BRIP1; BRCA1 interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1
OF, BACH1, FANCJ
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RecQ DEAH helicase family and interacts with the BRCT repeats of breast cancer, type 1 (BRCA1). The bound complex is important in the normal double-strand break repair function of breast cancer, type 1 (BRCA1). This gene may be a target of germline cancer-inducing mutations. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Ramanagoudr-Bhojappa R, Carrington B, Ramaswami M, et al. Multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of 19 Fanconi anemia pathway genes in zebrafish revealed their roles in growth, sexual development and fertility. PLoS Genet. 2018; 14(12):e1007821 [PubMed] Free Access to Full ArticleRelated Publications
Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a genomic instability syndrome resulting in aplastic anemia, developmental abnormalities, and predisposition to hematological and other solid organ malignancies. Mutations in genes that encode proteins of the FA pathway fail to orchestrate the repair of DNA damage caused by DNA interstrand crosslinks. Zebrafish harbor homologs for nearly all known FA genes. We used multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis to generate loss-of-function mutants for 17 FA genes: fanca, fancb, fancc, fancd1/brca2, fancd2, fance, fancf, fancg, fanci, fancj/brip1, fancl, fancm, fancn/palb2, fanco/rad51c, fancp/slx4, fancq/ercc4, fanct/ube2t, and two genes encoding FA-associated proteins: faap100 and faap24. We selected two indel mutations predicted to cause premature truncations for all but two of the genes, and a total of 36 mutant lines were generated for 19 genes. Generating two independent mutant lines for each gene was important to validate their phenotypic consequences. RT-PCR from homozygous mutant fish confirmed the presence of transcripts with indels in all genes. Interestingly, 4 of the indel mutations led to aberrant splicing, which may produce a different protein than predicted from the genomic sequence. Analysis of RNA is thus critical in proper evaluation of the consequences of the mutations introduced in zebrafish genome. We used fluorescent reporter assay, and western blots to confirm loss-of-function for several mutants. Additionally, we developed a DEB treatment assay by evaluating morphological changes in embryos and confirmed that homozygous mutants from all the FA genes that could be tested (11/17), displayed hypersensitivity and thus were indeed null alleles. Our multiplexing strategy helped us to evaluate 11 multiple gene knockout combinations without additional breeding. Homozygous zebrafish for all 19 single and 11 multi-gene knockouts were adult viable, indicating FA genes in zebrafish are generally not essential for early development. None of the mutant fish displayed gross developmental abnormalities except for fancp-/- fish, which were significantly smaller in length than their wildtype clutch mates. Complete female-to-male sex reversal was observed in knockouts for 12/17 FA genes, while partial sex reversal was seen for the other five gene knockouts. All adult females were fertile, and among the adult males, all were fertile except for the fancd1 mutants and one of the fancj mutants. We report here generation and characterization of zebrafish knockout mutants for 17 FA disease-causing genes, providing an integral resource for understanding the pathophysiology associated with the disrupted FA pathway.
The XPD family of helicases, that includes human disease-related FANCJ, DDX11 and RTEL1, are Superfamily two helicases that contain an iron-sulphur cluster domain, translocate on ssDNA in a 5'-3' direction and play important roles in genome stability. Consequently, mutations in several of these family members in eukaryotes cause human diseases. Family members in bacteria, such as the DinG helicase from
The FANCJ DNA helicase is linked to hereditary breast and ovarian cancers as well as bone marrow failure disorder Fanconi anemia (FA). Although FANCJ has been implicated in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination (HR), the molecular mechanism underlying the tumor suppressor functions of FANCJ remains obscure. Here, we demonstrate that FANCJ deficient human and hamster cells exhibit reduction in the overall gene conversions in response to a site-specific chromosomal DSB induced by I-SceI endonuclease. Strikingly, the gene conversion events were biased in favour of long-tract gene conversions in FANCJ depleted cells. The fine regulation of short- (STGC) and long-tract gene conversions (LTGC) by FANCJ was dependent on its interaction with BRCA1 tumor suppressor. Notably, helicase activity of FANCJ was essential for controlling the overall HR and in terminating the extended repair synthesis during sister chromatid recombination (SCR). Moreover, cells expressing FANCJ pathological mutants exhibited defective SCR with an increased frequency of LTGC. These data unravel the novel function of FANCJ helicase in regulating SCR and SCR associated gene amplification/duplications and imply that these functions of FANCJ are crucial for the genome maintenance and tumor suppression.
Türke C, Horn S, Petto C, et al. Loss of heterozygosity in FANCG, FANCF and BRIP1 from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Int J Oncol. 2017; 50(6):2207-2220 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent advances have been made in the understanding of Fanconi anemia (FA), a hereditary disease that increases the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) by 500- to 700-fold. FA patients harbour germline mutations in genes of cellular DNA repair pathways that are assumed to facilitate the accumulation of mutations during HNSCC development. Mutations in these FA genes may also contribute to HNSCC in general. In the present study, we analysed three FA genes; FANCF, FANCG and BRIP1, that are involved in the repair of DNA inter strand cross-links, in HNSCC and their potential role for patient survival. We measured loss of heterozygosity (LOH) mutations at eight microsatellite loci flanking three FA genes in 54 HNSCC of the oral cavity and corresponding blood samples. Survival analyses were carried out using mutational data and clinical variables. LOH was present in 17% (FANCF region), 41% (FANCG region) and 11% (BRIP1 region) of the patients. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank tests indicated strong clinical predictors (lymph node stages with decreased survival: p=2.69e-12; surgery with improved survival: p=0.0005). LOH in the FANCF region showed a weaker association with decreased overall survival (p=0.006), which however, did not hold in multivariate analyses. LOH may predominantly indicate copy number gains in FANCF and losses in FANCG and BRIP1. Integration of copy number data and gene expression proved difficult as the available sample sets did not overlap. In conclusion, LOH in FA genes appears to be a common feature of HNSCC development seen here in 57% of patients and other mutation types may increase this mutation frequency. We suggest larger patient cohorts would be needed to test the observed association of LOH in FANCF and patient survival comprehensively.
Gueddouda NM, Mendoza O, Gomez D, et al. G-quadruplexes unfolding by RHAU helicase. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017; 1861(5 Pt B):1382-1388 [PubMed] Related Publications
G-quadruplexes (G4) are RNA and DNA secondary structures formed by the stacking of guanine quartets in guanine rich sequences. Quadruplex-prone motifs may be found in key genomic regions such as telomeres, ribosomal DNA, transcriptional activators and regulators or oncogene promoters. A number of proteins involved in various biological processes are able to interact with G4s. Among them, proteins dedicated to nucleic acids unwinding such as WRN, BLM, FANCJ or PIF1, can unfold G4 structures. Mutations of these helicases are linked to genome instability and to increases in cancer risks. Here, we present a high-throughput fluorescence-based reliable, inexpensive and fast assay to study G4/RHAU interaction. RHAU is an RNA helicase known as the major source of G4 resolution in HeLa cells. Our assay allows to monitor the unfolding properties of RHAU towards DNA and RNA quadruplexes in parallel and to screen for the optimal conditions for its activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "G-quadruplex" Guest Editor: Dr. Concetta Giancola and Dr. Daniela Montesarchio.
Cancer cells rely on the activation of telomerase or the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathways for telomere maintenance and survival. ALT involves homologous recombination (HR)-dependent exchange and/or HR-associated synthesis of telomeric DNA. Utilizing proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID), we sought to determine the proteome of telomeres in cancer cells that employ these distinct telomere elongation mechanisms. Our analysis reveals that multiple DNA repair networks converge at ALT telomeres. These include the specialized translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) proteins FANCJ-RAD18-PCNA and, most notably, DNA polymerase eta (Polη). We observe that the depletion of Polη leads to increased ALT activity and late DNA polymerase δ (Polδ)-dependent synthesis of telomeric DNA in mitosis. We propose that Polη fulfills an important role in managing replicative stress at ALT telomeres, maintaining telomere recombination at tolerable levels and stimulating DNA synthesis by Polδ.
The breast and ovarian cancer predisposition protein BRCA1 forms three mutually exclusive complexes with Fanconi anemia group J protein (FANCJ, also called BACH1 or BRIP1), CtIP, and Abraxas/RAP80 through its BRCA1 C terminus (BRCT) domains, while its RING domain binds to BRCA1-associated RING domain 1 (BARD1). We recently found that the interaction between heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) and BARD1 is required for the accumulation of BRCA1 and CtIP at sites of DNA double-strand breaks. Here, we investigated the importance of HP1 and BARD1-HP1 interaction in the localization of FANCJ together with the other BRCA1-BRCT binding proteins to clarify the separate role of the HP1-mediated pathway from the RNF8/RNF168-induced ubiquitin-mediated pathway for BRCA1 function. FANCJ interacts with HP1γ in a BARD1-dependent manner, and this interaction was enhanced by ionizing radiation or irinotecan hydrochloride treatment. Simultaneous depletion of all three HP1 isoforms with shRNAs disrupts the accumulation of FANCJ and CtIP, but not RAP80, at double-strand break sites. Replacement of endogenous BARD1 with a mutant BARD1 that is incapable of binding to HP1 also disrupts the accumulation of FANCJ and CtIP, but not RAP80. In contrast, RNF168 depletion disrupts the accumulation of only RAP80, but not FANCJ or CtIP. Consequently, the accumulation of conjugated ubiquitin was only inhibited by RNF168 depletion, whereas the accumulation of RAD51 and sister chromatid exchange were only inhibited by HP1 depletion or disruption of the BARD1-HP1 interaction. Taken together, the results suggest that the BRCA1-FANCJ and BRCA1-CtIP complexes are not downstream of the RNF8/RNF168/ubiquitin pathway, but are instead regulated by the HP1 pathway that precedes homologous recombination DNA repair.
Guanine rich nucleic acid sequences can form G-quadruplex (G4) structures that interfere with DNA replication, repair and RNA transcription. The human FANCJ helicase contributes to maintaining genomic integrity by promoting DNA replication through G4-forming DNA regions. Here, we combined single-molecule and ensemble biochemical analysis to show that FANCJ possesses a G4-specific recognition site. Through this interaction, FANCJ targets G4-containing DNA where its helicase and G4-binding activities enable repeated rounds of stepwise G4-unfolding and refolding. In contrast to other G4-remodeling enzymes, FANCJ partially stabilizes the G-quadruplex. This would preserve the substrate for the REV1 translesion DNA synthesis polymerase to incorporate cytosine across from a replication-stalling G-quadruplex. The residues responsible for G-quadruplex recognition also participate in interaction with MLH1 mismatch-repair protein, suggesting that the FANCJ activity supporting replication and its participation in DNA interstrand crosslink repair and/or heteroduplex rejection are mutually exclusive. Our findings not only describe the mechanism by which FANCJ recognizes G-quadruplexes and mediates their stepwise unfolding, but also explain how FANCJ chooses between supporting DNA repair versus promoting DNA replication through G-rich sequences.
Microsatellite DNAs that form non-B structures are implicated in replication fork stalling, DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and human disease. Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited disorder in which mutations in at least nineteen genes are responsible for the phenotypes of genome instability and cancer predisposition. FA pathway proteins are active in the resolution of non-B DNA structures including interstrand crosslinks, G quadruplexes and DNA triplexes. In FANCJ helicase depleted cells, we show that hydroxyurea or aphidicolin treatment leads to loss of microsatellite polymerase chain reaction signals and to chromosome recombination at an ectopic hairpin forming CTG/CAG repeat in the HeLa genome. Moreover, diverse endogenous microsatellite signals were also lost upon replication stress after FANCJ depletion, and in FANCJ null patient cells. The phenotype of microsatellite signal instability is specific for FANCJ apart from the intact FA pathway, and is consistent with DSBs at microsatellites genome-wide in FANCJ depleted cells following replication stress.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common neoplasms in the world. Fanconi anemia (FA) is a very rare genetic disease causing bone marrow failure, congenital growth abnormalities and cancer predisposition. The comprehensive FA DNA damage repair pathway requires the collaboration of 53 proteins and it is necessary to restore genome integrity by efficiently repairing damaged DNA. A link between FA genes in breast and ovarian cancer germline predisposition has been previously suggested. We selected 74 CRC patients from 40 unrelated Spanish families with strong CRC aggregation compatible with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and without mutations in known hereditary CRC genes and performed germline DNA whole-exome sequencing with the aim of finding new candidate germline predisposition variants. After sequencing and data analysis, variant prioritization selected only those very rare alterations, producing a putative loss of function and located in genes with a role compatible with cancer. We detected an enrichment for variants in FA DNA damage repair pathway genes in our familial CRC cohort as 6 families carried heterozygous, rare, potentially pathogenic variants located in BRCA2/FANCD1, BRIP1/FANCJ, FANCC, FANCE and REV3L/POLZ. In conclusion, the FA DNA damage repair pathway may play an important role in the inherited predisposition to CRC.
Guo M, Vidhyasagar V, Talwar T, et al. Mutational analysis of FANCJ helicase. Methods. 2016; 108:118-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
FANCJ is a superfamily 2 DNA helicase, which also belongs to the iron-sulfur domain containing helicases that include XPD, ChlR1 (DDX11), and RTEL1. Mutations in FANCJ are genetically linked to Fanconi anemia (FA), breast cancer, and ovarian cancer. FANCJ plays a critical role in genome stability and participates in DNA interstrand crosslink and double-strand break repair. Enormous sequence alterations in exons and introns of FANCJ have been identified in patients, including 15 mutations in the coding region which are linked to breast cancer, 12 to FA, and two to ovarian cancer. We and other groups have characterized several FANCJ missense mutations, including M299I, A349P, R251C, and Q255H. As an increasing number of clinically relevant FANCJ mutations are identified, understanding the mechanism whereby FANCJ mutation leads to diseases is critical. Mutational analysis of FANCJ will help us elucidate the pathogenesis and potentially lead to therapeutic strategies by targeting FANCJ.
Ghazwani Y, AlBalwi M, Al-Abdulkareem I, et al. Clinical characteristics and genetic subtypes of Fanconi anemia in Saudi patients. Cancer Genet. 2016; 209(4):171-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We reviewed our institutional experience from 2011 to 2015 on new cases of Fanconi anemia (FA). Ten unrelated cases were diagnosed during this period. Four patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) had c.2392C > T (p.Arg798*) BRIP1/FANCJ mutation. Another child with SAA had novel c.1475T > C (p.Leu492Pro) FANCC mutation. One individual with SAA and acute myeloid leukemia had c.637_643del (p.Tyr213Lysfs*6) FANCG mutation. Three patients presented with early onset of cancer, two had BRCA2 mutation c.7007G > A (p.Arg2336His) and one had a novel c.3425del (p.Leu1142Tyrfs*21) PALB2 mutation. Another infant with c.3425del PALB2 mutation had clonal aberration with partial trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 17. Mutations in FA downstream pathway genes are more frequent in our series than expected. Our preliminary observation will be confirmed in a large multi-institutional study.
BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites is an important step for its function in the DNA damage response and in DNA repair. BRCA1-BRCT domains bind to proteins containing the phosphorylated serine-proline-x-phenylalanine (pSPxF) motif including Abraxas, Bach1/FancJ, and CtIP. In this study, we demonstrate that ionizing radiation (IR)-induces ATM-dependent phosphorylation of serine 404 (S404) next to the pSPxF motif. Crystal structures of BRCT/Abraxas show that phosphorylation of S404 is important for extensive interactions through the N-terminal sequence outside the pSPxF motif and leads to formation of a stable dimer. Mutation of S404 leads to deficiency in BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites and cellular sensitivity to IR. In addition, two germline mutations of BRCA1 are found to disrupt the dimer interface and dimer formation. Thus, we demonstrate a mechanism involving IR-induced phosphorylation and dimerization of the BRCT/Abraxas complex for regulating Abraxas-mediated recruitment of BRCA1 in response to IR.
Microsatellites are short tandem repeat sequences that are highly prone to expansion/contraction due to their propensity to form non-B-form DNA structures, which hinder DNA polymerases and provoke template slippage. Although error correction by mismatch repair plays a key role in preventing microsatellite instability (MSI), which is a hallmark of Lynch syndrome, activities must also exist that unwind secondary structures to facilitate replication fidelity. Here, we report that Fancj helicase-deficient mice, while phenotypically resembling Fanconi anemia (FA), are also hypersensitive to replication inhibitors and predisposed to lymphoma. Whereas metabolism of G4-DNA structures is largely unaffected in Fancj(-/-) mice, high levels of spontaneous MSI occur, which is exacerbated by replication inhibition. In contrast, MSI is not observed in Fancd2(-/-) mice but is prevalent in human FA-J patients. Together, these data implicate FANCJ as a key factor required to counteract MSI, which is functionally distinct from its role in the FA pathway.
Helicases are molecular motors that couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to the unwinding of structured DNA or RNA and chromatin remodeling. The conversion of energy derived from ATP hydrolysis into unwinding and remodeling is coordinated by seven sequence motifs (I, Ia, II, III, IV, V, and VI). The Q motif, consisting of nine amino acids (GFXXPXPIQ) with an invariant glutamine (Q) residue, has been identified in some, but not all helicases. Compared to the seven well-recognized conserved helicase motifs, the role of the Q motif is less acknowledged. Mutations in the human ChlR1 (DDX11) gene are associated with a unique genetic disorder known as Warsaw Breakage Syndrome, which is characterized by cellular defects in genome maintenance. To examine the roles of the Q motif in ChlR1 helicase, we performed site directed mutagenesis of glutamine to alanine at residue 23 in the Q motif of ChlR1. ChlR1 recombinant protein was overexpressed and purified from HEK293T cells. ChlR1-Q23A mutant abolished the helicase activity of ChlR1 and displayed reduced DNA binding ability. The mutant showed impaired ATPase activity but normal ATP binding. A thermal shift assay revealed that ChlR1-Q23A has a melting point value similar to ChlR1-WT. Partial proteolysis mapping demonstrated that ChlR1-WT and Q23A have a similar globular structure, although some subtle conformational differences in these two proteins are evident. Finally, we found ChlR1 exists and functions as a monomer in solution, which is different from FANCJ, in which the Q motif is involved in protein dimerization. Taken together, our results suggest that the Q motif is involved in DNA binding but not ATP binding in ChlR1 helicase.
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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. BRIP1, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/BRIP1.htm Accessed: