BARD1; BRCA1 associated RING domain 1 (2q34-q35)

Gene Summary

Gene:BARD1; BRCA1 associated RING domain 1
Summary:This gene encodes a protein which interacts with the N-terminal region of BRCA1. In addition to its ability to bind BRCA1 in vivo and in vitro, it shares homology with the 2 most conserved regions of BRCA1: the N-terminal RING motif and the C-terminal BRCT domain. The RING motif is a cysteine-rich sequence found in a variety of proteins that regulate cell growth, including the products of tumor suppressor genes and dominant protooncogenes. This protein also contains 3 tandem ankyrin repeats. The BARD1/BRCA1 interaction is disrupted by tumorigenic amino acid substitutions in BRCA1, implying that the formation of a stable complex between these proteins may be an essential aspect of BRCA1 tumor suppression. This protein may be the target of oncogenic mutations in breast or ovarian cancer. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:BRCA1-associated RING domain protein 1
Updated:14 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (25)


What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- BRCA1-dependent Ub-ligase activity BIOCARTA
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Rad51 Recombinase
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Ubiquitination
  • Pedigree
  • Genotype
  • Risk Factors
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • Chromosome 2
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Mutation
  • Missense Mutation
  • BRCA2 Protein
  • BRCA1
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Cell Nucleus
  • BRCA1 Protein
  • Zinc
  • BARD1
  • Sequence Homology
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • DNA Damage
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Base Sequence
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • DNA Repair
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • BRCA2
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Breast Cancer
Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (5)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Breast CancerBARD1 and Breast Cancer View Publications80
Ovarian CancerBARD1 and Ovarian Cancer View Publications26
NeuroblastomaBARD1 polymorphisms in Neuroblastoma
In a SNP-based genome-wide association study, Capasso et al (2009) reported that common variations in BARD1 influence susceptibility to high-risk neuroblastoma. The 2 most significant SNPs were rs6435862 and rs3768716. Nguyen et al (2011) and Latorre (2012) also replicated this finding in other populations. Bosse et al (2012) investigated BARD1 in neuroblastoma cell lines and reported that overexpression of BARD1β was sufficient for neoplastic transformation and also that BARD1β stabilized the Aurora family of kinases in neuroblastoma cells - the authors suggest this suggests a role of BARD1 in oncogenicity and supports work to develop Aurora kinase inhibitors as a potential therapy for aggressive neuroblastomas.
View Publications8
Uterine SarcomaBARD1 and Uterine Cancer View Publications5
Cervical CancerBARD1 and Cervical Cancer View Publications4

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: BARD1 (cancer-related)

Woditschka S, Evans L, Duchnowska R, et al.
DNA double-strand break repair genes and oxidative damage in brain metastasis of breast cancer.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(7) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the brain, colonizing a neuro-inflammatory microenvironment. The molecular pathways facilitating this colonization remain poorly understood.
METHODS: Expression profiling of 23 matched sets of human resected brain metastases and primary breast tumors by two-sided paired t test was performed to identify brain metastasis-specific genes. The implicated DNA repair genes BARD1 and RAD51 were modulated in human (MDA-MB-231-BR) and murine (4T1-BR) brain-tropic breast cancer cell lines by lentiviral transduction of cDNA or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) coding sequences. Their functional contribution to brain metastasis development was evaluated in mouse xenograft models (n = 10 mice per group).
RESULTS: Human brain metastases overexpressed BARD1 and RAD51 compared with either matched primary tumors (1.74-fold, P < .001; 1.46-fold, P < .001, respectively) or unlinked systemic metastases (1.49-fold, P = .01; 1.44-fold, P = .008, respectively). Overexpression of either gene in MDA-MB-231-BR cells increased brain metastases by threefold to fourfold after intracardiac injections, but not lung metastases upon tail-vein injections. In 4T1-BR cells, shRNA-mediated RAD51 knockdown reduced brain metastases by 2.5-fold without affecting lung metastasis development. In vitro, BARD1- and RAD51-overexpressing cells showed reduced genomic instability but only exhibited growth and colonization phenotypes upon DNA damage induction. Reactive oxygen species were present in tumor cells and elevated in the metastatic neuro-inflammatory microenvironment and could provide an endogenous source of genotoxic stress. Tempol, a brain-permeable oxygen radical scavenger suppressed brain metastasis promotion induced by BARD1 and RAD51 overexpression.
CONCLUSIONS: BARD1 and RAD51 are frequently overexpressed in brain metastases from breast cancer and may constitute a mechanism to overcome reactive oxygen species-mediated genotoxic stress in the metastatic brain.

Related: Breast Cancer

Watanabe Y, Maeda I, Oikawa R, et al.
Aberrant DNA methylation status of DNA repair genes in breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Genes Cells. 2013; 18(12):1120-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dysregulation of homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair has been implicated in breast carcinogenesis and chemosensitivity. Here, we investigated the methylation status of sixteen HR genes and analyzed their association with tumor subtypes and responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Core specimens were obtained before neoadjuvant chemotherapy from sixty cases of primary breast cancer of the following four subgroups: luminal breast cancer (LBC) with pathological complete response (pCR), LBC with stable disease, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with pCR and TNBC with poor response. The aberrant DNA methylation status of the following HR related-genes was analyzed using bisulfite-pyrosequencing: BRCA1, BRCA2, BARD1, MDC1, RNF8, RNF168, UBC13, ABRA1, PALB2, RAD50, RAD51, RAD51C, MRE11, NBS1, CtIP and ATM. Among the genes analyzed, only the incidence of BRCA1 and RNF8 methylation was significantly higher in TNBC than that in LBC. Whereas the incidence of BRCA1 methylation was tended to be higher in pCR cases than in poor-response cases in TNBC, that of RNF8 was significantly lower in pCR cases than in poor-response cases. Our results indicate that the methylation status of HR genes was not generally associated with TNBC subtype or chemosensitivity although hypermethylation of BRCA1 is associated with TNBC subtype and may impact chemosensitivity.

Related: Breast Cancer Cyclophosphamide Fluorouracil Methotrexate Docetaxel

Nhukeaw T, Temboot P, Hansongnern K, Ratanaphan A
Cellular responses of BRCA1-defective and triple-negative breast cancer cells and in vitro BRCA1 interactions induced by metallo-intercalator ruthenium(II) complexes containing chloro-substituted phenylazopyridine.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the absence of expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Breast cancers with a BRCA1 mutation are also frequently triple-negative. Currently, there is a lack of effective therapies and known specific molecular targets for this aggressive breast cancer subtype. To address this concern, we have explored the cellular responses of BRCA1-defective and triple-negative breast cancer cells, and in vitro BRCA1 interactions induced by the ruthenium(II) complexes containing the bidentate ligand, 5-chloro-2-(phenylazo)pyridine.
METHODS: Triple-negative MDA-MB-231, BRCA1-defective HCC1937 and BRCA1-competent MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines were treated with ruthenium(II) complexes. The cytoxoxicity of ruthenium-induced breast cancer cells was evaluated by a real time cellular analyzer (RTCA). Cellular uptake of ruthenium complexes was determined by ICP-MS. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were assessed using propidium iodide and Annexin V flow cytometry. The N-terminal BRCA1 RING protein was used for conformational and functional studies using circular dichroism and in vitro ubiquitination.
RESULTS: HCC1937 cells were significantly more sensitive to the ruthenium complexes than the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Treatment demonstrated a higher degree of cytotoxicity than cisplatin against all three cell lines. Most ruthenium atoms were retained in the nuclear compartment, particularly in HCC1937 cells, after 24 h of incubation, and produced a significant block at the G2/M phase. An increased induction of apoptotic cells as well as an upregulation of p53 mRNA was observed in all tested breast cancer cells. It was of interest that BRCA1 mRNA and replication of BRCA1-defective cells were downregulated. Changes in the conformation and binding constants of ruthenium-BRCA1 adducts were observed, causing inactivation of the RING heterodimer BRCA1/BARD1-mediated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity.
CONCLUSIONS: This study has revealed the ability of ruthenium complexes to inhibit cell proliferation, induce cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Ruthenium treatment upregulated the marker genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle progression while it downregulated BRCA1 mRNA and replication of HCC1937 cells. Our results could provide an alternative approach to finding effective therapeutic ruthenium-based agents with promising anticancer activity, and demonstrated that the BRCA1 RING domain protein was a promising therapeutic target for breast cancers.

Lee YH, Kim JH, Song GG
Genome-wide pathway analysis in neuroblastoma.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(4):3471-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to identify candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might play a role in susceptibility to neuroblastoma, elucidate their potential mechanisms, and generate SNP-to-gene-to-pathway hypotheses. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) dataset of neuroblastoma that included 442,976 SNPs from 1,627 neuroblastoma patients and 3,254 control subjects of European descent was used in this study. The identify candidate causal SNPs and pathways (ICSNPathway) analysis was applied to the GWAS dataset. ICSNPathway analysis identified 15 candidate SNPs, 10 genes, and 31 pathways, which revealed 10 hypothetical biological mechanisms. The strongest hypothetical biological mechanism was one wherein SNPrs40401 modulates the role of IL3 in several pathways and conditions, including the stem pathway, asthma (hsa05310), the dendritic cell pathway, and development (0.001 < p < 0.004; 0.001 < FDR < 0.033). The second strongest mechanism identified was that in which rs1048108 and rs16852600 alter the function of BARD1, which negatively regulates developmental process and modulates processes including cell development and programmed cell death (0.001 < p < 0.004; 0.001 < FDR < 0.033). The third mechanism identified was one wherein rs1939212 modulated CFL1, resulting in negative regulation of development, cell death, neural crest cell migration, and apoptosis (0.001 < p < 0.004; 0.001 < FDR < 0.033). By using the ICSNPathway to analyze neuroblastoma GWAS data, 15 candidate SNPs, 10 genes including IL3, BARD1, and CFL, and 31 pathways were identified that might contribute to the susceptibility of patients to neuroblastoma.

Related: Neuroblastoma Signal Transduction

Matsuzawa A, Kanno S, Nakayama M, et al.
The BRCA1/BARD1-interacting protein OLA1 functions in centrosome regulation.
Mol Cell. 2014; 53(1):101-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
The breast and ovarian cancer-specific tumor suppressor BRCA1, along with its heterodimer partner BRCA1-associated RING domain protein (BARD1), plays important roles in DNA repair, centrosome regulation, and transcription. To explore further functions of BRCA1/BARD1, we performed mass spectrometry analysis and identified Obg-like ATPase 1 (OLA1) as a protein that interacts with the carboxy-terminal region of BARD1. OLA1 directly bound to the amino-terminal region of BRCA1 and γ-tubulin. OLA1 localized to centrosomes in interphase and to the spindle pole in mitotic phase, and its knockdown resulted in centrosome amplification and the activation of microtubule aster formation. OLA1 with a mutation observed in breast cancer cell line, E168Q, failed to bind BRCA1 and rescue the OLA1 knockdown-induced centrosome amplification. BRCA1 variant I42V also abrogated the binding of BRCA1 to OLA1. These findings suggest that OLA1 plays an important role in centrosome regulation together with BRCA1.

Related: Breast Cancer

Pennington KP, Walsh T, Harrell MI, et al.
Germline and somatic mutations in homologous recombination genes predict platinum response and survival in ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal carcinomas.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(3):764-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Hallmarks of germline BRCA1/2-associated ovarian carcinomas include chemosensitivity and improved survival. The therapeutic impact of somatic BRCA1/2 mutations and mutations in other homologous recombination DNA repair genes is uncertain.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using targeted capture and massively parallel genomic sequencing, we assessed 390 ovarian carcinomas for germline and somatic loss-of-function mutations in 30 genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2, and 11 other genes in the homologous recombination pathway.
RESULTS: Thirty-one percent of ovarian carcinomas had a deleterious germline (24%) and/or somatic (9%) mutation in one or more of the 13 homologous recombination genes: BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, BARD1, BRIP1, CHEK1, CHEK2, FAM175A, MRE11A, NBN, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D. Nonserous ovarian carcinomas had similar rates of homologous recombination mutations to serous carcinomas (28% vs. 31%, P = 0.6), including clear cell, endometrioid, and carcinosarcoma. The presence of germline and somatic homologous recombination mutations was highly predictive of primary platinum sensitivity (P = 0.0002) and improved overall survival (P = 0.0006), with a median overall survival of 66 months in germline homologous recombination mutation carriers, 59 months in cases with a somatic homologous recombination mutation, and 41 months for cases without a homologous recombination mutation.
CONCLUSIONS: Germline or somatic mutations in homologous recombination genes are present in almost one third of ovarian carcinomas, including both serous and nonserous histologies. Somatic BRCA1/2 mutations and mutations in other homologous recombination genes have a similar positive impact on overall survival and platinum responsiveness as germline BRCA1/2 mutations. The similar rate of homologous recombination mutations in nonserous carcinomas supports their inclusion in PARP inhibitor clinical trials.

Related: Fallopian Tube Cancer Ovarian Cancer

Tenedini E, Bernardis I, Artusi V, et al.
Targeted cancer exome sequencing reveals recurrent mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(5):1052-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
With the intent of dissecting the molecular complexity of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), we designed a target enrichment panel to explore, using next-generation sequencing (NGS), the mutational status of an extensive list of 2000 cancer-associated genes and microRNAs. The genomic DNA of granulocytes and in vitro-expanded CD3+T-lymphocytes, as a germline control, was target-enriched and sequenced in a learning cohort of 20 MPN patients using Roche 454 technology. We identified 141 genuine somatic mutations, most of which were not previously described. To test the frequency of the identified variants, a larger validation cohort of 189 MPN patients was additionally screened for these mutations using Ion Torrent AmpliSeq NGS. Excluding the genes already described in MPN, for 8 genes (SCRIB, MIR662, BARD1, TCF12, FAT4, DAP3, POLG and NRAS), we demonstrated a mutation frequency between 3 and 8%. We also found that mutations at codon 12 of NRAS (NRASG12V and NRASG12D) were significantly associated, for primary myelofibrosis (PMF), with highest dynamic international prognostic scoring system (DIPSS)-plus score categories. This association was then confirmed in 66 additional PMF patients composing a final dataset of 168 PMF showing a NRAS mutation frequency of 4.7%, which was associated with a worse outcome, as defined by the DIPSS plus score.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Liu H, Zhang H, Sun X, et al.
A cross-sectional study of associations between nonsynonymous mutations of the BARD1 gene and breast cancer in Han Chinese women.
Asia Pac J Public Health. 2013; 25(4 Suppl):8S-14S [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The PCR-PIRA and PCR-RFLP techniques were used for BARD1 genotyping. Correlations between gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility to breast cancer were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: showed that compared with the wild type of 378 Arg/Arg of BRAD1, the homozygotic type of 378 Ser/Ser with Arg378Ser site mutation had a protective effect (adjusted odds ratio: 0.628, 95% confidence interval: 0.306-1.145). Compared with individuals carrying the wild type of 24Pro/Pro, the disease risk of individuals with the heterozygous type of 24 Pro/Ser decreased by 30.6% and that with the mutational homozygotic type of 24 Ser/Ser decreased by 43.8%. SNP sites rs2229571 and rs1048108 of BARD1 are associated with a lower risk of breast cancer but not rs2070094.

Related: Breast Cancer

Mahdi KM, Nassiri MR, Nasiri K
Hereditary genes and SNPs associated with breast cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(6):3403-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women affecting up to one third of tehm during their lifespans. Increased expression of some genes due to polymorphisms increases the risk of breast cancer incidence. Since mutations that are recognized to increase breast cancer risk within families are quite rare, identification of these SNPs is very important. The most important loci which include mutations are; BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, ATM, TP53, CHEK2, PPM1D, CDH1, MLH1, MRE11, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH, NBN, PMS1, PMS2, BRIP1, RAD50, RAD51C, STK11 and BARD1. Presence of SNPs in these genes increases the risk of breast cancer and associated diagnostic markers are among the most reliable for assessing prognosis of breast cancer. In this article we reviewed the hereditary genes of breast cancer and SNPs associated with increasing the risk of breast cancer that were recently were reported from candidate gene, meta-analysis and GWAS studies. SNPs of genes associated with breast cancer can be used as a potential tool for improving cancer diagnosis and treatment planning.

Related: Breast Cancer

Wang S, Li Y, Hsu PH, et al.
Progesterone receptor A stability is mediated by glycogen synthase kinase-3β in the Brca1-deficient mammary gland.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(36):26265-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Germ line mutations of the BRCA1 gene increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, but the basis of this tissue-specific tumor predisposition is not fully understood. Previously, we reported that the progesterone receptors are stabilized in Brca1-deficient mammary epithelial cells, and treating with anti-progesterone delays mammary tumorigenesis in Brca1/p53 conditional knock-out mice, suggesting that the progesterone has a critical role in breast carcinogenesis. To further explore how the stability of progesterone receptor is modulated, here, we have found that glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β phosphorylation of progesterone receptor-A (PR-A) facilitates its ubiquitination. GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of serine 390 in PR-A regulates its subsequent ubiquitination and protein stability. Expression of PR-A(S390A) mutant in the human breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A, results in enhanced proliferation and formation of aberrant acini structure in the three-dimensional culture. Consistently, reduction of phosphorylation of serine 390 of PR-A and GSK-3β activity is observed in the Brca1-deficient mammary gland. Taken together, these results provide important aspects of tissue specificity of BRCA1-mediated suppression of breast carcinogenesis.

Related: Breast Cancer

Pugh TJ, Morozova O, Attiyeh EF, et al.
The genetic landscape of high-risk neuroblastoma.
Nat Genet. 2013; 45(3):279-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is a malignancy of the developing sympathetic nervous system that often presents with widespread metastatic disease, resulting in survival rates of less than 50%. To determine the spectrum of somatic mutation in high-risk neuroblastoma, we studied 240 affected individuals (cases) using a combination of whole-exome, genome and transcriptome sequencing as part of the Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments (TARGET) initiative. Here we report a low median exonic mutation frequency of 0.60 per Mb (0.48 nonsilent) and notably few recurrently mutated genes in these tumors. Genes with significant somatic mutation frequencies included ALK (9.2% of cases), PTPN11 (2.9%), ATRX (2.5%, and an additional 7.1% had focal deletions), MYCN (1.7%, causing a recurrent p.Pro44Leu alteration) and NRAS (0.83%). Rare, potentially pathogenic germline variants were significantly enriched in ALK, CHEK2, PINK1 and BARD1. The relative paucity of recurrent somatic mutations in neuroblastoma challenges current therapeutic strategies that rely on frequently altered oncogenic drivers.

Related: Neuroblastoma

Bubnov V, Moskalev E, Petrovskiy Y, et al.
Hypermethylation of TUSC5 genes in breast cancer tissue.
Exp Oncol. 2012; 34(4):370-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common forms of cancer amongst females. Early diagnosis, prognosis and therapy plays crucial role in the survival of patients with breast cancer. The study was aimed on identification of potential markers for early BC diagnostics by means of genome-wide comparative analysis of gene expression in cancer and normal tissue of breast.
METHODS: The analysis of gene expression in 15 invasive adenocarcinoma specimens and 15 normal breast tissue was conducted using the full-genome microarrays Sentrix HumanWD-6V3 BeadChip (Illumina). Methylation of TP53INK1 and TUSС5 promoters was interrogated by the combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA).
RESULTS: Analysis of gene expression in the samples of breast adenocarcinoma revealed abnormal expression of more than 2,300 genes. While genes TFF1, S100P, ERBB2, TOP2A, CDF15, HOOK1, DNAJC12, CORO2A were up-regulated in cancer, decreased expression was found for genes TUSC5, SFRP1, PPPQR1B, NTRK4, TIMP4, BARD1, AKR1C2, TP53INK1 and others. Analysis of DNA methylation of TUSC5 by COBRA revealed higher levels of exon 1 methylation (11/12) in samples of breast cancer, whereas the gene was essentially unmethylated in matched normal appearing tissue of breast (2/12). TP53INK1 gene was methylated neither in cancer nor in normalcy.
CONCLUSION: A total of 149 genes exhibited the highest difference in expression in cancer versus normal appearing tissue of breast. Most prominent down-regulated candidates, TUSC5 and TP53INK1, were reported for the first time in breast cancer and may be considered as potential markers of the disease. Aberrant DNA hypermethylation of TUSC5 suggests epigenetic mechanism of cancer associated down-regulation.

Related: Breast Cancer

Capasso M, Diskin SJ, Totaro F, et al.
Replication of GWAS-identified neuroblastoma risk loci strengthens the role of BARD1 and affirms the cumulative effect of genetic variations on disease susceptibility.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(3):605-11 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Several neuroblastoma (NB) susceptibility loci have been identified within LINC00340, BARD1, LMO1, DUSP12, HSD17B12, DDX4, IL31RA, HACE1 and LIN28B by genome-wide association (GWA) studies including European American individuals. To validate and comprehensively evaluate the impact of the identified NB variants on disease risk and phenotype, we analyzed 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an Italian population (370 cases and 809 controls). We assessed their regulatory activity on gene expression in lymphoblastoid (LCLs) and NB cell lines. We evaluated the cumulative effect of the independent loci on NB risk and high-risk phenotype development in Italian and European American (1627 cases and 2575 controls) populations. All NB susceptibility genes replicated in the Italian dataset except for DDX4 and IL31RA, and the most significant SNP was rs6435862 in BARD1 (P = 8.4 × 10(-15)). BARD1 showed an additional and independent SNP association (rs7585356). This variant influenced BARD1 mRNA expression in LCLs and NB cell lines. No evidence of epistasis among the NB-associated variants was detected, whereas a cumulative effect of risk variants on NB risk (European Americans: P (trend) = 6.9 × 10(-30), Italians: P (trend) = 8.55 × 10(13)) and development of high-risk phenotype (European Americans: P (trend) = 6.9 × 10(-13), Italians: P (trend) = 2.2 × 10(-1)) was observed in a dose-dependent manner. These results provide further evidence that the risk loci identified in GWA studies contribute to NB susceptibility in distinct populations and strengthen the role of BARD1 as major genetic contributor to NB risk. This study shows that even in the absence of interaction the combination of several low-penetrance alleles has potential to distinguish subgroups of patients at different risks of developing NB.

Related: Neuroblastoma

Ziebarth AJ, Nowsheen S, Steg AD, et al.
Endoglin (CD105) contributes to platinum resistance and is a target for tumor-specific therapy in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(1):170-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Endoglin (CD105) is a membranous protein overexpressed in tumor-associated endothelial cells, chemoresistant populations of ovarian cancer cells, and potentially stem cells. Our objective was to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of targeting endoglin in ovarian cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Global and membranous endoglin expression was evaluated in multiple ovarian cancer lines. In vitro, the effects of siRNA-mediated endoglin knockdown with and without chemotherapy were evaluated by MTT assay, cell-cycle analysis, alkaline comet assay, γ-H2AX foci formation, and quantitative PCR. In an orthotopic mouse model, endoglin was targeted with chitosan-encapsulated siRNA with and without carboplatin.
RESULTS: Endoglin expression was surprisingly predominantly cytoplasmic, with a small population of surface-positive cells. Endoglin inhibition decreased cell viability, increased apoptosis, induced double-stranded DNA damage, and increased cisplatin sensitivity. Targeting endoglin downregulates expression of numerous DNA repair genes, including BARD1, H2AFX, NBN, NTHL1, and SIRT1. BARD1 was also associated with platinum resistance, and was induced by platinum exposure. In vivo, antiendoglin treatment decreased tumor weight in both ES2 and HeyA8MDR models when compared with control (35%-41% reduction, P < 0.05). Endoglin inhibition with carboplatin was associated with even greater inhibitory effect when compared with control (58%-62% reduction, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Endoglin downregulation promotes apoptosis, induces significant DNA damage through modulation of numerous DNA repair genes, and improves platinum sensitivity both in vivo and in vitro. Antiendoglin therapy would allow dual treatment of both tumor angiogenesis and a subset of aggressive tumor cells expressing endoglin and is being actively pursued as therapy in ovarian cancer.

Related: Ovarian Cancer

Schulz E, Valentin A, Ulz P, et al.
Germline mutations in the DNA damage response genes BRCA1, BRCA2, BARD1 and TP53 in patients with therapy related myeloid neoplasms.
J Med Genet. 2012; 49(7):422-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Therapy related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs) are complex diseases originating from an interplay between exogenous toxicities and a susceptible organism. It has been hypothesised that in a subset of cases t-MNs develop in the context of hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes.
METHODS: The study systematically evaluated pedigrees of patients with t-MNs for cancer incidences and the possibility of a hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome. In addition, mutational analyses were performed using constitutional DNA from index patients, and deleterious heterozygous germline mutations were assessed for loss of heterozygosity in sorted leukaemic cells by single nucleotide polymorphism array.
RESULTS: A nuclear pedigree was obtained in 51/53 patients with t-MNs resulting in a total of 828 individuals analysed. With a standardised incidence ratio of 1.03 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.39), the tumour incidence of first- degree relatives was not increased. However, six pedigrees were suggestive for a hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, three of a Li-Fraumeni like syndrome, and three index patients showed multiple primary neoplasms. Mutational analysis revealed two BRCA1 (c.3112G→T, c.5251C→T), one BRCA2 (c.4027A→G), two BARD1 (C557S) and four TP53 germline mutations (g.18508_18761delinsGCC, c.847C→T, c.845_848dupGGCG, c.1146delA) in nine of 53 (17%) index patients with t-MNs. Loss of heterozygosity in leukaemic cells was demonstrated for the BRCA1c.3112G→T and TP53c.845_848dupGGCG mutations, respectively.
CONCLUSION: It is concluded that a proportion of patients with t-MNs carry cancer susceptibility mutations which are likely to contribute to therapy related leukaemogenesis.

Related: TP53

Gonzalez-Hormazabal P, Reyes JM, Blanco R, et al.
The BARD1 Cys557Ser variant and risk of familial breast cancer in a South-American population.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(8):8091-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since the discovery of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, much work has been carried out to identify further breast cancer (BC) susceptibility genes. BARD1 (BRCA1-associated ring domain) was originally identified as a BRCA1-interacting protein but has also been described in tumor-suppressive functions independent of BRCA1. Some association studies have suggested that the BARD1 Cys557Ser variant might be associated with increased risk of BC, but others have failed to confirm this finding. To date, this variant has not been analyzed in Spanish or South-American populations. In this study, using a case-control design, we analyzed the C-terminal Cys557Ser change in 322 Chilean BC cases with no mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 and in 570 controls in order to evaluate its possible association with BC susceptibility. BARD1 Cys557Ser was associated with an increased BC risk (P = 0.04, OR = 3.4 [95 % CI 1.2-10.2]) among cases belonging to families with a strong family history of BC. No difference between single cases affected with age <50 years at diagnosis (n = 117) and controls was observed for carriers of Cys/Ser genotype. It is likely that this variant is not involved in BC risk in this group of women. We also analyzed a possible interaction between BARD1 557Ser/XRCC3 241Met variants considering the role of both genes in the maintenance of genome integrity. The combined genotype Cys/Ser-carrier with the XRCC3 241Met allele was associated with an increased BC risk (P = 0.02, OR = 5.01 [95 % CI 1.36-18.5]) among women belonging to families with at least three BC and/or ovarian cancer cases. Our results suggest that BARD1 557Ser and XRCC3 241Met may play roles in BC risk in women with a strong family history of BC. Nevertheless there is no evidence of an interaction between the two SNPs. These findings should be confirmed by other studies and in other populations.

Related: Breast Cancer

Rouleau E, Jesson B, Briaux A, et al.
Rare germline large rearrangements in the BRCA1/2 genes and eight candidate genes in 472 patients with breast cancer predisposition.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 133(3):1179-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hereditary breast cancers account for up to 5-10 % of breast cancers and a majority are related to the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. However, many families with breast cancer predisposition do not carry any known mutations for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. We explored the incidence of rare large rearrangements in the coding, noncoding and flanking regions of BRCA1/2 and in eight other candidate genes--CHEK2, BARD1, ATM, RAD50, RAD51, BRIP1, RAP80 and PALB2. A dedicated zoom-in CGH-array was applied to screen for rearrangements in 472 unrelated French individuals from breast-ovarian cancer families that were being followed in eight French oncogenetic laboratories. No new rearrangement was found neither in the genomic regions of BRCA1/2 nor in candidate genes, except for the CHEK2 and BARD1 genes. Three heterozygous deletions were detected in the 5' and 3' flanking regions of BRCA1. One large deletion introducing a frameshift was identified in the CHEK2 gene in two families and one heterozygous deletion was detected within an intron of BARD1. The study demonstrates the usefulness of CGH-array in routine genetic analysis and, aside from the CHEK2 rearrangements, indicates there is a very low incidence of large rearrangements in BRCA1/2 and in the other eight candidate genes in families already explored for BRCA1/2 mutations. Finally, next-generation sequencing should bring new information about point mutations in intronic and flanking regions and also medium size rearrangements.

Related: Breast Cancer Male Breast Cancer CGH BRCA1 BRCA2

Latorre V, Diskin SJ, Diamond MA, et al.
Replication of neuroblastoma SNP association at the BARD1 locus in African-Americans.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012; 21(4):658-63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is an often fatal pediatric cancer more frequent in European-American than African-American children. African-American children, however, are at higher risk for the more severe form of neuroblastoma and have worse overall survival than European-American children. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated to neuroblastoma in children of European descent. Knowledge of their association to neuroblastoma in African-American children is still lacking.
METHODS: We genotyped and imputed SNPs located in three gene regions reported to be associated to neuroblastoma in children of European descent, and tested them for association in 390 African-American patients with neuroblastoma compared with 2,500 healthy, ethnically matched controls.
RESULTS: SNPs in the BARD1 gene region show a similar pattern of association to neuroblastoma in African-American and European-American children. The more restricted extent of linkage disequilibrium in the African-American population suggests a smaller candidate region for the putative causal variants than previously reported. Limited association was observed at the other two gene regions tested, including LMO1 in 11p15 and FLJ22536 in 6p22.
CONCLUSIONS: Common BARD1 SNPs affect risk of neuroblastoma in African-Americans. The role of other SNPs associated to neuroblastoma in children of European descent could not be confirmed, possibly due to different patterns of linkage disequilibrium or limited statistical power to detect association to variants with small effect on disease risk. Extension of GWAS to populations of African descent is important to confirm their results and validity beyond the European populations and can help to refine the location of the putative causal variants.

Related: Neuroblastoma

Walsh T, Casadei S, Lee MK, et al.
Mutations in 12 genes for inherited ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal carcinoma identified by massively parallel sequencing.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011; 108(44):18032-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Inherited loss-of-function mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and other tumor suppressor genes predispose to ovarian carcinomas, but the overall burden of disease due to inherited mutations is not known. Using targeted capture and massively parallel genomic sequencing, we screened for germ-line mutations in 21 tumor suppressor genes in genomic DNA from women with primary ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma. Subjects were consecutively enrolled at diagnosis and not selected for age or family history. All classes of mutations, including point mutations and large genomic deletions and insertions, were detected. Of 360 subjects, 24% carried germ-line loss-of-function mutations: 18% in BRCA1 or BRCA2 and 6% in BARD1, BRIP1, CHEK2, MRE11A, MSH6, NBN, PALB2, RAD50, RAD51C, or TP53. Six of these genes were not previously implicated in inherited ovarian carcinoma. Primary carcinomas were generally characterized by genomic loss of normal alleles of the mutant genes. Of women with inherited mutations, >30% had no family history of breast or ovarian carcinoma, and >35% were 60 y or older at diagnosis. More patients with ovarian carcinoma carry cancer-predisposing mutations and in more genes than previously appreciated. Comprehensive genetic testing for inherited carcinoma is warranted for all women with ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma, regardless of age or family history. Clinical genetic testing is currently done gene by gene, with each test costing thousands of dollars. In contrast, massively parallel sequencing allows such testing for many genes simultaneously at low cost.

Related: Fallopian Tube Cancer Ovarian Cancer

Ding DP, Zhang Y, Ma WL, et al.
Lack of association between BARD1 Cys557Ser variant and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 11,870 cases and 7,687 controls.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011; 137(10):1463-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The BRCA1-associated RING domain (BARD1) gene has been identified as a high-penetrance gene for breast cancer, whose germline and somatic mutations were reported in both non-BRCA1/2 hereditary site-specific and sporadic breast cancer cases. Some association studies suggested that the BRAD1 Cys557Ser variant might be associated with increased risk of breast cancer, but the results remain conflicting rather than conclusive. In order to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, this meta-analysis was performed.
METHODS: Eligible studies were identified by searching several databases for relevant reports published before March 2011. In total, 14 studies (11,870 cases and 7,687 controls) were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for breast cancer risk associated with Cys557Ser carrier was estimated.
RESULTS: The carrier frequency of the Cys557Ser mutation was 3.85% (457/11,870) in patients with breast cancer and 3.29% (253/7,687) in healthy controls. When all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, there was no evidence for significant association between Cys557Ser mutation and breast cancer risk (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.94-1.34). In the subgroup analyses by design of experiment and family history with BRCA1/2 status (unselected cases, family history with non-BRCA1/2 cases, and family history with BRCA1/2-positive cases), no significant associations were found in any subgroup of population.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis strongly suggests that BARD1 Cys557Ser mutation is not associated with increased breast cancer risk.

Related: Breast Cancer BRCA1 BRCA2

Sporn JC, Hothorn T, Jung B
BARD1 expression predicts outcome in colon cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(16):5451-62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: BARD1 is a BRCA1-binding partner with tumor suppressive properties. Aberrant splice variants of BARD1 have been detected in various cancers, and it has been postulated that the presence of some splice variants is cancer specific. This is the first study assessing BARD1 expression patterns and correlation with clinical outcome in colon cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed colon cancer samples for the occurrence of BARD1 splice variants, characterized novel BARD1 splice variants, and quantified the mRNA expression levels of these isoforms in primary colon cancers and their corresponding normal tissue. We tested the correlation of full-length BARD1 protein expression and clinical outcome in primary colon cancer samples.
RESULTS: In addition to the full-length BARD1 mRNA, we now find 19 distinct BARD1 splice variants in colon cancer. Contrary to previous assumptions, these splice variants also occur in the adjacent normal colon tissue. Although BARD1 splice variants account for a considerable amount of BARD1 mRNA in both cancer and normal colon samples, distinct variants show a cancer-specific regulation pattern. Consistent with its role as tumor suppressor, we further find that the expression of the full-length BARD1 protein predicts outcome in colon cancer and that loss of full-length BARD1 protein is associated with a poor prognosis (P = 0.0002).
CONCLUSION: Taken together, this is the first report to suggest that BARD1 regulation is an important pathway in colon cancer and that the BARD1 full-length protein may be a useful marker to improve risk stratification in colon cancer patients.

Related: Fluorouracil

Calvo V, Beato M
BRCA1 counteracts progesterone action by ubiquitination leading to progesterone receptor degradation and epigenetic silencing of target promoters.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(9):3422-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germ-line mutations in the BRCA1 gene increase the risk of breast cancer in women, but the precise mechanistic basis for this connection remains uncertain. One popular hypothesis to explain breast tissue specificity postulates a link between BRCA1 and the action of the ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. Given the relevance of progesterone for normal mammary development and breast cancer formation, we searched for a functional relationship between BRCA1 and progesterone receptor (PR) in the PR-positive breast cancer cell line T47D. Here, we report that BRCA1 inhibits the transcriptional activity of PR by at least 2 mechanisms involving the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of BRCA1. First, BRCA1 has a direct effect on the cellular level of PR and, hence, on the extent of PR recruitment to target promoters through the promotion of its ligand-independent and -dependent degradation. Through in vitro and in vivo assays, we found that BRCA1/BARD1 may be the main E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for ubiquitination and degradation of PR in the absence of hormone. Second, after hormone treatment of cells, the BRCA1/BARD1 complex is recruited via interaction with PR to the hormone-responsive regions of PR target genes, affecting local levels of monoubiquitinated histone H2A and contributing to epigenetic silencing of these promoters. The connections between BRCA1/BARD1 and PR activity suggested by our findings may help explain why host mutations in BRCA1 exert a tissue specificity in preferentially elevating the risk of breast cancer.

Related: Breast Cancer

Nguyen le B, Diskin SJ, Capasso M, et al.
Phenotype restricted genome-wide association study using a gene-centric approach identifies three low-risk neuroblastoma susceptibility Loci.
PLoS Genet. 2011; 7(3):e1002026 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is a malignant neoplasm of the developing sympathetic nervous system that is notable for its phenotypic diversity. High-risk patients typically have widely disseminated disease at diagnosis and a poor survival probability, but low-risk patients frequently have localized tumors that are almost always cured with little or no chemotherapy. Our genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified common variants within FLJ22536, BARD1, and LMO1 as significantly associated with neuroblastoma and more robustly associated with high-risk disease. Here we show that a GWAS focused on low-risk cases identified SNPs within DUSP12 at 1q23.3 (P = 2.07 × 10⁻⁶), DDX4 and IL31RA both at 5q11.2 (P = 2.94 × 10⁻⁶ and 6.54 × 10⁻⁷ respectively), and HSD17B12 at 11p11.2 (P = 4.20 × 10⁻⁷) as being associated with the less aggressive form of the disease. These data demonstrate the importance of robust phenotypic data in GWAS analyses and identify additional susceptibility variants for neuroblastoma.

Related: Neuroblastoma

Spurdle AB, Marquart L, McGuffog L, et al.
Common genetic variation at BARD1 is not associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011; 20(5):1032-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations confer elevated breast cancer risk. Knowledge of factors that can improve breast cancer risk assessment in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers may improve personalized cancer prevention strategies.
METHODS: A cohort of 5,546 BRCA1 and 2,865 BRCA2 mutation carriers was used to evaluate risk of breast cancer associated with BARD1 Cys557Ser. In a second nonindependent cohort of 1,537 of BRCA1 and 839 BRCA2 mutation carriers, BARD1 haplotypes were also evaluated.
RESULTS: The BARD1 Cys557Ser variant was not significantly associated with risk of breast cancer from single SNP analysis, with a pooled effect estimate of 0.90 (95% CI: 0.71-1.15) in BRCA1 carriers and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.59-1.29) in BRCA2 carriers. Further analysis of haplotypes at BARD1 also revealed no evidence that additional common genetic variation not captured by Cys557Ser was associated with breast cancer risk.
CONCLUSION: Evidence to date does not support a role for BARD1 variation, including the Cy557Ser variant, as a modifier of risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.
IMPACT: Interactors of BRCA1/2 have been implicated as modifiers of BRCA1/2-associated cancer risk. Our finding that BARD1 does not contribute to this risk modification may focus research on other genes that do modify BRCA1/2-associated cancer risk.

Related: Breast Cancer

Ratajska M, Antoszewska E, Piskorz A, et al.
Cancer predisposing BARD1 mutations in breast-ovarian cancer families.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 131(1):89-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
The breast cancer susceptibility gene BARD1 (BRCA1-associated RING domain protein, MIM# 601593) acts with BRCA1 in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and also in apoptosis initiation. We screened 109 BRCA1/2 negative high-risk breast and/or ovarian cancer patients from North-Eastern Poland for BARD1 germline mutations using a combination of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. We identified 16 different BARD1 sequence variants, five of which are novel. Three of them were suspected to be pathogenic, including a protein truncating nonsense mutation (c.1690C>T, p.Gln564X), a splice mutation (c.1315-2A>G) resulting in exon 5 skipping, and a silent change (c.1977A>G) which alters several exonic splicing enhancer motifs in exon 10 and results in a transcript lacking exons 2-9. Our findings suggest that BARD1 mutations may be regarded as cancer risk alleles and warrant further investigation to determine their actual contribution to non-BRCA1/2 breast and ovarian cancer families.

Related: Breast Cancer Ovarian Cancer

Sabatier R, Adélaïde J, Finetti P, et al.
BARD1 homozygous deletion, a possible alternative to BRCA1 mutation in basal breast cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2010; 49(12):1143-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hereditary breast cancers (BCs) are incompletely explained by BRCA genes abnormalities, as ∼70% of them are not associated with known genetic alterations. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) of tumors provides an opportunity for identifying new BC susceptibility genes. By analyzing our database of high-resolution aCGH profiles of 330 BCs, we identified a case with homozygous deletion of the entire BARD1 gene. The BARD1-deleted case displayed a familial history of BC and other clinico-pathological features of BRCAness, and a 17% probability of BRCA1/2 mutation. Analysis of constitutional DNA showed a BARD1 germline heterozygous deletion without BRCA1/2 mutation. Gene expression analysis using DNA microarrays classified the tumor as basal-like, with very low BARD1 and ID4 expression, but high expression of BRCA1, RAD51, PARP1, CHEK1, and FANCA. The tumor displayed a BRCA1-mutated expression profile. This is the first report of a non-BRCA1/2-mutated BC with somatic homozygous and germ-line heterozygous deletion of the entire BARD1 gene. This observation suggests that BARD1 might be a BC susceptibility gene that follows the Knudson rule. Identification of BARD1 deletion could have clinical applications including screening for hereditary forms. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Related: Breast Cancer CGH BRCA1

Capasso M, Diskin SJ
Genetics and genomics of neuroblastoma.
Cancer Treat Res. 2010; 155:65-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer of the developing sympathetic nervous system that most often affects young children. It remains an important pediatric problem because it accounts for approximately 15% of childhood cancer mortality. The disease is clinically heterogeneous, with the likelihood of cure varying greatly according to age at diagnosis, extent of disease, and tumor biology. This extreme clinical heterogeneity reflects the complexity of genetic and genomic events associated with development and progression of disease. Inherited genetic variants and mutations that initiate tumorigenesis have been identified in neuroblastoma and multiple somatically acquired genomic alterations have been described that are relevant to disease progression. This chapter focuses on recent genome-wide studies that have utilized high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays to discover genetic factors predisposing to tumor initiation such as rare mutations at locus 2p23 (in ALK gene) for familial neuroblastoma, common SNPs at 6p22 (FLJ22536 and FLJ44180) and 2q35 (BARD1), and a copy number polymorphism at 1q21.1 (NBPF23) for sporadic neuroblastoma. It also deals with well known and recently reported somatic changes in the tumor genome such as mutations, gain of alleles and activation of oncogenes, loss of alleles, or changes in tumor-cell ploidy leading to the diverse clinical behavior of neuroblastomas. Finally, this chapter reviews gene expression profiles of neuroblastoma associated with pathways of the signaling of neurotrophins and apoptotic factors that could have a role in neuroblastoma development and progression. Looking forward, a major challenge will be to understand how inherited genetic variation and acquired somatic alterations in the tumor genome interact to exact phenotypic differences in neuroblastoma, and cancer in general.

Related: Neuroblastoma

Krem MM, Salipante SJ, Horwitz MS
Mutations in a gene encoding a midbody protein in binucleated Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin lymphoma.
Cell Cycle. 2010; 9(4):670-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is a cancer in which malignant "Reed-Sternberg" cells comprise just a fraction of the bulk of the tumor and are characteristically binucleated. We recently identified a novel gene, KLHDC8B, which appears responsible for some familial cases of cHL. KLHDC8B encodes a midbody kelch protein expressed during cytokinesis. Deficiency of KLHDC8B leads to binucleated cells, implicating its involvement in Reed-Sternberg cell formation. Interestingly, other cancer genes, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, also encode proteins locating to the midbody during cytokinesis, even though their participation in other pathways has received greater attention. Midbody components may be an overlooked source of tumor suppressor genes.

Related: Hodgkin's Lymphoma

De Brakeleer S, De Grève J, Loris R, et al.
Cancer predisposing missense and protein truncating BARD1 mutations in non-BRCA1 or BRCA2 breast cancer families.
Hum Mutat. 2010; 31(3):E1175-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fifteen years ago BRCA1 and BRCA2 were reported as high penetrant breast cancer predisposing genes. However, mutations in these genes are found in only a fraction of high risk families. BARD1 is a candidate breast cancer gene, but only a limited number of missense mutations with rather unclear pathogenic consequences have been reported.We screened 196 high risk breast cancer families for the occurrence of BARD1 variants. All genetic variants were analyzed using clinical information as well as IN SILICO predictive tools, including protein modeling. We found three candidate pathogenic mutations in seven families including a first case of a protein truncating mutation (p.Glu652fs) removing the entire second BRCT domain of BARD1. In conclusion, we provide evidence for an increased breast cancer risk associated to specific BARD1 germline mutations. However, these BARD1 mutations occur in a minority of hereditary breast cancer families.

Related: Breast Cancer BRCA1 BRCA2 Ovarian Cancer

Irminger-Finger I
BARD1, a possible biomarker for breast and ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2010; 117(2):211-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women. Ovarian cancer, although less frequent, is detected very late, and survival is correlated to early detection. Therefore, better methods for early detection would help to increase the number of survivors. The incidence of young women diagnosed with breast cancer is increasing. These women and women who are at risk because of a family history of breast cancer would benefit from more accurate and less invasive screening methods than those in place today. A blood test based on BARD1, a protein that interacts with the breast cancer gene product BRCA1, is a promising candidate for fulfilling these conditions. The science behind BARD1 and its role in breast and ovarian cancer is explained in this article.

Related: Breast Cancer Ovarian Cancer


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