|Gene:||FANCL; Fanconi anemia, complementation group L|
|Aliases: || POG, PHF9, FAAP43 |
|Summary:||The Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) currently includes FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (also called BRCA2), FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ (also called BRIP1), FANCL, FANCM and FANCN (also called PALB2). The previously defined group FANCH is the same as FANCA. Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by cytogenetic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, increased chromosomal breakage, and defective DNA repair. The members of the Fanconi anemia complementation group do not share sequence similarity; they are related by their assembly into a common nuclear protein complex. This gene encodes the protein for complementation group L. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]|
|Databases:||OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene|
|Protein:||E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase FANCL|
|Updated:||14 December, 2014|
What does this gene/protein do?
What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- Tryptophan metabolism
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology FANCL gene
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Current methods for detecting mutations in Fanconi anemia (FA)-suspected patients are inefficient and often miss mutations. We have applied recent advances in DNA sequencing and genomic capture to the diagnosis of FA. Specifically, we used custom molecular inversion probes or TruSeq-enrichment oligos to capture and sequence FA and related genes, including introns, from 27 samples from the International Fanconi Anemia Registry at The Rockefeller University. DNA sequencing was complemented with custom array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. aCGH identified deletions/duplications in 4 different FA genes. RNA-seq analysis revealed lack of allele specific expression associated with a deletion and splicing defects caused by missense, synonymous, and deep-in-intron variants. The combination of TruSeq-targeted capture, aCGH, and RNA-seq enabled us to identify the complementation group and biallelic germline mutations in all 27 families: FANCA (7), FANCB (3), FANCC (3), FANCD1 (1), FANCD2 (3), FANCF (2), FANCG (2), FANCI (1), FANCJ (2), and FANCL (3). FANCC mutations are often the cause of FA in patients of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) ancestry, and we identified 2 novel FANCC mutations in 2 patients of AJ ancestry. We describe here a strategy for efficient molecular diagnosis of FA.Related: CGH Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology FANCA FANCC FANCD2 FANCG FANCB gene
Effectiveness of DNA cross-linking drugs in the treatment of bladder cancer suggests that bladder cancer cells may have harbored an insufficient cellular response to DNA cross-link damage, which will sensitize cells to DNA cross-linking agents. Cell sensitivity benefits from deficient DNA damage responses, which, on the other hand, can cause cancer. Many changed cellular signaling pathways are known to be involved in bladder tumorigenesis; however, DNA cross-link damage response pathway [Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway], whose alterations appear to be a plausible cause of the development of bladder cancer, remains an under-investigated area in bladder cancer research. In this study, we found FAVL (variant of FA protein L--FANCL) was elevated substantially in bladder cancer tissues examined. Ectopic expression of FAVL in bladder cancer cells as well as normal human cells confer an impaired FA pathway and hypersensitivity to Mitomycin C, similar to those found in FA cells, indicating that FAVL elevation may possess the same tumor promotion potential as an impaired FA pathway harbored in FA cells. Indeed, a higher level of FAVL expression can promote the growth of bladder cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which, at least partly, results from FAVL perturbation of FANCL expression, an essential factor for the activation of the FA pathway. Moreover, a higher level of FAVL expression was found to be associated with chromosomal instability and the invasiveness of bladder cancer cells. Collectively, FAVL elevation can increase the tumorigenic potential of bladder cancer cells, including the invasive potential that confers the development of advanced bladder cancer. These results enhance our understanding the pathogenesis of human bladder cancer, holding a promise to develop additional effective tools to fight human bladder cancer.Related: Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology Mitomycin Signal Transduction Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology
van de Vrugt HJ, Koomen M, Bakker S, et al.Evidence for complete epistasis of null mutations in murine Fanconi anemia genes Fanca and Fancg.
DNA Repair (Amst). 2011; 10(12):1252-61 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Rodríguez-Marí A, Postlethwait JHThe role of Fanconi anemia/BRCA genes in zebrafish sex determination.
Methods Cell Biol. 2011; 105:461-90 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a human disease of bone marrow failure, leukemia, squamous cell carcinoma, and developmental anomalies, including hypogonadism and infertility. Bone marrow transplants improve hematopoietic phenotypes but do not prevent other cancers. FA arises from mutation in any of the 15 FANC genes that cooperate to repair double stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination. Zebrafish has a single ortholog of each human FANC gene and unexpectedly, mutations in at least two of them (fancl and fancd1(brca2)) lead to female-to-male sex reversal. Investigations show that, as in human, zebrafish fanc genes are required for genome stability and for suppressing apoptosis in tissue culture cells, in embryos treated with DNA damaging agents, and in meiotic germ cells. The sex reversal phenotype requires the action of Tp53 (p53), an activator of apoptosis. These results suggest that in normal sex determination, zebrafish oocytes passing through meiosis signal the gonadal soma to maintain expression of aromatase, an enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen, thereby feminizing the gonad and the individual. According to this model, normal male and female zebrafish differ in genetic factors that control the strength of the late meiotic oocyte-derived signal, probably by regulating the number of meiotic oocytes, which environmental factors can also alter. Transcripts from fancd1(brca2) localize at the animal pole of the zebrafish oocyte cytoplasm and are required for normal oocyte nuclear architecture, for normal embryonic development, and for preventing ovarian tumors. Embryonic DNA repair and sex reversal phenotypes provide assays for the screening of small molecule libraries for therapeutic substances for FA.Related: Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology
The Fanconi anemia (FA) gene family is a recent addition to the complex network of proteins that respond to and repair certain types of DNA damage in the human genome. Since little is known about the regulation of this novel group of genes at the DNA level, we characterized the promoters of the eight genes (FANCA, B, C, E, F, G, L and M) that compose the FA core complex. The promoters of these genes show the characteristic attributes of housekeeping genes, such as a high GC content and CpG islands, a lack of TATA boxes and a low conservation. The promoters functioned in a monodirectional way and were, in their most active regions, comparable in strength to the SV40 promoter in our reporter plasmids. They were also marked by a distinctive transcriptional start site (TSS). In the 5' region of each promoter, we identified a region that was able to negatively regulate the promoter activity in HeLa and HEK 293 cells in isolation. The central and 3' regions of the promoter sequences harbor binding sites for several common and rare transcription factors, including STAT, SMAD, E2F, AP1 and YY1, which indicates that there may be cross-connections to several established regulatory pathways. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and siRNA experiments confirmed the shared regulatory responses between the prominent members of the TGF-β and JAK/STAT pathways and members of the FA core complex. Although the promoters are not well conserved, they share region and sequence specific regulatory motifs and transcription factor binding sites (TBFs), and we identified a bi-partite nature to these promoters. These results support a hypothesis based on the co-evolution of the FA core complex genes that was expanded to include their promoters.Related: Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology FANCA FANCC FANCE FANCF FANCG FANCB gene FANCM gene
Akbari MR, Malekzadeh R, Lepage P, et al.Mutations in Fanconi anemia genes and the risk of esophageal cancer.
Hum Genet. 2011; 129(5):573-82 [PubMed
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The incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is very high in northeastern Iran. Previously, we reported a strong familial component of ESCC among Turkmens, who constitute approximately one-half of the population of this region. We hypothesized that the genes which cause Fanconi anemia might be candidate genes for ESCC. We sequenced the entire coding regions of 12 Fanconi anemia genes in the germline DNA of 190 Turkmen cases of ESCC. We identified three heterozygous insertion/deletion mutations: one in FANCD2 (p.Val1233del), one in FANCE (p.Val311SerfsX2), and one in FANCL (p.Thr367AsnfsX13). All three patients had a strong family history of ESCC. In addition, four patients (out of 746 tested) were homozygous for the FANCA p.Ser858Arg mutation, compared to none of 1,373 matched controls (OR = 16.7, 95% CI = 6.2-44.2, P = 0.01). The p. Lys3326X mutation in BRCA2 (also known as Fanconi anemia gene FANCD1) was present in 27 of 746 ESCC cases and in 16 of 1,373 controls (OR = 3.38, 95% CI = 1.97-6.91, P = 0.0002). In summary, both heterozygous and homozygous mutations in several Fanconi anemia-predisposing genes are associated with an increased risk of ESCC in Iran.Related: Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology FANCD2 FANCE BRCA2
García MJ, Fernández V, Osorio A, et al.Mutational analysis of FANCL, FANCM and the recently identified FANCI suggests that among the 13 known Fanconi Anemia genes, only FANCD1/BRCA2 plays a major role in high-risk breast cancer predisposition.
Carcinogenesis. 2009; 30(11):1898-902 [PubMed
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The Fanconi anemia (FA) molecular network consists of 15 "FANC" proteins, of which 13 are associated with mutations in patients with this cancer-prone chromosome instability disorder. Whereas historically the common phenotype associated with FA mutations is marked sensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents, the literature supports a more global role for FANC proteins in coping with diverse stresses encountered by replicative polymerases. We have attempted to reconcile and integrate numerous observations into a model in which FANC proteins coordinate the following physiological events during DNA crosslink repair: (a) activating a FANCM-ATR-dependent S-phase checkpoint, (b) mediating enzymatic replication-fork breakage and crosslink unhooking, (c) filling the resulting gap by translesion synthesis (TLS) by error-prone polymerase(s), and (d) restoring the resulting one-ended double-strand break by homologous recombination repair (HRR). The FANC core subcomplex (FANCA, B, C, E, F, G, L, FAAP100) promotes TLS for both crosslink and non-crosslink damage such as spontaneous oxidative base damage, UV-C photoproducts, and alkylated bases. TLS likely helps prevent stalled replication forks from breaking, thereby maintaining chromosome continuity. Diverse DNA damages and replication inhibitors result in monoubiquitination of the FANCD2-FANCI complex by the FANCL ubiquitin ligase activity of the core subcomplex upon its recruitment to chromatin by the FANCM-FAAP24 heterodimeric translocase. We speculate that this translocase activity acts as the primary damage sensor and helps remodel blocked replication forks to facilitate checkpoint activation and repair. Monoubiquitination of FANCD2-FANCI is needed for promoting HRR, in which the FANCD1/BRCA2 and FANCN/PALB2 proteins act at an early step. We conclude that the core subcomplex is required for both TLS and HRR occurring separately for non-crosslink damages and for both events during crosslink repair. The FANCJ/BRIP1/BACH1 helicase functions in association with BRCA1 and may remove structural barriers to replication, such as guanine quadruplex structures, and/or assist in crosslink unhooking.Related: Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive or X-linked disorder characterized by aplastic anemia, cancer susceptibility and cellular sensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents. Eight FA proteins (FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCL and FANCM) and three non-FA proteins (FAAP100, FAAP24 and HES1) form an FA nuclear core complex, which is required for monoubiquitination of the FANCD2-FANCI dimer upon DNA damage. FANCL possesses a PHD/RING-finger domain and is a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase subunit of the core complex. In this study, we report an FA patient with an unusual presentation belonging to the FA-L complementation group. The patient lacks an obvious FA phenotype except for the presence of a café-au-lait spot, mild hypocellularity and a family history of leukemia. The molecular diagnosis and identification of the FA subgroup was achieved by FA complementation assay. We identified bi-allelic novel mutations in the FANCL gene and functionally characterized them. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second reported case belonging to the FA-L complementation group.Related: Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology Leukemia
Song LA possible approach for stem cell gene therapy of Fanconi anemia.
Curr Gene Ther. 2009; 9(1):26-32 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited chromosomal recessive syndrome characterized by cellular hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents and bone marrow failure, which cause aplastic anemia, and an increased incidence of malignancy. 13 complementation groups are currently discovered, and 13 distinct genes have been cloned (FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FNACI, FANCJ, FANCL, FANCM, FANCN). Stem cells can theoretically divide to other cells without limit as long as a person is still alive. The stem cells that form blood and immune cells are known as hematopoietic stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells can be acquired from a Fanconi anemia patient, whereas genomic DNA can be obtained easily from blood cells of a normal person. Normal genes also can be synthesised by PCR method. Normal genomic DNA will be delivered into a patient's stem cells via microinjection or transfection after enzyme digestion; the defective genes might be repaired by homologous genetic recombination. The gene-corrected stem cells can be transplanted into the same patient finally. It is possible that human genomic DNA to be considered as materials for homologous genetic recombination to repair defective genes in vivo. This might be an efficient method for gene therapy, which has no or less immunological rejection for Fanconi anemia and some genetic diseases. Several related observations and experiments are discussed to support this possible means of stem cell gene therapy of Fanconi anemia.Related: Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology
Zhang J, Zhao D, Wang H, et al.FANCD2 monoubiquitination provides a link between the HHR6 and FA-BRCA pathways.
Cell Cycle. 2008; 7(3):407-13 [PubMed
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Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease characterized by chromosome instability mostly resulting from an improper regulation of FANCD2 monoubiquitination. The E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme UBE2T along with a multi-protein E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex containing a catalytic subunit FANCL mediates monoubiquitination of FANCD2. However, the upstream events involved in regulating FANCD2 monoubiquitination remain unclear. Here we report that HHR6, human homologs of the yeast ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Rad6, regulates FANCD2 monoubiquitination in a manner distinct from that of UBE2T. Indeed, although downregulation of HHR6 compromised FANCD2 monoubiquitination and overexpression of HHR6 enhanced FANCD2 monoubiquitination, HHR6 did not directly interact with FANCL. Cells deficient in HHR6, UBE2T or FANCL did, however, all exhibit similar sensitivities to the DNA crosslinking agent mitomycin C (MMC). As an HHR6-induced increase in oncogenic potential could be partially suppressed by co-expression of non-monoubiquitinated FANCD2, a tight regulation of appropriate levels of monoubiquitinated FANCD2 appears to play an important role in tumor suppression. Thus, these results provide further insights into the regulation of FANCD2 monoubiquitination as well as indicate a common link between the FA-BRCA and HHR6 pathways in the maintenance of genome integrity.Related: Fanconi Anaemia Fanconi Anemia - Molecular Biology FANCD2 Signal Transduction