ID2; inhibitor of DNA binding 2, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein (2p25)

Gene Summary

Gene:ID2; inhibitor of DNA binding 2, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein
Aliases: GIG8, ID2A, ID2H, bHLHb26
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the inhibitor of DNA binding family, members of which are transcriptional regulators that contain a helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain but not a basic domain. Members of the inhibitor of DNA binding family inhibit the functions of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in a dominant-negative manner by suppressing their heterodimerization partners through the HLH domains. This protein may play a role in negatively regulating cell differentiation. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-2
Updated:14 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (51)


What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- TGF-beta signaling pathway KEGG
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP

Cancer Overview

ID proteins are inhibitors of basic-Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factor function which have been implicated in the control of cell differentiation and proliferation. The human ID2 gene was cloned and characterised by Hara et al. (1994) and was mapped to 2p25 by Mathew et al. (1995).

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (8)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
NeuroblastomaID2 Expression in Neuroblastoma
Lasorella et al (2000) carried out a study to investigate how ID2, RB1, and the Myc family of genes interact in the context of carcinogenesis. RB1 knockout mouse embryos did not survive beyond 15 days, however, loss of ID2 reduced the embryonic lethality. They also found that 5/6 neuroblastoma cell lines with MYCN amplification had over 20 fold more ID2 than neuroblastoma cell lines without MYCN amplification. Also, the activation of MYCN caused a rapid, sustained increase in ID2 mRNA in 3T3 cells, normal human fibroblasts, and mouse embryo fibroblasts. They conclude that increased ID2 expression results from transcriptional activation by oncoproteins of the Myc family. Further studies are needed to investigate potential therapeutic approaches aimed at inhibiting ID2, such as the use of anti-Id2 oligonucleotides.
View Publications30
Pancreatic CancerID2 Overexpression in Pancreatic Cancer
Kleeff et al. (1998) found that primary pancreatic cancers markedly overexpressed ID2 mRNA compared to normal pancreas. They found abundant ID2 immunoreactivity in the pancreatic tumour cells, inhibition of ID2 expression by ID2 antisense oligonucleotides inhibited growth of tumour cells. Their study suggests that ID2 may have a role in human pancreatic cancer.
View Publications3
Ewing's SarcomaUpregulation of ID2 in Ewing's Sarcoma
Studies suggest that upregulation of ID2 is mediated by EWS-ETS fusion proteins in Ewing's sarcoma (Nishimori et al, 2002 and Fukuma et al, 2003).
View Publications6
Breast CancerID2 Expression in Breast Cancer View Publications18
LeukaemiaID2 in Leukemia & Lymphoma
Ishiguro et al. (1996) found that ID2 expression increases with differentiation of human myeloid cells, their study included examination of 22 fresh acute myeloid leukaemia samples, with low expression in M0/M1 and high expression in M2/M3/M4 FAB types. In a study of transgenic mice which overexpressed the ID2 protein in thymocytes, Morrow MA et al. (1999) found a significant expansion of the early thymocyte stage and a depletion of thymocytes in later developmental stages. Mice from five of the six ID2 transgenic founder lines developed aggressive T cell hyperproliferation resembling lymphoma. They concluded that overexpression of ID2 has profound effects on T cell development and oncogenesis.
View Publications11
Lung CancerID2 Expression in Lung CancerPrognostic
ID2 expression has been associated with prognosis in both small cell lung cancer (Kamalian et al., 2008 ) and NSCLC (Rollin et al, 2009)
View Publications7
Liver CancerID2 Expression in hepatocellular carcinoma
See also occasional ID2 mutations in ICGC
View Publications7

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: ID2 (cancer-related)

Buczkowicz P, Hoeman C, Rakopoulos P, et al.
Genomic analysis of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas identifies three molecular subgroups and recurrent activating ACVR1 mutations.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(5):451-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a fatal brain cancer that arises in the brainstem of children, with no effective treatment and near 100% fatality. The failure of most therapies can be attributed to the delicate location of these tumors and to the selection of therapies on the basis of assumptions that DIPGs are molecularly similar to adult disease. Recent studies have unraveled the unique genetic makeup of this brain cancer, with nearly 80% found to harbor a p.Lys27Met histone H3.3 or p.Lys27Met histone H3.1 alteration. However, DIPGs are still thought of as one disease, with limited understanding of the genetic drivers of these tumors. To understand what drives DIPGs, we integrated whole-genome sequencing with methylation, expression and copy number profiling, discovering that DIPGs comprise three molecularly distinct subgroups (H3-K27M, silent and MYCN) and uncovering a new recurrent activating mutation affecting the activin receptor gene ACVR1 in 20% of DIPGs. Mutations in ACVR1 were constitutively activating, leading to SMAD phosphorylation and increased expression of the downstream activin signaling targets ID1 and ID2. Our results highlight distinct molecular subgroups and novel therapeutic targets for this incurable pediatric cancer.

Related: Brain Stem Glioma - Childhood

Havrda MC, Paolella BR, Ran C, et al.
Id2 mediates oligodendrocyte precursor cell maturation arrest and is tumorigenic in a PDGF-rich microenvironment.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(6):1822-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Maturation defects occurring in adult tissue progenitor cells have the potential to contribute to tumor development; however, there is little experimental evidence implicating this cellular mechanism in the pathogenesis of solid tumors. Inhibitor of DNA-binding 2 (Id2) is a transcription factor known to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of primitive stem and progenitor cells. Id2 is derepressed in adult tissue neural stem cells (NSC) lacking the tumor suppressor Tp53 and modulates their proliferation. Constitutive expression of Id2 in differentiating NSCs resulted in maturation-resistant oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPC), a cell population implicated in the initiation of glioma. Mechanistically, Id2 overexpression was associated with inhibition of the Notch effector Hey1, a bHLH transcription factor that we here characterize as a direct transcriptional repressor of the oligodendroglial lineage determinant Olig2. Orthotopic inoculation of NSCs with enhanced Id2 expression into brains of mice engineered to express platelet-derived growth factor in the central nervous system resulted in glioma. These data implicate a mechanism of altered NSC differentiation in glioma development and characterize a novel mouse model that reflects key characteristics of the recently described proneural subtype of glioblastoma multiforme. Such findings support the emerging concept that the cellular and molecular characteristics of tumor cells are linked to the transformation of distinct subsets of adult tissue progenitors.

Related: PDGFB gene PDGFRA gene

DiVito KA, Simbulan-Rosenthal CM, Chen YS, et al.
Id2, Id3 and Id4 overcome a Smad7-mediated block in tumorigenesis, generating TGF-β-independent melanoma.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(4):951-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
The role for the inhibitors of differentiation (Ids) proteins in melanomagenesis has been poorly explored. In other cell types, Ids have been shown to contribute to cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis and, along with a number of other genes, are direct downstream targets of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β pathway. Expression of Smad7, which suppress TGF-β signaling, or synthetic TGF-β inhibitors, was shown to potently suppress melanomagenesis. We found that endogenous Id2, Id3 and Id4 expression was elevated in 1205Lu versus 1205Lu cells constitutively expressing Smad7, indicating Ids may play a role in melanomagenesis. Therefore, the effects of Tet-inducible expression of Id2, Id3 or Id4 along with Smad7 in TGF-β-dependent 1205Lu human melanoma cells were explored in vitro and in vivo. 1205Lu cells formed subcutaneous tumors in athymic mice, whereas cells expressing Smad7 failed to form tumors. However, 1205Lu cells expressing Smad7 along with doxycycline-induced Id2, Id3 or Id4 were able to overcome the potent tumorigenic block mediated by S7, to varying degrees. Conversely, Id small interfering RNA knockdown suppressed anchorage-independent growth of melanoma. Histology of tumors from 1205Lu cells expressing Smad7 + Id4 revealed an average of 31% necrosis, compared with 5.2% in tumors from 1205Lu with vector only. Downstream, Ids suppressed cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, and re-upregulated invasion and metastasis-related genes matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), MMP9, CXCR4 and osteopontin, shown previously to be downregulated in response to Smad7. This study shows that Id2, Id3 and Id4 are each able to overcome TGF-β dependence, and establish a role for Ids as key mediators of TGF-β melanomagenesis.

Related: Melanoma SMAD7

Nguewa P, Manrique I, Díaz R, et al.
Id-1B, an alternatively spliced isoform of the inhibitor of differentiation-1, impairs cancer cell malignancy through inhibition of proliferation and angiogenesis.
Curr Mol Med. 2014; 14(1):151-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Id-1 is a member of the helix-loop-helix family of proteins that regulates the activity of transcription factors to suppress cellular differentiation and to promote cell growth. Overexpression of Id-1 in tumor cells correlates with increased malignancy and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Id-1B is an isoform generated by alternative splicing that differs from the classical Id-1 in the 13-C-terminal amino acids, whose function is at present unknown. We have studied the role of Id-1B in cancer and its expression in healthy/malignant lung tissues. Overexpression of Id-1B in A549 lung and PC3 prostate cancer cells reduced anchorage-dependent and independent proliferation and clonogenic potential. Moreover, it increased the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and p27 levels, while reduced phospho-Erk and cyclin A levels. Through microarray analysis, we identified genes involved in cell growth and proliferation that are specifically deregulated as a consequence of Id-1B overexpression, including IGF2, BMP4, Id2, GATA3, EREG and AREG. Id-1B overexpressing cells that were treated with 4Gy irradiation dose were significantly less resistant to cell death. In vivo assays demonstrated that tumors with high Id-1B levels exhibited less growth (p<0.01), metabolic activity (glucose uptake) and angiogenesis (p<0.05) compared to tumors with low Id-1B expression; mice survival was significantly extended (p<0.05). Quantification by qRT-PCR revealed that expression of Id-1B was significantly lower (p<0.01) in human lung tumors compared to their matched nonmalignant counterparts. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Id-1B decreases the malignancy of lung and prostate cancer cells, sensitizes them to radiotherapy-induced cell death, and counteracts the protumorigenic role of the classical form of Id-1.

Related: Apoptosis Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction Angiogenesis and Cancer TP53

Srikanth M, Kim J, Das S, Kessler JA
BMP signaling induces astrocytic differentiation of clinically derived oligodendroglioma propagating cells.
Mol Cancer Res. 2014; 12(2):283-94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Oligodendrogliomas are a type of glioma that lack detailed investigation because of an inability to cultivate oligodendroglioma cells that faithfully recapitulate their salient qualities. We have successfully isolated and propagated glioma stem-like cells from multiple clinical oligodendroglioma specimens. These oligodendroglioma-propagating cells (OligPC) are multipotent and form xenografts with oligodendroglioma features. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are considered potent inhibitors of oligodendrogliogenesis during development; therefore, the effects of BMP signaling in OligPCs were characterized. BMP pathway components are expressed by OligPCs and canonical signaling via Smad proteins is intact. This signaling potently depletes CD133-positive OligPCs, decreasing proliferation, and inducing astrocytic differentiation. Furthermore, analyses revealed that cytoplasmic sequestration of the oligodendrocyte differentiation factors OLIG1/2 by the BMP signaling effectors ID2 and ID4 is a plausible underlying mechanism. These findings elucidate the molecular pathways that underlie the effects of BMP signaling on oligodendroglioma stem-like cells.
IMPLICATIONS: Stem-like cells are capable of propagating oligodendrogliomas, and BMP signaling potently diminishes their stemness by inducing astrocytic differentiation, suggesting that BMP activation may be effective as a cancer stem cell-targeted therapy.

Related: Signal Transduction

Carey JP, Knowell AE, Chinaranagari S, Chaudhary J
Id4 promotes senescence and sensitivity to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in DU145 prostate cancer cells.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(10):4271-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Inhibitor of differentiation proteins (Id1, 2, 3 and 4) are dominant negative regulators of basic helix loop helix transcription factors and play dominant roles in cancer cells, spanning several molecular pathways including senescence, invasion, metastasis, proliferation and apoptosis. In contrast to high Id1, Id2 and Id3 expression, the expression of Id4 is epigenetically silenced in prostate cancer. In the present study we demonstrated a novel role of Id4, that of promotion of cellular senescence in prostate cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Id4 was ectopically expressed in DU145 cells (DU145+Id4). The cells treated with Doxorubicin (0-500 nm) or vehicle control were analyzed for apoptosis, senescence (SA-beta Galactosidase), and expression of CDKN1A (p21), CDKN1B(p27), CDKN2A (p16), E2F1, vimentin and E-cadherin by immuno-histochemistry and/or Western blot.
RESULTS: In the present study we demonstrated that Id4 promotes cellular senescence in prostate cancer cell line DU145. Ectopic overexpression of Id4 in androgen receptor-negative DU145 prostate cancer cells resulted in increased expression of p16, p21, p27, E-cadherin and vimentin but down-regulated E2F1 expression. Id4 also potentiated the effect of doxorubicin induced senescence and apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: The absence of functional p16, pRB and p53 in DU145 suggests that Id4 could alter additional molecular pathways such as those involving E2F1 to promote senescence and increased sensitivity to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. The results of the present study support the role of Id4 as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer.

Related: Apoptosis Doxorubicin E2F1 Transcription Factor Prostate Cancer Screening for Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer- Molecular Biology CDH1

Hossain MM, Banik NL, Ray SK
N-Myc knockdown and apigenin treatment controlled growth of malignant neuroblastoma cells having N-Myc amplification.
Gene. 2013; 529(1):27-36 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Malignant neuroblastomas mostly occur in children and are frequently associated with N-Myc amplification. Oncogene amplification, which is selective increase in copy number of the oncogene, provides survival advantages in solid tumors including malignant neuroblastoma. We have decreased expression of N-Myc oncogene using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid to increase anti-tumor efficacy of the isoflavonoid apigenin (APG) in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-DZ and SK-N-BE2 cell lines that harbor N-Myc amplification. N-Myc knockdown induced morphological and biochemical features of neuronal differentiation. Combination of N-Myc knockdown and APG most effectively induced morphological and biochemical features of apoptotic death. This combination therapy also prevented cell migration and decreased N-Myc driven survival, angiogenic, and invasive factors. Collectively, N-Myc knockdown and APG treatment is a promising strategy for controlling the growth of human malignant neuroblastoma cell lines that harbor N-Myc amplification.

Related: Apoptosis CASP3 Neuroblastoma

Xu CZ, Xie J, Jin B, et al.
Gene and microRNA expression reveals sensitivity to paclitaxel in laryngeal cancer cell line.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013; 6(7):1351-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Paclitaxel is a widely used chemotherapy drug for advanced laryngeal cancer patients. However, the fact that there are 20-40% of advanced laryngeal cancer patients do not response to paclitaxel makes it necessary to figure out potential biomarkers for paclitaxel sensitivity prediction. In this work, Hep2, a laryngeal cancer cell line, untreated or treated with lower dose of paclitaxel for 24 h, was applied to DNA microarray chips for gene and miR expression profile analysis. Expression of eight genes altered significantly following paclitaxel treatment, which was further validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Four up-regulated genes were ID2, BMP4, CCL4 and ACTG2, in which ID2 and BMP4 were implicated to be involved in several drugs sensitivity. While the down-regulated four genes, MAPK4, FASN, INSIG1 and SCD, were mainly linked to the endoplasmic reticulum and fatty acid biosynthesis, these two cell processes that are associated with drug sensitivity by increasing evidences. After paclitaxel treatment, expression of 49 miRs was significantly altered. Within these miRs, the most markedly expression-changed were miR-31-star, miR-1264, miR-3150b-5p and miR-210. While the miRs putatively modulated the mRNA expression of the most significantly expression-altered genes were miR-1264, miR-130a, miR-27b, miR-195, miR-1291, miR-214, miR-1277 and miR-1265, which were obtained by miR target prediction and miRNA target correlation. Collectively, our study might provide potential biomarkers for paclitaxel sensitivity prediction and drug resistance targets in laryngeal cancer patients.

Related: Cancer of the Larynx Laryngeal Cancer - Molecular Biology Paclitaxel

Langenfeld E, Hong CC, Lanke G, Langenfeld J
Bone morphogenetic protein type I receptor antagonists decrease growth and induce cell death of lung cancer cell lines.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61256 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are highly conserved morphogens that are essential for normal development. BMP-2 is highly expressed in the majority of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) but not in normal lung tissue or benign lung tumors. The effects of the BMP signaling cascade on the growth and survival of cancer cells is poorly understood. We show that BMP signaling is basally active in lung cancer cell lines, which can be effectively inhibited with selective antagonists of the BMP type I receptors. Lung cancer cell lines express alk2, alk3, and alk6 and inhibition of a single BMP receptor was not sufficient to decrease signaling. Inhibition of more than one type I receptor was required to decrease BMP signaling in lung cancer cell lines. BMP receptor antagonists and silencing of BMP type I receptors with siRNA induced cell death, inhibited cell growth, and caused a significant decrease in the expression of inhibitor of differentiation (Id1, Id2, and Id3) family members, which are known to regulate cell growth and survival in many types of cancers. BMP receptor antagonists also decreased clonogenic cell growth. Knockdown of Id3 significantly decreased cell growth and induced cell death of lung cancer cells. H1299 cells stably overexpressing Id3 were resistant to growth suppression and induction of cell death induced by the BMP antagonist DMH2. These studies suggest that BMP signaling promotes cell growth and survival of lung cancer cells, which is mediated through its regulation of Id family members. Selective antagonists of the BMP type I receptors represents a potential means to pharmacologically treat NSCLC and other carcinomas with an activated BMP signaling cascade.

Related: Lung Cancer Signal Transduction

Sumida T, Murase R, Onishi-Ishikawa A, et al.
Targeting Id1 reduces proliferation and invasion in aggressive human salivary gland cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:141 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Salivary gland cancer (SGC) is one of the common malignancies of the head and neck area. It develops in the minor and major salivary glands and sometimes metastasizes to other organs, particularly to the lungs. Inhibitors of differentiation (Id) proteins are negative regulators of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control malignant cell behavior and tumor aggressiveness in many tissues. In this study, our goal was to determine the potential role of Id proteins, particularly Id1, during human SGC cell progression.
METHODS: We first determined the expression levels of Id1 and Id2 in four SGC cell lines: two adenocarcinoma of the salivary gland (HSG and HSY) and two adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC2 and ACCM) cell lines. We then used constructs that expressed antisense cDNAs to Id1 or Id2 to knockdown the expression of these proteins in cell lines where they were highly expressed, and determined the effects of the knockdown on cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
RESULTS: Id1 mRNA and protein were detectable in all cell lines, and expression of Id2 was variable, from absent to high. The ACC2 and ACCM cell lines expressed both Id1 and Id2, but Id1 was expressed at a higher level in the more aggressive ACCM cell line in comparison to ACC2 cells as confirmed by Id1 promoter-reporter assays. We therefore focused on the ACCM cells for the remainder of the study. We found that proliferation and invasiveness of ACCM cells were strongly reduced after Id1 knockdown whereas Id2 suppression had only a slight effect. Results of scratch and colony formation assays also confirmed that ACCM cell aggressiveness was significantly reduced upon Id1 knockdown. Finally, this knockdown resulted in reduced c-myc and enhanced cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Id1 plays an important role in the control of human SGC cell aggressiveness and suggest a potential role as a marker of diagnosis, prognosis and progression of SGCs. Id1 suppression could represent a novel and effective approach for the treatment of salivary gland cancer.

Related: CDKN1A Salivary Gland Cancer

Liu M, Wu R, Yang F, et al.
Identification of FN1BP1 as a novel cell cycle regulator through modulating G1 checkpoint in human hepatocarcinoma Hep3B cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e57574 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
A novel human gene, FN1BP1 (fibronectin 1 binding protein 1), was identified using the human placenta cDNA library. Northern blotting showed a transcript of ∼2.8 kb in human placenta, liver, and skeletal muscle tissues. This mRNA transcript length was similar to the full FN1BP1 sequence obtained previously. We established a conditionally induced stable cell line of Hep3B-Tet-on-FN1BP1 to investigate the preliminary function and mechanism of the secretory FN1BP1 protein. Cell-proliferation and colony-conformation assays demonstrated that FN1BP1 protein suppressed Hep3B cell growth and colonization in vitro. Analysis of Atlas human cDNA expression indicated that after FN1BP1 Dox-inducing expression for 24 h, 19 genes were up-regulated and 22 genes were down-regulated more than two-fold. Most of these gene changes were related to cell-cycle-arrest proteins (p21cip1, p15, and cyclin E1), transcription factors (general transcription factors, zinc finger proteins, transcriptional enhancer factors), SWI/SNF (SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable) complex units, early-response proteins, and nerve growth or neurotrophic factors. Down-regulated genes were subject to colony-stimulating factors (e.g., GMSFs), and many repair genes were involved in DNA damage (RAD, ERCC, DNA topoisomerase, polymerase, and ligase). Some interesting genes (p21cip1, ID2, GMSF, ERCC5, and RPA1), which changed in the cDNA microarray analysis, were confirmed by semi-qRT-PCR, and similar changes in expression were observed. FCM cell-cycle analysis indicated that FN1BP1 over-expression could result in G1 phase arrest. FN1BP1 might inhibit cell growth and/or colony conformation through G1 phase arrest of the Hep3B cell cycle. These results indicate the potential role of FN1BP1 as a treatment target for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Related: Liver Cancer

Tsunedomi R, Iizuka N, Harada S, Oka M
Susceptibility of hepatoma-derived cells to histone deacetylase inhibitors is associated with ID2 expression.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 42(4):1159-66 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Downregulation of inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) is associated with poor prognosis in cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, to search for effective antitumor drugs for the treatment of HCC exhibiting poor prognostic indicators, we used two HCC-derived cell lines (HuH-7 and HLE) to alter ID2 levels. Specifically, ID2 expression was knocked down in HuH-7 cells via transfection with ID2-specific small interfering RNAs and separately ID2 was overexpressed in HLE cells via an ID2 expression plasmid vector. To assess the effect of antitumor drugs, MTS assay was performed. Annexin V staining was used to evaluate apoptosis and real-time RT-PCR was used to measure mRNA levels. ID2 knockdown cells were more susceptible to histone deacethylase (HDAC) inhibitors including sodium butyrate (NaB), sodium 4-phenyl-butyrate, tricostatin A, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, MS-275, apicidin and HC-toxin. Conversely, cells that overexpressed ID2 were less susceptible than control cells to HDAC inhibitors. NaB-induced apoptosis was inversely correlated with ID2 expression. Expression of the anti-apoptotic mRNA BCL2 was induced by NaB in control cells, but this induction of BCL2 was inhibited by ID2 knockdown and strengthened by ID2 overexpression. Expression of another anti-apoptotic mRNA, BCL2L1, was decreased by NaB administration and then partially recovered. However, in ID2 knockdown cells, BCL2L1 levels did not recover from NaB-induced suppression. ID2 affected the susceptibility of two HCC-derived cell lines to an HDAC inhibitor by regulating the expression of anti-apoptotic genes. Therefore, HDAC inhibitors may be effective for the treatment of HCC for which the prognosis is poor based on ID2 downregulation and ID2 could serve as a marker that is predictive of the clinical response to HDAC inhibitors.

Related: Apoptosis Liver Cancer

Luo M, Li Z, Wang W, et al.
Upregulated H19 contributes to bladder cancer cell proliferation by regulating ID2 expression.
FEBS J. 2013; 280(7):1709-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs have been shown to have important regulatory roles in cancer biology, and long noncoding RNA 19 (H19) is essential for human tumor growth. However, little is known about how abnormal expression of H19 contributes to bladder cancer cell proliferation. In this study, we first evaluated the expression of H19 in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR, and defined the biological functions. We found that H19 expression levels were remarkably increased in bladder cancer tissues as compared with adjacent normal control tissue, and forced expression of H19 promoted bladder cancer cell proliferation in vitro. Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation 2 (ID2) expression levels were upregulated in bladder cancer tissues and in bladder cancer cells. A significant positive correlation was observed between H19 levels and ID2 levels in vivo. We further demonstrated that overexpression of H19 resulted in a significant increase in the expression of ID2, whereas H19 knockdown decreased ID2 expression in vitro. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that upregulated H19 increased bladder cancer cell proliferation by increasing ID2 expression. In conclusion, upregulated H19 increases bladder cancer growth by regulating ID2 expression, and thus may be helpful in the development of effective treatment strategies for bladder cancer.

Related: Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology

Song M, Song MK, Choi HS, Ryu JC
Monitoring of deiodinase deficiency based on transcriptomic responses in SH-SY5Y cells.
Arch Toxicol. 2013; 87(6):1103-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Iodothyronine deiodinase types I, II, and III (D1, D2, and D3, respectively), which constitute a family of selenoenzymes, activate and inactivate thyroid hormones through the removal of specific iodine moieties from thyroxine and its derivatives. These enzymes are important in the biological effects mediated by thyroid hormones. The expression of activating and inactivating deiodinases plays a critical role in a number of cell systems, including the neuronal system, during development as well as in adult vertebrates. To investigate deiodinase-disrupting chemicals based on transcriptomic responses, we examined differences in gene expression profiles between T3-treated and deiodinase-knockdown SH-SY5Y cells using microarray analysis and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. A total of 1,558 genes, consisting of 755 upregulated and 803 downregulated genes, were differentially expressed between the T3-treated and deiodinase-knockdown cells. The expression levels of 10 of these genes (ID2, ID3, CCL2, TBX3, TGOLN2, C1orf71, ZNF676, GULP1, KLF9, and ITGB5) were altered by deiodinase-disrupting chemicals (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated biphenyls, propylthiouracil, iodoacetic acid, methylmercury, β-estradiol, methimazole, 3-methylcholanthrene, aminotriazole, amiodarone, cadmium chloride, dimethoate, fenvalerate, octylmethoxycinnamate, iopanoic acid, methoxychlor, and 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor). These genes are potential biomarkers for detecting deiodinase deficiency and predicting their effects on thyroid hormone production.

Related: Neuroblastoma

Snyder AD, Dulin-Smith AN, Houston RH, et al.
Expression pattern of id proteins in medulloblastoma.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2013; 19(3):437-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Inhibitor of DNA binding or inhibitor of differentiation (Id) proteins are up regulated in a variety of neoplasms, particularly in association with high-grade, poorly differentiated tumors, while differentiated tissues show little or no Id expression. The four Id genes are members of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of transcription factors and act as negative regulators of transcription by binding to and sequestering HLH complexes. We tested the hypothesis that Id proteins are overexpressed in medulloblastoma by performing immunohistochemistry using a medulloblastoma tissue microarray with 45 unique medulloblastoma and 11 normal control cerebella, and antibodies specific for Id1, Id2, Id3, and Id4. A semi-quantitative staining score that took staining intensity and the proportion of immunoreactive cells into account was used. Id1 was not detected in normal cerebella or in medulloblastoma cells, but 78 % of tumors showed strong Id1 expression in endothelial nuclei of tumor vessels. Id2 expression was scant in normal cerebella and increased in medulloblastoma (median staining score: 4). Id3 expression was noted in some neurons of the developing cerebellar cortex, but it was markedly up regulated in medulloblastoma (median staining score: 12) and in tumor endothelial cells. Id4 was not expressed in normal cerebella or in tumor cells. Id2 or Id3 overexpression drove proliferation in medulloblastoma cell lines by altering the expression of critical cell cycle regulatory proteins in favor of cell proliferation. This study shows that Id1 expression in endothelial cells may contribute to angiogenic processes and that increased expression of Id2 and Id3 in medulloblastoma is potentially involved in tumor cell proliferation and survival.

Related: Childhood Medulloblastoma / PNET

Sharma P, Patel D, Chaudhary J
Id1 and Id3 expression is associated with increasing grade of prostate cancer: Id3 preferentially regulates CDKN1B.
Cancer Med. 2012; 1(2):187-97 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
As transcriptional regulators of basic helix-oop-helix (bHLH) transcription and non-bHLH factors, the inhibitor of differentiation (Id1, Id2, Id3, and Id4) proteins play a critical role in coordinated regulation of cell growth, differentiation, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis. Id1 regulates prostate cancer (PCa) cell proliferation, apoptosis, and androgen independence, but its clinical significance in PCa remains controversial. Moreover, there is lack of evidence on the expression of Id2 and Id3 in PCa progression. In this study we investigated the expression of Id2 and Id3 and reevaluated the expression of Id1 in PCa. We show that increased Id1 and Id3 protein expression is strongly associated with increasing grade of PCa. At the molecular level, we report that silencing either Id1 or Id3 attenuates cell cycle. Although structurally and mechanistically similar, our results show that both these proteins are noncompensatory at least in PCa progression. Moreover, through gene silencing approaches we show that Id1 and Id3 primarily attenuates CDKN1A (p21) and CDKN1B (p27), respectively. We also demonstrate that silencing Id3 alone significantly attenuates proliferation of PCa cells as compared with Id1. We propose that increased Id1 and Id3 expression attenuates all three cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKN2B, -1A, and -1B) resulting in a more aggressive PCa phenotype.

Related: CDKN1A CDKN1B Prostate Cancer

Sharma P, Chinaranagari S, Patel D, et al.
Epigenetic inactivation of inhibitor of differentiation 4 (Id4) correlates with prostate cancer.
Cancer Med. 2012; 1(2):176-86 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
The inhibitor of DNA-binding (Id) proteins, Id1-4 are negative regulators of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. As key regulators of cell cycle and differentiation, expression of Id proteins are increasingly observed in many cancers and associated with aggressiveness of the disease. Of all the four Id proteins, the expression of Id1, Id2, and to a lesser extent, Id3 in prostate cancer and the underlying molecular mechanism is relatively well known. On the contrary, our previous results demonstrated that Id4 acts as a potential tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. In the present study, we extend these observations and demonstrate that Id4 is down-regulated in prostate cancer due to promoter hypermethylation. We used prostate cancer tissue microarrays to investigate Id4 expression. Methylation specific PCR on bisulfite treated DNA was used to determine methylation status of Id4 promoter in laser capture micro-dissected normal, stroma and prostate cancer regions. High Id4 expression was observed in the normal prostate epithelial cells. In prostate cancer, a stage-dependent decrease in Id4 expression was observed with majority of high grade cancers showing no Id4 expression. Furthermore, Id4 expression progressively decreased in prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and with no expression in androgen-insensitive LNCaP-C81 cell line. Conversely, Id4 promoter hypermethylation increased in LNCaP-C81 cells suggesting epigenetic silencing. In prostate cancer samples, loss of Id4 expression was also associated with promoter hypermethylation. Our results demonstrate loss of Id4 expression in prostate cancer due to promoter hypermethylation. The data strongly support the role of Id4 as a tumor suppressor.

Related: Prostate Cancer

Guan H, Xie L, Klapproth K, et al.
Decitabine represses translocated MYC oncogene in Burkitt lymphoma.
J Pathol. 2013; 229(5):775-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is caused by translocation of the MYC gene to an immunoglobulin locus resulting in its constitutive expression depending on the activity of the immunoglobulin (Ig) enhancer elements. Treatment of BL cell lines with epigenetic modifiers is known to repress B-cell-specific genes and to up-regulate B-cell-inappropriate genes including the transcription repressor ID2 expression. We found that the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine/5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) represses the MYC oncogene on RNA and protein levels by inducing ID2. Down-regulation of MYC was associated with repression of transcriptional activity of the Ig locus and with inhibition of proliferation. The induction of ID2 can be in part explained by activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. We conclude that up-regulation of ID2 contributes to anti-tumour activity of 5-aza-dC via repression of Ig locus activity and consequently MYC expression.

Related: Azacitidine

Park EJ, Chung HJ, Park HJ, et al.
Suppression of Src/ERK and GSK-3/β-catenin signaling by pinosylvin inhibits the growth of human colorectal cancer cells.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2013; 55:424-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pinosylvin, a naturally occurring trans-stilbenoid mainly found in Pinus species, has exhibited a potential cancer chemopreventive activity. However, the growth inhibitory activity against cancer cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Therefore, the anti-proliferative activity of pinosylvin was investigated in human colorectal HCT 116 cancer cells. Pinosylvin inhibited the proliferation of HCT 116 cells by arresting transition of cell cycle from G1 to S phase along with the downregulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin A, cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), CDK4, c-Myc, and retinoblastoma protein (pRb), and the upregulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p53. Pinosylvin was also found to attenuate the activation of proteins involved in focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/c-Src/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/ glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) signaling pathway. Subsequently, pinosylvin suppressed the nuclear translocation of β-catenin, one of downstream molecules of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling, and these events led to the sequential downregulation of β-catenin-mediated transcription of target genes including BMP4, ID2, survivin, cyclin D1, MMP7, and c-Myc. These findings demonstrate that the anti-proliferative activity of pinosylvin might be associated with the cell cycle arrest and downregulation of cell proliferation regulating signaling pathways in human colorectal cancer cells.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer CDKN1A Signal Transduction CTNNB1 gene

Sandhu SK, Volinia S, Costinean S, et al.
miR-155 targets histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) and impairs transcriptional activity of B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) in the Eμ-miR-155 transgenic mouse model.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(49):20047-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Multiple studies have established that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the initiation and progression of cancer. Notably, miR-155 is one of the most overexpressed miRNAs in several solid and hematological malignancies. Ectopic miR-155 expression in mice B cells (Eμ-miR-155 transgenic mice) has been shown to induce pre-B-cell proliferation followed by high-grade lymphoma/leukemia. Loss of miR-155 in mice resulted in impaired immunity due to defective T-cell-mediated immune response. Here we provide a mechanistic insight into miR-155-induced leukemogenesis in the Eμ-miR-155 mouse model through genome-wide transcriptome analysis of naïve B cells and target studies. We found that a key transcriptional repressor and proto-oncogene, Bcl6 is significantly down-regulated in Eμ-miR-155 mice. The reduction of Bcl6 subsequently leads to de-repression of some of the known Bcl6 targets like inhibitor of differentiation (Id2), interleukin-6 (IL6), cMyc, Cyclin D1, and Mip1α/ccl3, all of which promote cell survival and proliferation. We show that Bcl6 is indirectly regulated by miR-155 through Mxd1/Mad1 up-regulation. Interestingly, we found that miR-155 directly targets HDAC4, a corepressor partner of BCL6. Furthermore, ectopic expression of HDAC4 in human-activated B-cell-type diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells results in reduced miR-155-induced proliferation, clonogenic potential, and increased apoptosis. Meta-analysis of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patient microarray data showed that miR-155 expression is inversely correlated with Bcl6 and Hdac4. Hence this study provides a better understanding of how miR-155 causes disruption of the BCL6 transcriptional machinery that leads to up-regulation of the survival and proliferation genes in miR-155-induced leukemias.

Related: Signal Transduction

Yu S, Zhou X, Steinke FC, et al.
The TCF-1 and LEF-1 transcription factors have cooperative and opposing roles in T cell development and malignancy.
Immunity. 2012; 37(5):813-26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
The TCF-1 and LEF-1 transcription factors are known to play critical roles in normal thymocyte development. Unexpectedly, we found that TCF-1-deficient (Tcf7(-/-)) mice developed aggressive T cell malignancy, resembling human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). LEF-1 was aberrantly upregulated in premalignant Tcf7(-/-) early thymocytes and lymphoma cells. We further demonstrated that TCF-1 directly repressed LEF-1 expression in early thymocytes and that conditional inactivation of Lef1 greatly delayed or prevented T cell malignancy in Tcf7(-/-) mice. In human T-ALLs, an early thymic progenitor (ETP) subtype was associated with diminished TCF7 expression, and two of the ETP-ALL cases harbored TCF7 gene deletions. We also showed that TCF-1 and LEF-1 were dispensable for T cell lineage commitment but instead were required for early thymocytes to mature beyond the CD4(-)CD8(-) stage. TCF-1 thus has dual roles, i.e., acting cooperatively with LEF-1 to promote thymocyte maturation while restraining LEF-1 expression to prevent malignant transformation of developing thymocytes.

Joosten M, Seitz V, Zimmermann K, et al.
Histone acetylation and DNA demethylation of T cells result in an anaplastic large cell lymphoma-like phenotype.
Haematologica. 2013; 98(2):247-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
A characteristic feature of anaplastic large cell lymphoma is the significant repression of the T-cell expression program despite its T-cell origin. The reasons for this down-regulation of T-cell phenotype are still unknown. To elucidate whether epigenetic mechanisms are responsible for the loss of the T-cell phenotype, we treated anaplastic large cell lymphoma and T-cell lymphoma/leukemia cell lines (n=4, each) with epigenetic modifiers to evoke DNA demethylation and histone acetylation. Global gene expression data from treated and untreated cell lines were generated and selected, and differentially expressed genes were evaluated by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Additionally, histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Combined DNA demethylation and histone acetylation of anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells was not able to reconstitute their T-cell phenotype. Instead, the same treatment induced in T cells: (i) an up-regulation of anaplastic large cell lymphoma-characteristic genes (e.g. ID2, LGALS1, c-JUN), and (ii) an almost complete extinction of their T-cell phenotype including CD3, LCK and ZAP70. In addition, suppressive trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 of important T-cell transcription factor genes (GATA3, LEF1, TCF1) was present in anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells, which is in line with their absence in primary tumor specimens as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. Our data suggest that epigenetically activated suppressors (e.g. ID2) contribute to the down-regulation of the T-cell expression program in anaplastic large cell lymphoma, which is maintained by trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27.

Related: Azacitidine

Annibali D, Gioia U, Savino M, et al.
A new module in neural differentiation control: two microRNAs upregulated by retinoic acid, miR-9 and -103, target the differentiation inhibitor ID2.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e40269 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
The transcription factor ID2 is an important repressor of neural differentiation strongly implicated in nervous system cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly involved in differentiation control and cancer development. Here we show that two miRNAs upregulated on differentiation of neuroblastoma cells--miR-9 and miR-103--restrain ID2 expression by directly targeting the coding sequence and 3' untranslated region of the ID2 encoding messenger RNA, respectively. Notably, the two miRNAs show an inverse correlation with ID2 during neuroblastoma cell differentiation induced by retinoic acid. Overexpression of miR-9 and miR-103 in neuroblastoma cells reduces proliferation and promotes differentiation, as it was shown to occur upon ID2 inhibition. Conversely, an ID2 mutant that cannot be targeted by either miRNA prevents retinoic acid-induced differentiation more efficient than wild-type ID2. These findings reveal a new regulatory module involving two microRNAs upregulated during neural differentiation that directly target expression of the key differentiation inhibitor ID2, suggesting that its alteration may be involved in neural cancer development.

Related: Neuroblastoma

Wang C, Chen Q, Hamajima Y, et al.
Id2 regulates the proliferation of squamous cell carcinoma in vitro via the NF-κB/Cyclin D1 pathway.
Chin J Cancer. 2012; 31(9):430-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Squamous cell carcinoma(SCC) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide, with an incidence of up to 166 cases per 100 000 population. It arises in the skin, upper aerodigestive tract, lung, and cervix and affects more than 200 000 Americans each year. We report here that a microarray experiment comparing 41 SCC and 13 normal tissue specimens showed that Id2, a gene that controls the cell cycle, was significantly up-regulated in SCC. Enforced expression of Id2 in vitro stimulated the proliferation of SCC cells and up-regulated the transcription of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cyclin D1. Enhancement of the NF-κB activity with p65 significantly increased the cell proliferation and the transcription of cyclin D1, whereas inhibition of the NF-κB activity with I kappa B alpha mutant (IκBαM) and pyrroline dithiocarbamate (PDTC) abrogated cell proliferation and transcription of cyclin D1. Furthermore, a mutated NF-κB binding site in the cyclin D1 promoter fully abrogated the Id2-induced transcription of cyclin D1. Taken together, these data indicate that Id2 induces SCC tumor growth and proliferation through the NF-κB/cyclin D1 pathway.

Related: Head and Neck Cancers Head and Neck Cancers - Molecular Biology Signal Transduction BCL1 Gene (CCND1)

Ahlqvist K, Saamarthy K, Syed Khaja AS, et al.
Expression of Id proteins is regulated by the Bcl-3 proto-oncogene in prostate cancer.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(12):1601-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
B-cell leukemia 3 (Bcl-3) is a member of the inhibitor of κB family, which regulates a wide range of biological processes by functioning as a transcriptional activator or as a repressor of target genes. As high levels of Bcl-3 expression and activation have been detected in different types of human cancer, Bcl-3 has been labeled a proto-oncogene. Our study uncovered a markedly upregulated Bcl-3 expression in human prostate cancer (PCa), where inflammatory cell infiltration was observed. Elevated Bcl-3 expression in PCa was dependent on the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6-mediated STAT3 activation. Microarray analyses, using Bcl-3 knockdown in PCa cells, identified the inhibitor of DNA-binding (Id) family of helix-loop-helix proteins as potential Bcl-3-regulated genes. Bcl-3 knockdown reduced the abundance of Id-1 and Id-2 proteins and boosted PCa cells to be more receptive to undergoing apoptosis following treatment with anticancer drug. Our data imply that inactivation of Bcl-3 may lead to sensitization of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis, thus suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy in PCa treatment.

Related: Prostate Cancer BCL3 gene

Hossain MM, Banik NL, Ray SK
Survivin knockdown increased anti-cancer effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2012; 318(13):1597-610 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is a solid tumor that mostly occurs in children. Malignant neuroblastomas have poor prognosis because conventional chemotherapeutic agents are hardly effective. Survivin, which is highly expressed in some malignant neuroblastomas, plays a significant role in inhibiting differentiation and apoptosis and promoting cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. We examined consequences of survivin knockdown by survivin short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid and then treatment with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, in malignant neuroblastoma cells. Our Western blotting and laser scanning confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that survivin was highly expressed in malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cell lines and slightly in SK-N-DZ cell line. Expression of survivin was very faint in malignant neuroblastoma IMR32 cell line. We transfected SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY-5Y cells with survivin shRNA, treated with EGCG, and confirmed knockdown of survivin at mRNA and protein levels. Survivin knockdown induced morphological features of neuronal differentiation, as we observed following in situ methylene blue staining. Combination of survivin shRNA and EGCG promoted neuronal differentiation biochemically by increases in the expression of NFP, NSE, and e-cadherin and also decreases in the expression of Notch-1, ID2, hTERT, and PCNA. Our in situ Wright staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed that combination therapy was highly effective in inducing, respectively, morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis. Apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-8 and cleavage of Bid to tBid, increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, and increases in the expression and activity of calpain and caspase-3. Combination therapy decreased migration of cells through matrigel and inhibited proliferative (p-Akt and NF-κB), invasive (MMP-2 and MMP-9), and angiogenic (VEGF and b-FGF) factors. Also, in vitro network formation ability of cells was significantly inhibited by survivin silencing and completely by combination of survivin silencing and EGCG treatment. Collectively, survivin silencing potentiated anti-cancer effects of EGCG in human malignant neuroblastoma cells having survivin overexpression.

Related: Apoptosis Angiogenesis and Cancer Neuroblastoma BIRC5

Kim HJ, Roh MS, Son CH, et al.
Loss of Med1/TRAP220 promotes the invasion and metastasis of human non-small-cell lung cancer cells by modulating the expression of metastasis-related genes.
Cancer Lett. 2012; 321(2):195-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
Med1/TRAP220 is an essential component of the TRAP/Mediator complex. In this study, we present a novel function of Med1 in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression. We found that the loss of Med1 expression was strongly associated with increased rates of invasion and metastasis in NSCLC patients. Consistent with lung cancer patient data, the knockdown of Med1 in NSCLC cell lines led to an increase in cell migration and invasion. Med1-depleted cells displayed an increase in metastasis in a xenograft tumor model and in an in vivo metastasis assay. Moreover, a microarray analysis revealed that the mRNA levels of the metastasis-related genes uPAR, ID2, ID4, PTP4A1, PKP3, TGM2, PLD1, TIMP2, RGS2, and HOXA4 were altered upon Med1 knockdown. Collectively, these results suggest that the loss of Med1 increases the invasive potential of human NSCLC cells by modulating the expression of metastasis-related genes.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer

Shi Q, Zhong YS, Yao LQ, et al.
Down-regulation of Smad4 enhances proliferation and invasion of colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells and up-regulates Id2.
Mol Med Rep. 2012; 5(1):89-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to determine whether the suppression of Smad4 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) regulates the proliferation and invasion of colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells and Id2 expression. The Smad4‑shRNA expression vectors were constructed and stably transfected to HCT116 cells. The expression of mRNA and protein of Smad4 and Id2 was detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Cellular proliferation inhibitory activity was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Transwell assay was used to detect the effect of the inhibition of Smad4-shRNA on migration and invasion. The Smad4-shRNA vector, which inhibited Smad4 expression, was constructed and successfully transfected to HCT116 cells. The levels of mRNA and protein expression of Smad4 were markedly decreased following transfection of shRNA compared with the control groups (P<0.05). The abilities of proliferation, migration and invasion were increased following transfection of shRNA (P<0.05). The expression of Id2 was increased following transfection of shRNA (P<0.05). For the Smad4-down-regulated HCT116 cells, treated with or without BMP7 (25 ng/ml), no difference was found. shRNA-mediated silencing of Smad4 was able to enhance the abilities of proliferation, migration and invasion in the HCT116 cell line. Therefore, Smad4 may act as a tumor-suppressor gene in colorectal carcinoma.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer MADH4

Williams SA, Maecker HL, French DM, et al.
USP1 deubiquitinates ID proteins to preserve a mesenchymal stem cell program in osteosarcoma.
Cell. 2011; 146(6):918-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inhibitors of DNA binding (IDs) antagonize basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors to inhibit differentiation and maintain stem cell fate. ID ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation occur in differentiated tissues, but IDs in many neoplasms appear to escape degradation. We show that the deubiquitinating enzyme USP1 promotes ID protein stability and stem cell-like characteristics in osteosarcoma. USP1 bound, deubiquitinated, and thereby stabilized ID1, ID2, and ID3. A subset of primary human osteosarcomas coordinately overexpressed USP1 and ID proteins. USP1 knockdown in osteosarcoma cells precipitated ID protein destabilization, cell-cycle arrest, and osteogenic differentiation. Conversely, ectopic USP1 expression in mesenchymal stem cells stabilized ID proteins, inhibited osteoblastic differentiation, and enhanced proliferation. Consistent with USP1 functioning in normal mesenchymal stem cells, USP1-deficient mice were osteopenic. Our observations implicate USP1 in preservation of the stem cell state that characterizes osteosarcoma and identify USP1 as a target for differentiation therapy.

Related: Osteosarcoma

Zhao Z, Liu Y, He H, et al.
Candidate genes influencing sensitivity and resistance of human glioblastoma to Semustine.
Brain Res Bull. 2011; 86(3-4):189-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM) is poor. The therapeutic outcome of conventional surgical and adjuvant treatments remains unsatisfactory, and therefore individualized adjuvant chemotherapy has aroused more attention. Microarrays have been applied to study mechanism of GBM development and progression but it has difficulty in determining responsible genes from the plethora of genes on microarrays unrelated to outcome. The present study was attempted to use bioinformatics method to investigate candidate genes that may influence chemosensitivity of GBM to Semustine (Me-CCNU).
METHODS: Clinical data of 4 GBM patients in Affymetrix microarray were perfected through long-term follow-up study. Differential expression genes between the long- and short-survival groups were picked out, GO-analysis and pathway-analysis of the differential expression genes were performed. Me-CCNU-related signal transduction networks were constructed. The methods combined three steps before were used to screen core genes that influenced Me-CCNU chemosensitivity in GBM.
RESULTS: In Affymetrix microarray there were altogether 2018 differential expression genes that influenced survival duration of GBM. Of them, 934 genes were up-regulated and 1084 down-regulated. They mainly participated in 94 pathways. Me-CCNU-related signal transduction networks were constructed. The total number of genes in the networks was 466, of which 66 were also found in survival duration-related differential expression genes. Studied key genes through GO-analysis, pathway-analysis and in the Me-CCNU-related signal transduction networks, 25 core genes that influenced chemosensitivity of GBM to Me-CCNU were obtained, including TP53, MAP2K2, EP300, PRKCA, TNF, CCND1, AKT2, RBL1, CDC2, ID2, RAF1, CDKN2C, FGFR1, SP1, CDK6, IGFBP3, MDM4, PDGFD, SOCS2, CCNG2, CDK2, SDC2, STMN1, TCF7L1, TUBB.
CONCLUSION: Bioinformatics may help excavate and analyze large amounts of data in microarrays by means of rigorous experimental planning, scientific statistical analysis and collection of complete data about survival of GBM patients. In the present study, a novel differential gene expression pattern was constructed and advanced study will provide new targets for chemosensitivity of GBM.

Related: Signal Transduction

Further References

Kleeff J, Ishiwata T, Friess H, et al.
The helix-loop-helix protein Id2 is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Res. 1998; 58(17):3769-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Id2 belongs to the Id family of helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins, which upon heterodimerization with basic HLH proteins prevent basic HLH proteins from DNA binding. Proteins of the Id family act as negative regulatory transcriptional factors, and their expression correlates with cell proliferation and arrested differentiation in many cell lineages. In this study, we characterized the expression of Id2 in normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues. Pancreatic cancers markedly overexpressed Id2 mRNA in comparison to the normal pancreas. Furthermore, there was abundant Id2 immunoreactivity in the cancer cells within the pancreatic tumor mass. In PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells, steady-state Id2 mRNA levels increased upon serum addition and decreased after induction of differentiation with either sodium butyrate or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Inhibition of Id2 expression with Id2 antisense oligonucleotides inhibited the growth of these cells, whereas random and sense oligonucleotides were without effect. These findings suggest that Id2 may have a role in human pancreatic cancer.

Related: Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer

Lasorella A, Noseda M, Beyna M, et al.
Id2 is a retinoblastoma protein target and mediates signalling by Myc oncoproteins.
Nature. 2000; 407(6804):592-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
In mammalian cells, Id proteins coordinate proliferation and differentiation. Id2 is a dominant-negative antagonist of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and proteins of the retinoblastoma (Rb) family. Here we show that Id2-Rb double knockout embryos survive to term with minimal or no defects in neurogenesis and haematopoiesis, but they die at birth from severe reduction of muscle tissue. In neuroblastoma, an embryonal tumour derived from the neural crest, Id2 is overexpressed in cells carrying extra copies of the N-myc gene. In these cells, Id2 is in molar excess of the active form of Rb. The overexpression of Id2 results from transcriptional activation by oncoproteins of the Myc family. Cell-cycle progression induced by Myc oncoproteins requires inactivation of Rb by Id2. Thus, a dual connection links Id2 and Rb: during normal cell-cycle, Rb prohibits the action of Id2 on its natural targets, but oncogenic activation of the Myc-Id2 transcriptional pathway overrides the tumour-suppressor function of Rb.

Related: Retinoblastoma RB1 Signal Transduction

Lasorella A, Boldrini R, Dominici C, et al.
Id2 is critical for cellular proliferation and is the oncogenic effector of N-myc in human neuroblastoma.
Cancer Res. 2002; 62(1):301-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Perturbation of the function of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein is found in most human tumors. Id2 is a natural target of the Rb protein that is recruited by Myc oncoproteins to bypass the tumor suppressor function of Rb. Here we report that an "N-Myc-Id2 pathway" persists during late development of the nervous system and parallels the rising levels of active Rb in neuronal precursors withdrawing from the cell cycle. An immunohistochemical analysis of primary neuroblastoma from 47 patients shows that expression of Id2 is strongly predictive of poor outcome, irrespective of other clinical and biological variables. Overexpression of Id2 mediates cellular transformation and is required to maintain the malignant behavior of neuroblastoma cells. Correspondingly, embryonic fibroblasts from Id2-null mice display impaired ability to proliferate. We suggest that Id2 overexpression may be a better prognostic indicator than N-myc gene amplification in neuroblastoma. Thus, disrupting Id2 function may lead to new and useful therapeutic strategies for cancer patients.

Related: Neuroblastoma Signal Transduction

Hara E, Yamaguchi T, Nojima H, et al.
Id-related genes encoding helix-loop-helix proteins are required for G1 progression and are repressed in senescent human fibroblasts.
J Biol Chem. 1994; 269(3):2139-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Three complete cDNA clones encoding Id-related helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins lacking a basic region were isolated from a pcD2 cDNA expression library prepared from TIG-3 human diploid fibroblasts (HDF). Of these cDNAs (Id-1H, Id-1H', and Id-2H), two (Id-1H and Id-1H') appeared to be derived by alternative RNA splicing. Id-1H and Id-2H seem to be human homologues of mouse Id-1 and Id-2, respectively, and have potential to encode 154 and 135 amino acid proteins. The Id-1H and Id-2H mRNAs were barely detectable in quiescent early passage HDF; serum coordinately induced both mRNAs, with two peaks of expression, in early and late in G1. Antisense oligomers complementary to Id-1H and Id-2H mRNA prevented early passage HDF from entering the S phase of the cell cycle. The treatment of serum-stimulated early passage cells with the antisense Id-1H oligomer completely abolished Id-1H. In senescent cells, serum barely induced the Id-1H and Id-2H mRNAs, although the levels of c-myc expression induced were similar in early passage and senescent cells. The expression levels of these Id genes vary among immortal human cell lines. Both genes were overexpressed in VA4 SV40-transformed lung fibroblasts and EJ-1 bladder carcinoma cells, while these genes were expressed at a very low level in SVts8 cells derived from SV40 tsA-transformed TIG-3 cells. SVts8 cells may acquire some function redundant to Id proteins. HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells expressed the Id-1H gene but not the Id-2H gene, suggesting these Id genes may subserve redundant functions.

Mathew S, Chen W, Murty VV, et al.
Chromosomal assignment of human ID1 and ID2 genes.
Genomics. 1995; 30(2):385-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Id (inhibitor of DNA binding) proteins regulate transcription during development by interacting with transcription factors. Three human genes, ID1, ID2, and ID3, have been identified that belong to this family of transcription regulators. We show, by somatic cell hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments, that ID1 and ID2 are localized at 20q11 and 2p25, respectively.

Related: Chromosome 2 Chromosome 20 FISH


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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. ID2, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/ID2.htm Accessed: date

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