Gene Summary

Gene:FANCC; Fanconi anemia complementation group C
Aliases: FA3, FAC, FACC
Summary:The Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) currently includes FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (also called BRCA2), FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ (also called BRIP1), FANCL, FANCM and FANCN (also called PALB2). The previously defined group FANCH is the same as FANCA. Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by cytogenetic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, increased chromosomal breakage, and defective DNA repair. The members of the Fanconi anemia complementation group do not share sequence similarity; they are related by their assembly into a common nuclear protein complex. This gene encodes the protein for complementation group C. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:Fanconi anemia group C protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

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Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
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Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

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Fanconi Anemia - Complementation Group C

Latest Publications

Sumpter R, Sirasanagandla S, Fernández ÁF, et al.
Fanconi Anemia Proteins Function in Mitophagy and Immunity.
Cell. 2016; 165(4):867-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 05/05/2017 Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway genes are important tumor suppressors whose best-characterized function is repair of damaged nuclear DNA. Here, we describe an essential role for FA genes in two forms of selective autophagy. Genetic deletion of Fancc blocks the autophagic clearance of viruses (virophagy) and increases susceptibility to lethal viral encephalitis. Fanconi anemia complementation group C (FANCC) protein interacts with Parkin, is required in vitro and in vivo for clearance of damaged mitochondria, and decreases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inflammasome activation. The mitophagy function of FANCC is genetically distinct from its role in genomic DNA damage repair. Moreover, additional genes in the FA pathway, including FANCA, FANCF, FANCL, FANCD2, BRCA1, and BRCA2, are required for mitophagy. Thus, members of the FA pathway represent a previously undescribed class of selective autophagy genes that function in immunity and organellar homeostasis. These findings have implications for understanding the pathogenesis of FA and cancers associated with mutations in FA genes.

Ghazwani Y, AlBalwi M, Al-Abdulkareem I, et al.
Clinical characteristics and genetic subtypes of Fanconi anemia in Saudi patients.
Cancer Genet. 2016; 209(4):171-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We reviewed our institutional experience from 2011 to 2015 on new cases of Fanconi anemia (FA). Ten unrelated cases were diagnosed during this period. Four patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) had c.2392C > T (p.Arg798*) BRIP1/FANCJ mutation. Another child with SAA had novel c.1475T > C (p.Leu492Pro) FANCC mutation. One individual with SAA and acute myeloid leukemia had c.637_643del (p.Tyr213Lysfs*6) FANCG mutation. Three patients presented with early onset of cancer, two had BRCA2 mutation c.7007G > A (p.Arg2336His) and one had a novel c.3425del (p.Leu1142Tyrfs*21) PALB2 mutation. Another infant with c.3425del PALB2 mutation had clonal aberration with partial trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 17. Mutations in FA downstream pathway genes are more frequent in our series than expected. Our preliminary observation will be confirmed in a large multi-institutional study.

Bartolini D, Galli F
The functional interactome of GSTP: A regulatory biomolecular network at the interface with the Nrf2 adaption response to oxidative stress.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2016; 1019:29-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP), and possibly other members of the subfamily of cytosolic GSTs, are increasingly proposed to have roles far beyond the classical GSH-dependent enzymatic detoxification of electrophilic metabolites and xenobiotics. Emerging evidence suggests that these are essential components of the redox sensing and signaling platform of cells. GSTP monomers physically interact with cellular proteins, such as other cytosolic GSTs, signaling kinases and the membrane peroxidase peroxiredoxin 6. Other interactions reported in literature include that with regulatory proteins such as Fanconi anemia complementation group C protein, transglutaminase 2 and several members of the keratin family of genes. Transcription factors downstream of inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways, namely STAT3 and Nrf2, were recently identified to be further components of this interactome. Together these pieces of evidence suggest the existence of a regulatory biomolecular network in which GSTP represents a node of functional convergence and coordination of signaling and transcription proteins, namely the "GSTP interactome", associated with key cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation and the stress response. These aspects and the methodological approach to explore the cellular interactome(s) are discussed in this review paper.

Cerabona D, Sun Z, Nalepa G
Leukemia and chromosomal instability in aged Fancc-/- mice.
Exp Hematol. 2016; 44(5):352-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited disorder of genomic instability associated with high risk of myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Young mice deficient in FA core complex genes do not naturally develop cancer, hampering preclinical studies on malignant hematopoiesis in FA. Here we describe that aging Fancc(-/-) mice are prone to genomically unstable AML and other hematologic neoplasms. We report that aneuploidy precedes malignant transformation during Fancc(-/-) hematopoiesis. Our observations reveal that Fancc(-/-) mice develop hematopoietic chromosomal instability followed by leukemia in an age-dependent manner, recapitulating the clinical phenotype of human FA and providing a proof of concept for future development of preclinical models of FA-associated leukemogenesis.

Yang SY, Hsiung CN, Li YJ, et al.
Fanconi anemia genes in lung adenocarcinoma- a pathway-wide study on cancer susceptibility.
J Biomed Sci. 2016; 23:23 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Carcinogens in cigarette smoke can induce the formation of DNA-DNA cross-links, which are repaired by the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway, and it is tempting to speculate that this pathway is involved in lung tumorigenesis. This study is to determine whether genetic polymorphism of the FA genes is associated with an elevated risk of lung adenocarcinoma, and whether the association between genotypes and risk is modified by exposure to cigarette smoke.
METHODS: This case-control study genotyped 53 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FA genes in 709 patients (354 males and 355 females) with lung adenocarcinoma and in 726 cancer-free individuals (339 males and 387 females). Genotypic frequencies of SNPs were compared between cases and controls to identify important FA genes associated with cancer susceptibility. Joint effects in determining cancer risk contributed by genes and smoking-related risk factors and by multiple genes involved in different FA subpathways were evaluated by multivariate regression analysis and stratified analysis. All analyses were performed on males and females separately, and the comparison of results was considered a way of examining the validity of study findings.
RESULTS: Lung adenocarcinomas in both male and female patients were associated with (a) genotypic polymorphisms of FANCC and FANCD1; (b) a combined effect of harboring a higher number of high-risk genotypes and smoking/passive smoking; (c) specific interactions of multiple genes, proteins encoded by which have been known to work jointly within the FA pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic polymorphism of the FA genes is associated with inter-individual susceptibility to lung adenocarcinoma.

Laitman Y, Boker-Keinan L, Berkenstadt M, et al.
The risk for developing cancer in Israeli ATM, BLM, and FANCC heterozygous mutation carriers.
Cancer Genet. 2016; 209(3):70-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer risks in heterozygous mutation carriers of the ATM, BLM, and FANCC genes are controversial. To shed light on this issue, cancer rates were evaluated by cross referencing asymptomatic Israeli heterozygous mutation carriers in the ATM, BLM, and FANCC genes with cancer diagnoses registered at the Israeli National Cancer Registry (INCR). Comparison of observed to expected Standardized Incidence Rates (SIR) was performed. Overall, 474 individuals participated in the study: 378 females; 25 Arab and 31 Jewish ATM carriers, 152 BLM carriers, and 170 FANCC carriers (all Ashkenazim). Age range at genotyping was 19-53 years (mean + SD 30.6 + 5 years). In addition, 96 males were included; 5, 34, and 57 ATM, BLM, and FANCC mutation carriers, respectively. Over 5-16 years from genotyping (4721 person/years), 15 new cancers were diagnosed in mutation carriers: 5 breast, 4 cervical, 3 melanomas, and one each bone sarcoma, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer. No single cancer diagnosis was more prevalent then expected in all groups combined or per gene analyzed. Specifically breast cancer SIR was 0.02-0.77. We conclude that Israeli ATM, BLM, and FANCC heterozygous mutation carriers are not at an increased risk for developing cancer.

Magron A, Elowe S, Carreau M
The Fanconi Anemia C Protein Binds to and Regulates Stathmin-1 Phosphorylation.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0140612 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
The Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins are involved in a signaling network that assures the safeguard of chromosomes. To understand the function of FA proteins in cellular division events, we investigated the interaction between Stathmin-1 (STMN1) and the FA group C (FANCC) protein. STMN1 is a ubiquitous cytosolic protein that regulates microtubule dynamics. STMN1 activities are regulated through phosphorylation-dephosphorylation mechanisms that control assembly of the mitotic spindle, and dysregulation of STMN1 phosphorylation is associated with mitotic aberrancies leading to chromosome instability and cancer progression. Using different biochemical approaches, we showed that FANCC interacts and co-localizes with STMN1 at centrosomes during mitosis. We also showed that FANCC is required for STMN1 phosphorylation, as mutations in FANCC reduced serine 16- and 38-phosphorylated forms of STMN1. Phosphorylation of STMN1 at serine 16 is likely an event dependent on a functional FA pathway, as it is reduced in FANCA- and FANCD2-mutant cells. Furthermore, FA-mutant cells exhibited mitotic spindle anomalies such as supernumerary centrosomes and shorter mitotic spindles. These results suggest that FA proteins participate in the regulation of cellular division via the microtubule-associated protein STMN1.

Garbati MR, Hays LE, Rathbun RK, et al.
Cytokine overproduction and crosslinker hypersensitivity are unlinked in Fanconi anemia macrophages.
J Leukoc Biol. 2016; 99(3):455-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Fanconi anemia proteins participate in a canonical pathway that repairs cross-linking agent-induced DNA damage. Cells with inactivated Fanconi anemia genes are universally hypersensitive to such agents. Fanconi anemia-deficient hematopoietic stem cells are also hypersensitive to inflammatory cytokines, and, as importantly, Fanconi anemia macrophages overproduce such cytokines in response to TLR4 and TLR7/8 agonists. We questioned whether TLR-induced DNA damage is the primary cause of aberrantly regulated cytokine production in Fanconi anemia macrophages by quantifying TLR agonist-induced TNF-α production, DNA strand breaks, crosslinker-induced chromosomal breakage, and Fanconi anemia core complex function in Fanconi anemia complementation group C-deficient human and murine macrophages. Although both M1 and M2 polarized Fanconi anemia cells were predictably hypersensitive to mitomycin C, only M1 macrophages overproduced TNF-α in response to TLR-activating signals. DNA damaging agents alone did not induce TNF-α production in the absence of TLR agonists in wild-type or Fanconi anemia macrophages, and mitomycin C did not enhance TLR responses in either normal or Fanconi anemia cells. TLR4 and TLR7/8 activation induced cytokine overproduction in Fanconi anemia macrophages. Also, although TLR4 activation was associated with induced double strand breaks, TLR7/8 activation was not. That DNA strand breaks and chromosome breaks are neither necessary nor sufficient to account for the overproduction of inflammatory cytokines by Fanconi anemia cells suggests that noncanonical anti-inflammatory functions of Fanconi anemia complementation group C contribute to the aberrant macrophage phenotype and suggests that suppression of macrophage/TLR hyperreactivity might prevent cytokine-induced stem cell attrition in Fanconi anemia.

Martin RI, Babaei MS, Choy MK, et al.
Genetic variants associated with risk of atrial fibrillation regulate expression of PITX2, CAV1, MYOZ1, C9orf3 and FANCC.
J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015; 85:207-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants in a number of chromosomal regions that are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). The mechanisms underlying these associations are unknown, but are likely to involve effects of the risk haplotypes on expression of neighbouring genes. To investigate the association between genetic variants at AF-associated loci and expression of nearby candidate genes in human atrial tissue and peripheral blood. Right atrial appendage (RAA) samples were collected from 122 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, of these, 12 patients also had left atrial appendage samples taken. 22 patients had a history of AF. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 405 patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterisation. In order to tag genetic variation at each of nine loci, a total of 367 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using the Sequenom platform. Total expression of 16 candidate genes in the nine AF-associated regions was measured by quantitative PCR. The relative expression of each allele of the candidate genes was measured on the Sequenom platform using one or more transcribed SNPs to distinguish between alleles in heterozygotes. We tested association between the SNPs of interest and gene expression using total gene expression (integrating cis and trans acting sources of variation), and allelic expression ratios (specific for cis acting influences), in atrial tissue and peripheral blood. We adjusted for multiple comparisons using a Bonferroni approach. In subsidiary analyses, we compared the expression of candidate genes between patients with and without a history of AF. Total expression of 15 transcripts of 14 genes and allelic expression ratio of 14 transcripts of 14 genes in genomic regions associated with AF were measured in right atrial appendage tissue. 8 of these transcripts were also expressed in peripheral blood. Risk alleles at AF-associated SNPs were associated in cis with an increased expression of PITX2a (2.01-fold, p=6.5×10(-4)); and with decreased expression of MYOZ1 (0.39 fold; p=5.5×10(-15)), CAV1 (0.89 fold; p=5.9×10(-8)), C9orf3 (0.91 fold; 1.5×10(-5)), and FANCC (0.94-fold; p=8.9×10(-8)) in right atrial appendage. Of these five genes, only CAV1 was expressed in peripheral blood; association between the same AF risk alleles and lower expression of CAV1 was confirmed (0.91 fold decrease; p=4.2×10(-5)). A history of AF was also associated with a decrease in expression of CAV1 in both right and left atria (0.84 and 0.85 fold, respectively; p=0.03), congruent with the magnitude of the effect of the risk SNP on expression, and independent of genotype. The analyses in peripheral blood showed association between AF risk SNPs and decreased expression of KCNN3 (0.85-fold; p=2.1×10(-4)); and increased expression of SYNE2 (1.12-fold; p=7.5×10(-24)); however, these associations were not detectable in atrial tissue. We identified novel cis-acting associations in atrial tissue between AF risk SNPs and increased expression of PITX2a/b; and decreased expression of CAV1 (an association also seen in peripheral blood), C9orf3 and FANCC. We also confirmed a previously described association between AF risk variants and MYOZ1 expression. Analyses of peripheral blood illustrated tissue-specificity of cardiac eQTLs and highlight the need for larger-scale genome-wide eQTL studies in cardiac tissue. Our results suggest novel aetiological roles for genes in four AF-associated genomic regions.

Nicchia E, Benedicenti F, De Rocco D, et al.
Clinical aspects of Fanconi anemia individuals with the same mutation of FANCF identified by next generation sequencing.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2015; 103(12):1003-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease characterized by congenital malformations, aplastic anemia and increased risk of developing malignancies. FA is genetically heterogeneous as it is caused by at least 17 different genes. Among these, FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG account for approximately 85% of the patients whereas the remaining genes are mutated in only a small percentage of cases. For this reason, the molecular diagnostic process is complex and not always extended to all the FA genes, preventing the characterization of individuals belonging to rare groups.
METHODS: The FA genes were analyzed using a next generation sequencing approach in two unrelated families.
RESULTS: The analysis identified the same, c.484_485del, homozygous mutation of FANCF in both families. A careful examination of three electively aborted fetuses in one family and one affected girl in the other indicated an association of the FANCF loss-of-function mutation with a severe phenotype characterized by multiple malformations.
CONCLUSION: The systematic use of next generation sequencing will allow the recognition of individuals from rare complementation groups, a better definition of their clinical phenotypes, and consequently, an appropriate genetic counseling.

Zhang T, Wilson AF, Mahmood Ali A, et al.
Loss of Faap20 Causes Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Depletion in Mice Under Genotoxic Stress.
Stem Cells. 2015; 33(7):2320-30 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
20-kDa FANCA-associated protein (FAAP20) is a recently identified protein that associates with the Fanconi anemia (FA) core complex component, FANCA. FAAP20 contains a conserved ubiquitin-binding zinc-finger domain and plays critical roles in the FA-BRCA pathway of DNA repair and genome maintenance. The function of FAAP20 in animals has not been explored. Here, we report that deletion of Faap20 in mice led to a mild FA-like phenotype with defects in the reproductive and hematopoietic systems. Specifically, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from Faap20(-) (/) (-) mice showed defects in long-term multilineage reconstitution in lethally irradiated recipient mice, with milder phenotype as compared to HSPCs from Fanca(-) (/) (-) or Fancc(-) (/) (-) mice. Faap20(-) (/) (-) mice are susceptible to mitomycin C (MMC)-induced pancytopenia. That is, acute MMC stress induced a significant progenitor loss especially the erythroid progenitors and megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors in Faap20(-) (/) (-) mice. Furthermore, Faap20(-) (/) (-) HSPCs displayed aberrant cell cycle pattern during chronic MMC treatment. Finally, using Faap20(-) (/) (-) Fanca(-) (/) (-) double-knockout mice, we demonstrated a possible dominant effect of FANCA in the interaction between FAAP20 and FANCA. This novel Faap20 mouse model may be valuable in studying the regulation of the FA pathway during bone marrow failure progress in FA patients.

Lombardi AJ, Hoskins EE, Foglesong GD, et al.
Acquisition of Relative Interstrand Crosslinker Resistance and PARP Inhibitor Sensitivity in Fanconi Anemia Head and Neck Cancers.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(8):1962-72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Fanconi anemia is an inherited disorder associated with a constitutional defect in the Fanconi anemia DNA repair machinery that is essential for resolution of DNA interstrand crosslinks. Individuals with Fanconi anemia are predisposed to formation of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) at a young age. Prognosis is poor, partly due to patient intolerance of chemotherapy and radiation requiring dose reduction, which may lead to early recurrence of disease.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using HNSCC cell lines derived from the tumors of patients with Fanconi anemia, and murine HNSCC cell lines derived from the tumors of wild-type and Fancc(-/-) mice, we sought to define Fanconi anemia-dependent chemosensitivity and DNA repair characteristics. We utilized DNA repair reporter assays to explore the preference of Fanconi anemia HNSCC cells for non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).
RESULTS: Surprisingly, interstrand crosslinker (ICL) sensitivity was not necessarily Fanconi anemia-dependent in human or murine cell systems. Our results suggest that the increased Ku-dependent NHEJ that is expected in Fanconi anemia cells did not mediate relative ICL resistance. ICL exposure resulted in increased DNA damage sensing and repair by PARP in Fanconi anemia-deficient cells. Moreover, human and murine Fanconi anemia HNSCC cells were sensitive to PARP inhibition, and sensitivity of human cells was attenuated by Fanconi anemia gene complementation.
CONCLUSIONS: The observed reliance upon PARP-mediated mechanisms reveals a means by which Fanconi anemia HNSCCs can acquire relative resistance to the ICL-based chemotherapy that is a foundation of HNSCC treatment, as well as a potential target for overcoming chemoresistance in the chemosensitive individual.

Osborn MJ, Gabriel R, Webber BR, et al.
Fanconi anemia gene editing by the CRISPR/Cas9 system.
Hum Gene Ther. 2015; 26(2):114-26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Genome engineering with designer nucleases is a rapidly progressing field, and the ability to correct human gene mutations in situ is highly desirable. We employed fibroblasts derived from a patient with Fanconi anemia as a model to test the ability of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 nuclease system to mediate gene correction. We show that the Cas9 nuclease and nickase each resulted in gene correction, but the nickase, because of its ability to preferentially mediate homology-directed repair, resulted in a higher frequency of corrected clonal isolates. To assess the off-target effects, we used both a predictive software platform to identify intragenic sequences of homology as well as a genome-wide screen utilizing linear amplification-mediated PCR. We observed no off-target activity and show RNA-guided endonuclease candidate sites that do not possess low sequence complexity function in a highly specific manner. Collectively, we provide proof of principle for precision genome editing in Fanconi anemia, a DNA repair-deficient human disorder.

Epanchintsev A, Shyamsunder P, Verma RS, Lyakhovich A
IL-6, IL-8, MMP-2, MMP-9 are overexpressed in Fanconi anemia cells through a NF-κB/TNF-α dependent mechanism.
Mol Carcinog. 2015; 54(12):1686-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder associated with a bone-marrow failure, genome instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents and a predisposition to cancer. Mutations have been documented in 16 FA genes that participate in the FA-BRCA DNA repair pathway, a fundamental pathway in the development of the disease and the presentation of its symptoms. FA cells have been characterized by an overproduction of cytokines, MAPKs, and Interleukins. Through this study we have identified the overexpression of additional secretory factors such as IL-6, IL-8, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in FA cells and in cells depleted of FANCA or FANCC and proved that their expression is under the control of NF-κB/TNF-α signaling pathways. We also demonstrated that these overexpressed secretory factors were effective in promoting the proliferation, migration, and invasion of surrounding tumor cells a fundamental event in the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and that they also modulated the expression of EMT markers such as E-cadherin and SNAIL. Overall our data suggest that the upregulation of EMT promoting factors in FA may contribute to predisposing FA patients to cancer, thereby providing new insights into possible therapeutic interventions.

Roomi MW, Bhanap B, Roomi NW, et al.
In vitro inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases, invasion and growth of Fanconi anemia human FANCA and FANCC lymphoblasts by nutrient mixture.
Exp Oncol. 2014; 36(3):212-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Fanconi anemia is a rare genetic disorder with high propensity for development of cancers, such as aplastic anemia, leukemia and head and neck cancers. Collagen digesting matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes have been implicated in for their role in various malignancies and to promote metastasis. Biological agents that prevent extracellular matrix digestion by the MMPs have been shown to be promising therapeutic approaches to cancer. In this study, we investigated effects of a nutrient mixture (NM) containing, ascorbic acid, lysine, proline and green tea extract, on human FANCA and FANCC lymphoblasts for viability, MMP secretion and invasion.
METHODS: Human FANCA lymphoblasts GM13022 and HCS536 were challenged with NM at concentration range within 10-1000 µg/ml. Cell toxicity was assessed by Trypan blue dye exclusion test. Invasion was evaluated through Matrigel and gelatinase zymography for MMP activity.
RESULTS: NM was toxic in dose dependent mode to HCS536 cells but not to GM13022 cells. GM13022 cells but not HCS536 cells exhibited MMP-9 secretion, which was inhibited by NM. Matrigel invasion was inhibited in HCS536 cells at 100 and 500 µg/ml by 27% and 93%, respectively. In GM13022 cells, the NM showed completely blocked Matrigel invasion at 500 µg/ml.
CONCLUSION: NM inhibited MMP secretion and Matrigel invasion in FANCA and inhibited invasion and induced toxicity in FANCC lymphoblasts. These results suggest that the NM may have therapeutic potential in Fanconi anemia associated neoplasia.

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