Gene Summary

Gene:BACH1; BTB domain and CNC homolog 1
Aliases: BACH-1, BTBD24
Summary:This gene encodes a transcription factor that belongs to the cap'n'collar type of basic region leucine zipper factor family (CNC-bZip). The encoded protein contains broad complex, tramtrack, bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger (BTB/POZ) domains, which is atypical of CNC-bZip family members. These BTB/POZ domains facilitate protein-protein interactions and formation of homo- and/or hetero-oligomers. When this encoded protein forms a heterodimer with MafK, it functions as a repressor of Maf recognition element (MARE) and transcription is repressed. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription regulator protein BACH1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BACH1 (cancer-related)

Huang X, Zheng J, Li J, et al.
Functional role of BTB and CNC Homology 1 gene in pancreatic cancer and its association with survival in patients treated with gemcitabine.
Theranostics. 2018; 8(12):3366-3379 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genetic variation (rs372883C/T) in the 3'-untranslated region of BTB and CNC homology 1 (

Zhu GD, Liu F, OuYang S, et al.
BACH1 promotes the progression of human colorectal cancer through BACH1/CXCR4 pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 499(2):120-127 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study was to investigate clinical significance, biological functions and underlying mechanisms of BTB Domain and CNC Homolog 1(BACH1) deregulation in human colorectal cancer (CRC). The result showed that BACH1 upregulation was significantly associated with enhanced tumor invasion (P = 0.014) and gender (P = 0.028) of CRC patients. Kaplan-Meier method results showed that the overall survival of CRC patients with high BACH1 mRNA expression was markedly shorter than those with low expression (P = 0.015), and multivariate analyzes results showed that BACH1 was an independent prognostic predictor for CRC patients (P = 0.049). In vitro studies revealed that BACH1 efficiently promoted invasion and migration of CRC cell line. In vitro studies proved that the HCT116 cell stably expressing BACH1 formed significantly larger tumor nodules and remarkably accelerated tumor xenografts growth. In addition, Immunohistochemical scores of CD31 and Vimentin were significantly higher than those of the control group. Finally, correlation analysis indicated that BACH1 expression was positively correlated with C-X-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 4(CXCR4) in tumor tissues and cell lines. Together, BACH1 serves as an oncogene to promote CRC progression and an independent prognostic factor for survival and metastasis. BACH1 may inhibit the progression of CRC through BACH1/CXCR4 pathway.

Shajari N, Davudian S, Kazemi T, et al.
Silencing of BACH1 inhibits invasion and migration of prostate cancer cells by altering metastasis-related gene expression.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2018; 46(7):1495-1504 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer lethality is mainly caused by metastasis. Therefore, understanding the nature of the genes involved in this process has become a priority. BACH1, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, has been shown to transcriptionally regulate expression of a range of genes that are associated with breast cancer metastasis. However, the exact role and the underlying molecular mechanism of BACH1 in prostate cancer remain unclear. This study aims to explore the expression of BACH1 in prostate cancer tissues and the effect of BACH1 suppression on prostate cancer cell behavior.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure BACH1 expression in prostate adenocarcinoma tissues and two metastasis-derived prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and LNCaP. We also used immunohistochemical (IHC) staining to measure BACH1 protein expression in prostate adenocarcinoma and matched normal tissue samples. In the following BACH1 expression was silenced in DU145 cells using siRNA as well. Knockdown was confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The cytotoxic effects of BACH1-siRNA on DU145 cells were determined using an MTT assay. The migration and invasive capacity of DU145 cells were examined by scratch wound healing assay and matrigel invasion assay, respectively. We also used qRT-PCR to study the effect of BACH1 silencing on the expression levels of metastasis-related genes.
RESULTS: We find that the expression of BACH1 mRNA and protein in prostate cancer tissues is significantly higher than in matched normal prostate tissues (p < .05). In addition, DU145 and LNCaP cells exhibited 4.25-fold and 3.45-fold higher levels of BACH1 compared to HFF cell line. BACH1-siRNA significantly reduced both mRNA and protein expression levels in DU145 cells. More importantly, we show that BACH1 promotes key features of metastasis, as BACH1-siRNA treatment significantly reduced cell invasion and migration by changing the expression levels of a number of metastasis-related genes in vitro.
CONCLUSIONS: BACH1 is overexpressed in prostate cancer. Because this promotes invasion and migration, it may facilitate metastasis of prostate cancer. Thus, BACH1 is a potential therapeutic target for metastatic prostate cancer. BACH1 silencing therapy can be considered as a novel and effective adjuvant in prostate cancer targeted therapies.

Mohammadzadeh R, Saeid Harouyan M, Ale Taha SM
Silencing of bach1 gene by small interfering RNA-mediation regulates invasive and expression level of miR-203, miR-145, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and CXCR4 receptor in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(3):1010428317695925 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recently experimental validation of the networks revealed bach1, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, as the common regulator of several functional invasive genes. The expression of bach1 and its target genes was linked to the higher risk of breast cancer recurrence in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of specific bach1 small interfering RNAs, on the invasive and expression level of miR-203, miR-145, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and CXCR4 receptor which play a role in cancer metastasis, in MDA-MB-468 cell lines.
METHODS: Small interfering RNA transfection was performed with transfection regent. The survival effects of small interfering RNA were determined using trypan blue assay cells. The expression level of messenger RNA and matrix metalloproteinase-9 to assess cell invasion and the expression level of miR-203, miR-145, and CXCR4 receptor were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis on the MDA-MB-468 cell lines.
RESULTS: Transfection with small interfering RNA significantly suppressed the expression of bach1 gene in dose-dependent manner after 48 h ( p < 0.0001). A significant reduction in cell invasion and CXCR4 receptor, matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression were observed ( p < 0.0001). It was also a dramatic increase in the expression level of miR-203 and miR-145 ( p < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the bach1-specific small interfering RNA effectively decrease CXCR4 receptor, matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and breast adenocarcinoma cells invasive, also increased the expression of tumor-suppressive microRNA-203 and miR-145. Thus, these microRNAs may play a role in invasive/metastasis of carcinogenic breast cancer cells. Therefore, bach1 knockdown can be considered as a potent adjuvant in breast cancer therapy.

Aletaha M, Mansoori B, Mohammadi A, et al.
Therapeutic effects of bach1 siRNA on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 88:34-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite the great improvements in clinical and therapeutic techniques in recent years, many advanced breast cancer patients still died of the postoperative recurrence and metastasis of disease. Bach1 plays a role in the development of the invasive phenotypes of cancer, cell division and apoptosis in tumor cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of specific bach1 siRNAs, on the proliferation, migration, invasive, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and alter EMT related miRNA of MDA-MB-468 cells (breast cancer).
METHODS: siRNA transfection was performed with transfection reagent. The expression levels of Bach1 mRNA and protein were measured by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The survival of cells was determined using MTT assay cells, apoptosis using Tunel assay, Cell migration using scratch assay and Cell cycle analysis by Propidium Iodide (PI) DNA staining method by using flow cytometry on the MDA-MB-468. The expression levels of MMP-9 and CXCR4 were measured by qRT-PCR.
RESULTS: Transfection with siRNA significantly suppressed the expression of bach1 gene in dose dependent manner after 48h (p<0.0001). Surprisingly, treatment with bach1 siRNA arrest cell cycle in S phases (p<0.0001). Moreover siRNA transfection had effects on breast adenocarcinoma cells and inhibits the migration (p<0.0001), proliferation (p<0.0001), cell cycle arrest (p=0.03) and induces apoptosis (p<0.0001) and reduces the expression of miR-21 (P=0.0014).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the bach1 can be considered as a potent adjuvant in breast cancer therapy.

Nie E, Jin X, Wu W, et al.
BACH1 Promotes Temozolomide Resistance in Glioblastoma through Antagonizing the Function of p53.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:39743 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The acquisition of drug resistance is a persistent clinical problem limiting the successful treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). However, the molecular mechanisms by which initially chemoresponsive tumors develop therapeutic resistance remain poorly understood. In this study, we report that BACH1, a heme-binding protein that participates in transcriptional repression or activation, was significantly upregulated in glioblastoma tissues. Overexpression of BACH1 in GBM cells conferred resistance to temozolomide, whereas its inhibition markedly sensitized resistant cells to temozolomide in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation revealed that BACH1 activation significantly enhanced the expression of MGMT, and depletion of p53 disrupted the effects of BACH1 on MGMT and temozolomide resistance. P53 sequesters SP1 to prevent its binding to the MGMT promoter region and thus inhibits MGMT expression. Moreover, BACH1 overexpression impaired the association between p53 and SP1 via competitive binding p53, and antagonized the impact of p53 on MGMT expression. Finally, we found that BACH1 low expression correlated with better prognosis in GBM patients undergoing temozolomide therapy, especially in patients with wild-type TP53. Collectively, our findings identify a potential mechanism by which wild-type TP53 GBM cells develop resistance to temozolomide and suggest that targeting this pathway may be beneficial for overcoming resistance.

Davudian S, Shajari N, Kazemi T, et al.
BACH1 silencing by siRNA inhibits migration of HT-29 colon cancer cells through reduction of metastasis-related genes.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:191-198 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis to distant organs is a hallmark of many tumor cells. BACH1 (BTB and CNC homology 1) is a transcriptional factor which promotes the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. BACH1 expression and its target genes are intimately associated with the metastasis possibility of clinical samples, and BACH1 reduction leads to meaningful depletion in metastasis. The evaluation of BACH1 role in colon cancer remains elusive. This study seeks to further investigate the role of BACH1 in colon cancer cells.
METHODS: Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect BACH1 expression and other related metastatic genes following siRNA knockdown in colon cancer HT-29 cells. And the protein level assessed by Western blot. MTT assay was to measure the changed cell viability after BACH1 siRNA transfection. Scratch-wound motility assays measured capacity of tumor cell migration of HT-29 cells after BACH1 silencing.
RESULTS: The inhibitory effect of BACH1 was performed by siRNA knockdown using highly metastatic HT-29 colon cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression levels of BACH1 mRNA and protein in HT29 cells were significantly suppressed after transfection. Conversely, the BACH1 expression increased migration. Also the CXCR4 and MMP1 expression levels decreased following BACH1 knockdown in HT-29 cells.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that BACH1 down-regulation in HT29 CRC cells had no effect on cell growth but did inhibit cell migration by decreasing metastasis-related genes expression. Collectively, these results suggest that BACH1 may function as an oncogenic driver in colon cancer and may represent as a potential target of gene therapy for CRC treatment.

Rainy N, Zayoud M, Kloog Y, et al.
Viral oncomiR spreading between B and T cells is employed by Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus to induce non-cell-autonomous target gene regulation.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(27):41870-41884 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The two human lymphotrophic γ-herpesviruses, Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are a recognized cause of human cancer, encoding multiple miRs that are major players in carcinogenesis. Previously, we discovered that EBV-encoded miRs transfer between infected B and T lymphocytes. To further explore the biological significance of the spreading of γ-herpesvirus-encoded miRs on carcinogenesis, we focused on KSHV-miR-K12-11 (miR-K12-11) that is unique in having an identical seed sequence with the oncomiR hsa-miR-155, implicated in B cell lymphomas development. Here, we show for the first time that miR-K12-11 transfers in vitro from KSHV-infected BCBL-1 and BC-1 lymphoma lines to T cells. The transferred miR-K12-11 is active in the adopting T cells and binds its canonical target, the 3'-UTR of BACH1. Importantly, we show that the transfer of miR-K12-11 from BCBL-1 to Jurkat cells correlates with inhibition of the innate type-I interferons response to viral dsRNAs downstream of IKKε, a validated miR-K12-11 target. Finally, we show that miR-K12-11 spreading is not reduced by blocking the classical ceramide-dependent exosome secretion pathway. In summary, we report for the first time that intercellular viral oncomiR spreading is an additional mechanism employed by KSHV to inhibit host anti-viral immunity and consequently promote oncogenesis.

Davudian S, Mansoori B, Shajari N, et al.
BACH1, the master regulator gene: A novel candidate target for cancer therapy.
Gene. 2016; 588(1):30-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACH1 (BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 1) is a transcriptional factor and a member of cap 'n' collar (CNC) and basic region leucine zipper factor family. In contrast to other bZIP family members, BACH1 appeared as a comparatively specific transcription factor. It acts as transcription regulator and is recognized as a recently hypoxia regulator and functions as an inducible repressor for the HO-1 gene in many human cell types in response to stress oxidative. In regard to studies lately, although, BACH1 has been related to the regulation of oxidative stress and heme oxidation, it has never been linked to invasion and metastasis. Recent studies have showed that BACH1 is involved in bone metastasis of breast cancer by up-regulating vital metastatic genes like CXCR4 and MMP1. This newly discovered aspect of BACH1 gene provides new insight into cancer progression study and stands on its master regulator role in metastasis process, raising the possibility of considering it as a potential target for cancer therapy.

Cha YJ, Lee JH, Han HH, et al.
MicroRNA alteration and putative target genes in high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer: STAT3 and ZEB1 are upregulated during prostate carcinogenesis.
Prostate. 2016; 76(10):937-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify alteration of cancer-related miRNAs in HGPIN and PCa, and to investigate the clinical implications of HGPIN as a precancerous lesion of PCa.
METHODS: Clinicopathologic analysis based on the status of HGPIN was performed in 388 patients who received radical prostatectomy between January 2005 and December 2008 in Severance Hospital. Among them, 10 paired HGPIN and PCa were prepared to perform miRNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. Fifty-two prostatectomy specimens were used to further validation of protein expression that was assessed by immunohistochemical staining (IHC) in matched non-neoplastic prostatic tissue (NPT), HGPIN, and PCa. Functional analysis was performed using a prostate normal cell line (RWPE-1) and two prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC-3) for comparison of expression of miR-155 and STAT3 mRNA before and after treatment of miR-155 mimetics/antagomir into each cell line.
RESULTS: Patients with HGPIN had significantly less lymphovascular invasion, less lymph node metastasis, lower tumor volume, lower Gleason score, lower incidence of death, and longer overall survival compared to patients without HGPIN. MiR-155, miR-210, miR-153, and miR-200c were downregulated in HGPIN and PCa in common, compared to NPT. As putative target mRNAs, mRNA expression level of STAT3, ZEB1, and BACH1 was increased in PCa and HGPIN compared to NPT. mRNA expression level of ephrin-A3 was increased in PCa compared to NPT, and FGFRL1 was decreased in PCa compared to HGPIN and NPT. Protein expression assessed by IHC showed correlated results in STAT3, ZEB1, and ephrin-A3. Moreover, STAT3 and ZEB1 increased in a stepwise manner, from NPT to PCa. Treatment of miR-155 antagomir increased STAT3 mRNA expression in RWPE-1 cells, whereas treatment of miR-155 mimetics into PC-3 cells significantly decreased STAT3 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: STAT3 and ZEB1 could be the key molecules altered at the early stages of carcinogenesis, especially in HGPIN. Prostate 76:937-947, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Xu IM, Lai RK, Lin SH, et al.
Transketolase counteracts oxidative stress to drive cancer development.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(6):E725-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cells experience an increase in oxidative stress. The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is a major biochemical pathway that generates antioxidant NADPH. Here, we show that transketolase (TKT), an enzyme in the PPP, is required for cancer growth because of its ability to affect the production of NAPDH to counteract oxidative stress. We show that TKT expression is tightly regulated by the Nuclear Factor, Erythroid 2-Like 2 (NRF2)/Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1 (KEAP1)/BTB and CNC Homolog 1 (BACH1) oxidative stress sensor pathway in cancers. Disturbing the redox homeostasis of cancer cells by genetic knockdown or pharmacologic inhibition of TKT sensitizes cancer cells to existing targeted therapy (Sorafenib). Our study strengthens the notion that antioxidants are beneficial to cancer growth and highlights the therapeutic benefits of targeting pathways that generate antioxidants.

Fang M, Hutchinson L, Deng A, Green MR
Common BRAF(V600E)-directed pathway mediates widespread epigenetic silencing in colorectal cancer and melanoma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(5):1250-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
During cancer development, it is well established that many genes, including tumor suppressor genes, are hypermethylated and transcriptionally repressed, a phenomenon referred to as epigenetic silencing. In general, the factors involved in, and the mechanistic basis of, epigenetic silencing during cancer development are not well understood. We have recently described an epigenetic silencing pathway, directed by the oncogenic B-Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF) variant BRAF(V600E), that mediates widespread epigenetic silencing in colorectal cancer (CRC). Notably, the BRAF(V600E) mutation is also present in 50-70% of melanomas. Here, we show that the same pathway we identified in CRC also directs epigenetic silencing of a similar set of genes in BRAF-positive melanoma. In both CRC and melanoma, BRAF(V600E) promotes epigenetic silencing through up-regulation of v-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog G (MAFG), a transcriptional repressor with sequence-specific DNA-binding activity. The elevated concentration of MAFG drives DNA binding on the promoter. Promoter-bound MAFG recruits a set of corepressors that includes its heterodimeric partner BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 1 (BACH1), the chromatin remodeling factor chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8 (CHD8), and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B, resulting in hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing. Our results reveal a common BRAF(V600E)-directed transcriptional regulatory pathway that mediates epigenetic silencing in unrelated solid tumors and provide strong support for an instructive model of oncoprotein-directed epigenetic silencing.

Wu Q, Paul A, Su D, et al.
Structure of BRCA1-BRCT/Abraxas Complex Reveals Phosphorylation-Dependent BRCT Dimerization at DNA Damage Sites.
Mol Cell. 2016; 61(3):434-448 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites is an important step for its function in the DNA damage response and in DNA repair. BRCA1-BRCT domains bind to proteins containing the phosphorylated serine-proline-x-phenylalanine (pSPxF) motif including Abraxas, Bach1/FancJ, and CtIP. In this study, we demonstrate that ionizing radiation (IR)-induces ATM-dependent phosphorylation of serine 404 (S404) next to the pSPxF motif. Crystal structures of BRCT/Abraxas show that phosphorylation of S404 is important for extensive interactions through the N-terminal sequence outside the pSPxF motif and leads to formation of a stable dimer. Mutation of S404 leads to deficiency in BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites and cellular sensitivity to IR. In addition, two germline mutations of BRCA1 are found to disrupt the dimer interface and dimer formation. Thus, we demonstrate a mechanism involving IR-induced phosphorylation and dimerization of the BRCT/Abraxas complex for regulating Abraxas-mediated recruitment of BRCA1 in response to IR.

Datar I, Tegegne H, Qin K, et al.
Genetic and epigenetic control of RKIP transcription.
Crit Rev Oncog. 2014; 19(6):417-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is known to modulate key signaling cascades and regulate normal physiological processes such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The expression of RKIP is found to be downregulated in several cancer metastases and the repressed RKIP expression can be reactivated on treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. RKIP is a proven tumor metastasis suppressor gene and investigating the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of RKIP is therefore of immense clinical importance. In this review, we discuss the basal expression of RKIP in various tissues and the genetic aspects of the RKIP chromosomal locus including the structure of the RKIP promoter as well as gene regulatory elements such as enhancers. We also review the genetic and epigenetic modulation of RKIP transcription through EZH2, a component of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and sequence specific transcription factors (TFs) BACH1 and Snail. Emerging experimental evidence supports a unifying model in which both these TFs repress RKIP transcription in cancers by recruiting the EZH2 containing repressive complex to the proximal RKIP promoter. Finally, we review the known mechanisms employed by different types of chemotherapeutic agents to activate RKIP expression in cancer cells.

Dorresteijn MJ, Paine A, Zilian E, et al.
Cell-type-specific downregulation of heme oxygenase-1 by lipopolysaccharide via Bach1 in primary human mononuclear cells.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2015; 78:224-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is the inducible isoform of the heme-degrading enzyme HO, which is upregulated by multiple stress stimuli. HO-1 has major immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects via its cell-type-specific functions in mononuclear cells. Contradictory findings have been reported on HO-1 regulation by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in these cells. Therefore, we reinvestigated the effects of LPS on HO-1 gene expression in human and murine mononuclear cells in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, LPS downregulated HO-1 in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CD14(+) monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes, but upregulated this enzyme in primary murine macrophages and human monocytic leukemia cell lines. Furthermore, experiments with human CD14(+) monocytes revealed that activation of other TLRs including TLR1, -2, -5, -6, -8, and -9 decreased HO-1 mRNA expression. LPS-dependent downregulation of HO-1 was specific, because expression of cyclooxygenase-2, NADP(H)-quinone oxidoreductase-1, and peroxiredoxin-1 was increased under the same experimental conditions. Notably, LPS upregulated expression of Bach1, a critical transcriptional repressor of HO-1. Moreover, knockdown of this nuclear factor enhanced basal and LPS-dependent HO-1 expression in mononuclear cells. Finally, downregulation of HO-1 in response to LPS was confirmed in PBMCs from human individuals subjected to experimental endotoxemia. In conclusion, LPS downregulates HO-1 expression in primary human mononuclear cells via a Bach1-mediated pathway. As LPS-dependent HO-1 regulation is cell-type- and species-specific, experimental findings in cell lines and animal models need careful interpretation.

Escalera-Cueto M, Medina-Martínez I, del Angel RM, et al.
Let-7c overexpression inhibits dengue virus replication in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells.
Virus Res. 2015; 196:105-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute an important class of non-coding RNA implicated in gene expression regulation. More than 1900 miRNA molecules have been identified in humans and their modulation during viral infection and it is recognized to play a role in latency regulation or in establishing an antiviral state. The liver cells are targets during DENV infection, and alteration of liver functions contributes to severe disease. In this work the miRNAs expression profile of the human hepatoma cell line, Huh-7, infected with DENV-2 was determined using microarray and real-time PCR. Let-7c is one of the miRNAs up-regulated during DENV infection in the hepatic Huh-7 as well as in the macrophage-monocytic cell line U937-DC-SIGN. Let-7c overexpression down-regulates both DENV-2 and DENV-4 infection. Additionally, we found that the transcription factor BACH1, a let-7c target, is also down-regulated during DENV infection. In accordance with this finding, HO-1, the main responsive factor of BACH1 was found up-regulated. The up-regulation of HO-1 may contribute to the stress oxidative response in infected cells.

Fang M, Ou J, Hutchinson L, Green MR
The BRAF oncoprotein functions through the transcriptional repressor MAFG to mediate the CpG Island Methylator phenotype.
Mol Cell. 2014; 55(6):904-915 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Most colorectal cancers (CRCs) containing activated BRAF (BRAF[V600E]) have a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) characterized by aberrant hypermethylation of many genes, including the mismatch repair gene MLH1. MLH1 silencing results in microsatellite instability and a hypermutable phenotype. Through an RNAi screen, here we identify the transcriptional repressor MAFG as the pivotal factor required for MLH1 silencing and CIMP in CRCs containing BRAF(V600E). In BRAF-positive human CRC cell lines and tumors, MAFG is bound at the promoters of MLH1 and other CIMP genes, and recruits a corepressor complex that includes its heterodimeric partner BACH1, the chromatin remodeling factor CHD8, and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B, resulting in hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing. BRAF(V600E) increases BRAF/MEK/ERK signaling resulting in phosphorylation and elevated levels of MAFG, which drives DNA binding. Analysis of transcriptionally silenced CIMP genes in KRAS-positive CRCs indicates that different oncoproteins direct the assembly of distinct repressor complexes on common promoters.

Mehrotra M, Medeiros LJ, Luthra R, et al.
Identification of putative pathogenic microRNA and its downstream targets in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(10):1995-2005 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) are tumors of T/null-cell lineage characterized by uniform CD30 expression. The 2008 World Health Organization classification subdivided ALCLs into 2 groups: anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive (established entity) and ALK-negative (proposed new entity) ALCL. The genetic basis for the pathogenesis of newly categorized ALK- ALCL is poorly understood. In this study, we used microRNA microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed microRNAs in ALK+ and ALK- ALCL. ALK- ALCL showed significantly higher expression of miR-155 (0.888 ± 0.228) compared with ALK+ ALCL (0.0565 ± 0.009) on microarray and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in ALK- ALCL compared with ALK+ ALCL (P < .05) with a strong correlation between the 2 platforms (R = 0.9, P < .0003). A novel in situ hybridization method allows direct visualization of expression patterns and relative quantitation of miR-155 (mean score, 2.3 versus 1.3; P = .01) for the first time in tissue sections of ALCL. Among computationally predicted targets of miR-155, we identified ZNF652 (r = -0.57, P = .05), BACH1 (r = 0.88, P = .02), RBAK (r = 0.81, P = .05), TRIM32 (r = 0.92, P = .01), E2F2 (r = 0.81, P = .05), and TP53INP1 (r = -0.31, P = .03) as genes whose expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction correlated significantly with the level of miR-155 in ALCL tumor tissue.

Hefti E, Quiñones-Lombraña A, Redzematovic A, et al.
Analysis of mtDNA, miR-155 and BACH1 expression in hearts from donors with and without Down syndrome.
Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal. 2016; 27(2):896-903 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer patients with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk for anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations in hearts with-DS may contribute to anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity. Cardiac mtDNA and the mtDNA(4977) deletion were quantitated in samples with- (n = 11) and without-DS (n = 31). Samples with-DS showed 30% lower mtDNA (DS(MT-ND1/18Sratio): 1.48 ± 0.72 versus non-DS(MT-ND1/18Sratio): 2.10 ± 1.59; p = 0.647) and 30% higher frequency of the mtDNA(4977) deletion (DS(% frequency mtDNA(4977)) deletion: 0.0086 ± 0.0166 versus non-DS(% frequency mtDNA(4977)) deletion: 0.0066 ± 0.0124, p = 0.514) than samples without-DS. The BACH1 and microRNA-155 (miR-155) genes are located in chromosome 21, and their products have demonstrated roles during oxidative stress. BACH1 and miR-155 expression did not differ in hearts with- and without-DS. An association between BACH1 and miR-155 expression was detected in hearts without-DS, suggesting alterations between BACH1-miR-155 interactions in the DS settings.

Lee J, Lee J, Farquhar KS, et al.
Network of mutually repressive metastasis regulators can promote cell heterogeneity and metastatic transitions.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(3):E364-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The sources and consequences of nongenetic variability in metastatic progression are largely unknown. To address these questions, we characterized a transcriptional regulatory network for the metastasis suppressor Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP). We previously showed that the transcription factor BACH1 is negatively regulated by RKIP and promotes breast cancer metastasis. Here we demonstrate that BACH1 acts in a double-negative (overall positive) feedback loop to inhibit RKIP transcription in breast cancer cells. BACH1 also negatively regulates its own transcription. Analysis of the BACH1 network reveals the existence of an inverse relationship between BACH1 and RKIP involving both monostable and bistable transitions that can potentially give rise to nongenetic variability. Single-cell analysis confirmed monostable and bistable-like behavior. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors or depletion of the polycomb repressor enhancer of zeste homolog 2 altered relative RKIP and BACH1 levels in a manner consistent with a prometastatic state. Together, our results suggest that the mutually repressive relationship between metastatic regulators such as RKIP and BACH1 can play a key role in determining metastatic progression in cancer.

Lee U, Frankenberger C, Yun J, et al.
A prognostic gene signature for metastasis-free survival of triple negative breast cancer patients.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e82125 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) are the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer, they currently lack targeted therapies. Because this classification still includes a heterogeneous collection of tumors, new tools to classify TNBCs are urgently required in order to improve our prognostic capability for high risk patients and predict response to therapy. We previously defined a gene expression signature, RKIP Pathway Metastasis Signature (RPMS), based upon a metastasis-suppressive signaling pathway initiated by Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP). We have now generated a new BACH1 Pathway Metastasis gene signature (BPMS) that utilizes targets of the metastasis regulator BACH1. Specifically, we substituted experimentally validated target genes to generate a new BACH1 metagene, developed an approach to optimize patient tumor stratification, and reduced the number of signature genes to 30. The BPMS significantly and selectively stratified metastasis-free survival in basal-like and, in particular, TNBC patients. In addition, the BPMS further stratified patients identified as having a good or poor prognosis by other signatures including the Mammaprint® and Oncotype® clinical tests. The BPMS is thus complementary to existing signatures and is a prognostic tool for high risk ER-HER2- patients. We also demonstrate the potential clinical applicability of the BPMS as a single sample predictor. Together, these results reveal the potential of this pathway-based BPMS gene signature to identify high risk TNBC patients that can respond effectively to targeted therapy, and highlight BPMS genes as novel drug targets for therapeutic development.

Chakraborty A, Katarkar A, Chaudhuri K, et al.
Detection of a novel mutation in exon 20 of the BRCA1 gene.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2013; 18(4):631-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hereditary breast cancer constitutes 5-10% of all breast cancer cases. Inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor-suppressor genes account for the majority of hereditary breast cancer cases. The BRCA1 C-terminal region (BRCT) has a functional duplicated globular domain, which helps with DNA damage repair and cell cycle checkpoint protein control. More than 100 distinct BRCA1 missense variants with structural and functional effects have been documented within the BRCT domain. Interpreting the results of mutation screening of tumor-suppressor genes that can have high-risk susceptibility mutations is increasingly important in clinical practice. This study includes a novel mutation, p.His1746 Pro (c.5237A>C), which was found in BRCA1 exon 20 of a breast cancer patient. In silico analysis suggests that this mutation could alter the stability and orientation of the BRCT domain and the differential binding of the BACH1 substrate.

Cheng X, Ku CH, Siow RC
Regulation of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway by microRNAs: New players in micromanaging redox homeostasis.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2013; 64:4-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs are now thought to play a central role in the regulation of many diverse aspects of cell biology; however, it remains to be fully elucidated how microRNAs can orchestrate cellular redox homeostasis, which plays a central role in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological processes. The redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) serves as a "master regulator" of cell survival through the coordinated induction of phase II and antioxidant defense enzymes to counteract oxidative stress and modulate redox signaling events. MicroRNAs are able to "fine-tune" the regulation of processes including those directly interacting with the Nrf2 pathway and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This review highlights that cellular redox homeostasis can be regulated by microRNAs through their modulation of Nrf2-driven antioxidant gene expression as well as key enzymes that generate ROS, which in turn can alter the biogenesis and processing of microRNAs. Therefore redox sensitive microRNAs or "redoximiRs" add an important regulatory mechanism for redox signaling beyond the well-characterized actions of Nrf2. The potential exists for microRNA-based therapies where diminished antioxidant defenses and dysregulated redox signaling can lead to cardiovascular diseases, cancers, neurodegeneration, and accelerated aging.

Chang LC, Fan CW, Tseng WK, et al.
Immunohistochemical study of the Nrf2 pathway in colorectal cancer: Nrf2 expression is closely correlated to Keap1 in the tumor and Bach1 in the normal tissue.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2013; 21(6):511-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oxidative stress is a contributing factor in the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. The Nrf2 [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2; NFE2L2] pathway is one of the major cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. This study investigated the expression of the Nrf2 pathway in colorectal cancer. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue arrays consisting of the tumor, adjacent normal, and distant normal tissues from the resected specimens of 83 colorectal cancer patients were subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with antibodies against Nrf2, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), p21, P62, Parkinson protein 7 (Park7), prohibitin, BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1), CD34 and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). The mean IHC density of each IHC staining was digitally analyzed. The results showed that molecules of the Nrf2 pathway were actively expressed, with different expression profiles among the tumor and normal tissues. The oxidative stress, represented by the mean IHC staining density of 8-OHdG, did not differ but was correlated with the expressions of different Nrf2 pathway molecules to a varied extent in tumor and normal tissues of colorectal cancer. Keap1 [estimate, 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.19-0.79] and Bach1 (estimate, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.11-0.38) were significant predictors for the expression of 8-OHdG and had the closest proximity to Nrf2 in the cluster dendrogram of the tumor and distant normal tissues, respectively. Advanced stage (estimate, 14.9; 95% CI, 2.99-26.8) and current smoker (estimate, 15.6; 95% CI, 1.92-29.3) were significant predictors with high estimates for Bach1 in the adjacent and distant normal tissues, respectively. In colorectal cancer, the molecules of the Nrf2 pathway have different expression profiles and a difference in their importance, especially Keap1 and Bach1, related to Nrf2 and oxidative stress among tumor and normal tissues.

Niture SK, Khatri R, Jaiswal AK
Regulation of Nrf2-an update.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2014; 66:36-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nrf2:INrf2 (Keap1) are cellular sensors of oxidative and electrophilic stress. Nrf2 is a nuclear factor that controls the expression and coordinated induction of a battery of genes that encode detoxifying enzymes, drug transporters, antiapoptotic proteins, and proteasomes. In the basal state, Nrf2 is constantly degraded in the cytoplasm by its inhibitor, INrf2. INrf2 functions as an adapter for Cul3/Rbx1 E3 ubiquitin ligase-mediated degradation of Nrf2. Chemicals, including antioxidants, tocopherols including α-tocopherol (vitamin E), and phytochemicals, and radiation antagonize the Nrf2:INrf2 interaction and lead to the stabilization and activation of Nrf2. The signaling events involve preinduction, induction, and postinduction responses that tightly control Nrf2 activation and repression back to the basal state. Oxidative/electrophilic signals activate unknown tyrosine kinases in a preinduction response that phosphorylates specific residues on Nrf2 negative regulators, INrf2, Fyn, and Bach1, leading to their nuclear export, ubiquitination, and degradation. This prepares nuclei for unhindered import of Nrf2. Oxidative/electrophilic modification of INrf2 cysteine 151 followed by PKC phosphorylation of Nrf2 serine 40 in the induction response results in the escape or release of Nrf2 from INrf2. Nrf2 is thus stabilized and translocates to the nucleus, resulting in a coordinated activation of gene expression. This is followed by a postinduction response that controls the "switching off" of Nrf2-activated gene expression. GSK3β, under the control of AKT and PI3K, phosphorylates Fyn, leading to Fyn nuclear localization. Fyn phosphorylates Nrf2 Y568, resulting in nuclear export and degradation of Nrf2. The activation and repression of Nrf2 provide protection against oxidative/electrophilic stress and associated diseases, including cancer. However, deregulation of INrf2 and Nrf2 due to mutations may lead to nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 that reduces apoptosis and promotes oncogenesis and drug resistance.

Elton TS, Selemon H, Elton SM, Parinandi NL
Regulation of the MIR155 host gene in physiological and pathological processes.
Gene. 2013; 532(1):1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small nonprotein-coding RNAs, play a critical role in posttranscriptional gene regulation by acting as adaptors for the miRNA-induced silencing complex to inhibit gene expression by targeting mRNAs for translational repression and/or cleavage. miR-155-5p and miR-155-3p are processed from the B-cell Integration Cluster (BIC) gene (now designated, MIR155 host gene or MIR155HG). MiR-155-5p is highly expressed in both activated B- and T-cells and in monocytes/macrophages. MiR-155-5p is one of the best characterized miRNAs and recent data indicate that miR-155-5p plays a critical role in various physiological and pathological processes such as hematopoietic lineage differentiation, immunity, inflammation, viral infections, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Down syndrome. In this review we summarize the mechanisms by which MIR155HG expression can be regulated. Given that the pathologies mediated by miR-155-5p result from the over-expression of this miRNA it may be possible to therapeutically attenuate miR-155-5p levels in the treatment of several pathological processes.

Pabalan N, Jarjanazi H, Ozcelik H
Association between BRIP1 (BACH1) polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 137(2):553-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inconsistency of reported associations between the Pro919Ser polymorphism in the BRCA1 interacting protein 1 (BRIP1) gene and breast cancer prompted us to undertake a meta-analysis. Although investigated by fewer studies, we have also studied the risk associated with the two additional BRIP1 polymorphisms, C47G and G64A, and breast cancer riskWe conducted searches of the published literature in MEDLINE through PubMed up to October 2012. Individual data on 5,122 cases and 5,735 controls from eight published case-control studies were evaluated for the Pro919Ser polymorphism. Accordingly, C47G and G64A polymorphisms were studied in 1,539 cases and 1,183 controls, and 667 and 782, respectively.In the overall analysis, association was lacking between the Pro919Ser polymorphism and breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] 0.98-1.02), materially unchanged when confined to subjects of European ancestry (OR 0.96-1.03) or even in the high-powered studies (OR 0.97-1.03). In the menopausal subgroups, premenopausal women followed the null pattern (OR 0.94-0.98) for the Pro and Ser allele contrasts, but not for the Pro-Ser genotype comparison where significant increased risk was observed (OR 1.39, P = 0.002). The postmenopausal women (>50 years) exhibited a range of pooled effects from protection (OR 0.83, P = 0.11) in the Pro-Ser genotype to slightly increased risk (OR 1.12-1.16, P = 0.28-0.42) in the Pro and Ser allele comparisons. The G64A polymorphism effects were essentially null (OR 0.90-0.98), but C47G was found to confer non-significantly increased risk under all genetic models (OR 1.27-1.40).Upon conclusion, overall summary estimates imply no associations but suggest susceptibility among carriers of the C47G polymorphism and Pro-Ser genotype in premenopausal women. The premenopausal findings and variable outcomes in postmenopausal women require more studies for confirmation.

Litim N, Labrie Y, Desjardins S, et al.
Polymorphic variations in the FANCA gene in high-risk non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer individuals from the French Canadian population.
Mol Oncol. 2013; 7(1):85-100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The majority of genes associated with breast cancer susceptibility, including BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, are involved in DNA repair mechanisms. Moreover, among the genes recently associated with an increased susceptibility to breast cancer, four are Fanconi Anemia (FA) genes: FANCD1/BRCA2, FANCJ/BACH1/BRIP1, FANCN/PALB2 and FANCO/RAD51C. FANCA is implicated in DNA repair and has been shown to interact directly with BRCA1. It has been proposed that the formation of FANCA/G (dependent upon the phosphorylation of FANCA) and FANCB/L sub-complexes altogether with FANCM, represent the initial step for DNA repair activation and subsequent formation of other sub-complexes leading to ubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. As only approximately 25% of inherited breast cancers are attributable to BRCA1/2 mutations, FANCA therefore becomes an attractive candidate for breast cancer susceptibility. We thus analyzed FANCA gene in 97 high-risk French Canadian non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer individuals by direct sequencing as well as in 95 healthy control individuals from the same population. Among a total of 85 sequence variants found in either or both series, 28 are coding variants and 19 of them are missense variations leading to amino acid change. Three of the amino acid changes, namely Thr561Met, Cys625Ser and particularly Ser1088Phe, which has been previously reported to be associated with FA, are predicted to be damaging by the SIFT and PolyPhen softwares. cDNA amplification revealed significant expression of 4 alternative splicing events (insertion of an intronic portion of intron 10, and the skipping of exons 11, 30 and 31). In silico analyzes of relevant genomic variants have been performed in order to identify potential variations involved in the expression of these spliced transcripts. Sequence variants in FANCA could therefore be potential spoilers of the Fanconi-BRCA pathway and as a result, they could in turn have an impact in non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families.

Mori R, Yoshida K, Tanahashi T, et al.
Decreased FANCJ caused by 5FU contributes to the increased sensitivity to oxaliplatin in gastric cancer cells.
Gastric Cancer. 2013; 16(3):345-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oxaliplatin is effective against many types of cancer, and the combination of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and oxaliplatin is synergistically effective against gastric cancer, as well as colon cancer. The FANCJ protein is one of the Fanconi anemia (FA) gene products, and its interaction with the tumor suppressor BRCA1 is required for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. FANCJ also functions in interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) repair by linking to mismatch repair protein complex MLH1-PMS2 (MutLα). While oxaliplatin causes ICLs, 5FU is considered to cause DSBs. Therefore, we investigated the importance of FANCJ in the synergistic effects of oxaliplatin and 5FU in MKN45 gastric cancer cells and the derived 5FU-resistant cell line, MKN45/F2R.
METHODS: MKN1, TMK1, MKN45, and MKN45/F2R (5FU-resistant) gastric cancer cells were treated with 5FU and/or oxaliplatin. The signaling pathway was evaluated by a western blotting analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Drug resistance was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-tetrazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
RESULTS: In MKN45 cells, the combination of 5FU and oxaliplatin had synergistic effects. DSBs appeared when the cells were treated with 5FU. FANCJ was down-regulated, and BRCA1 was induced in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MKN45 cells showed increased sensitivity to oxaliplatin when FANCJ was knocked down by short interfering (si) RNA. However, these findings were not observed in MKN45/F2R 5FU-resistant cells.
CONCLUSION: These results strongly suggest that the decrease in FANCJ caused by 5FU treatment leads to an increase in sensitivity to oxaliplatin, thus indicating that the FANCJ protein plays an important role in the synergism of the combination of 5FU and oxaliplatin.

Haecker I, Gay LA, Yang Y, et al.
Ago HITS-CLIP expands understanding of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus miRNA function in primary effusion lymphomas.
PLoS Pathog. 2012; 8(8):e1002884 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
KSHV is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and a subset of multicentricCastleman's disease (MCD). The fact that KSHV-encoded miRNAs are readily detectable in all KSHV-associated tumors suggests a potential role in viral pathogenesis and tumorigenesis. MiRNA-mediated regulation of gene expression is a complex network with each miRNA having many potential targets, and to date only few KSHV miRNA targets have been experimentally determined. A detailed understanding of KSHV miRNA functions requires high-through putribonomics to globally analyze putative miRNA targets in a cell type-specific manner. We performed Ago HITS-CLIP to identify viral and cellular miRNAs and their cognate targets in two latently KSHV-infected PEL cell lines. Ago HITS-CLIP recovered 1170 and 950 cellular KSHV miRNA targets from BCBL-1 and BC-3, respectively. Importantly, enriched clusters contained KSHV miRNA seed matches in the 3'UTRs of numerous well characterized targets, among them THBS1, BACH1, and C/EBPβ. KSHV miRNA targets were strongly enriched for genes involved in multiple pathways central for KSHV biology, such as apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, lymphocyte proliferation, and immune evasion, thus further supporting a role in KSHV pathogenesis and potentially tumorigenesis. A limited number of viral transcripts were also enriched by HITS-CLIP including vIL-6 expressed only in a subset of PEL cells during latency. Interestingly, Ago HITS-CLIP revealed extremely high levels of Ago-associated KSHV miRNAs especially in BC-3 cells where more than 70% of all miRNAs are of viral origin. This suggests that in addition to seed match-specific targeting of cellular genes, KSHV miRNAs may also function by hijacking RISCs, thereby contributing to a global de-repression of cellular gene expression due to the loss of regulation by human miRNAs. In summary, we provide an extensive list of cellular and viral miRNA targets representing an important resource to decipher KSHV miRNA function.

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