Gene Summary

Gene:BRIP1; BRCA1 interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1
Aliases: OF, BACH1, FANCJ
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RecQ DEAH helicase family and interacts with the BRCT repeats of breast cancer, type 1 (BRCA1). The bound complex is important in the normal double-strand break repair function of breast cancer, type 1 (BRCA1). This gene may be a target of germline cancer-inducing mutations. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:Fanconi anemia group J protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • BRIP1
  • Chromosome 17
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • Genotype
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • DNA Repair
  • X Chromosome Inactivation
  • Polymorphism
  • BRCA2
  • Pedigree
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • BRCA1 Protein
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • Genetic Testing
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Missense Mutation
  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • CHEK2
  • Signal Transduction
  • Risk Assessment
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • BRCA1
  • Fanconi Anaemia
  • Mutation
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Young Adult
  • BRCA2 Protein
  • Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group Proteins
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Fanconi Anemia - Complementation Group J

Latest Publications

Wu W, Togashi Y, Johmura Y, et al.
HP1 regulates the localization of FANCJ at sites of DNA double-strand breaks.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(10):1406-1415 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The breast and ovarian cancer predisposition protein BRCA1 forms three mutually exclusive complexes with Fanconi anemia group J protein (FANCJ, also called BACH1 or BRIP1), CtIP, and Abraxas/RAP80 through its BRCA1 C terminus (BRCT) domains, while its RING domain binds to BRCA1-associated RING domain 1 (BARD1). We recently found that the interaction between heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) and BARD1 is required for the accumulation of BRCA1 and CtIP at sites of DNA double-strand breaks. Here, we investigated the importance of HP1 and BARD1-HP1 interaction in the localization of FANCJ together with the other BRCA1-BRCT binding proteins to clarify the separate role of the HP1-mediated pathway from the RNF8/RNF168-induced ubiquitin-mediated pathway for BRCA1 function. FANCJ interacts with HP1γ in a BARD1-dependent manner, and this interaction was enhanced by ionizing radiation or irinotecan hydrochloride treatment. Simultaneous depletion of all three HP1 isoforms with shRNAs disrupts the accumulation of FANCJ and CtIP, but not RAP80, at double-strand break sites. Replacement of endogenous BARD1 with a mutant BARD1 that is incapable of binding to HP1 also disrupts the accumulation of FANCJ and CtIP, but not RAP80. In contrast, RNF168 depletion disrupts the accumulation of only RAP80, but not FANCJ or CtIP. Consequently, the accumulation of conjugated ubiquitin was only inhibited by RNF168 depletion, whereas the accumulation of RAD51 and sister chromatid exchange were only inhibited by HP1 depletion or disruption of the BARD1-HP1 interaction. Taken together, the results suggest that the BRCA1-FANCJ and BRCA1-CtIP complexes are not downstream of the RNF8/RNF168/ubiquitin pathway, but are instead regulated by the HP1 pathway that precedes homologous recombination DNA repair.

Ghazwani Y, AlBalwi M, Al-Abdulkareem I, et al.
Clinical characteristics and genetic subtypes of Fanconi anemia in Saudi patients.
Cancer Genet. 2016; 209(4):171-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We reviewed our institutional experience from 2011 to 2015 on new cases of Fanconi anemia (FA). Ten unrelated cases were diagnosed during this period. Four patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) had c.2392C > T (p.Arg798*) BRIP1/FANCJ mutation. Another child with SAA had novel c.1475T > C (p.Leu492Pro) FANCC mutation. One individual with SAA and acute myeloid leukemia had c.637_643del (p.Tyr213Lysfs*6) FANCG mutation. Three patients presented with early onset of cancer, two had BRCA2 mutation c.7007G > A (p.Arg2336His) and one had a novel c.3425del (p.Leu1142Tyrfs*21) PALB2 mutation. Another infant with c.3425del PALB2 mutation had clonal aberration with partial trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 17. Mutations in FA downstream pathway genes are more frequent in our series than expected. Our preliminary observation will be confirmed in a large multi-institutional study.

Wu Q, Paul A, Su D, et al.
Structure of BRCA1-BRCT/Abraxas Complex Reveals Phosphorylation-Dependent BRCT Dimerization at DNA Damage Sites.
Mol Cell. 2016; 61(3):434-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites is an important step for its function in the DNA damage response and in DNA repair. BRCA1-BRCT domains bind to proteins containing the phosphorylated serine-proline-x-phenylalanine (pSPxF) motif including Abraxas, Bach1/FancJ, and CtIP. In this study, we demonstrate that ionizing radiation (IR)-induces ATM-dependent phosphorylation of serine 404 (S404) next to the pSPxF motif. Crystal structures of BRCT/Abraxas show that phosphorylation of S404 is important for extensive interactions through the N-terminal sequence outside the pSPxF motif and leads to formation of a stable dimer. Mutation of S404 leads to deficiency in BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites and cellular sensitivity to IR. In addition, two germline mutations of BRCA1 are found to disrupt the dimer interface and dimer formation. Thus, we demonstrate a mechanism involving IR-induced phosphorylation and dimerization of the BRCT/Abraxas complex for regulating Abraxas-mediated recruitment of BRCA1 in response to IR.

Matsuzaki K, Borel V, Adelman CA, et al.
FANCJ suppresses microsatellite instability and lymphomagenesis independent of the Fanconi anemia pathway.
Genes Dev. 2015; 29(24):2532-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Microsatellites are short tandem repeat sequences that are highly prone to expansion/contraction due to their propensity to form non-B-form DNA structures, which hinder DNA polymerases and provoke template slippage. Although error correction by mismatch repair plays a key role in preventing microsatellite instability (MSI), which is a hallmark of Lynch syndrome, activities must also exist that unwind secondary structures to facilitate replication fidelity. Here, we report that Fancj helicase-deficient mice, while phenotypically resembling Fanconi anemia (FA), are also hypersensitive to replication inhibitors and predisposed to lymphoma. Whereas metabolism of G4-DNA structures is largely unaffected in Fancj(-/-) mice, high levels of spontaneous MSI occur, which is exacerbated by replication inhibition. In contrast, MSI is not observed in Fancd2(-/-) mice but is prevalent in human FA-J patients. Together, these data implicate FANCJ as a key factor required to counteract MSI, which is functionally distinct from its role in the FA pathway.

Ding H, Guo M, Vidhyasagar V, et al.
The Q Motif Is Involved in DNA Binding but Not ATP Binding in ChlR1 Helicase.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0140755 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Helicases are molecular motors that couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to the unwinding of structured DNA or RNA and chromatin remodeling. The conversion of energy derived from ATP hydrolysis into unwinding and remodeling is coordinated by seven sequence motifs (I, Ia, II, III, IV, V, and VI). The Q motif, consisting of nine amino acids (GFXXPXPIQ) with an invariant glutamine (Q) residue, has been identified in some, but not all helicases. Compared to the seven well-recognized conserved helicase motifs, the role of the Q motif is less acknowledged. Mutations in the human ChlR1 (DDX11) gene are associated with a unique genetic disorder known as Warsaw Breakage Syndrome, which is characterized by cellular defects in genome maintenance. To examine the roles of the Q motif in ChlR1 helicase, we performed site directed mutagenesis of glutamine to alanine at residue 23 in the Q motif of ChlR1. ChlR1 recombinant protein was overexpressed and purified from HEK293T cells. ChlR1-Q23A mutant abolished the helicase activity of ChlR1 and displayed reduced DNA binding ability. The mutant showed impaired ATPase activity but normal ATP binding. A thermal shift assay revealed that ChlR1-Q23A has a melting point value similar to ChlR1-WT. Partial proteolysis mapping demonstrated that ChlR1-WT and Q23A have a similar globular structure, although some subtle conformational differences in these two proteins are evident. Finally, we found ChlR1 exists and functions as a monomer in solution, which is different from FANCJ, in which the Q motif is involved in protein dimerization. Taken together, our results suggest that the Q motif is involved in DNA binding but not ATP binding in ChlR1 helicase.

Clark DW, Tripathi K, Dorsman JC, Palle K
FANCJ protein is important for the stability of FANCD2/FANCI proteins and protects them from proteasome and caspase-3 dependent degradation.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(30):28816-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genome instability syndrome with progressive bone marrow failure and cancer susceptibility. FANCJ is one of 17 genes mutated in FA-patients, comprises a DNA helicase that is vital for properly maintaining genomic stability and is known to function in the FA-BRCA DNA repair pathway. While exact role(s) of FANCJ in this repair process is yet to be determined, it is known to interact with primary effector FANCD2. However, FANCJ is not required for FANCD2 activation but is important for its ability to fully respond to DNA damage. In this report, we determined that transient depletion of FANCJ adversely affects stability of FANCD2 and its co-regulator FANCI in multiple cell lines. Loss of FANCJ does not significantly alter cell cycle progression or FANCD2 transcription. However, in the absence of FANCJ, the majority of FANCD2 is degraded by both the proteasome and Caspase-3 dependent mechanism. FANCJ is capable of complexing with and stabilizing FANCD2 even in the absence of a functional helicase domain. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that FANCJ is important for FANCD2 stability and proper activation of DNA damage responses to replication blocks induced by hydroxyurea.

Takata K, Tomida J, Reh S, et al.
Conserved overlapping gene arrangement, restricted expression, and biochemical activities of DNA polymerase ν (POLN).
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(40):24278-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA polymerase ν (POLN) is one of 16 DNA polymerases encoded in vertebrate genomes. It is important to determine its gene expression patterns, biological roles, and biochemical activities. By quantitative analysis of mRNA expression, we found that POLN from the zebrafish Danio rerio is expressed predominantly in testis. POLN is not detectably expressed in zebrafish embryos or in mouse embryonic stem cells. Consistent with this, injection of POLN-specific morpholino antisense oligonucleotides did not interfere with zebrafish embryonic development. Analysis of transcripts revealed that vertebrate POLN has an unusual gene expression arrangement, sharing a first exon with HAUS3, the gene encoding augmin-like complex subunit 3. HAUS3 is broadly expressed in embryonic and adult tissues, in contrast to POLN. Differential expression of POLN and HAUS3 appears to arise by alternate splicing of transcripts in mammalian cells and zebrafish. When POLN was ectopically overexpressed in human cells, it specifically coimmunoprecipitated with the homologous recombination factors BRCA1 and FANCJ, but not with previously suggested interaction partners (HELQ and members of the Fanconi anemia core complex). Purified zebrafish POLN protein is capable of thymine glycol bypass and strand displacement, with activity dependent on a basic amino acid residue known to stabilize the primer-template. These properties are conserved with the human enzyme. Although the physiological function of pol ν remains to be clarified, this study uncovers distinctive aspects of its expression control and evolutionarily conserved properties of this DNA polymerase.

Bogliolo M, Surrallés J
Fanconi anemia: a model disease for studies on human genetics and advanced therapeutics.
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2015; 33:32-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by bone marrow failure, malformations, and chromosome fragility. We review the recent discovery of FA genes and efforts to develop genetic therapies for FA in the last five years. Because current data exclude FANCM as an FA gene, 15 genes remain bona fide FA genes and three (FANCO, FANCR and FANCS) cause an FA like syndrome. Monoallelic mutations in 6 FA associated genes (FANCD1, FANCJ, FANCM, FANCN, FANCO and FANCS) predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. The products of all these genes are involved in the repair of stalled DNA replication forks by unhooking DNA interstrand cross-links and promoting homologous recombination. The genetic characterization of patients with FA is essential for developing therapies, including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a savior sibling donor after embryo selection, gene therapy, or genome editing using genetic recombination or engineered nucleases. Newly acquired knowledge about FA promises to provide therapeutic strategies in the near future.

Xu Y, Wu X, Her C
hMSH5 Facilitates the Repair of Camptothecin-induced Double-strand Breaks through an Interaction with FANCJ.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(30):18545-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Replication stress from stalled or collapsed replication forks is a major challenge to genomic integrity. The anticancer agent camptothecin (CPT) is a DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor that causes fork collapse and double-strand breaks amid DNA replication. Here we report that hMSH5 promotes cell survival in response to CPT-induced DNA damage. Cells deficient in hMSH5 show elevated CPT-induced γ-H2AX and RPA2 foci with concomitant reduction of Rad51 foci, indicative of impaired homologous recombination. In addition, CPT-treated hMSH5-deficient cells exhibit aberrant activation of Chk1 and Chk2 kinases and therefore abnormal cell cycle progression. Furthermore, the hMSH5-FANCJ chromatin recruitment underlies the effects of hMSH5 on homologous recombination and Chk1 activation. Intriguingly, FANCJ depletion desensitizes hMSH5-deficient cells to CPT-elicited cell killing. Collectively, our data point to the existence of a functional interplay between hMSH5 and FANCJ in double-strand break repair induced by replication stress.

Aarts M, Bajrami I, Herrera-Abreu MT, et al.
Functional Genetic Screen Identifies Increased Sensitivity to WEE1 Inhibition in Cells with Defects in Fanconi Anemia and HR Pathways.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2015; 14(4):865-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
WEE1 kinase regulates CDK1 and CDK2 activity to facilitate DNA replication during S-phase and to prevent unscheduled entry into mitosis. WEE1 inhibitors synergize with DNA-damaging agents that arrest cells in S-phase by triggering direct mitotic entry without completing DNA synthesis, resulting in catastrophic chromosome fragmentation and apoptosis. Here, we investigated how WEE1 inhibition could be best exploited for cancer therapy by performing a functional genetic screen to identify novel determinants of sensitivity to WEE1 inhibition. Inhibition of kinases that regulate CDK activity, CHK1 and MYT1, synergized with WEE1 inhibition through both increased replication stress and forced mitotic entry of S-phase cells. Loss of multiple components of the Fanconi anemia (FA) and homologous recombination (HR) pathways, in particular DNA helicases, sensitized to WEE1 inhibition. Silencing of FA/HR genes resulted in excessive replication stress and nucleotide depletion following WEE1 inhibition, which ultimately led to increased unscheduled mitotic entry. Our results suggest that cancers with defects in FA and HR pathways may be targeted by WEE1 inhibition, providing a basis for a novel synthetic lethal strategy for cancers harboring FA/HR defects.

Raghunandan M, Chaudhury I, Kelich SL, et al.
FANCD2, FANCJ and BRCA2 cooperate to promote replication fork recovery independently of the Fanconi Anemia core complex.
Cell Cycle. 2015; 14(3):342-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fanconi Anemia (FA) is an inherited multi-gene cancer predisposition syndrome that is characterized on the cellular level by a hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). To repair these lesions, the FA pathway proteins are thought to act in a linear hierarchy: Following ICL detection, an upstream FA core complex monoubiquitinates the central FA pathway members FANCD2 and FANCI, followed by their recruitment to chromatin. Chromatin-bound monoubiquitinated FANCD2 and FANCI subsequently coordinate DNA repair factors including the downstream FA pathway members FANCJ and FANCD1/BRCA2 to repair the DNA ICL. Importantly, we recently showed that FANCD2 has additional independent roles: it binds chromatin and acts in concert with the BLM helicase complex to promote the restart of aphidicolin (APH)-stalled replication forks, while suppressing the firing of new replication origins. Here, we show that FANCD2 fulfills these roles independently of the FA core complex-mediated monoubiquitination step. Following APH treatment, nonubiquitinated FANCD2 accumulates on chromatin, recruits the BLM complex, and promotes robust replication fork recovery regardless of the absence or presence of a functional FA core complex. In contrast, the downstream FA pathway members FANCJ and BRCA2 share FANCD2's role in replication fork restart and the suppression of new origin firing. Our results support a non-linear FA pathway model at stalled replication forks, where the nonubiquitinated FANCD2 isoform - in concert with FANCJ and BRCA2 - fulfills a specific function in promoting efficient replication fork recovery independently of the FA core complex.

Guo M, Hundseth K, Ding H, et al.
A distinct triplex DNA unwinding activity of ChlR1 helicase.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(8):5174-89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutations in the human ChlR1 (DDX11) gene are associated with a unique genetic disorder known as Warsaw breakage syndrome characterized by cellular defects in genome maintenance. The DNA triplex helix structures that form by Hoogsteen or reverse Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding are examples of alternate DNA structures that can be a source of genomic instability. In this study, we have examined the ability of human ChlR1 helicase to destabilize DNA triplexes. Biochemical studies demonstrated that ChlR1 efficiently melted both intermolecular and intramolecular DNA triplex substrates in an ATP-dependent manner. Compared with other substrates such as replication fork and G-quadruplex DNA, triplex DNA was a preferred substrate for ChlR1. Also, compared with FANCJ, a helicase of the same family, the triplex resolving activity of ChlR1 is unique. On the other hand, the mutant protein from a Warsaw breakage syndrome patient failed to unwind these triplexes. A previously characterized triplex DNA-specific antibody (Jel 466) bound triplex DNA structures and inhibited ChlR1 unwinding activity. Moreover, cellular assays demonstrated that there were increased triplex DNA content and double-stranded breaks in ChlR1-depleted cells, but not in FANCJ(-/-) cells, when cells were treated with a triplex stabilizing compound benzoquinoquinoxaline, suggesting that ChlR1 melting of triple-helix structures is distinctive and physiologically important to defend genome integrity. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the abundance of ChlR1 known to exist in vivo is likely to be a strong deterrent to the stability of triplexes that can potentially form in the human genome.

Tarailo-Graovac M, Wong T, Qin Z, et al.
Cyclin B3 and dynein heavy chain cooperate to increase fitness in the absence of mdf-1/MAD1 in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(19):3089-199 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures genome stability by delaying anaphase onset until all the chromosomes have achieved proper spindle attachment. Once correct attachment has been achieved, SAC must be silenced. In the absence of mdf-1/MAD1, an essential SAC component, Caenorhabditis elegans cannot propagate beyond 3 generations. Previously, in a dog-1(gk10)/FANCJ mutator background, we isolated a suppressor of mdf-1(gk2) sterility (such-4) which allowed indefinite propagation in the absence of MDF-1. We showed that such-4 is a Cyclin B3 (cyb-3) duplication. Here we analyze mdf-1 such-4; dog-1, which we propagated for 470 generations, with freezing of samples for long time storage at F170 and F270. Phenotypic analysis of this strain revealed additional suppression of sterility in the absence of MDF-1, beyond the effects of such-4. We applied oligonucleotide array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (oaCGH) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) and identified a further amplification of cyb-3 (triplication) and a new missense mutation in dynein heavy chain (dhc-1). We show that dhc-1(dot168) suppresses the mdf-1(gk2), and is the second cloned suppressor, next to cyb-3 duplication, that does not cause a delay in anaphase onset. We also show that amplification of cyb-3 and dhc-1(dot168) cooperate to increase fitness in the absence of MDF-1.

Cantor SB, Brosh RM
What is wrong with Fanconi anemia cells?
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(24):3823-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Figuring out what is wrong in Fanconi anemia (FA) patient cells is critical to understanding the contributions of the FA pathway to DNA repair and tumor suppression. Although FA patients exhibit a wide range of disease manifestation as well as severity (asymptomatic to congenital abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and cancer), cells from FA patients share underlying defects in their ability to process DNA lesions that interfere with DNA replication. In particular, FA cells are very sensitive to agents that induce DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). The cause of this pronounced ICL sensitivity is not fully understood, but has been linked to the aberrant activation of DNA damage repair proteins, checkpoints and pathways. Thus, regulation of these responses through coordination of repair processing at stalled replication forks is an essential function of the FA pathway. Here, we briefly summarize some of the aberrant DNA damage responses contributing to defects in FA cells, and detail the newly-identified relationship between FA and the mismatch repair protein, MSH2. Understanding the contribution of MSH2 and/or other proteins to the replication problem in FA cells will be key to assessing therapeutic options to improve the health of FA patients. Moreover, loss of these factors, if linked to improved replication, could be a key event in the progression of FA cells to cancer cells. Likewise, loss of these factors could synergize to enhance tumorigenesis or confer chemoresistance in tumors defective in FA-BRCA pathway proteins and provide a basis for biomarkers for disease progression and response.

Zou J, Zhang D, Qin G, et al.
BRCA1 and FancJ cooperatively promote interstrand crosslinker induced centrosome amplification through the activation of polo-like kinase 1.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(23):3685-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA damage response (DDR) and the centrosome cycle are 2 of the most critical cellular processes affecting the genome stability in animal cells. Yet the cross-talks between DDR and the centrosome are poorly understood. Here we showed that deficiency of the breast cancer 1, early onset gene (BRCA1) induces centrosome amplification in non-stressed cells as previously reported while attenuating DNA damage-induced centrosome amplification (DDICA) in cells experiencing prolonged genotoxic stress. Mechanistically, the function of BRCA1 in promoting DDICA is through binding and recruiting polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) to the centrosome. In a recent study, we showed that FancJ also suppresses centrosome amplification in non-stressed cells while promoting DDICA in both hydroxyurea and mitomycin C treated cells. FancJ is a key component of the BRCA1 B-complex. Here, we further demonstrated that, in coordination with BRCA1, FancJ promotes DDICA by recruiting both BRCA1 and PLK1 to the centrosome in the DNA damaged cells. Thus, we have uncovered a novel role of BRCA1 and FancJ in the regulation of DDICA. Dysregulation of DDR or centrosome cycle leads to aneuploidy, which is frequently seen in both solid and hematological cancers. BRCA1 and FancJ are known tumor suppressors and have well-recognized functions in DNA damage checkpoint and DNA repair. Together with our recent findings, we demonstrated here that BRCA1 and FancJ also play an important role in centrosome cycle especially in DDICA. DDICA is thought to be an alternative fail-safe mechanism to prevent cells experiencing severe DNA damage from becoming carcinogenic. Therefore, BRCA1 and FancJ are potential liaisons linking early DDR with the DDICA. We propose that together with their functions in DDR, the role of BRCA1 and FancJ in the activation of DDICA is also crucial for their tumor suppression functions in vivo.

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