FANCD2; Fanconi anemia, complementation group D2 (3p26)

Gene Summary

Gene:FANCD2; Fanconi anemia, complementation group D2
Aliases: FA4, FAD, FACD, FAD2, FA-D2, FANCD
Summary:The Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) currently includes FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (also called BRCA2), FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ (also called BRIP1), FANCL, FANCM and FANCN (also called PALB2). The previously defined group FANCH is the same as FANCA. Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by cytogenetic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, increased chromosomal breakage, and defective DNA repair. The members of the Fanconi anemia complementation group do not share sequence similarity; they are related by their assembly into a common nuclear protein complex. This gene encodes the protein for complementation group D2. This protein is monoubiquinated in response to DNA damage, resulting in its localization to nuclear foci with other proteins (BRCA1 AND BRCA2) involved in homology-directed DNA repair. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:Fanconi anemia group D2 protein
Updated:14 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (7)


What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- BRCA1-dependent Ub-ligase activity BIOCARTA
- Role of BRCA1, BRCA2 and ATR in Cancer Susceptibility BIOCARTA
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (1)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Fanconi AnaemiaFanconi Anemia - Complementation Group D2
See: More details below...
View Publications418

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

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Fanconi Anemia - Complementation Group D2

Latest Publications

Peng M, Xie J, Ucher A, et al.
Crosstalk between BRCA-Fanconi anemia and mismatch repair pathways prevents MSH2-dependent aberrant DNA damage responses.
EMBO J. 2014; 33(15):1698-712 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
Several proteins in the BRCA-Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway, such as FANCJ, BRCA1, and FANCD2, interact with mismatch repair (MMR) pathway factors, but the significance of this link remains unknown. Unlike the BRCA-FA pathway, the MMR pathway is not essential for cells to survive toxic DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), although MMR proteins bind ICLs and other DNA structures that form at stalled replication forks. We hypothesized that MMR proteins corrupt ICL repair in cells that lack crosstalk between BRCA-FA and MMR pathways. Here, we show that ICL sensitivity of cells lacking the interaction between FANCJ and the MMR protein MLH1 is suppressed by depletion of the upstream mismatch recognition factor MSH2. MSH2 depletion suppresses an aberrant DNA damage response, restores cell cycle progression, and promotes ICL resistance through a Rad18-dependent mechanism. MSH2 depletion also suppresses ICL sensitivity in cells deficient for BRCA1 or FANCD2, but not FANCA. Rescue by Msh2 loss was confirmed in Fancd2-null primary mouse cells. Thus, we propose that regulation of MSH2-dependent DNA damage response underlies the importance of interactions between BRCA-FA and MMR pathways.

Related: FANCA Mitomycin MLH1 MSH2

Rajendra E, Oestergaard VH, Langevin F, et al.
The genetic and biochemical basis of FANCD2 monoubiquitination.
Mol Cell. 2014; 54(5):858-69 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by cellular sensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinkers. The molecular defect in FA is an impaired DNA repair pathway. The critical event in activating this pathway is monoubiquitination of FANCD2. In vivo, a multisubunit FA core complex catalyzes this step, but its mechanism is unclear. Here, we report purification of a native avian FA core complex and biochemical reconstitution of FANCD2 monoubiquitination. This demonstrates that the catalytic FANCL E3 ligase subunit must be embedded within the complex for maximal activity and site specificity. We genetically and biochemically define a minimal subcomplex comprising just three proteins (FANCB, FANCL, and FAAP100) that functions as the monoubiquitination module. Residual FANCD2 monoubiquitination activity is retained in cells defective for other FA core complex subunits. This work describes the in vitro reconstitution and characterization of this multisubunit monoubiquitin E3 ligase, providing key insight into the conserved FA DNA repair pathway.

Related: Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology FANCL gene

Chang L, Yuan W, Zeng H, et al.
Whole exome sequencing reveals concomitant mutations of multiple FA genes in individual Fanconi anemia patients.
BMC Med Genomics. 2014; 7:24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare inherited genetic syndrome with highly variable clinical manifestations. Fifteen genetic subtypes of FA have been identified. Traditional complementation tests for grouping studies have been used generally in FA patients and in stepwise methods to identify the FA type, which can result in incomplete genetic information from FA patients.
METHODS: We diagnosed five pediatric patients with FA based on clinical manifestations, and we performed exome sequencing of peripheral blood specimens from these patients and their family members. The related sequencing data were then analyzed by bioinformatics, and the FANC gene mutations identified by exome sequencing were confirmed by PCR re-sequencing.
RESULTS: Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations of FANC genes were identified in all of the patients. The FA subtypes of the patients included FANCA, FANCM and FANCD2. Interestingly, four FA patients harbored multiple mutations in at least two FA genes, and some of these mutations have not been previously reported. These patients' clinical manifestations were vastly different from each other, as were their treatment responses to androstanazol and prednisone. This finding suggests that heterozygous mutation(s) in FA genes could also have diverse biological and/or pathophysiological effects on FA patients or FA gene carriers. Interestingly, we were not able to identify de novo mutations in the genes implicated in DNA repair pathways when the sequencing data of patients were compared with those of their parents.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that Chinese FA patients and carriers might have higher and more complex mutation rates in FANC genes than have been conventionally recognized. Testing of the fifteen FANC genes in FA patients and their family members should be a regular clinical practice to determine the optimal care for the individual patient, to counsel the family and to obtain a better understanding of FA pathophysiology.

Related: Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology Mitomycin

Klein Douwel D, Boonen RA, Long DT, et al.
XPF-ERCC1 acts in Unhooking DNA interstrand crosslinks in cooperation with FANCD2 and FANCP/SLX4.
Mol Cell. 2014; 54(3):460-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), highly toxic lesions that covalently link the Watson and Crick strands of the double helix, are repaired by a complex, replication-coupled pathway in higher eukaryotes. The earliest DNA processing event in ICL repair is the incision of parental DNA on either side of the ICL ("unhooking"), which allows lesion bypass. Incisions depend critically on the Fanconi anemia pathway, whose activation involves ubiquitylation of the FANCD2 protein. Using Xenopus egg extracts, which support replication-coupled ICL repair, we show that the 3' flap endonuclease XPF-ERCC1 cooperates with SLX4/FANCP to carry out the unhooking incisions. Efficient recruitment of XPF-ERCC1 and SLX4 to the ICL depends on FANCD2 and its ubiquitylation. These data help define the molecular mechanism by which the Fanconi anemia pathway promotes a key event in replication-coupled ICL repair.

Longerich S, Kwon Y, Tsai MS, et al.
Regulation of FANCD2 and FANCI monoubiquitination by their interaction and by DNA.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42(9):5657-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
FANCD2 and FANCI function together in the Fanconi anemia network of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) crosslink repair. These proteins form the dimeric ID2 complex that binds DNA and becomes monoubiquitinated upon exposure of cells to DNA crosslinking agents. The monoubiquitinated ID2 complex is thought to facilitate DNA repair via recruitment of specific nucleases, translesion DNA polymerases and the homologous recombination machinery. Using the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2) UBE2T and ubiquitin ligase (E3) FANCL, monoubiquitination of human FANCD2 and FANCI was examined. The ID2 complex is a poor substrate for monoubiquitination, consistent with the published crystal structure showing the solvent inaccessibility of the target lysines. Importantly, FANCD2 monoubiquitination within the ID2 complex is strongly stimulated by duplex or branched DNA, but unstructured single-stranded DNA or chromatinized DNA is ineffective. Interaction of FANCL with the ID2 complex is indispensable for its E3 ligase efficacy. Interestingly, mutations in FANCI that impair its DNA binding activity compromise DNA-stimulated FANCD2 monoubiquitination. Moreover, we demonstrate that in the absence of FANCD2, DNA also stimulates FANCI monoubiquitination, but in a FANCL-independent manner. These results implicate the role of a proper DNA ligand in FANCD2 and FANCI monoubiquitination, and reveal regulatory mechanisms that are dependent on protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions.

Related: FANCL gene ID2

Liang Q, Dexheimer TS, Zhang P, et al.
A selective USP1-UAF1 inhibitor links deubiquitination to DNA damage responses.
Nat Chem Biol. 2014; 10(4):298-304 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
Protein ubiquitination and deubiquitination are central to the control of a large number of cellular pathways and signaling networks in eukaryotes. Although the essential roles of ubiquitination have been established in the eukaryotic DNA damage response, the deubiquitination process remains poorly defined. Chemical probes that perturb the activity of deubiquitinases (DUBs) are needed to characterize the cellular function of deubiquitination. Here we report ML323 (2), a highly potent inhibitor of the USP1-UAF1 deubiquitinase complex with excellent selectivity against human DUBs, deSUMOylase, deneddylase and unrelated proteases. Using ML323, we interrogated deubiquitination in the cellular response to UV- and cisplatin-induced DNA damage and revealed new insights into the requirement of deubiquitination in the DNA translesion synthesis and Fanconi anemia pathways. Moreover, ML323 potentiates cisplatin cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer and osteosarcoma cells. Our findings point to USP1-UAF1 as a key regulator of the DNA damage response and a target for overcoming resistance to the platinum-based anticancer drugs.

Related: Cisplatin Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology

Leskovac A, Petrovic S, Guc-Scekic M, et al.
Radiation-induced mitotic catastrophe in FANCD2 primary fibroblasts.
Int J Radiat Biol. 2014; 90(5):373-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: As the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is required for appropriate cell cycle progression through mitosis and the completion of cell division, the aim of the present study was to determine the destiny of FA cells after irradiation in vitro and to elucidate any difference in radiosensitivity between FA and control cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analyses of phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) foci, micronuclei formation and cell cycle analysis were performed in unirradiated (0 min) and irradiated primary FA fibroblasts and in a control group at different post-irradiation times (30 min, 2 h, 5 h and 24 h).
RESULTS: The accumulation of γ-H2AX foci in irradiated FA fibroblasts was observed. At 24 h post-irradiation, 57% of FA cells were γ-H2AX foci-positive, significantly higher than in the control (p < 0.01). The cell cycle analysis has shown the transient G2/M arrest in irradiated FA fibroblasts. The portion of cells in the G2/M phase showed initial increase at 30 min post-irradiation and afterwards decreased over time reaching the pretreatment level 24 h after irradiation. Irradiated FA fibroblasts progressed to abnormal mitosis, as is shown by the production of cells with different nuclear morphologies from binucleated to multinucleated surrounded with micronuclei, and also by a high percentage of foci-positive micronuclei. The majority of radiation-induced micronuclei were γ-H2AX foci-positive, indicating that radiation-induced micronuclei contain fragments of damaged chromosomes. In contrast, in the control group, most of the micronuclei were classified as γ-H2AX foci-negative, which indicates that cells with unrepaired damage were blocked before entering mitosis.
CONCLUSION: The results clearly indicate that mitotic catastrophe might be an important cell-death mechanism involved in the response of FA fibroblasts to ionizing radiation.

Related: Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology Signal Transduction

Mhawech-Fauceglia P, Wang D, Kim G, et al.
Expression of DNA repair proteins in endometrial cancer predicts disease outcome.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 132(3):593-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The consequences of defective homologous recombination and other DNA repair pathways are important in disease outcomes of numerous tumor types. The objective of this study was to explore BRCA1, PARP, FANCD2, PTEN, H2AX, and ATM protein expression in endometrial cancer (EC).
METHODS: PARP1, γH2AX, ATM, FANCD2, PTEN, BRCA1, and p53 proteins were evaluated in EC tissue microarray (TMA) and their expressions were correlated with clinical and pathological parameters in 357 patients.
RESULTS: In type I EC, PARP1(+), ATM(+), and FANCD2(+) were associated with high tumor grade (p 0.031, p 0.0045, p 0.0062 respectively); γH2AX(+) and FANCD2(+) with advanced tumor stage (p 0.0004, p 0.0085 respectively); γH2AX(+), FANCD2(+) and p53(+) with the presence of lympho-vascular invasion (p 0.0004, p 0.0042, p 0.0098 respectively); and γH2AX(+) and ATM(+) with tumor recurrence (p 0.0203, p 0.0465) respectively. In type II EC, only PARP1(+) was associated with tumor stage (p 0.0499). EC patients with p53(+) or FANCD2(+) were more likely to recur with 5year recurrence free survival (RFS) probability of 71.4% in comparison to 85.5% for the other patients and they were more likely to have shorter 5year overall survival (OS) of 66.46% in comparison to 78.5% of those other patients Finally, patients with ATM(+) and p53(+) or FANCD2(+) were more likely to recur with 5year RFS probability of 68% versus 80.3% for the other patients.
CONCLUSION: DNA repair proteins seemed to play an important role in EC, and their expressions can forecast for poor outcomes.

Related: Endometrial (Uterus) Cancer Endometrial Cancer PTEN PARP1

Du W, Erden O, Wilson A, et al.
Deletion of Fanca or Fancd2 dysregulates Treg in mice.
Blood. 2014; 123(12):1938-47 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/03/2015 Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disorder associated with bone marrow (BM) failure and leukemia. Recent studies demonstrate variable immune defects in FA. However, the cause for FA immunodeficiency is unknown. Here we report that deletion of Fanca or Fancd2 dysregulates the suppressive activity of regulatory T cells (Tregs), shown functionally as exacerbation of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) in mice. Recipient mice of Fanca(-/-) or Fancd2(-/-) BM chimeras exhibited severe acute GVHD after allogeneic BM transplantation (BMT). T cells from Fanca(-/-) or Fancd2(-/-) mice induced higher GVHD lethality than those from wild-type (WT) littermates. FA Tregs possessed lower proliferative suppression potential compared with WT Tregs, as demonstrated by in vitro proliferation assay and BMT. Analysis of CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs indicated that loss of Fanca or Fancd2 dysregulated Foxp3 target gene expression. Additionally, CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs of Fanca(-/-) or Fancd2(-/-) mice were less efficient in suppressing the production of GVHD-associated inflammatory cytokines. Consistently, aberrant NF-κB activity was observed in infiltrated T cells from FA GVHD mice. Conditional deletion of p65 in FA Tregs decreased GVHD mortality. Our study uncovers an essential role for FA proteins in maintaining Treg homeostasis, possibly explaining, at least in part, the immune deficiency reported in some FA patients.

Related: Cytokines Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology FANCA

Huard CC, Tremblay CS, Magron A, et al.
The Fanconi anemia pathway has a dual function in Dickkopf-1 transcriptional repression.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(6):2152-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/03/2015 Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome associated with a progressive decline in hematopoietic stem cells, developmental defects, and predisposition to cancer. These various phenotypic features imply a role of FA proteins in molecular events regulating cellular homeostasis. Interestingly, we previously found that the Fanconi C protein (FANCC) interacts with the C-terminal-binding protein-1 (CtBP1) involved in transcriptional regulation. Here we report that FANCC with CtBP1 forms a complex with β-catenin, and that β-catenin activation through glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibition leads to FANCC nuclear accumulation and FA pathway activation, as measured by the Fanconi D2 protein (FANCD2) monoubiquitination. β-catenin and FANCC nuclear entry is defective in FA mutant cells and in cells depleted of the Fanconi A protein or FANCD2, suggesting that integrity of the FA pathway is required for FANCC nuclear activity. We also report that FANCC with CtBP1 acts as a negative regulator of Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) expression, and that a FA disease-causing mutation in FANCC abrogates this function. Our findings reveal that a defective FA pathway leads to up-regulation of DKK1, a molecule involved in hematopoietic malignancies.

Related: Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology FANCC

Polito D, Cukras S, Wang X, et al.
The carboxyl terminus of FANCE recruits FANCD2 to the Fanconi Anemia (FA) E3 ligase complex to promote the FA DNA repair pathway.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(10):7003-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/03/2015 Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genome instability syndrome characterized by bone marrow failure and cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. In response to DNA damage, the FA pathway is activated through the cooperation of 16 FA proteins. A central player in the pathway is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complex or the FA core complex, which monoubiquitinates its substrates FANCD2 and FANCI. FANCE, a subunit of the FA core complex, plays an essential role by promoting the integrity of the complex and by directly recognizing FANCD2. To delineate its role in substrate ubiquitination from the core complex assembly, we analyzed a series of mutations within FANCE. We report that a phenylalanine located at the highly conserved extreme C terminus, referred to as Phe-522, is a critical residue for mediating the monoubiquitination of the FANCD2-FANCI complex. Using the FANCE mutant that specifically disrupts the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction as a tool, we found that the interaction-deficient mutant conferred cellular sensitivity in reconstituted FANCE-deficient cells to a similar degree as FANCE null cells, suggesting the significance of the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction in promoting cisplatin resistance. Intriguingly, ectopic expression of the FANCE C terminus fragment alone in FA normal cells disrupts DNA repair, consolidating the importance of the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction in the DNA cross-link repair.

Related: Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology FANCE FANCL gene

Berhane H, Epperly MW, Goff J, et al.
Radiologic differences between bone marrow stromal and hematopoietic progenitor cell lines from Fanconi Anemia (Fancd2(-/-)) mice.
Radiat Res. 2014; 181(1):76-89 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/01/2015 Related Publications
FancD2 plays a central role in the human Fanconi anemia DNA damage response (DDR) pathway. Fancd2(-/-) mice exhibit many features of human Fanconi anemia including cellular DNA repair defects. Whether the DNA repair defect in Fancd2(-/-) mice results in radiologic changes in all cell lineages is unknown. We measured stress of hematopoiesis in long-term marrow cultures and radiosensitivity in clonogenic survival curves, as well as comet tail intensity, total antioxidant stores and radiation-induced gene expression in hematopoietic progenitor compared to bone marrow stromal cell lines. We further evaluated radioprotection by a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant GS-nitroxide, JP4-039. Hematopoiesis longevity in Fancd2(-/-) mouse long-term marrow cultures was diminished and bone marrow stromal cell lines were radiosensitive compared to Fancd2(+/+) stromal cells (Fancd2(-/-) D0 = 1.4 ± 0.1 Gy, ñ = 5.0 ± 0.6 vs. Fancd2(+/+) D0 = 1.6 ± 0.1 Gy, ñ = 6.7 ± 1.6), P = 0.0124 for D0 and P = 0.0023 for ñ, respectively). In contrast, Fancd2(-/-) IL-3-dependent hematopoietic progenitor cells were radioresistant (D0 = 1.71 ± 0.04 Gy and ñ = 5.07 ± 0.52) compared to Fancd2(+/+) (D0 = 1.39 ± 0.09 Gy and ñ = 2.31 ± 0.85, P = 0.001 for D0). CFU-GM from freshly explanted Fancd2(-/-) marrow was also radioresistant. Consistent with radiosensitivity, irradiated Fancd2(-/-) stromal cells had higher DNA damage by comet tail intensity assay compared to Fancd2(+/+) cells (P < 0.0001), slower DNA damage recovery, lower baseline total antioxidant capacity, enhanced radiation-induced depletion of antioxidants, and increased CDKN1A-p21 gene transcripts and protein. Consistent with radioresistance, Fancd2(-/-) IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells had higher baseline and post irradiation total antioxidant capacity. While, there was no detectable alteration of radiation-induced cell cycle arrest with Fancd2(-/-) stromal cells, hematopoietic progenitor cells showed reduced G2/M cell cycle arrest. The absence of the mouse Fancd2 gene product confers radiosensitivity to bone marrow stromal but not hematopoietic progenitor cells.

Related: Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology Mitochondrial Mutations in Cancer

Liu R, Hu T, Li JH, et al.
Diagnosis of Fanconi anemia in children with atypical clinical features: a primary study.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2013; 126(23):4483-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fanconi anemia is a severe congenital disorder associated with mutations in a cluster of genes responsible for DNA repair. Arriving at an accurate and timely diagnosis can be difficult in cases of Fanconi anemia with atypical clinical features. It is very important to increase the rate of accurate diagnosis for such cases in a clinical setting. The purpose of this study is to explore the clinical diagnosis of Fanconi anemia in children with atypical clinical features.
METHODS: Six cases of Fanconi anemia with atypical clinical features were enrolled in the study, and their clinical features were recorded, their FANCA gene transcription was assessed by RT-PCR, and FANCA mutations and the ubiquitination of FANCD2 protein were analyzed using DNA sequencing and western blotting respectively.
RESULTS: All six cases showed atypical clinical features including no apparent deformities, lack of response to immune therapy, and progressively increasing bone marrow failure. They also have significantly increased fetal hemoglobin, negative mitomycin-induced fracture test results, and carry a FANCA gene missense mutation. Single protein ubiquitination of FANCD2 was not observed in those patients.
CONCLUSION: The combination of clinical features, FANCA pathogenic gene mutation genotype and the absence of FANCD2 protein ubiquitination are helpful in the accurate and timely diagnosis of Fanconi anemia in children.

Related: Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology

Hoogstraat M, de Pagter MS, Cirkel GA, et al.
Genomic and transcriptomic plasticity in treatment-naive ovarian cancer.
Genome Res. 2014; 24(2):200-11 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/01/2015 Related Publications
Intra-tumor heterogeneity is a hallmark of many cancers and may lead to therapy resistance or interfere with personalized treatment strategies. Here, we combined topographic mapping of somatic breakpoints and transcriptional profiling to probe intra-tumor heterogeneity of treatment-naïve stage IIIC/IV epithelial ovarian cancer. We observed that most substantial differences in genomic rearrangement landscapes occurred between metastases in the omentum and peritoneum versus tumor sites in the ovaries. Several cancer genes such as NF1, CDKN2A, and FANCD2 were affected by lesion-specific breakpoints. Furthermore, the intra-tumor variability involved different mutational hallmarks including lesion-specific kataegis (local mutation shower coinciding with genomic breakpoints), rearrangement classes, and coding mutations. In one extreme case, we identified two independent TP53 mutations in ovary tumors and omentum/peritoneum metastases, respectively. Examination of gene expression dynamics revealed up-regulation of key cancer pathways including WNT, integrin, chemokine, and Hedgehog signaling in only subsets of tumor samples from the same patient. Finally, we took advantage of the multilevel tumor analysis to understand the effects of genomic breakpoints on qualitative and quantitative gene expression changes. We show that intra-tumor gene expression differences are caused by site-specific genomic alterations, including formation of in-frame fusion genes. These data highlight the plasticity of ovarian cancer genomes, which may contribute to their strong capacity to adapt to changing environmental conditions and give rise to the high rate of recurrent disease following standard treatment regimes.

Related: Ovarian Cancer TP53

Mistry H, Hsieh G, Buhrlage SJ, et al.
Small-molecule inhibitors of USP1 target ID1 degradation in leukemic cells.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2013; 12(12):2651-62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/01/2015 Related Publications
Inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1) transcription factor is essential for the proliferation and progression of many cancer types, including leukemia. However, the ID1 protein has not yet been therapeutically targeted in leukemia. ID1 is normally polyubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome. Recently, it has been shown that USP1, a ubiquitin-specific protease, deubiquitinates ID1 and rescues it from proteasome degradation. Inhibition of USP1 therefore offers a new avenue to target ID1 in cancer. Here, using a ubiquitin-rhodamine-based high-throughput screening, we identified small-molecule inhibitors of USP1 and investigated their therapeutic potential for leukemia. These inhibitors blocked the deubiquitinating enzyme activity of USP1 in vitro in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 in the high nanomolar range. USP1 inhibitors promoted the degradation of ID1 and, concurrently, inhibited the growth of leukemic cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. A known USP1 inhibitor, pimozide, also promoted ID1 degradation and inhibited growth of leukemic cells. In addition, the growth of primary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patient-derived leukemic cells was inhibited by a USP1 inhibitor. Collectively, these results indicate that the novel small-molecule inhibitors of USP1 promote ID1 degradation and are cytotoxic to leukemic cells. The identification of USP1 inhibitors therefore opens up a new approach for leukemia therapy.

Related: Leukemia


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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. FANCD2, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/FANCD2.htm Accessed: date

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