min (T30) and 45 min (T45) after the start of HIPEC. The same correlation was observed between the MMC-AUC and the risk of neutropenia.
CONCLUSIONS: Neutropenia is a frequent complication associated with MMC-HIPEC. The results of our study indicate the feasibility and the potential benefit of a protocol including the MMC dosage at T30 after the start of HIPEC. A threshold of 572 µg/L gives a predictive sensitivity of 86 % and a specificity of 80 %. These results must be considered in the management of patients undergoing MMC-HIPEC in order to place high-risk patients under neutropenic monitoring while the other patients can undergo simple hematological monitoring.

Hayne D, Stockler M, McCombie SP, et al.
BCG+MMC trial: adding mitomycin C to BCG as adjuvant intravesical therapy for high-risk, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a randomised phase III trial (ANZUP 1301).
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:432 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite adequate trans-urethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT), non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is associated with high rates of recurrence and progression. Instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) into the urinary bladder after TURBT (adjuvant intravesical administration) reduces the risk of both recurrence and progression, and this is therefore the standard of care for high-risk tumours. However, over 30 % of people still recur or progress despite optimal delivery of BCG. Our meta-analysis suggests that outcomes might be improved further by using an adjuvant intravesical regimen that includes both mitomycin and BCG. These promising findings require corroboration in a definitive, large scale, randomised phase III trial using standard techniques for intravesical administration.
METHODS AND DESIGN: The BCG + MMC trial (ANZUP 1301) is an open-label, randomised, stratified, two-arm multi-centre phase III trial comparing the efficacy and safety of standard intravesical therapy (BCG alone) against experimental intravesical therapy (BCG and mitomycin) in the treatment of adults with resected, high-risk NMIBC. Participants in the control group receive standard treatment with induction (weekly BCG for six weeks) followed by maintenance (four-weekly BCG for ten months). Participants in the experimental group receive induction (BCG weeks 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8; mitomycin weeks 3, 6, and 9) followed by four-weekly maintenance (mitomycin weeks 13, 17, 25, 29, 37, and 41; BCG weeks 21, 33, and 45). The trial aims to include 500 participants who will be centrally randomised to one of the two treatment groups in a 1:1 ratio stratified by T-stage, presence of CIS, and study site. The primary endpoint is disease-free survival; secondary endpoints are disease activity, time to recurrence, time to progression, safety, health-related quality of life, overall survival, feasibility, and resource use.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12613000513718 ).

Li X, Gu F, Niu C, et al.
VEGF111b, a C-terminal splice variant of VEGF-A and induced by mitomycin C, inhibits ovarian cancer growth.
J Transl Med. 2015; 13:164 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing of VEGF-A gives rise to two families - the pro-angiogenic VEGFxxx family and the anti-angiogenic VEGFxxxb family that differ by only six amino acids at their C-terminal end. The first verified and widely reported VEGFxxxb family member is VEGF165b, and here VEGF165b is a positive control.
METHORDS: VEGF111b mRNA was detected in ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and OVCAR3 by RT-PCR. Western blot was used to detect VEGF111b and VEGF165b protein in the CMs and lysates of OVCAR3 cells. MTT and colony formation assay were used to detect the short-term and long-term proliferation inhibition ability of ovarian cancer cells with VEGF111b overexpression. Cell-cycle analysis was performed to further characterize VEGF111b inhibition effects. VEGF111b signaling on ovarian cancer cells were determined by western blot. The expression levels of Ki67, PCNA, CD31 and VEGF in VEGF111b overexpression xenograft model were detected by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Under the effect of mitomycin C, we identify a new member of VEGFxxxb family-VEGF111b in ovarian cancer cell lines. SKOV3 and OVCAR cells were transfected with empty lentivirus, VEGF111b or VEGF165b lentivirus. VEGF111b and VEGF165b overexpression inhibits proliferation of the ovarian cancer cells, but inhibition effect of VEGF111b is slightly less efficient than VEGF165b. Cell cycle analysis was further used to elucidate the mechanism involved in the inhibition effect. Further, we detected the expression of VEGF-R2 in SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells, and shown that VEGF111b might bind to conventional VEGF-R2 with the results of reducing VEGF-R2 tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream signaling to have anti-tumor effects. In vivo VEGF111b overexpression inhibits ovarian cancer growth in xenograft mice.
CONCLUSION: Our results show that VEGF111b, as a new member of VEGFxxxb family, with similar properties to VEGF165b, plays potent anti-tumor effect in vitro and in vivo that can target the VEGF-R2 and its signaling pathway to inhibit ovarian tumor growth. This also opens a new avenue for treating ovarian cancer.

Ekin RG, Akarken I, Cakmak O, et al.
Results of Intravesical Chemo-Hyperthermia in High-risk Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(8):3241-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To examine the effectiveness of mitomycin-C and chemo-hyperthermia in combination for patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between November 2011-September 2013, 43 patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergoing adjuvant chemo-hyperthermia in two centers were evaluated retrospectively. Treatment consisted of 6 weekly sessions, followed by 6 sessions. Recurrence and progression rate, recurrence-free interval and side effects were examined. Analyzed factors included age, gender, smoking status, AB0 blood group, body mass index, T stage and grade, concominant CIS assets. The associations between predictors and recurrence were assessed using multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses.
RESULTS: A total of 40 patients completed induction therapy. Thirteen (32.5%) were diagnosed with tumor recurrence. Median follow-up was 30 months (range 9-39). Median recurrence-free survival was 23 months (range 6-36). The Kaplan-Meier-estimated recurrence-free rates for the entire group at 12 and 24 months were 82% and 61%. There was no statistically significant difference between patient subgroups. Cox hazard analyses showed that an A blood type (OR=6.23, p=0.031) was an independent predictor of recurrence- free. Adverse effects were seen in 53% of patients and these were frequently grades 1 and 2.
CONCLUSIONS: Intravesical therapy with combination of mitomycin-C and chemohyperthermia seems to be appropriate in high-risk patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer who cannot tolerate or have contraindications for standard BCG therapy.

Järvinen R, Marttila T, Kaasinen E, et al.
Long-term outcome of patients with frequently recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma treated with one perioperative plus four weekly instillations of mitomycin C followed by monthly bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) or alternating BCG and interferon-α2b instillations: prospective randomised FinnBladder-4 study.
Eur Urol. 2015; 68(4):611-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recurrent TaT1 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients should be treated with immediate instillation of chemotherapy after transurethral resection of bladder tumour followed by instillation therapy.
OBJECTIVE: To present long-term results of a study exploring the effect of initial mitomycin C (MMC) instillations followed by two types of immunotherapy for patients with frequently recurring NMIBC.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Between 1992 and 1996, 236 patients with frequently recurring TaT1 grade 1-2 NMIBC were enrolled in the prospective randomised multicentre FinnBladder-4 study.
INTERVENTION: One perioperative plus four weekly instillations of MMC followed by monthly bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) or alternating BCG and interferon (IFN)-α2b instillations for up to 1 yr.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Primary end points were time to first recurrence and time to progression. Secondary end points were disease-specific mortality and overall survival. The principal statistical methods were the proportional subdistribution hazards model and Cox proportional hazards model plus cumulative incidence and Kaplan-Meier analyses.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The median follow-up was 10.3 yr (maximum: 19.8 yr) in the MMC-BCG group and 8.6 yr (maximum: 19.8 yr) in the MMC-BCG/IFN group. The probability of recurrence was significantly lower in the MMC-BCG group than in the MMC-BCG/IFN group (43% vs 78% at 10 yr and 45% vs 80% at 15 yr, respectively; hazard ratio: 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.98-4.13; p<0.001). There were no significant differences in the probability of progression, disease-free mortality, or overall survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative plus four weekly MMC instillations followed by monthly BCG, instead of alternating BCG and IFN-α2b instillations, significantly reduce long-term recurrence.
PATIENT SUMMARY: We demonstrated in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with exceptionally frequent recurrences that the risk of long-term recurrence was reduced from 78-80% to 43-45% if one perioperative plus four weekly mitomycin C instillations were followed by monthly bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillations for 1 yr instead of alternating instillations of BCG and interferon-α2b.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: The registration was not considered necessary at this stage of the follow-up because the study was initiated as early as in 1992 and the last randomisation took place in 1996, before the current requirements concerning study registrations were implemented.

Cui M, Au JL, Wientjes MG, et al.
Intravenous siRNA Silencing of Survivin Enhances Activity of Mitomycin C in Human Bladder RT4 Xenografts.
J Urol. 2015; 194(1):230-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2017 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Survivin inhibits apoptosis and enables tumor cells to escape from therapy induced senescence. High survivin expression is associated with bladder cancer aggressiveness and recurrence. We evaluated whether survivin expression is reduced by siRNA and whether survivin silencing would enhance mitomycin C activity in human RT4 bladder transitional cell tumors in vitro and in vivo.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed the effectiveness of siRNA therapy using 2 newly developed pegylated cationic liposome carriers, PCat and PPCat. Each has a fusogenic lipid to destabilize the endosomal membrane. PPCat further contains paclitaxel to enhance in vivo delivery and transfection of survivin siRNA. In vitro antitumor activity was evaluated by short-term MTT and long-term clonogenicity cytotoxicity assays. In vivo intravenous therapy was assessed in mice bearing subcutaneous tumors.
RESULTS: Nontarget siRNA showed no antitumor activity in vitro or in vivo. Treatment of cultured cells with mitomycin C at a 50% cytotoxic concentration enhanced survivin mRNA and protein levels. Adding PPCat or PCat containing survivin siRNA reversed survivin induction and enhanced mitomycin C activity (p <0.05). In tumor bearing mice single agent mitomycin C delayed tumor growth and almost tripled the survivin protein level in residual tumors. Adding PPCat-survivin siRNA, which alone resulted in a minor survivin decrease of less than 10%, completely reversed mitomycin C induced survivin and enhanced mitomycin C activity (p <0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that there is effective in vivo survivin silencing and synergism between mitomycin C and PPCat-survivin siRNA. This combination represents a potentially useful chemo-gene therapy for bladder cancer.

Kwakman R, de Cuba EM, de Winter JP, et al.
Tailoring heated intraperitoneal mitomycin C for peritoneal metastases originating from colorectal carcinoma: a translational approach to improve survival.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(5):851-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients with peritoneal metastases (PMs) originating from colorectal carcinoma (CRC) are curatively treated by cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) with mitomycin C (MMC). We aim to improve patient selection for HIPEC by predicting MMC sensitivity.
METHODS: The MMC sensitivity was determined for 12 CRC cell lines and correlated to mRNA expression of 37 genes related to the Fanconi anaemia (FA)-BRCA pathway, ATM-ATR pathway and enzymatic activation of MMC. Functionality of the FA-BRCA pathway in cell lines was assessed using a chromosomal breakage assay and western blot for key protein FANCD2. Bloom syndrome protein (BLM) was further analysed by staining for the corresponding protein with immunohistochemistry (IHC) on both CRC cell lines (n=12) and patient material (n=20).
RESULTS: High sensitivity correlated with a low BLM (P=0.01) and BRCA2 (P=0.02) at mRNA expression level. However, FA-BRCA pathway functionality demonstrated no correlation to MMC sensitivity. In cell lines, weak intensity staining of BLM by IHC correlated to high sensitivity (P=0.04) to MMC. Low BLM protein expression was significantly associated with an improved survival in patients after CRS and HIPEC (P=0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: Low BLM levels are associated with high MMC sensitivity and an improved survival after HIPEC.

Liang Y, Feng Q, Hong J, et al.
Tumor growth and metastasis can be inhibited by maintaining genomic stability in cancer cells.
Front Med. 2015; 9(1):57-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
The existence of cancer stem cells, stem-like cancer cells (SLCCs), or tumor-initiating cells is considered as the cause of tumor formation and recurrence, indicating the importance of studying novel therapy that targets SLCCs. The origin of SLCCs is controversial because of two competing hypotheses: SLCCs are either transformed from tissue adult stem cells or dedifferentiated from transformed progenitor cells. Our previous research demonstrates that SLCCs are inducible by increasing genomic instability in cancer cells. In this study, to block the emergence of SLCCs, aminoethyl isothiourea (AET), a compound that clears free radicals and is used to protect patients from radioactive exposure, was used as an agent that maintains genomic stability in combination with mitomycin C (MMC), a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug that damages DNA. Using a rabbit tumor model with VX2 hepatic carcinoma, we found that MMC alone increased lung metastases and disadvantaged survival outcome, but the combination of MMC and AET reversed this effect and even prolonged overall survival. Moreover, in a VX2 xenograft model by immunocompromised mice, MMC alone enriched tumor-initiating cells, but the administration of MMC in combination with AET eliminated tumor cells effectively. Furthermore, MMC alone enhanced genomic instability, but MMC combined with AET attenuated the extent of genomic instability in primary VX2 tumor tissue. Taken together, our data suggest that the genomic protector AET can inhibit the induction of SLCCs, and this combination treatment by AET and cytotoxic agents should be considered as a promising strategy for future clinical evaluation.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

[Home]    Page last updated: 07 March, 2017     © CancerIndex, Established 1996