This gene encodes a protein that may function in tumor suppression. This protein binds to and colocalizes with the breast cancer 2 early onset protein (BRCA2) in nuclear foci and likely permits the stable intranuclear localization and accumulation of BRCA2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PALB2 is implicated in: - DNA binding
- DNA repair
- double-strand break repair via homologous recombination
- inner cell mass cell proliferation
- mesoderm development
- negative regulation of apoptotic process
- organ morphogenesis
- protein binding
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP [Hide]
Two different disulfide (SS)-containing poly(amidoamine) (PAA) polymers were constructed using guanidino (Gua)-containing monomers (ie, arginine [Arg] and agmatine [Agm]) and N,N'-cystamine bisacrylamide (CBA) by Michael-addition polymerization. In order to characterize these two Gua-SS-PAA polymers and investigate their potentials as short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-delivery carriers, pSilencer 4.1-CMV FANCF shRNA was chosen as a model plasmid DNA to form complexes with these two polymers. The Gua-SS-PAAs and plasmid DNA complexes were determined with particle sizes less than 90 nm and positive ζ-potentials under 20 mV at nucleic acid:polymer weight ratios lower than 1:24. Bioresponsive release of plasmid DNA was observed from both newly constructed complexes. Significantly lower cytotoxicity was observed for both polymer complexes compared with polyethylenimine and Lipofectamine 2000, two widely used transfection reagents as reference carriers. Arg-CBA showed higher transfection efficiency and gene-silencing efficiency in MCF7 cells than Agm-CBA and the reference carriers. In addition, the cellular uptake of Arg-CBA in MCF7 cells was found to be higher and faster than Agm-CBA and the reference carriers. Similarly, plasmid DNA transport into the nucleus mediated by Arg-CBA was more than that by Agm-CBA and the reference carriers. The study suggested that guanidine and carboxyl introduced into Gua-SS-PAAs polymers resulted in a better nuclear localization effect, which played a key role in the observed enhancement of transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Overall, two newly synthesized Gua-SS-PAAs polymers demonstrated great potential to be used as shRNA carriers for gene-therapy applications.
Sumpter R, Sirasanagandla S, Fernández ÁF, et al. Fanconi Anemia Proteins Function in Mitophagy and Immunity. Cell. 2016; 165(4):867-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/05/2017 Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway genes are important tumor suppressors whose best-characterized function is repair of damaged nuclear DNA. Here, we describe an essential role for FA genes in two forms of selective autophagy. Genetic deletion of Fancc blocks the autophagic clearance of viruses (virophagy) and increases susceptibility to lethal viral encephalitis. Fanconi anemia complementation group C (FANCC) protein interacts with Parkin, is required in vitro and in vivo for clearance of damaged mitochondria, and decreases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inflammasome activation. The mitophagy function of FANCC is genetically distinct from its role in genomic DNA damage repair. Moreover, additional genes in the FA pathway, including FANCA, FANCF, FANCL, FANCD2, BRCA1, and BRCA2, are required for mitophagy. Thus, members of the FA pathway represent a previously undescribed class of selective autophagy genes that function in immunity and organellar homeostasis. These findings have implications for understanding the pathogenesis of FA and cancers associated with mutations in FA genes.
Davudian S, Mansoori B, Shajari N, et al. BACH1, the master regulator gene: A novel candidate target for cancer therapy. Gene. 2016; 588(1):30-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACH1 (BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 1) is a transcriptional factor and a member of cap 'n' collar (CNC) and basic region leucine zipper factor family. In contrast to other bZIP family members, BACH1 appeared as a comparatively specific transcription factor. It acts as transcription regulator and is recognized as a recently hypoxia regulator and functions as an inducible repressor for the HO-1 gene in many human cell types in response to stress oxidative. In regard to studies lately, although, BACH1 has been related to the regulation of oxidative stress and heme oxidation, it has never been linked to invasion and metastasis. Recent studies have showed that BACH1 is involved in bone metastasis of breast cancer by up-regulating vital metastatic genes like CXCR4 and MMP1. This newly discovered aspect of BACH1 gene provides new insight into cancer progression study and stands on its master regulator role in metastasis process, raising the possibility of considering it as a potential target for cancer therapy.
Zhang X, Lu X, Akhter S, et al. FANCI is a negative regulator of Akt activation. Cell Cycle. 2016; 15(8):1134-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/04/2017 Related Publications
Akt is a critical mediator of the oncogenic PI3K pathway, and its activation is regulated by kinases and phosphatases acting in opposition. We report here the existence of a novel protein complex that is composed minimally of Akt, PHLPP1, PHLPP2, FANCI, FANCD2, USP1 and UAF1. Our studies show that depletion of FANCI, but not FANCD2 or USP1, results in increased phosphorylation and activation of Akt. This activation is due to a reduction in the interaction between PHLPP1 and Akt in the absence of FANCI. In response to DNA damage or growth factor treatment, the interactions between Akt, PHLPP1 and FANCI are reduced consistent with the known phosphorylation of Akt in response to these stimuli. Furthermore, depletion of FANCI results in reduced apoptosis after DNA damage in accord with its role as a negative regular of Akt. Our findings describe an unexpected function for FANCI in the regulation of Akt and define a previously unrecognized intersection between the PI3K-Akt and FA pathways.
Wang X, Liu J, Jiang L, et al. Bach1 Induces Endothelial Cell Apoptosis and Cell-Cycle Arrest through ROS Generation. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; 2016:6234043 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/04/2017 Related Publications
The transcription factor BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1) regulates genes involved in the oxidative stress response and cell-cycle progression. We have recently shown that Bach1 impairs cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in cultured endothelial cells (ECs), but the underlying mechanisms are largely uncharacterized. Here we demonstrate that Bach1 upregulation impaired the blood flow recovery from hindlimb ischemia and this effect was accompanied both by increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cleaved caspase 3 levels and by declines in the expression of cyclin D1 in the injured tissues. We found that Bach1 overexpression induced mitochondrial ROS production and caspase 3-dependent apoptosis and its depletion attenuated H2O2-induced apoptosis in cultured human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs). Bach1-induced apoptosis was largely abolished when the cells were cultured with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger. Exogenous expression of Bach1 inhibited the cell proliferation and the expression of cyclin D1, induced an S-phase arrest, and increased the expression of cyclin E2, which were partially blocked by NAC. Taken together, our results suggest that Bach1 suppresses cell proliferation and induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis by increasing mitochondrial ROS production, suggesting that Bach1 may be a promising treatment target for the treatment of vascular diseases.
Panneerselvam J, Xie G, Che R, et al. Distinct Metabolic Signature of Human Bladder Cancer Cells Carrying an Impaired Fanconi Anemia Tumor-Suppressor Signaling Pathway. J Proteome Res. 2016; 15(4):1333-41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Metabolic profiling has great potential to help the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients. Fanconi Anemia (FA) tumor-suppressor signaling has been instrumental in understanding human tumorigenesis. However, this instrumental understanding has never been demonstrated at the metabolic level. Here, we show that impaired FA signaling can lead cells to exhibit metabolic signatures of tumorigenesis. This is consistent with our original studies of the roles of FA signaling in suppressing non-FA tumorigenesis at functional and genetic levels. Using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we characterized metabolic alterations in bladder cancer cells carrying an intact or impaired FA pathway. The latter was obtained by ectopically expressing FAVL (FAVL-high), which we previously found to be capable of inactivating FA signaling. A total of 18 metabolites, end products of cell proliferation or apoptosis, were significantly different between FAVL-high and -low cells. Methionine, phenylalanine, and threonine, resulting from a tumorigenic process, were substantially increased in FAVL-high cells. With this study, we achieved genomic, functional, and metabolomic characterization of the roles of FA signaling in the development of human cancer. Furthermore, this study provides novel insights into how to translate FA basic research into strategies for producing effective biomarkers in human cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
Mendoza O, Bourdoncle A, Boulé JB, et al. G-quadruplexes and helicases. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016; 44(5):1989-2006 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Guanine-rich DNA strands can fold in vitro into non-canonical DNA structures called G-quadruplexes. These structures may be very stable under physiological conditions. Evidence suggests that G-quadruplex structures may act as 'knots' within genomic DNA, and it has been hypothesized that proteins may have evolved to remove these structures. The first indication of how G-quadruplex structures could be unfolded enzymatically came in the late 1990s with reports that some well-known duplex DNA helicases resolved these structures in vitro. Since then, the number of studies reporting G-quadruplex DNA unfolding by helicase enzymes has rapidly increased. The present review aims to present a general overview of the helicase/G-quadruplex field.
Cerabona D, Sun Z, Nalepa G Leukemia and chromosomal instability in aged Fancc-/- mice. Exp Hematol. 2016; 44(5):352-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited disorder of genomic instability associated with high risk of myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Young mice deficient in FA core complex genes do not naturally develop cancer, hampering preclinical studies on malignant hematopoiesis in FA. Here we describe that aging Fancc(-/-) mice are prone to genomically unstable AML and other hematologic neoplasms. We report that aneuploidy precedes malignant transformation during Fancc(-/-) hematopoiesis. Our observations reveal that Fancc(-/-) mice develop hematopoietic chromosomal instability followed by leukemia in an age-dependent manner, recapitulating the clinical phenotype of human FA and providing a proof of concept for future development of preclinical models of FA-associated leukemogenesis.
Donovan FX, Kimble DC, Kim Y, et al. Paternal or Maternal Uniparental Disomy of Chromosome 16 Resulting in Homozygosity of a Mutant Allele Causes Fanconi Anemia. Hum Mutat. 2016; 37(5):465-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare inherited disorder caused by pathogenic variants in one of 19 FANC genes. FA patients display congenital abnormalities, and develop bone marrow failure, and cancer susceptibility. We identified homozygous mutations in four FA patients and, in each case, only one parent carried the obligate mutant allele. FANCA and FANCP/SLX4 genes, both located on chromosome 16, were the affected recessive FA genes in three and one family respectively. Genotyping with short tandem repeat markers and SNP arrays revealed uniparental disomy (UPD) of the entire mutation-carrying chromosome 16 in all four patients. One FANCA patient had paternal UPD, whereas FA in the other three patients resulted from maternal UPD. These are the first reported cases of UPD as a cause of FA. UPD indicates a reduced risk of having another child with FA in the family and has implications in prenatal diagnosis.
Chlon TM, Ruiz-Torres S, Maag L, et al. Overcoming Pluripotent Stem Cell Dependence on the Repair of Endogenous DNA Damage. Stem Cell Reports. 2016; 6(1):44-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) maintain a low mutation frequency compared with somatic cell types at least in part by preferentially utilizing error-free homologous recombination (HR) for DNA repair. Many endogenous metabolites cause DNA interstrand crosslinks, which are repaired by the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway using HR. To determine the effect of failed repair of endogenous DNA lesions on PSC biology, we generated iPSCs harboring a conditional FA pathway. Upon FA pathway loss, iPSCs maintained pluripotency but underwent profound G2 arrest and apoptosis, whereas parental fibroblasts grew normally. Mechanistic studies revealed that G2-phase FA-deficient iPSCs possess large γH2AX-RAD51 foci indicative of accrued DNA damage, which correlated with activated DNA-damage signaling through CHK1. CHK1 inhibition specifically rescued the growth of FA-deficient iPSCs for prolonged culture periods, surprisingly without stimulating excessive karyotypic abnormalities. These studies reveal that PSCs possess hyperactive CHK1 signaling that restricts their self-renewal in the absence of error-free DNA repair.
Du W, Amarachintha S, Erden O, et al. Fancb deficiency impairs hematopoietic stem cell function. Sci Rep. 2015; 5:18127 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, variable congenital malformations and a predisposition to malignancies. FANCB (also known as FAAP95), is the only X-linked FA gene discovered thus far. In the present study, we investigated hematopoiesis in adult Fancb deficient (Fancb(-/y)) mice and found that Fancb(-/y) mice have decreased hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) quiescence accompanied by reduced progenitor activity in vitro and reduced repopulating capacity in vivo. Like other FA mouse models previously reported, the hematopoietic system of Fancb(-/y) mice is hypersensitive to DNA cross-linking agent mitomycin C (MMC), which induces bone marrow failure in Fancb(-/y) mice. Furthermore, Fancb(-/y) BM exhibits slower recovery kinetics and less tolerance to myelotoxic stress induced by 5-fluorouracil than wild-type littermates. RNA-seq analysis reveals altered expression of genes involved in HSC function and cell cycle regulation in Fancb(-/y) HSC and progenitor cells. Thus, this Fancb(-/y) mouse model provides a novel approach for studying the critical role of the FA pathway not only in germ cell development but also in the maintenance of HSC function.
Pradhan A, Ustiyan V, Zhang Y, et al. Forkhead transcription factor FoxF1 interacts with Fanconi anemia protein complexes to promote DNA damage response. Oncotarget. 2016; 7(2):1912-26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Forkhead box F1 (Foxf1) transcription factor is an important regulator of embryonic development but its role in tumor cells remains incompletely understood. While 16 proteins were characterized in Fanconi anemia (FA) core complex, its interactions with cellular transcriptional machinery remain poorly characterized. Here, we identified FoxF1 protein as a novel interacting partner of the FA complex proteins. Using multiple human and mouse tumor cell lines and Foxf1+/- mice we demonstrated that FoxF1 physically binds to and increases stability of FA proteins. FoxF1 co-localizes with FANCD2 in DNA repair foci in cultured cells and tumor tissues obtained from cisplatin-treated mice. In response to DNA damage, FoxF1-deficient tumor cells showed significantly reduced FANCD2 monoubiquitination and FANCM phosphorylation, resulting in impaired formation of DNA repair foci. FoxF1 knockdown caused chromosomal instability, nuclear abnormalities, and increased tumor cell death in response to DNA-damaging agents. Overexpression of FoxF1 in DNA-damaged cells improved stability of FA proteins, decreased chromosomal and nuclear aberrations, restored formation of DNA repair foci and prevented cell death after DNA damage. These findings demonstrate that FoxF1 is a key component of FA complexes and a critical mediator of DNA damage response in tumor cells.
Romick-Rosendale LE, Hoskins EE, Privette Vinnedge LM, et al. Defects in the Fanconi Anemia Pathway in Head and Neck Cancer Cells Stimulate Tumor Cell Invasion through DNA-PK and Rac1 Signaling. Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(8):2062-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains a devastating disease, and Fanconi anemia (FA) gene mutations and transcriptional repression are common. Invasive tumor behavior is associated with poor outcome, but relevant pathways triggering invasion are poorly understood. There is a significant need to improve our understanding of genetic pathways and molecular mechanisms driving advanced tumor phenotypes, to develop tailored therapies. Here we sought to investigate the phenotypic and molecular consequences of FA pathway loss in HNSCC cells. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using sporadic HNSCC cell lines with and without FA gene knockdown, we sought to characterize the phenotypic and molecular consequences of FA deficiency. FA pathway inactivation was confirmed by the detection of classic hallmarks of FA following exposure to DNA cross-linkers. Cells were subjected to RNA sequencing with qRT-PCR validation, followed by cellular adhesion and invasion assays in the presence and absence of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and Rac1 inhibitors. RESULTS: We demonstrate that FA loss in HNSCC cells leads to cytoskeletal reorganization and invasive tumor cell behavior in the absence of proliferative gains. We further demonstrate that cellular invasion following FA loss is mediated, at least in part, through NHEJ-associated DNA-PK and downstream Rac1 GTPase activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that FA loss stimulates HNSCC cell motility and invasion, and implicate a targetable DNA-PK/Rac1 signaling axis in advanced tumor phenotypes.
Dong H, Nebert DW, Bruford EA, et al. Update of the human and mouse Fanconi anemia genes. Hum Genomics. 2015; 9:32 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessively inherited disease manifesting developmental abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk of malignancies. Whereas FA has been studied for nearly 90 years, only in the last 20 years have increasing numbers of genes been implicated in the pathogenesis associated with this genetic disease. To date, 19 genes have been identified that encode Fanconi anemia complementation group proteins, all of which are named or aliased, using the root symbol "FANC." Fanconi anemia subtype (FANC) proteins function in a common DNA repair pathway called "the FA pathway," which is essential for maintaining genomic integrity. The various FANC mutant proteins contribute to distinct steps associated with FA pathogenesis. Herein, we provide a review update of the 19 human FANC and their mouse orthologs, an evolutionary perspective on the FANC genes, and the functional significance of the FA DNA repair pathway in association with clinical disorders. This is an example of a set of genes--known to exist in vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, and yeast--that are grouped together on the basis of shared biochemical and physiological functions, rather than evolutionary phylogeny, and have been named on this basis by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC).
Wanzel M, Vischedyk JB, Gittler MP, et al. CRISPR-Cas9-based target validation for p53-reactivating model compounds. Nat Chem Biol. 2016; 12(1):22-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
Inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor by Mdm2 is one of the most frequent events in cancer, so compounds targeting the p53-Mdm2 interaction are promising for cancer therapy. Mechanisms conferring resistance to p53-reactivating compounds are largely unknown. Here we show using CRISPR-Cas9-based target validation in lung and colorectal cancer that the activity of nutlin, which blocks the p53-binding pocket of Mdm2, strictly depends on functional p53. In contrast, sensitivity to the drug RITA, which binds the Mdm2-interacting N terminus of p53, correlates with induction of DNA damage. Cells with primary or acquired RITA resistance display cross-resistance to DNA crosslinking compounds such as cisplatin and show increased DNA cross-link repair. Inhibition of FancD2 by RNA interference or pharmacological mTOR inhibitors restores RITA sensitivity. The therapeutic response to p53-reactivating compounds is therefore limited by compound-specific resistance mechanisms that can be resolved by CRISPR-Cas9-based target validation and should be considered when allocating patients to p53-reactivating treatments.