BACH1

Gene Summary

Gene:BACH1; BTB domain and CNC homolog 1
Aliases: BACH-1, BTBD24
Location:21q21.3
Summary:This gene encodes a transcription factor that belongs to the cap'n'collar type of basic region leucine zipper factor family (CNC-bZip). The encoded protein contains broad complex, tramtrack, bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger (BTB/POZ) domains, which is atypical of CNC-bZip family members. These BTB/POZ domains facilitate protein-protein interactions and formation of homo- and/or hetero-oligomers. When this encoded protein forms a heterodimer with MafK, it functions as a repressor of Maf recognition element (MARE) and transcription is repressed. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription regulator protein BACH1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 13 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 13 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Promoter Regions
  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • Cancer DNA
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Transcription Factors
  • Replication Protein A
  • Fanconi Anaemia
  • Missense Mutation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • BRCA2 Protein
  • Protein Binding
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Transfection
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Chromosome 21
  • BACH1
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Cell Nucleus
  • DNA Repair
  • DNA Damage
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • BRCA1 Protein
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Risk Factors
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • NFE2L2
  • Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group Proteins
  • Apoptosis
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Polymorphism
  • Mutation
  • Breast Cancer
  • MicroRNAs
  • BRCA1
  • Zinc Fingers
Tag cloud generated 13 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BACH1 (cancer-related)

Davudian S, Shajari N, Kazemi T, et al.
BACH1 silencing by siRNA inhibits migration of HT-29 colon cancer cells through reduction of metastasis-related genes.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:191-198 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis to distant organs is a hallmark of many tumor cells. BACH1 (BTB and CNC homology 1) is a transcriptional factor which promotes the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. BACH1 expression and its target genes are intimately associated with the metastasis possibility of clinical samples, and BACH1 reduction leads to meaningful depletion in metastasis. The evaluation of BACH1 role in colon cancer remains elusive. This study seeks to further investigate the role of BACH1 in colon cancer cells.
METHODS: Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect BACH1 expression and other related metastatic genes following siRNA knockdown in colon cancer HT-29 cells. And the protein level assessed by Western blot. MTT assay was to measure the changed cell viability after BACH1 siRNA transfection. Scratch-wound motility assays measured capacity of tumor cell migration of HT-29 cells after BACH1 silencing.
RESULTS: The inhibitory effect of BACH1 was performed by siRNA knockdown using highly metastatic HT-29 colon cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression levels of BACH1 mRNA and protein in HT29 cells were significantly suppressed after transfection. Conversely, the BACH1 expression increased migration. Also the CXCR4 and MMP1 expression levels decreased following BACH1 knockdown in HT-29 cells.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that BACH1 down-regulation in HT29 CRC cells had no effect on cell growth but did inhibit cell migration by decreasing metastasis-related genes expression. Collectively, these results suggest that BACH1 may function as an oncogenic driver in colon cancer and may represent as a potential target of gene therapy for CRC treatment.

Davudian S, Mansoori B, Shajari N, et al.
BACH1, the master regulator gene: A novel candidate target for cancer therapy.
Gene. 2016; 588(1):30-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACH1 (BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 1) is a transcriptional factor and a member of cap 'n' collar (CNC) and basic region leucine zipper factor family. In contrast to other bZIP family members, BACH1 appeared as a comparatively specific transcription factor. It acts as transcription regulator and is recognized as a recently hypoxia regulator and functions as an inducible repressor for the HO-1 gene in many human cell types in response to stress oxidative. In regard to studies lately, although, BACH1 has been related to the regulation of oxidative stress and heme oxidation, it has never been linked to invasion and metastasis. Recent studies have showed that BACH1 is involved in bone metastasis of breast cancer by up-regulating vital metastatic genes like CXCR4 and MMP1. This newly discovered aspect of BACH1 gene provides new insight into cancer progression study and stands on its master regulator role in metastasis process, raising the possibility of considering it as a potential target for cancer therapy.

Xu IM, Lai RK, Lin SH, et al.
Transketolase counteracts oxidative stress to drive cancer development.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(6):E725-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cells experience an increase in oxidative stress. The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is a major biochemical pathway that generates antioxidant NADPH. Here, we show that transketolase (TKT), an enzyme in the PPP, is required for cancer growth because of its ability to affect the production of NAPDH to counteract oxidative stress. We show that TKT expression is tightly regulated by the Nuclear Factor, Erythroid 2-Like 2 (NRF2)/Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1 (KEAP1)/BTB and CNC Homolog 1 (BACH1) oxidative stress sensor pathway in cancers. Disturbing the redox homeostasis of cancer cells by genetic knockdown or pharmacologic inhibition of TKT sensitizes cancer cells to existing targeted therapy (Sorafenib). Our study strengthens the notion that antioxidants are beneficial to cancer growth and highlights the therapeutic benefits of targeting pathways that generate antioxidants.

Fang M, Hutchinson L, Deng A, Green MR
Common BRAF(V600E)-directed pathway mediates widespread epigenetic silencing in colorectal cancer and melanoma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(5):1250-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
During cancer development, it is well established that many genes, including tumor suppressor genes, are hypermethylated and transcriptionally repressed, a phenomenon referred to as epigenetic silencing. In general, the factors involved in, and the mechanistic basis of, epigenetic silencing during cancer development are not well understood. We have recently described an epigenetic silencing pathway, directed by the oncogenic B-Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF) variant BRAF(V600E), that mediates widespread epigenetic silencing in colorectal cancer (CRC). Notably, the BRAF(V600E) mutation is also present in 50-70% of melanomas. Here, we show that the same pathway we identified in CRC also directs epigenetic silencing of a similar set of genes in BRAF-positive melanoma. In both CRC and melanoma, BRAF(V600E) promotes epigenetic silencing through up-regulation of v-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog G (MAFG), a transcriptional repressor with sequence-specific DNA-binding activity. The elevated concentration of MAFG drives DNA binding on the promoter. Promoter-bound MAFG recruits a set of corepressors that includes its heterodimeric partner BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 1 (BACH1), the chromatin remodeling factor chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8 (CHD8), and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B, resulting in hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing. Our results reveal a common BRAF(V600E)-directed transcriptional regulatory pathway that mediates epigenetic silencing in unrelated solid tumors and provide strong support for an instructive model of oncoprotein-directed epigenetic silencing.

Wu Q, Paul A, Su D, et al.
Structure of BRCA1-BRCT/Abraxas Complex Reveals Phosphorylation-Dependent BRCT Dimerization at DNA Damage Sites.
Mol Cell. 2016; 61(3):434-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites is an important step for its function in the DNA damage response and in DNA repair. BRCA1-BRCT domains bind to proteins containing the phosphorylated serine-proline-x-phenylalanine (pSPxF) motif including Abraxas, Bach1/FancJ, and CtIP. In this study, we demonstrate that ionizing radiation (IR)-induces ATM-dependent phosphorylation of serine 404 (S404) next to the pSPxF motif. Crystal structures of BRCT/Abraxas show that phosphorylation of S404 is important for extensive interactions through the N-terminal sequence outside the pSPxF motif and leads to formation of a stable dimer. Mutation of S404 leads to deficiency in BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites and cellular sensitivity to IR. In addition, two germline mutations of BRCA1 are found to disrupt the dimer interface and dimer formation. Thus, we demonstrate a mechanism involving IR-induced phosphorylation and dimerization of the BRCT/Abraxas complex for regulating Abraxas-mediated recruitment of BRCA1 in response to IR.

Datar I, Tegegne H, Qin K, et al.
Genetic and epigenetic control of RKIP transcription.
Crit Rev Oncog. 2014; 19(6):417-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is known to modulate key signaling cascades and regulate normal physiological processes such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The expression of RKIP is found to be downregulated in several cancer metastases and the repressed RKIP expression can be reactivated on treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. RKIP is a proven tumor metastasis suppressor gene and investigating the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of RKIP is therefore of immense clinical importance. In this review, we discuss the basal expression of RKIP in various tissues and the genetic aspects of the RKIP chromosomal locus including the structure of the RKIP promoter as well as gene regulatory elements such as enhancers. We also review the genetic and epigenetic modulation of RKIP transcription through EZH2, a component of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and sequence specific transcription factors (TFs) BACH1 and Snail. Emerging experimental evidence supports a unifying model in which both these TFs repress RKIP transcription in cancers by recruiting the EZH2 containing repressive complex to the proximal RKIP promoter. Finally, we review the known mechanisms employed by different types of chemotherapeutic agents to activate RKIP expression in cancer cells.

Dorresteijn MJ, Paine A, Zilian E, et al.
Cell-type-specific downregulation of heme oxygenase-1 by lipopolysaccharide via Bach1 in primary human mononuclear cells.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2015; 78:224-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is the inducible isoform of the heme-degrading enzyme HO, which is upregulated by multiple stress stimuli. HO-1 has major immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects via its cell-type-specific functions in mononuclear cells. Contradictory findings have been reported on HO-1 regulation by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in these cells. Therefore, we reinvestigated the effects of LPS on HO-1 gene expression in human and murine mononuclear cells in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, LPS downregulated HO-1 in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CD14(+) monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes, but upregulated this enzyme in primary murine macrophages and human monocytic leukemia cell lines. Furthermore, experiments with human CD14(+) monocytes revealed that activation of other TLRs including TLR1, -2, -5, -6, -8, and -9 decreased HO-1 mRNA expression. LPS-dependent downregulation of HO-1 was specific, because expression of cyclooxygenase-2, NADP(H)-quinone oxidoreductase-1, and peroxiredoxin-1 was increased under the same experimental conditions. Notably, LPS upregulated expression of Bach1, a critical transcriptional repressor of HO-1. Moreover, knockdown of this nuclear factor enhanced basal and LPS-dependent HO-1 expression in mononuclear cells. Finally, downregulation of HO-1 in response to LPS was confirmed in PBMCs from human individuals subjected to experimental endotoxemia. In conclusion, LPS downregulates HO-1 expression in primary human mononuclear cells via a Bach1-mediated pathway. As LPS-dependent HO-1 regulation is cell-type- and species-specific, experimental findings in cell lines and animal models need careful interpretation.

Escalera-Cueto M, Medina-Martínez I, del Angel RM, et al.
Let-7c overexpression inhibits dengue virus replication in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells.
Virus Res. 2015; 196:105-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute an important class of non-coding RNA implicated in gene expression regulation. More than 1900 miRNA molecules have been identified in humans and their modulation during viral infection and it is recognized to play a role in latency regulation or in establishing an antiviral state. The liver cells are targets during DENV infection, and alteration of liver functions contributes to severe disease. In this work the miRNAs expression profile of the human hepatoma cell line, Huh-7, infected with DENV-2 was determined using microarray and real-time PCR. Let-7c is one of the miRNAs up-regulated during DENV infection in the hepatic Huh-7 as well as in the macrophage-monocytic cell line U937-DC-SIGN. Let-7c overexpression down-regulates both DENV-2 and DENV-4 infection. Additionally, we found that the transcription factor BACH1, a let-7c target, is also down-regulated during DENV infection. In accordance with this finding, HO-1, the main responsive factor of BACH1 was found up-regulated. The up-regulation of HO-1 may contribute to the stress oxidative response in infected cells.

Fang M, Ou J, Hutchinson L, Green MR
The BRAF oncoprotein functions through the transcriptional repressor MAFG to mediate the CpG Island Methylator phenotype.
Mol Cell. 2014; 55(6):904-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Most colorectal cancers (CRCs) containing activated BRAF (BRAF[V600E]) have a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) characterized by aberrant hypermethylation of many genes, including the mismatch repair gene MLH1. MLH1 silencing results in microsatellite instability and a hypermutable phenotype. Through an RNAi screen, here we identify the transcriptional repressor MAFG as the pivotal factor required for MLH1 silencing and CIMP in CRCs containing BRAF(V600E). In BRAF-positive human CRC cell lines and tumors, MAFG is bound at the promoters of MLH1 and other CIMP genes, and recruits a corepressor complex that includes its heterodimeric partner BACH1, the chromatin remodeling factor CHD8, and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B, resulting in hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing. BRAF(V600E) increases BRAF/MEK/ERK signaling resulting in phosphorylation and elevated levels of MAFG, which drives DNA binding. Analysis of transcriptionally silenced CIMP genes in KRAS-positive CRCs indicates that different oncoproteins direct the assembly of distinct repressor complexes on common promoters.

Mehrotra M, Medeiros LJ, Luthra R, et al.
Identification of putative pathogenic microRNA and its downstream targets in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(10):1995-2005 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) are tumors of T/null-cell lineage characterized by uniform CD30 expression. The 2008 World Health Organization classification subdivided ALCLs into 2 groups: anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive (established entity) and ALK-negative (proposed new entity) ALCL. The genetic basis for the pathogenesis of newly categorized ALK- ALCL is poorly understood. In this study, we used microRNA microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed microRNAs in ALK+ and ALK- ALCL. ALK- ALCL showed significantly higher expression of miR-155 (0.888 ± 0.228) compared with ALK+ ALCL (0.0565 ± 0.009) on microarray and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in ALK- ALCL compared with ALK+ ALCL (P < .05) with a strong correlation between the 2 platforms (R = 0.9, P < .0003). A novel in situ hybridization method allows direct visualization of expression patterns and relative quantitation of miR-155 (mean score, 2.3 versus 1.3; P = .01) for the first time in tissue sections of ALCL. Among computationally predicted targets of miR-155, we identified ZNF652 (r = -0.57, P = .05), BACH1 (r = 0.88, P = .02), RBAK (r = 0.81, P = .05), TRIM32 (r = 0.92, P = .01), E2F2 (r = 0.81, P = .05), and TP53INP1 (r = -0.31, P = .03) as genes whose expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction correlated significantly with the level of miR-155 in ALCL tumor tissue.

Hefti E, Quiñones-Lombraña A, Redzematovic A, et al.
Analysis of mtDNA, miR-155 and BACH1 expression in hearts from donors with and without Down syndrome.
Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal. 2016; 27(2):896-903 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer patients with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk for anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations in hearts with-DS may contribute to anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity. Cardiac mtDNA and the mtDNA(4977) deletion were quantitated in samples with- (n = 11) and without-DS (n = 31). Samples with-DS showed 30% lower mtDNA (DS(MT-ND1/18Sratio): 1.48 ± 0.72 versus non-DS(MT-ND1/18Sratio): 2.10 ± 1.59; p = 0.647) and 30% higher frequency of the mtDNA(4977) deletion (DS(% frequency mtDNA(4977)) deletion: 0.0086 ± 0.0166 versus non-DS(% frequency mtDNA(4977)) deletion: 0.0066 ± 0.0124, p = 0.514) than samples without-DS. The BACH1 and microRNA-155 (miR-155) genes are located in chromosome 21, and their products have demonstrated roles during oxidative stress. BACH1 and miR-155 expression did not differ in hearts with- and without-DS. An association between BACH1 and miR-155 expression was detected in hearts without-DS, suggesting alterations between BACH1-miR-155 interactions in the DS settings.

Lee J, Lee J, Farquhar KS, et al.
Network of mutually repressive metastasis regulators can promote cell heterogeneity and metastatic transitions.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(3):E364-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The sources and consequences of nongenetic variability in metastatic progression are largely unknown. To address these questions, we characterized a transcriptional regulatory network for the metastasis suppressor Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP). We previously showed that the transcription factor BACH1 is negatively regulated by RKIP and promotes breast cancer metastasis. Here we demonstrate that BACH1 acts in a double-negative (overall positive) feedback loop to inhibit RKIP transcription in breast cancer cells. BACH1 also negatively regulates its own transcription. Analysis of the BACH1 network reveals the existence of an inverse relationship between BACH1 and RKIP involving both monostable and bistable transitions that can potentially give rise to nongenetic variability. Single-cell analysis confirmed monostable and bistable-like behavior. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors or depletion of the polycomb repressor enhancer of zeste homolog 2 altered relative RKIP and BACH1 levels in a manner consistent with a prometastatic state. Together, our results suggest that the mutually repressive relationship between metastatic regulators such as RKIP and BACH1 can play a key role in determining metastatic progression in cancer.

Lee U, Frankenberger C, Yun J, et al.
A prognostic gene signature for metastasis-free survival of triple negative breast cancer patients.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e82125 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) are the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer, they currently lack targeted therapies. Because this classification still includes a heterogeneous collection of tumors, new tools to classify TNBCs are urgently required in order to improve our prognostic capability for high risk patients and predict response to therapy. We previously defined a gene expression signature, RKIP Pathway Metastasis Signature (RPMS), based upon a metastasis-suppressive signaling pathway initiated by Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP). We have now generated a new BACH1 Pathway Metastasis gene signature (BPMS) that utilizes targets of the metastasis regulator BACH1. Specifically, we substituted experimentally validated target genes to generate a new BACH1 metagene, developed an approach to optimize patient tumor stratification, and reduced the number of signature genes to 30. The BPMS significantly and selectively stratified metastasis-free survival in basal-like and, in particular, TNBC patients. In addition, the BPMS further stratified patients identified as having a good or poor prognosis by other signatures including the Mammaprint® and Oncotype® clinical tests. The BPMS is thus complementary to existing signatures and is a prognostic tool for high risk ER-HER2- patients. We also demonstrate the potential clinical applicability of the BPMS as a single sample predictor. Together, these results reveal the potential of this pathway-based BPMS gene signature to identify high risk TNBC patients that can respond effectively to targeted therapy, and highlight BPMS genes as novel drug targets for therapeutic development.

Chakraborty A, Katarkar A, Chaudhuri K, et al.
Detection of a novel mutation in exon 20 of the BRCA1 gene.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2013; 18(4):631-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hereditary breast cancer constitutes 5-10% of all breast cancer cases. Inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor-suppressor genes account for the majority of hereditary breast cancer cases. The BRCA1 C-terminal region (BRCT) has a functional duplicated globular domain, which helps with DNA damage repair and cell cycle checkpoint protein control. More than 100 distinct BRCA1 missense variants with structural and functional effects have been documented within the BRCT domain. Interpreting the results of mutation screening of tumor-suppressor genes that can have high-risk susceptibility mutations is increasingly important in clinical practice. This study includes a novel mutation, p.His1746 Pro (c.5237A>C), which was found in BRCA1 exon 20 of a breast cancer patient. In silico analysis suggests that this mutation could alter the stability and orientation of the BRCT domain and the differential binding of the BACH1 substrate.

Cheng X, Ku CH, Siow RC
Regulation of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway by microRNAs: New players in micromanaging redox homeostasis.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2013; 64:4-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs are now thought to play a central role in the regulation of many diverse aspects of cell biology; however, it remains to be fully elucidated how microRNAs can orchestrate cellular redox homeostasis, which plays a central role in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological processes. The redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) serves as a "master regulator" of cell survival through the coordinated induction of phase II and antioxidant defense enzymes to counteract oxidative stress and modulate redox signaling events. MicroRNAs are able to "fine-tune" the regulation of processes including those directly interacting with the Nrf2 pathway and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This review highlights that cellular redox homeostasis can be regulated by microRNAs through their modulation of Nrf2-driven antioxidant gene expression as well as key enzymes that generate ROS, which in turn can alter the biogenesis and processing of microRNAs. Therefore redox sensitive microRNAs or "redoximiRs" add an important regulatory mechanism for redox signaling beyond the well-characterized actions of Nrf2. The potential exists for microRNA-based therapies where diminished antioxidant defenses and dysregulated redox signaling can lead to cardiovascular diseases, cancers, neurodegeneration, and accelerated aging.

Chang LC, Fan CW, Tseng WK, et al.
Immunohistochemical study of the Nrf2 pathway in colorectal cancer: Nrf2 expression is closely correlated to Keap1 in the tumor and Bach1 in the normal tissue.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2013; 21(6):511-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oxidative stress is a contributing factor in the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. The Nrf2 [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2; NFE2L2] pathway is one of the major cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. This study investigated the expression of the Nrf2 pathway in colorectal cancer. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue arrays consisting of the tumor, adjacent normal, and distant normal tissues from the resected specimens of 83 colorectal cancer patients were subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with antibodies against Nrf2, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), p21, P62, Parkinson protein 7 (Park7), prohibitin, BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1), CD34 and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). The mean IHC density of each IHC staining was digitally analyzed. The results showed that molecules of the Nrf2 pathway were actively expressed, with different expression profiles among the tumor and normal tissues. The oxidative stress, represented by the mean IHC staining density of 8-OHdG, did not differ but was correlated with the expressions of different Nrf2 pathway molecules to a varied extent in tumor and normal tissues of colorectal cancer. Keap1 [estimate, 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.19-0.79] and Bach1 (estimate, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.11-0.38) were significant predictors for the expression of 8-OHdG and had the closest proximity to Nrf2 in the cluster dendrogram of the tumor and distant normal tissues, respectively. Advanced stage (estimate, 14.9; 95% CI, 2.99-26.8) and current smoker (estimate, 15.6; 95% CI, 1.92-29.3) were significant predictors with high estimates for Bach1 in the adjacent and distant normal tissues, respectively. In colorectal cancer, the molecules of the Nrf2 pathway have different expression profiles and a difference in their importance, especially Keap1 and Bach1, related to Nrf2 and oxidative stress among tumor and normal tissues.

Niture SK, Khatri R, Jaiswal AK
Regulation of Nrf2-an update.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2014; 66:36-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nrf2:INrf2 (Keap1) are cellular sensors of oxidative and electrophilic stress. Nrf2 is a nuclear factor that controls the expression and coordinated induction of a battery of genes that encode detoxifying enzymes, drug transporters, antiapoptotic proteins, and proteasomes. In the basal state, Nrf2 is constantly degraded in the cytoplasm by its inhibitor, INrf2. INrf2 functions as an adapter for Cul3/Rbx1 E3 ubiquitin ligase-mediated degradation of Nrf2. Chemicals, including antioxidants, tocopherols including α-tocopherol (vitamin E), and phytochemicals, and radiation antagonize the Nrf2:INrf2 interaction and lead to the stabilization and activation of Nrf2. The signaling events involve preinduction, induction, and postinduction responses that tightly control Nrf2 activation and repression back to the basal state. Oxidative/electrophilic signals activate unknown tyrosine kinases in a preinduction response that phosphorylates specific residues on Nrf2 negative regulators, INrf2, Fyn, and Bach1, leading to their nuclear export, ubiquitination, and degradation. This prepares nuclei for unhindered import of Nrf2. Oxidative/electrophilic modification of INrf2 cysteine 151 followed by PKC phosphorylation of Nrf2 serine 40 in the induction response results in the escape or release of Nrf2 from INrf2. Nrf2 is thus stabilized and translocates to the nucleus, resulting in a coordinated activation of gene expression. This is followed by a postinduction response that controls the "switching off" of Nrf2-activated gene expression. GSK3β, under the control of AKT and PI3K, phosphorylates Fyn, leading to Fyn nuclear localization. Fyn phosphorylates Nrf2 Y568, resulting in nuclear export and degradation of Nrf2. The activation and repression of Nrf2 provide protection against oxidative/electrophilic stress and associated diseases, including cancer. However, deregulation of INrf2 and Nrf2 due to mutations may lead to nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 that reduces apoptosis and promotes oncogenesis and drug resistance.

Elton TS, Selemon H, Elton SM, Parinandi NL
Regulation of the MIR155 host gene in physiological and pathological processes.
Gene. 2013; 532(1):1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small nonprotein-coding RNAs, play a critical role in posttranscriptional gene regulation by acting as adaptors for the miRNA-induced silencing complex to inhibit gene expression by targeting mRNAs for translational repression and/or cleavage. miR-155-5p and miR-155-3p are processed from the B-cell Integration Cluster (BIC) gene (now designated, MIR155 host gene or MIR155HG). MiR-155-5p is highly expressed in both activated B- and T-cells and in monocytes/macrophages. MiR-155-5p is one of the best characterized miRNAs and recent data indicate that miR-155-5p plays a critical role in various physiological and pathological processes such as hematopoietic lineage differentiation, immunity, inflammation, viral infections, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Down syndrome. In this review we summarize the mechanisms by which MIR155HG expression can be regulated. Given that the pathologies mediated by miR-155-5p result from the over-expression of this miRNA it may be possible to therapeutically attenuate miR-155-5p levels in the treatment of several pathological processes.

Pabalan N, Jarjanazi H, Ozcelik H
Association between BRIP1 (BACH1) polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 137(2):553-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inconsistency of reported associations between the Pro919Ser polymorphism in the BRCA1 interacting protein 1 (BRIP1) gene and breast cancer prompted us to undertake a meta-analysis. Although investigated by fewer studies, we have also studied the risk associated with the two additional BRIP1 polymorphisms, C47G and G64A, and breast cancer riskWe conducted searches of the published literature in MEDLINE through PubMed up to October 2012. Individual data on 5,122 cases and 5,735 controls from eight published case-control studies were evaluated for the Pro919Ser polymorphism. Accordingly, C47G and G64A polymorphisms were studied in 1,539 cases and 1,183 controls, and 667 and 782, respectively.In the overall analysis, association was lacking between the Pro919Ser polymorphism and breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] 0.98-1.02), materially unchanged when confined to subjects of European ancestry (OR 0.96-1.03) or even in the high-powered studies (OR 0.97-1.03). In the menopausal subgroups, premenopausal women followed the null pattern (OR 0.94-0.98) for the Pro and Ser allele contrasts, but not for the Pro-Ser genotype comparison where significant increased risk was observed (OR 1.39, P = 0.002). The postmenopausal women (>50 years) exhibited a range of pooled effects from protection (OR 0.83, P = 0.11) in the Pro-Ser genotype to slightly increased risk (OR 1.12-1.16, P = 0.28-0.42) in the Pro and Ser allele comparisons. The G64A polymorphism effects were essentially null (OR 0.90-0.98), but C47G was found to confer non-significantly increased risk under all genetic models (OR 1.27-1.40).Upon conclusion, overall summary estimates imply no associations but suggest susceptibility among carriers of the C47G polymorphism and Pro-Ser genotype in premenopausal women. The premenopausal findings and variable outcomes in postmenopausal women require more studies for confirmation.

Litim N, Labrie Y, Desjardins S, et al.
Polymorphic variations in the FANCA gene in high-risk non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer individuals from the French Canadian population.
Mol Oncol. 2013; 7(1):85-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
The majority of genes associated with breast cancer susceptibility, including BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, are involved in DNA repair mechanisms. Moreover, among the genes recently associated with an increased susceptibility to breast cancer, four are Fanconi Anemia (FA) genes: FANCD1/BRCA2, FANCJ/BACH1/BRIP1, FANCN/PALB2 and FANCO/RAD51C. FANCA is implicated in DNA repair and has been shown to interact directly with BRCA1. It has been proposed that the formation of FANCA/G (dependent upon the phosphorylation of FANCA) and FANCB/L sub-complexes altogether with FANCM, represent the initial step for DNA repair activation and subsequent formation of other sub-complexes leading to ubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. As only approximately 25% of inherited breast cancers are attributable to BRCA1/2 mutations, FANCA therefore becomes an attractive candidate for breast cancer susceptibility. We thus analyzed FANCA gene in 97 high-risk French Canadian non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer individuals by direct sequencing as well as in 95 healthy control individuals from the same population. Among a total of 85 sequence variants found in either or both series, 28 are coding variants and 19 of them are missense variations leading to amino acid change. Three of the amino acid changes, namely Thr561Met, Cys625Ser and particularly Ser1088Phe, which has been previously reported to be associated with FA, are predicted to be damaging by the SIFT and PolyPhen softwares. cDNA amplification revealed significant expression of 4 alternative splicing events (insertion of an intronic portion of intron 10, and the skipping of exons 11, 30 and 31). In silico analyzes of relevant genomic variants have been performed in order to identify potential variations involved in the expression of these spliced transcripts. Sequence variants in FANCA could therefore be potential spoilers of the Fanconi-BRCA pathway and as a result, they could in turn have an impact in non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families.

Mori R, Yoshida K, Tanahashi T, et al.
Decreased FANCJ caused by 5FU contributes to the increased sensitivity to oxaliplatin in gastric cancer cells.
Gastric Cancer. 2013; 16(3):345-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oxaliplatin is effective against many types of cancer, and the combination of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and oxaliplatin is synergistically effective against gastric cancer, as well as colon cancer. The FANCJ protein is one of the Fanconi anemia (FA) gene products, and its interaction with the tumor suppressor BRCA1 is required for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. FANCJ also functions in interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) repair by linking to mismatch repair protein complex MLH1-PMS2 (MutLα). While oxaliplatin causes ICLs, 5FU is considered to cause DSBs. Therefore, we investigated the importance of FANCJ in the synergistic effects of oxaliplatin and 5FU in MKN45 gastric cancer cells and the derived 5FU-resistant cell line, MKN45/F2R.
METHODS: MKN1, TMK1, MKN45, and MKN45/F2R (5FU-resistant) gastric cancer cells were treated with 5FU and/or oxaliplatin. The signaling pathway was evaluated by a western blotting analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Drug resistance was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-tetrazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
RESULTS: In MKN45 cells, the combination of 5FU and oxaliplatin had synergistic effects. DSBs appeared when the cells were treated with 5FU. FANCJ was down-regulated, and BRCA1 was induced in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MKN45 cells showed increased sensitivity to oxaliplatin when FANCJ was knocked down by short interfering (si) RNA. However, these findings were not observed in MKN45/F2R 5FU-resistant cells.
CONCLUSION: These results strongly suggest that the decrease in FANCJ caused by 5FU treatment leads to an increase in sensitivity to oxaliplatin, thus indicating that the FANCJ protein plays an important role in the synergism of the combination of 5FU and oxaliplatin.

Haecker I, Gay LA, Yang Y, et al.
Ago HITS-CLIP expands understanding of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus miRNA function in primary effusion lymphomas.
PLoS Pathog. 2012; 8(8):e1002884 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
KSHV is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and a subset of multicentricCastleman's disease (MCD). The fact that KSHV-encoded miRNAs are readily detectable in all KSHV-associated tumors suggests a potential role in viral pathogenesis and tumorigenesis. MiRNA-mediated regulation of gene expression is a complex network with each miRNA having many potential targets, and to date only few KSHV miRNA targets have been experimentally determined. A detailed understanding of KSHV miRNA functions requires high-through putribonomics to globally analyze putative miRNA targets in a cell type-specific manner. We performed Ago HITS-CLIP to identify viral and cellular miRNAs and their cognate targets in two latently KSHV-infected PEL cell lines. Ago HITS-CLIP recovered 1170 and 950 cellular KSHV miRNA targets from BCBL-1 and BC-3, respectively. Importantly, enriched clusters contained KSHV miRNA seed matches in the 3'UTRs of numerous well characterized targets, among them THBS1, BACH1, and C/EBPβ. KSHV miRNA targets were strongly enriched for genes involved in multiple pathways central for KSHV biology, such as apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, lymphocyte proliferation, and immune evasion, thus further supporting a role in KSHV pathogenesis and potentially tumorigenesis. A limited number of viral transcripts were also enriched by HITS-CLIP including vIL-6 expressed only in a subset of PEL cells during latency. Interestingly, Ago HITS-CLIP revealed extremely high levels of Ago-associated KSHV miRNAs especially in BC-3 cells where more than 70% of all miRNAs are of viral origin. This suggests that in addition to seed match-specific targeting of cellular genes, KSHV miRNAs may also function by hijacking RISCs, thereby contributing to a global de-repression of cellular gene expression due to the loss of regulation by human miRNAs. In summary, we provide an extensive list of cellular and viral miRNA targets representing an important resource to decipher KSHV miRNA function.

Liang Y, Wu H, Lei R, et al.
Transcriptional network analysis identifies BACH1 as a master regulator of breast cancer bone metastasis.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(40):33533-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The application of functional genomic analysis of breast cancer metastasis has led to the identification of a growing number of organ-specific metastasis genes, which often function in concert to facilitate different steps of the metastatic cascade. However, the gene regulatory network that controls the expression of these metastasis genes remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate a computational approach for the deconvolution of transcriptional networks to discover master regulators of breast cancer bone metastasis. Several known regulators of breast cancer bone metastasis such as Smad4 and HIF1 were identified in our analysis. Experimental validation of the networks revealed BACH1, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, as the common regulator of several functional metastasis genes, including MMP1 and CXCR4. Ectopic expression of BACH1 enhanced the malignance of breast cancer cells, and conversely, BACH1 knockdown significantly reduced bone metastasis. The expression of BACH1 and its target genes was linked to the higher risk of breast cancer recurrence in patients. This study established BACH1 as the master regulator of breast cancer bone metastasis and provided a paradigm to identify molecular determinants in complex pathological processes.

Li S, Chen T, Zhong Z, et al.
microRNA-155 silencing inhibits proliferation and migration and induces apoptosis by upregulating BACH1 in renal cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2012; 5(4):949-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to explore the functional role and mechanism of miR-155 in the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). miR-155 expression was quantified in renal cancers, matched adjacent non‑tumor tissues and renal cell lines using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Cell proliferation, apoptosis and migratory activity were measured following suppression of miR-155 expression by antisense oligonucleotides. miR-155 targets were scanned using target prediction programs. Following the inhibition of miR-155, target gene expression was detected by western blotting. The expression of miR-155 was upregulated in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) tissue and renal cancer cell lines. The suppression of miR-155 inhibited cell proliferation and migratory activity and induced apoptosis in renal cancer cells. The suppressor gene suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS-1) and BACH1 were predicted as potential target genes by bioinformatics analysis. The suppression of miR-155 inhibited BACH1 protein expression. miR-155 may function as an oncogene by targeting BACH1. Thus, the inhibition of miR-155 may be an effective way to treat RCC.

Yun J, Frankenberger CA, Kuo WL, et al.
Signalling pathway for RKIP and Let-7 regulates and predicts metastatic breast cancer.
EMBO J. 2011; 30(21):4500-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumour metastasis suppressors are inhibitors of metastasis but their mechanisms of action are generally not understood. We previously showed that the suppressor Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) inhibits breast tumour metastasis in part via let-7. Here, we demonstrate an integrated approach combining statistical analysis of breast tumour gene expression data and experimental validation to extend the signalling pathway for RKIP. We show that RKIP inhibits let-7 targets (HMGA2, BACH1) that in turn upregulate bone metastasis genes (MMP1, OPN, CXCR4). Our results reveal BACH1 as a novel let-7-regulated transcription factor that induces matrix metalloproteinase1 (MMP1) expression and promotes metastasis. An RKIP pathway metastasis signature (designated RPMS) derived from the complete signalling cascade predicts high metastatic risk better than the individual genes. These results highlight a powerful approach for identifying signalling pathways downstream of a key metastasis suppressor and indicate that analysis of genes in the context of their signalling environment is critical for understanding their predictive and therapeutic potential.

Rebbeck TR, Mitra N, Domchek SM, et al.
Modification of BRCA1-Associated Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk by BRCA1-Interacting Genes.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(17):5792-805 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inherited BRCA1 mutations confer elevated cancer risk. Recent studies have identified genes that encode proteins that interact with BRCA1 as modifiers of BRCA1-associated breast cancer. We evaluated a comprehensive set of genes that encode most known BRCA1 interactors to evaluate the role of these genes as modifiers of cancer risk. A cohort of 2,825 BRCA1 mutation carriers was used to evaluate the association of haplotypes at ATM, BRCC36, BRCC45 (BRE), BRIP1 (BACH1/FANCJ), CTIP, ABRA1 (FAM175A), MERIT40, MRE11A, NBS1, PALB2 (FANCN), RAD50, RAD51, RAP80, and TOPBP1, and was associated with time to breast and ovarian cancer diagnosis. Statistically significant false discovery rate (FDR) adjusted P values for overall association of haplotypes (P(FDR)) with breast cancer were identified at ATM (P(FDR) = 0.029), BRCC45 (P(FDR) = 0.019), BRIP1 (P(FDR) = 0.008), CTIP (P(FDR) = 0.017), MERIT40 (P(FDR) = 0.019), NBS1 (P(FDR) = 0.003), RAD50 (P(FDR) = 0.014), and TOPBP1 (P(FDR) = 0.011). Haplotypes at ABRA1 (P(FDR) = 0.007), BRCC45 (P(FDR) = 0.016 and P(FDR) = 0.005 in two haplotype blocks), and RAP80 (P(FDR) < 0.001) were associated with ovarian cancer risk. Overall, the data suggest that genomic variation at multiple loci that encode proteins that interact biologically with BRCA1 are associated with modified breast cancer and ovarian cancer risk in women who carry BRCA1 mutations.

Alvarez A, Woolf PJ
RegNetB: predicting relevant regulator-gene relationships in localized prostate tumor samples.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2011; 12:243 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A central question in cancer biology is what changes cause a healthy cell to form a tumor. Gene expression data could provide insight into this question, but it is difficult to distinguish between a gene that causes a change in gene expression from a gene that is affected by this change. Furthermore, the proteins that regulate gene expression are often themselves not regulated at the transcriptional level. Here we propose a Bayesian modeling framework we term RegNetB that uses mechanistic information about the gene regulatory network to distinguish between factors that cause a change in expression and genes that are affected by the change. We test this framework using human gene expression data describing localized prostate cancer progression.
RESULTS: The top regulatory relationships identified by RegNetB include the regulation of RLN1, RLN2, by PAX4, the regulation of ACPP (PAP) by JUN, BACH1 and BACH2, and the co-regulation of PGC and GDF15 by MAZ and TAF8. These target genes are known to participate in tumor progression, but the suggested regulatory roles of PAX4, BACH1, BACH2, MAZ and TAF8 in the process is new.
CONCLUSION: Integrating gene expression data and regulatory topologies can aid in identifying potentially causal mechanisms for observed changes in gene expression.

Du ZM, Hu LF, Wang HY, et al.
Upregulation of MiR-155 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma is partly driven by LMP1 and LMP2A and downregulates a negative prognostic marker JMJD1A.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(4):e19137 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The role of microRNA-155 (miR-155) has been associated with oncogenesis of several human tumors. However the expression pattern of miR-155 has not been investigated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The present study was to assess miR-155 expression pattern and its possible function in NPC, to identify its targets and evaluate their clinical applications in NPC. MiR-155 was found to be upregulated in two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) negative NPC derived cell lines CNE1 and TW03, as well as in NPC clinical samples by quantitative Real-time PCR and in situ hybridization detection. EBV encoded LMP1 and LMP2A could further enhance the expression of miR-155 in NPC CNE1 and TW03 cells. JMJD1A and BACH1 were identified as putative targets of miR-155 in a bioinformatics screen. Overexpression of miR-155 downregulated a luciferase transcript fused to the 3'UTR of JMJD1A and BACH1. MiR-155 mimic could downregulate the expression of JMJD1A and BACH1, while miR-155 inhibitor could upregulate JMJD1A expression in NPC cell lines. Moreover, downregulation of JMJD1A was significantly correlated with N stage in TNM classification (p = 0.023), a lower five-year survival rate (p = 0.021), and a lower five-year disease-free survival rate (p = 0.049) of NPC patients. Taken together, up-regulation of miR-155 in NPC is partly driven by LMP1 and LMP2A, and results in downregulation of JMJD1A, which is associated with N stage and poor prognosis of NPC patients. The potential of miR-155 and JMJD1A as therapeutic targets in NPC should be further investigated.

Cantor SB, Guillemette S
Hereditary breast cancer and the BRCA1-associated FANCJ/BACH1/BRIP1.
Future Oncol. 2011; 7(2):253-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It is clear that FANCJ, also known as BACH1 or BRIP1, is an essential tumor suppressor gene based on the identification of clinically relevant mutations not only in breast cancer, but also the childhood cancer syndrome, Fanconi anemia. This conclusion is further supported by the direct and functional interaction between FANCJ and the hereditary breast cancer-associated gene product BRCA1. In the absence of the FANCJ DNA helicase or its interaction with BRCA1, cells have defects in several aspects of the DNA damage response. In particular, the BRCA1-FANCJ interaction is essential for promoting error-free repair, checkpoint control and for limiting DNA damage tolerance. As the number of FANCJ clinical mutations and affected patients accumulate, it will be critical to understand whether the associated tumors resemble BRCA-associated tumors. If so, FANCJ patients could also benefit from new therapies that selectively sensitize DNA repair-defective tumors and spare healthy cells. In this article, we summarize the breast cancer-associated FANCJ mutations and discuss functional outcomes for DNA repair and tumor suppression.

Rushworth SA, Bowles KM, MacEwan DJ
High basal nuclear levels of Nrf2 in acute myeloid leukemia reduces sensitivity to proteasome inhibitors.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(5):1999-2009 [PubMed] Related Publications
Proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib exhibit clinical efficacy in multiple myeloma, but studies in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have been disappointing to date. The apparent failure in AML likely reflects a lack of biological understanding that might clarify applications of proteosome inhibitors in this disease. Here we show that AML cells are considerably less sensitive than control noncancerous cells to bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity, permitting most bortezomib-treated AML cells to survive treatment. We traced reduced bortezomib sensitivity to increased basal levels of nuclear Nrf2, a transcription factor that stimulates protective antioxidant enzymes. Bortezomib stimulates cytotoxicity through accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) but elevated basal levels of nuclear Nrf2 present in AML cells reduced ROS levels, permitting AML cells to survive drug treatment. We further found that the Nrf2 transcriptional repressor Bach1 is rapidly inactivated by bortezomib, allowing rapid induction of Nrf2-regulated cytoprotective and detoxification genes that protect AML cells from bortezomib-induced apoptosis. By contrast, nonmalignant control cells lacked constitutive activation of Nrf2, such that bortezomib-mediated inactivation of Bach1 led to a delay in induction of Nrf2-regulated genes, effectively preventing the manifestation of apoptotic protection that is seen in AML cells. Together, our findings argue that AML might be rendered sensitive to proteasome inhibitors by cotreatment with either an Nrf2-inhibitory or Bach1-inhibitory treatment, rationalizing a targeted therapy against AML.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. BACH1, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/BACH1.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 13 March, 2017     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999