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RET; RET proto-oncogene (multiple endocrine neoplasia MEN2A, MEN2B and medullary thyroid carcinoma 1, Hirschsprung disease) (10q11.2)
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    Summary Information - RET
    Gene Database Entries for RET
    Other RET Related Resources
    RET and Cancer
    RET and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia - type 2A
    RET and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia - type 2B
    RET and Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
       - RET and Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
       - RET and Sporadic Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
    RET and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
       - RET/PTC1 (RET-H4) Rearangements in Papillary Thyroid Cancer
       - RET/PTC2 (RET-PRKAR1A) Rearangements in Papillary Thyroid Cancer
       - RET/PTC3 (RET-ELE1) Rearangements in Papillary Thyroid Cancer
       - RET-NTRK1 Rearangements in Papillary Thyroid Cancer
    RET Rearrangements Following Exposure to Ionizing Radiation
    Feedback / suggest a new topic for RET


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  Summary Information

RET; RET proto-oncogene (multiple endocrine neoplasia MEN2A, MEN2B and medullary thyroid carcinoma 1, Hirschsprung disease)

Location: 10q11.2

Aliases: PTC, MEN2A

Overview: The RET (REarranged during Transfection) gene was first cloned in 1985. Mutations in the RET gene are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B, medullary thyroid carcinoma and Hirschsprung disease. It is frequently mutated in radiation induced papillary thyroid carcinomas and is rearranged with a number of fusion partners including D10S170 (H4), ELE1, and NTRK1.

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  Gene Database Entries for RET

OMIM
GeneCard (Weizmann Institute)
Human Gene Mutation Database (Cardiff, UK)
Tumor Gene Database
Swiss-Prot
Locus Link
UniGene
GenAtlas
GDB
Nomenclature (search for RET)

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  Other Related Resources


Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Resources
Cancers of the Endocrine System
ELE1 - RET Activating Gene
Thyroid Cancer Resources

  • Medline Search: RET (PubMed)   Limit search to: [Last Year]  Limit search to: [Last 2 Years]   Limit search to: [Reviews]
    Search Medline for related articles (PubMed)
  • Medline Search: cancer AND gene AND (RET[TI] OR PTC[TI] OR MEN2A[TI]) (PubMed)   Limit search to: [Last Year]  Limit search to: [Last 2 Years]   Limit search to: [Reviews]
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  •   RET and Cancer

  • Takahashi M. et al. Activation of a novel human transforming gene, ret, by DNA rearrangement. Cell 1985;42:581-8    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Santoro M, et al. Different mutations of the RET gene cause different human tumoral diseases. Biochimie 1999;81(4):397-402    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Medline Search: RET AND gene AND cancer (PubMed)   Limit search to: [Last Year]  Limit search to: [Last 2 Years]   Limit search to: [Reviews]

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  •   RET and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia - type 2A

  • Mulligan LM, et al. Germ-line mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. Nature 1993; 363(6428):458-60    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Donis-Keller H, et al. Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene are associated with MEN 2A and FMTC. Hum Mol Genet. 1993;2(7):851-6    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Mulligan LM, et al. Specific mutations of the RET proto-oncogene are related to disease phenotype in MEN 2A and FMTC. Nat Genet. 1994; 6(1):70-4    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Medline Search: RET AND multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (PubMed)   Limit search to: [Last Year]  Limit search to: [Last 2 Years]   Limit search to: [Reviews]

    Related Resources
    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia : Clinical and Epidemiological Information

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  •   RET and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia - type 2B

  • Hofstra RM, et al. A mutation in the RET proto-oncogene associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B and sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Nature 1994; 367(6461):375-6    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Medline Search: RET ANDmultiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (PubMed)   Limit search to: [Last Year]  Limit search to: [Last 2 Years]   Limit search to: [Reviews]

    Related Resources
    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia : Clinical and Epidemiological Information

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  •   RET and Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma


  • Medline Search: RET AND medullary thyroid carcinoma (PubMed)   Limit search to: [Last Year]  Limit search to: [Last 2 Years]   Limit search to: [Reviews]

    Related Resources
    Thyroid Cancer Genetics
    Thyroid Cancer : Clinical and Epidemiological Information

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  •   RET and Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

  • Mulligan LM, et al. Specific mutations of the RET proto-oncogene are related to disease phenotype in MEN 2A and FMTC. Nat Genet. 1994; 6(1):70-4    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Medline Search: RET AND familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (PubMed)   Limit search to: [Last Year]  Limit search to: [Last 2 Years]   Limit search to: [Reviews]

    Related Resources
    Thyroid Cancer Genetics
    Thyroid Cancer : Clinical and Epidemiological Information

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  •   RET and Sporadic Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

  • Eng C, et al. Mutation of the RET protooncogene in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1995; 12(3):209-12    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Medline Search: RET AND sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (PubMed)   Limit search to: [Last Year]  Limit search to: [Last 2 Years]   Limit search to: [Reviews]

    Related Resources
    Thyroid Cancer Genetics
    Thyroid Cancer : Clinical and Epidemiological Information

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  •   RET and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    The RET is frequently mutated in radiation induced papillary thyroid carcinomas and is rearranged with a number of fusion partners including D10S170 (H4), ELE1, and NTRK1.

  • Fenton CL, et al. The ret/PTC mutations are common in sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma of children and young adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85(3):1170-5    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Mayr B, et al. Expression of Ret/PTC1, -2, -3, -delta3 and -4 in German papillary thyroid carcinoma. Br J Cancer 1998 Mar;77(6):903-6    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Medline Search: RET and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PubMed)   Limit search to: [Last Year]  Limit search to: [Last 2 Years]   Limit search to: [Reviews]

    Related Resources
    NTRK1 gene
    Thyroid Cancer Genetics
    Thyroid Cancer : Clinical and Epidemiological Information

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  •   RET/PTC1 (RET-H4) Rearangements in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    The PTC1 fusion gene is present in approximately 30% of papillary thyroid carcinomas. It involves an inversion of 10q which fuses the RET protooncogene to the D10S170 (H4) gene. High incidence of RET/PTC1 rearrangements have been reported in thyroid cancers in people living in areas adjacent to Chernobyl following the nuclear accident. SCID mice transplanted with normal human thyroid tissues and then exposed to radiation preferentially developed RET/PTC1 compared to other RET rearrangements (Mizuno,2000). A FISH study (Nikiforova, 2000) suggests that RET and D10S170 are more frequently juxtaposed in the nucleus of thyroid cells compared to other cells. This close proximity of the genes in thyroid cells may promote the PTC1 fusion since a single radiation track may be sufficient to produce a double-strand break in each gene at the same site in the nucleus.

  • Nikiforova MN, et al. Proximity of Chromosomal Loci That Participate in Radiation-Induced Rearrangements in Human Cells. Science 2000 Oct 6;290(5489):138-141    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Mizuno T, et al. Preferential induction of RET/PTC1 rearrangement by X-ray irradiation. Oncogene 2000 Jan 20;19(3):438-43    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Cho JY, et al. Early cellular abnormalities induced by RET/PTC1 oncogene in thyroid-targeted transgenic mice. Oncogene 1999 Jun 17;18(24):3659-65    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Tong Q, et al. Characterization of the promoter region and oligomerization domain of H4 (D10S170), a gene frequently rearranged with the ret proto-oncogene. Oncogene 1995 May 4;10(9):1781-7    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Sozzi G, et al. Refined localization to contiguous regions on chromosome 10q of the two genes (H4 and RET) that form the oncogenic sequence PTC. Oncogene 1991 Feb;6(2):339-42    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Medline Search: thyroid cancer AND ret AND (H4 OR D10S170 OR PTC1) (PubMed)   Limit search to: [Last Year]  Limit search to: [Last 2 Years]   Limit search to: [Reviews]

    Related Resources
    Thyroid Cancer Genetics
    Thyroid Cancer : Clinical and Epidemiological Information

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  •   RET/PTC2 (RET-PRKAR1A) Rearangements in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  • Sozzi G, et al. A t(10;17) translocation creates the RET/PTC2 chimeric transforming sequence in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1994 Apr;9(4):244-50    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Medline Search: thyroid cancer AND ret AND (PRKAR1A OR PTC2) (PubMed)   Limit search to: [Last Year]  Limit search to: [Last 2 Years]   Limit search to: [Reviews]

    Related Resources
    Thyroid Cancer Genetics
    Thyroid Cancer : Clinical and Epidemiological Information

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  •   RET/PTC3 (RET-ELE1) Rearangements in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  • Nikiforov YE, et al. Chromosomal breakpoint positions suggest a direct role for radiation in inducing illegitimate recombination between the ELE1 and RET genes in radiation-induced thyroid carcinomas. Oncogene 1999 Nov 4;18(46):6330-4    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Klugbauer S, et al. Molecular analysis of new subtypes of ELE/RET rearrangements, their reciprocal transcripts and breakpoints in papillary thyroid carcinomas of children after Chernobyl. Oncogene 1998 Feb 5;16(5):671-5    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Bongarzone I, et al. Comparison of the breakpoint regions of ELE1 and RET genes involved in the generation of RET/PTC3 oncogene in sporadic and in radiation-associated papillary thyroid carcinomas. Genomics 1997 Jun 1;42(2):252-9    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Medline Search: thyroid cancer AND ret AND (ELE1 OR PTC3) (PubMed)   Limit search to: [Last Year]  Limit search to: [Last 2 Years]   Limit search to: [Reviews]

    Related Resources
    Thyroid Cancer Genetics
    Thyroid Cancer : Clinical and Epidemiological Information

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  •   RET-NTRK1 Rearangements in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  • Rabes HM, et al. Pattern of radiation-induced RET and NTRK1 rearrangements in 191 post-chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas: biological, phenotypic, and clinical implications. Clin Cancer Res 2000 Mar;6(3):1093-103    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Pierotti MA, et al. Rearrangements of RET and NTRK1 tyrosine kinase receptors in papillary thyroid carcinomas. Recent Results Cancer Res. 1998;154:237-47. [Review]    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Bongarzone I et al. RET/NTRK1 rearrangements in thyroid gland tumors of the papillary carcinoma family: correlation with clinicopathological features. Clin Cancer Res 1998 4:223-8    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Medline Search: thyroid cancer AND ret AND (ntrk1 OR traka) (PubMed)   Limit search to: [Last Year]  Limit search to: [Last 2 Years]   Limit search to: [Reviews]

    Related Resources
    Thyroid Cancer Genetics
    Thyroid Cancer : Clinical and Epidemiological Information

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  •   RET Rearrangements Following Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

  • Nikiforova MN, et al. Proximity of Chromosomal Loci That Participate in Radiation-Induced Rearrangements in Human Cells. Science 2000 Oct 6;290(5489):138-141    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Mizuno T, et al. Preferential induction of RET/PTC1 rearrangement by X-ray irradiation. Oncogene 2000 Jan 20;19(3):438-43    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Rabes HM, Klugbauer S. Molecular genetics of childhood papillary thyroid carcinomas after irradiation: high prevalence of RET rearrangement. Recent Results Cancer Res 1998;154:248-64 [Review]    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Smida J, et al. Distinct frequency of ret rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinomas of children and adults from Belarus. Int J Cancer 1999; 80(1):32-8    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Nikiforov YE, et al. Distinct pattern of ret oncogene rearrangements in morphological variants of radiation-induced and sporadic thyroid papillary carcinomas in children. Cancer Res 1997 May 1;57(9):1690-4    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Bounacer A, et al. High prevalence of activating ret proto-oncogene rearrangements, in thyroid tumors from patients who had received external radiation. Oncogene. 1997; 15(11):1263-73    Related articles (PubMed)

  • Medline Search: ret AND mutation AND radiation AND thyroid cancer (PubMed)   Limit search to: [Last Year]  Limit search to: [Last 2 Years]   Limit search to: [Reviews]

    Related Resources
    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia : Clinical and Epidemiological Information

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