Salivary Gland Cancer
The salivary glands make saliva, which contains a range of enzymes which help digest food and protect against infections of the mouth and throat. There are 3 pairs of major salivary glands and hundreds of minor microscopic salivary glands:
- Parotid glands: the largest salivary glands,located in front of and just below each ear. Aproximately 80% of salivary gland tumors begin in the parotid glands.
- Submandibular glands: found below the jawbone. Between 10-15% of salivary gland tumours are found in the submandibular glands
- Sublingual glands: found under the tongue in the floor of the mouth.
- Minor salivary glands there are several hundred tiny salivary glands lining parts of the mouth, nose, and larynx.
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MeSH term: Salivary Gland Neoplasms
US National Library of Medicine
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This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).
Risk factors and prognosis for salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma in southern china: A 25-year retrospective study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(5):e5964 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cervical lymph node metastasis in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the major salivary glands.
J Laryngol Otol. 2017; 131(2):96-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: A search was conducted of the US National Library of Medicine database. Appropriate articles were selected from the abstracts, and the original publications were obtained to extract data.
RESULTS: Among 483 cases of major salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma, a total of 90 (18.6 per cent) had cervical metastasis. The prevalence of positive nodes from adenoid cystic carcinoma was 14.5 per cent for parotid gland, 22.5 per cent for submandibular gland and 24.7 per cent for sublingual gland. Cervical lymph node metastasis occurred more frequently in patients with primary tumour stage T3-4 adenoid cystic carcinoma, and was usually located in levels II and III in the neck.
CONCLUSION: Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the major salivary glands is associated with a significant prevalence of cervical node metastasis, and elective neck treatment is indicated for T3 and T4 primary tumours, as well as tumours with other histological risk factors.
Immunohistochemical Staining of Histological Fragments Derived from Salivary Gland Tumour Fine-Needle Biopsy Aspirates.
Acta Cytol. 2017; 61(1):17-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed all 509 FNAB pathology reports taken from SGTs at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, between 1999 and 2009. In 51% of the cases (n = 209) "histo-fragments" had been obtained and 31 had been further analysed by IHC. Of these, 25 (81%) were available for review. We evaluated the benefit of IHC by relating its added value to the preoperative cytological diagnosis and its accuracy compared with the postoperative histological diagnosis.
RESULTS: Most of the samples analysed by IHC were assigned a malignant diagnosis, with 12 different types of malignancy represented. IHC was advantageous in 76% of the cases. In the 108 studies using IHC in this series, antibodies to 36 different antigens were used.
CONCLUSION: Analysis of histo-fragments in FNABs using IHC can be valuable in specific differential diagnostics and raises diagnostic accuracy in SGTs.
Atheroma of the facial artery mimicking a parotid gland tumor: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(46):e5403 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CLINICAL FINDINGS/PATIENT CONCERNS: Herein, we report an extremely rare case of an atheroma arising from the facial artery, mimicking a parotid gland tumor.
DIAGNOSES: The preoperative diagnosis was a right-sided parotid gland tumor.
INTERVENTIONS: We performed removal of the right parotid gland tumor, via a modified face-lift incision.
OUTCOMES: Histological examination of the specimen revealed an atheroma of the facial artery.
CONCLUSION: Clinicians should consider atheroma in the differential diagnosis of tumors arising around the parotid gland.
Management of Salivary Gland Tumours: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.
J Laryngol Otol. 2016; 130(S2):S142-S149 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Blockade of Androgen-induced Malignant Phenotypes by Flutamide Administration in Human Salivary Duct Carcinoma Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(11):6071-6075 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a wound-healing assay to measure cell migration and a Boyden chamber invasion assay to investigate SDC cell invasive capacity.
RESULTS: DHT treatment increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. However, treatment with flutamide, an AR inhibitor, blocked the effects of DHT.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the androgen-AR axis is involved in SDC malignancy and may be an effective therapeutic target for treatment of human SDC.
Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: Institutional experience and review of the literature.
J Surg Oncol. 2016; 114(6):714-718 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: All patients who were operated for recurrent PA of the parotid gland between the years 1991 and 2013 were reviewed. Patient demographics, clinicopathologic variables, and operative details were collected retrospectively.
RESULTS: A total of 22 patients were operated for recurrent PA of the parotid gland. Mean interval between recurrences was 7 and 6 years for first recurrence and second recurrence, accordingly. Second recurrence was significantly influenced by younger age at initial treatment (P = 0.009). Only two patients (9%) with a recurrence developed facial nerve paralysis following surgery. Adjuvant radiotherapy was given to nine patients with no evidence of disease progression or recurrence. There were no cases of malignant transformation.
CONCLUSIONS: Recurrent PA of the parotid gland tends to occur in long intervals in a multifocal pattern. Adjuvant radiotherapy could be suggested as an alternative for surgery. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:714-718. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pedunculated carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal cavity: A unique case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(39):e5004 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS AND RESULT: We present a 7th case: an unusual pedunculated intranasal CXPA, which had a favorable outcome after a wide endoscopic excision and the longest follow-up period reported to date. The clinical features, immunohistochemical characteristics, treatment choices, and disease outcomes of the intranasal CXPAs reported in previous studies are also reviewed.
CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the importance of considering the possibility of CXPA in the differential diagnosis of minor salivary gland malignancies in the nasal cavity.
Conformal orbit sparing radiation therapy: a treatment option for advanced skin cancer of the parotid and ear region.
J Med Radiat Sci. 2016; 63(3):186-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: Ten patients were planned retrospectively using the existing three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), IMRT and OSRaT techniques. Dosimetry was analysed using the homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), the volume of planning target volumes (PTV) under and over treated by the 95% isodose and dose to critical structures.
RESULTS: OSRaT achieved superior 95% coverage of the high-dose PTV while delivering HI similar to IMRT for intermediate and high-dose PTVs. The CI for the high-dose PTV was comparable between the three techniques, however IMRT was statistically better for the low- and intermediate dose PTVs. All three techniques showed adequate orbital sparing, however OSRaT and IMRT achieved this with less under dosing of the PTVs.
CONCLUSION: For the treatment of patients with advanced skin cancer of the parotid and ear, both IMRT and the OSRaT techniques are viable options.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the palate: case report and review of literature.
Pan Afr Med J. 2016; 24:106 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Characterization of Parotid Tumors With Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging.
J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2017; 41(1):131-136 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study was conducted upon 48 consecutive patients (27 men, 21 women; aged 15-75 years; mean, 45 years) with parotid tumors that underwent dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted MR imaging was performed after bolus injection of gadopentate dimeglumine and diffusion-weighted MR imaging. The dynamic susceptibility contrast percentage (DSC%) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of parotid tumors were calculated and correlated with histopathological findings.
RESULTS: The DSC% of malignant parotid tumors (33.53% ± 3.99%) was significantly different (P = 0.001) from that of benign parotid tumors (22.29% ± 4.13%). The threshold values of DSC% and ADC used in differentiating malignant from benign parotid tumors were 26.5% and 1.07 × 10 mm/s, respectively, with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.96 and 0.81, respectively. The DSC% of malignant parotid tumors was significantly different from that of Warthin tumors (P = 0.001). The cutoff DSC% used to differentiate malignancy from Warthin tumors was 26.9% with an AUC of 0.99. There was a significant difference in DSC% and ADC values between pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin tumors (P = 0.001). The threshold values of DSC% and ADC used in differentiating pleomorphic adenomas from Warthin tumors was 22.5% and 0.99 × 10 mm/s, respectively, with AUC of 0.88 and 0.98, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted MR imaging and diffusion-weighted MR imaging are noninvasive promising methods that are used for differentiation of malignant from benign parotid tumors and for characterization of some benign parotid tumors.
Submandibular oncocytic carcinoma: A case report and literature review.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(37):e4897 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The current study describes a novel OC case in a 46-year-old male, the youngest case of the review. The patient presented with a 5-month history of an intermittently painful mass.
RESULTS: Following magnetic resonance imaging, excisional biopsy, hematoxylin-eosin staining, phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin staining, and immunohistochemical examination, an OC of the submandibular gland was diagnosed.
CONCLUSION: The current study summarizes the pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapeutics, and the prognosis of OC. The literature review regarding this rare disease is also presented to emphasize the lack of specific markers of OC and the risk of cervical lymph metastasis.
Fine-Needle Aspiration of Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland With Prominent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma-Like Cribriform Features: Avoiding a Diagnostic Pitfall.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2016; 146(6):741-746 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We compare features of an unusual case of EMC with those of cribriform AdCC to arrive at morphologic clues to the correct diagnosis.
RESULTS: Distinguishing features of EMC on FNA include (1) a prominent population of myoepithelial cells vs the predominance of basaloid cells in AdCC and (2) cohesive matrix globules with a peripheral rim of pale-staining basement membrane material compared with the dyscohesive matrix globules of AdCC. Immunochemical markers (S100, CD117, and MyB) are also useful.
CONCLUSIONS: Although EMC and AdCC can both contain spherical matrix globules, close evaluation of the cytomorphology of the globules and their relationship to surrounding cells provides a clue to distinguish the two neoplasms.
Salivary gland hybrid tumour revisited: could they represent high-grade transformation in a low-grade neoplasm?
Virchows Arch. 2016; 469(6):643-650 [PubMed] Related Publications
The MMP-2 and MMP-9 promoter polymorphisms and susceptibility to salivary gland cancer.
J BUON. 2016 May-Jun; 21(3):597-602 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The MMP-2 -1306 C>T, MMP-2 -1575 G>A and MMP-9 -1562 C>T polymorphisms were analyzed in 93 SGC cases and 100 controls using PCR-RFLP.
RESULTS: The T allele for the MMP-2-1306 C>T polymorphism exhibited its effect in heterozygous carriers, increasing the risk for SGC (odds ratio/OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.07-3.65, p=0.03). According to the dominant model, CT+TT genotypes had a 2-fold increased risk of developing SGCs (p=0.02).When the dominant model was applied for the MMP2 -1575 G>A, individuals with GA+AA genotypes exhibited a 1.77-fold increase in cancer risk, but with borderline significance (p=0.049). Heterozygous carriers of the variant T allele for the MMP-9 -1562 C>T polymorphism had roughly a 2-fold increase in susceptibility for SGC compared to wild type homozygotes (CC) (p=0.02).
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest MMP-2-1306 C>T and MMP-9-1562 C>T polymorphisms genotypes seem to influence the development of SGCs, whereas MMP-2 -1575 G>A seems to be of a minor importance.
Giant cell-rich osteosarcoma of the parotid gland: An exceptionally rare entity at an unusual site.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2016; 44(12):1107-1111 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gender Aspects in Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of the Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue: Does Sex Matter?
Oncology. 2016; 91(5):243-250 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We have analyzed 327 patients treated between 1999 and 2015 with a median follow-up time of 55.2 months.
RESULTS: There was a female predominance, with 197 female (60.2%) and 130 male patients (39.8%, female-to-male ratio 1.5). The mean age was comparable between female and male patients (61.2 vs. 61.7 years, p = 0.777). Female patients less frequently had gastric MALT lymphoma (31.5 vs. 39.2%), but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.149). Extragastric manifestations were equally distributed, except for parotid (p = 0.003) and breast lymphoma (n = 8, 100% female) showing a female predominance. This was most likely related to a higher rate of active autoimmune disorders in women (35.6 vs. 11.0%, p < 0.001). β2-Microglobulin elevation at diagnosis occurred more often in female patients (42.8 vs. 26.0%; p = 0.008). However, this did not translate into a worse progression-free survival for female (56.0 months, 95% CI 30.1-81.9) versus male patients (49.0 months, 95% CI 25.4-72.5, p = 0.433). Overall survival did not differ between groups.
CONCLUSION: Our data show surprisingly little differences between female and male patients with MALT lymphoma. Both sexes appeared to have well-balanced clinical features and an identical prognosis.
Expression of BTBD7 in primary salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma and correlation with Slug and prognosis.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 17(2):179-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: The expression of BTBD7 and Slug were examined in ACC-LM and ACC-83 cell lines and immunohistochemically in paraffin embedded tissue specimens from 66 primary SACC patients. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation between BTBD7 expression and Slug expression and the prognostic significance of BTBD7 expression.
RESULTS: BTBD7 protein expression was initially verified in ACC-LM and ACC-83 cell lines. The positive rate of BTBD7 expression was 62.1% in SACC to 20% in normal salivary tissues comparatively. BTBD7 expression was significantly correlated with Slug expression in SACC (P< 0.05). Increased BTBD7 expression was significantly associated with the TNM stage, tissue typing, distant metastasis and patients' poor clinical outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: Positive expression of BTBD7 in SACC could play an important role in the development of cancer and may serve as a favorable predictor for diagnosis and poor prognosis of patients.
Pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands: retrospective multicentric study of 130 cases with emphasis on histopathological features.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2017; 274(1):543-551 [PubMed] Related Publications
Decreased Serum Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein1 in Salivary Gland Tumor Patients.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(7):3601-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using an ELISA kit, we assessed and compared the circulating levels of MCP1 in blood serum of 70 SGT patients with 44 healthy control samples.
RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the concentration of MCP1 was significantly lower in patients with benign (463.8±158.5pg/ml, P=0.033) and malignant (454.8±190.4pg/ ml, P=0.007) SGT than in healthy subjects (645.7±338.9). No significant difference in mean serum levels of MCP1 was observed between the benign and malignant group (p=0.9). While MCP1 levels were lower in patients with an advanced clinical stage, advanced tumor size, higher tumor grade, or lymph node involvement, but the mean MCP1 level between groups showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: MCP1 levels in the serum of patients with SGT were decreased, indicating that this might a good marker for discriminating patients with SGT from healthy people. However, no clearcut relationship was detected between MCP1 levels and clinicopathologic factors, and MCP1 is not a good marker for evaluating tumor dissemination.
Role of neck dissection in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the parotid gland.
J Laryngol Otol. 2016; 130 Suppl 4:S54-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: A consecutive series of patients treated between 2000 and 2014 for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the parotid were analysed. Patients were included if they had no clinical or radiological evidence of neck disease. Pathology of parotidectomy and neck dissection specimens was reviewed. Other variables analysed included patient immune status, surgery type, complications, use of positron emission tomography scanning and treatment with radiotherapy.
RESULTS: Sixty-five patients had no clinical or radiological evidence of neck disease initially. Forty-six patients (70.8 per cent) underwent neck dissection. Occult neck disease was only found in 8 of the 46 patients (17.3 per cent). Occult neck disease was found more often in those with immunocompromise (5.7 vs 38.5 per cent, p = 0.003). Patients who were immunocompromised had a significantly worse disease-specific survival rate at five years (0 vs 92 per cent, p = 0.0001).
CONCLUSION: Occult neck disease was seen in 17.3 per cent of patients and immunosuppression was a significant predictor for this.
RECURRENT PLEOMORPHIC ADENOMA OF THE UPPER LIP: CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.
Niger J Med. 2015 Jul-Sep; 24(3):277-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
CASE REPORT: A 37 year old female Nigerian house wife was seen with a four year history of painless slowly progressive upper lip swelling. Prior to her presentation, she had surgery for same swelling in a peripheral hospital. All other histories were not significant.
CONCLUSION: PA remains the commonest benign minor salivary gland neoplasm and excision with safe margins the treatment of choice.
Inactivation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway does not contribute to salivary gland tumor development - a short report.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2016; 39(4):389-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We performed LKB1 protein expression and AMPK and mTOR activation analyses in several salivary gland tumor types and their respective healthy control tissues using immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: No significant downregulation of LKB1 expression or decreased activation of AMPK or mTOR were observed in any of the salivary gland tumors tested. In contrast, we found that the salivary gland tumors exhibited an increased rather than a decreased AMPK activation. Although the PI3K/Akt pathway was found to be activated in most of the analyzed tumor samples, the unchanged robust activity of LKB1/AMPK likely prevents (over)activation of mTOR.
CONCLUSION: In contrast to many other types of cancer, inactivation or downregulation of the LKB1/AMPK pathway does not substantially contribute to the pathogenesis of salivary gland tumors.
Myoepithelioma of the parotid gland with extensive adipocytic metaplasia: Report of a case with intriguing aspects on fine needle aspiration and p63 immunohistochemical expression.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2016; 44(12):1090-1093 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of DCLK1 is predictive for recurrent disease in major salivary gland malignancies.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2017; 274(1):467-475 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adjuvant Therapy for Salivary Gland Carcinomas.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):4165-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients (71%) underwent S+RT and eight (29%) S+CRT at our Institution between 2006 and 2015. Microscopic positive margins were present in 54% of the patients.
RESULTS: The 3-year overall survival (OS) was 100% with S+RT and 87.5% with S+CRT (p=0.141) and locoregional control (LRC) was 95% with S+RT and 87.5% with S+CRT (p=0.383). There were no significant differences in the rate of acute (p=0.801) and late (p=0.714) toxicities.
CONCLUSION: While we await randomized data, adjuvant CRT may be considered as a viable therapeutic option for patients at high-risk of local or regional recurrence, especially in those with a positive microscopic margin where further surgery may result in functional cranial neuropathies.
Benign and Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors - Clinical and Demographic Characteristics.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):4151-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined medical records of 287 primary salivary gland tumor patients.
RESULTS: Overall, 216 tumors were benign and 71 malignant. The mean age at diagnosis was 56.4 years for those with malignant tumors and 48.5 years for those with benign, a highly significant difference (p=0.001). Females had 45% of malignant tumors and 59% of benign, a significant difference (p=0.037). Ethnic origin, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking rates were not significantly different (p>0.05) between groups. A total of 87% of benign and 55% of malignant tumors were in the parotid glands, a highly significant predilection (p<0.0001), sublocated mostly in the superfacial lobe; 36.6% of malignant tumors and 4.7% of benign (p<0.0001) were in the minor salivary glands, mostly in the hard palate.
CONCLUSION: Baseline clinical, demographic and locational aspects of benign and malignant tumors are substantiated.
Chemokine and Chemokine Receptor Profiles in Metastatic Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):4013-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to compare chemokine and chemokine receptor gene expression in two SACC cell lines: SACC-83 and SACC-LM (lung metastasis). Chemokines and receptor genes were then screened and their expression pattern characterized in human tissue samples of non-recurrent SACC and recurrent SACC with perineural invasion.
RESULTS: Expression of chemokine receptors C5AR1, CCR1, CCR3, CCR6, CCR7, CCR9, CCR10, CXCR4, CXCR6, CXCR7, CCRL1 and CCRL2 were higher in SACC-83 compared to SACC-LM. CCRL1, CCBP2, CMKLR1, XCR1 and CXCR2 and 6 chemokine genes (CCL13, CCL27, CXCL14, CMTM1, CMTM2, CKLF) were more highly expressed in tissues of patients without tumor recurrence/perineural invasion compared to those with tumor recurrence. CCRL1 (receptor), CCL27, CMTM1, CMTM2, and CKLF (chemokine) genes were more highly expressed in SACC-83 and human tissues of patients without tumor recurrence/perineural invasion.
CONCLUSION: CCRL1, CCL27, CMTM1, CMTM2 and CKLF may play important roles in the development of tumor metastases in SACC.
ID1 Controls Aggressiveness of Salivary Gland Cancer Cells via Crosstalk of IGF and AKT Pathways.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):3865-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The human SGC cell line HSY with abundant ID1 was used. ID1 knockdown and its effect on the IGF system were investigated. Cell proliferation and invasion, as well as associated protein expression, were analyzed. Phospho-AKT was also evaluated.
RESULTS: ID1 knockdown reduced cell proliferation and invasion, while the expression of proteins associated with malignant phenotypes was altered. IGF-II expression was suppressed, suggesting that this system is one of the mechanisms underlying effects of ID1 in SGC cells. c-Myc was up-regulated, whereas p21 and p27 were down-regulated. Moreover, phospho-AKT was reduced in ID1-knockeddown cells.
CONCLUSION: ID1 down-regulation induced parallel changes in the IGF and AKT pathways. The crosstalk of these pathways may enhance malignant phenotypes in SGCs.
PLAG1: An Immunohistochemical Marker with Limited Utility in Separating Pleomorphic Adenoma from Other Basaloid Salivary Gland Tumors.
Acta Cytol. 2016; 60(3):240-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
STUDY DESIGN: Immunohistochemical evaluation of PLAG1 was performed on 125 cases (52 FNAs and 73 surgical excisions). Nuclear staining of tumor cells was scored by the intensity and percentage of positive tumor cells. A combined score of >5 was defined as positive.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The sensitivity (55%) and specificity (75%) of PLAG1 in diagnosing PA in FNAs is relatively modest thus limiting its diagnostic utility. BCAs and AdCCs showed PLAG1 false positivity, in surgical excision specimens and less so in FNAs. This may be due to limited sampling or tumor heterogeneity. Hence, PLAG1 is a modest marker for PAs in FNAs.