Gene Summary

Gene:TP53BP1; tumor protein p53 binding protein 1
Aliases: p202, 53BP1, TDRD30, p53BP1
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that functions in the DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice, promoting non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathways, and limiting homologous recombination. This protein plays multiple roles in the DNA damage response, including promoting checkpoint signaling following DNA damage, acting as a scaffold for recruitment of DNA damage response proteins to damaged chromatin, and promoting NHEJ pathways by limiting end resection following a double-strand break. These roles are also important during V(D)J recombination, class switch recombination and at unprotected telomeres. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:TP53-binding protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TP53BP1 (cancer-related)

Wang Y, Hou Y, Zhang W, et al.
Lipolytic inhibitor G0S2 modulates glioma stem-like cell radiation response.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):147 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation (IR) therapy is the standard first-line treatment for newly diagnosed patients with glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and malignant primary brain tumor. However, the effects of IR are limited due to the aberrant radioresistance of GBM.
METHODS: Transcriptome analysis was performed using RNA-seq in radioresistant patient-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSCs). Survival of glioma patient and mice bearing-brain tumors was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Lipid droplet and γ-H2AX foci-positive cells were evaluated using immunofluorescence staining.
RESULTS: Lipolytic inhibitor G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) is upregulated in radioresistant GSCs and elevated in clinical GBM. GBM patients with high G0S2 expression had significantly shorter overall survival compared with those with low expression of G0S2. Using genetic approaches targeting G0S2 in glioma cells and GSCs, we found that knockdown of G0S2 promoted lipid droplet turnover, inhibited GSC radioresistance, and extended survival of xenograft tumor mice with or without IR. In contrast, overexpression of G0S2 promoted glioma cell radiation resistance. Mechanistically, high expression of G0S2 reduced lipid droplet turnover and thereby attenuated E3 ligase RNF168-mediated 53BP1 ubiquitination through activated the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K) signaling and increased 53BP1 protein stability in response to IR, leading to enhanced DNA repair and glioma radioresistance.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings uncover a new function for lipolytic inhibitor G0S2 as an important regulator for GSC radioresistance, suggesting G0S2 as a potential therapeutic target for treating gliomas.

Hurley RM, Wahner Hendrickson AE, Visscher DW, et al.
53BP1 as a potential predictor of response in PARP inhibitor-treated homologous recombination-deficient ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 153(1):127-134 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have shown substantial activity in homologous recombination- (HR-) deficient ovarian cancer and are undergoing testing in other HR-deficient tumors. For reasons that are incompletely understood, not all patients with HR-deficient cancers respond to these agents. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that changes in alternative DNA repair pathways affect PARP inhibitor (PARPi) sensitivity in ovarian cancer models. This has not previously been assessed in the clinical setting.
METHODS: Clonogenic and plasmid-based HR repair assays were performed to compare BRCA1-mutant COV362 ovarian cancer cells with or without 53BP1 gene deletion. Archival biopsies from ovarian cancer patients in the phase I, open-label clinical trial of PARPi ABT-767 were stained for PARP1, RAD51, 53BP1 and multiple components of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathway. Modified histochemistry- (H-) scores were determined for each repair protein in each sample. HRD score was determined from tumor DNA.
RESULTS: 53BP1 deletion increased HR in BRCA1-mutant COV362 cells and decreased PARPi sensitivity in vitro. In 36 women with relapsed ovarian cancer, responses to the PARPi ABT-767 were observed exclusively in cancers with HR deficiency. In this subset, 7 of 18 patients (39%) had objective responses. The actual HRD score did not further correlate with change from baseline tumor volume (r = 0.050; p = 0.87). However, in the HR-deficient subset, decreased 53BP1 H-score was associated with decreased antitumor efficacy of ABT-767 (r = -0.69, p = 0.004).
CONCLUSION: Differences in complementary repair pathways, particularly 53BP1, correlate with PARPi response of HR-deficient ovarian cancers.

Sasanuma H, Tsuda M, Morimoto S, et al.
BRCA1 ensures genome integrity by eliminating estrogen-induced pathological topoisomerase II-DNA complexes.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(45):E10642-E10651 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Women having BRCA1 germ-line mutations develop cancer in breast and ovary, estrogen-regulated tissues, with high penetrance. Binding of estrogens to the estrogen receptor (ER) transiently induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by topoisomerase II (TOP2) and controls gene transcription. TOP2 resolves catenated DNA by transiently generating DSBs, TOP2-cleavage complexes (TOP2ccs), where TOP2 covalently binds to 5' ends of DSBs. TOP2 frequently fails to complete its catalysis, leading to formation of pathological TOP2ccs. We have previously shown that the endonucleolytic activity of MRE11 plays a key role in removing 5' TOP2 adducts in G

Avolio R, Järvelin AI, Mohammed S, et al.
Protein Syndesmos is a novel RNA-binding protein that regulates primary cilia formation.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(22):12067-12086 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Syndesmos (SDOS) is a functionally poorly characterized protein that directly interacts with p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) and regulates its recruitment to chromatin. We show here that SDOS interacts with another important cancer-linked protein, the chaperone TRAP1, associates with actively translating polyribosomes and represses translation. Moreover, we demonstrate that SDOS directly binds RNA in living cells. Combining individual gene expression profiling, nucleotide crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP), and ribosome profiling, we discover several crucial pathways regulated post-transcriptionally by SDOS. Among them, we identify a small subset of mRNAs responsible for the biogenesis of primary cilium that have been linked to developmental and degenerative diseases, known as ciliopathies, and cancer. We discover that SDOS binds and regulates the translation of several of these mRNAs, controlling cilia development.

Vulin A, Sedkaoui M, Moratille S, et al.
Severe PATCHED1 Deficiency in Cancer-Prone Gorlin Patient Cells Results in Intrinsic Radiosensitivity.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018; 102(2):417-425 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Gorlin syndrome (or basal-cell nevus syndrome) is a cancer-prone genetic disease in which hypersusceptibility to secondary cancer and tissue reaction after radiation therapy is debated, as is increased radiosensitivity at cellular level. Gorlin syndrome results from heterozygous mutations in the PTCH1 gene for 60% of patients, and we therefore aimed to highlight correlations between intrinsic radiosensitivity and PTCH1 gene expression in fibroblasts from adult patients with Gorlin syndrome.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: The radiosensitivity of fibroblasts from 6 patients with Gorlin syndrome was determined by cell-survival assay after high (0.5-3.5 Gy) and low (50-250 mGy) γ-ray doses. PTCH1 and DNA damage response gene expression was characterized by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. DNA damage and repair were investigated by γH2AX and 53BP1 foci assay. PTCH1 knockdown was performed in cells from healthy donors by using stable RNA interference. Gorlin cells were genotyped by 2 complementary sequencing methods.
RESULTS: Only cells from patients with Gorlin syndrome who presented severe deficiency in PATCHED1 protein exhibited a significant increase in cellular radiosensitivity, affecting cell responses to both high and low radiation doses. For 2 of the radiosensitive cell strains, heterozygous mutations in the 5' end of PTCH1 gene explain PATCHED1 protein deficiency. In all sensitive cells, DNA damage response pathways (ATM, CHK2, and P53 levels and activation by phosphorylation) were deregulated after irradiation, whereas DSB repair recognition was unimpaired. Furthermore, normal cells with RNA interference-mediated PTCH1 deficiency showed reduced survival after irradiation, directly linking this gene to high- and low-dose radiosensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we show an inverse correlation between PTCH1 expression level and cellular radiosensitivity, suggesting an explanation for the conflicting results previously reported for Gorlin syndrome and possibly providing a basis for prognostic screens for radiosensitive patients with Gorlin syndrome and PTCH1 mutations.

Hehlgans S, Booms P, Güllülü Ö, et al.
Radiation Sensitization of Basal Cell and Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma by the Hedgehog Pathway Inhibitor Vismodegib.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(9) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Vismodegib, an inhibitor of the Hedgehog signaling pathway, is an approved drug for monotherapy in locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Data on combined modality treatment by vismodegib and radiation therapy, however, are rare. In the present study, we examined the radiation sensitizing effects of vismodegib by analyzing viability, cell cycle distribution, cell death, DNA damage repair and clonogenic survival in three-dimensional cultures of a BCC and a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell line. We found that vismodegib decreases expression of the Hedgehog target genes glioma-associated oncogene homologue (GLI1) and the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) Survivin in a cell line- and irradiation-dependent manner, most pronounced in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. Furthermore, vismodegib significantly reduced proliferation in both cell lines, while additional irradiation only slightly further impacted on viability. Analyses of cell cycle distribution and cell death induction indicated a G1 arrest in BCC and a G2 arrest in HNSCC cells and an increased fraction of cells in SubG1 phase following combined treatment. Moreover, a significant rise in the number of phosphorylated histone-2AX/p53-binding protein 1 (γH2AX/53BP1) foci in vismodegib- and radiation-treated cells was associated with a significant radiosensitization of both cell lines. In summary, these findings indicate that inhibition of the Hedgehog signaling pathway may increase cellular radiation response in BCC and HNSCC cells.

Hélias-Rodzewicz Z, Lourenco N, Bakari M, et al.
CDKN2A Depletion Causes Aneuploidy and Enhances Cell Proliferation in Non-Immortalized Normal Human Cells.
Cancer Invest. 2018; 36(6):338-348 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aneuploidy is a common feature of cancer cells and may contribute to cellular transformation and cancer development. In this study, we found that significant down-regulation of CDKN2A, CHEK2, CDCA8, TP53BP1, and CCNDBP1 led to chromosome imbalances in two diploid non-immortalized human cell lines; however, only CDKN2A inhibition enhanced cell proliferation and additionally up-regulated three cell cycle control genes: CDCA8, AURKA, and CCND. These results confirm that CDKN2A is a tumor suppressor gene driving human cancer development by inducing cell aneuploidy and cell cycle up-regulation.

Liang X, Vacher S, Boulai A, et al.
Targeted next-generation sequencing identifies clinically relevant somatic mutations in a large cohort of inflammatory breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):88 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive form of primary breast cancer. Using a custom-made breast cancer gene sequencing panel, we investigated somatic mutations in IBC to better understand the genomic differences compared with non-IBC and to consider new targeted therapy in IBC patients.
METHODS: Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 91 candidate breast cancer-associated genes was performed on 156 fresh-frozen breast tumor tissues from IBC patients. Mutational profiles from 197 primary breast tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used as non-IBC controls for comparison analysis. The mutational landscape of IBC was correlated with clinicopathological data and outcomes.
RESULTS: After genotype calling and algorithmic annotations, we identified 392 deleterious variants in IBC and 320 variants in non-IBC cohorts, respectively. IBC tumors harbored more mutations than non-IBC (2.5 per sample vs. 1.6 per sample, p < 0.0001). Eighteen mutated genes were significantly different between the two cohorts, namely TP53, CDH1, NOTCH2, MYH9, BRCA2, ERBB4, POLE, FGFR3, ROS1, NOTCH4, LAMA2, EGFR, BRCA1, TP53BP1, ESR1, THBS1, CASP8, and NOTCH1. In IBC, the most frequently mutated genes were TP53 (43.0%), PIK3CA (29.5%), MYH9 (8.3%), NOTCH2 (8.3%), BRCA2 (7.7%), ERBB4 (7.1%), FGFR3 (6.4%), POLE (6.4%), LAMA2 (5.8%), ARID1A (5.1%), NOTCH4 (5.1%), and ROS1 (5.1%). After grouping 91 genes on 10 signaling pathways, we found that the DNA repair pathway for the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subgroup, the RTK/RAS/MAPK and cell cycle pathways for the HR
CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer-specific targeted NGS uncovered a high frequency of deleterious somatic mutations in IBC, some of which may be relevant for clinical management.

Tomida J, Takata KI, Bhetawal S, et al.
FAM35A associates with REV7 and modulates DNA damage responses of normal and BRCA1-defective cells.
EMBO J. 2018; 37(12) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
To exploit vulnerabilities of tumors, it is urgent to identify associated defects in genome maintenance. One unsolved problem is the mechanism of regulation of DNA double-strand break repair by REV7 in complex with 53BP1 and RIF1, and its influence on repair pathway choice between homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. We searched for REV7-associated factors in human cells and found FAM35A, a previously unstudied protein with an unstructured N-terminal region and a C-terminal region harboring three OB-fold domains similar to single-stranded DNA-binding protein RPA, as novel interactor of REV7/RIF1/53BP1. FAM35A re-localized in damaged cell nuclei, and its knockdown caused sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. In a BRCA1-mutant cell line, however, depletion of FAM35A increased resistance to camptothecin, suggesting that FAM35A participates in processing of DNA ends to allow more efficient DNA repair. We found FAM35A absent in one widely used BRCA1-mutant cancer cell line (HCC1937) with anomalous resistance to PARP inhibitors. A survey of FAM35A alterations revealed that the gene is altered at the highest frequency in prostate cancers (up to 13%) and significantly less expressed in metastatic cases, revealing promise for FAM35A as a therapeutically relevant cancer marker.

Pettitt SJ, Krastev DB, Brandsma I, et al.
Genome-wide and high-density CRISPR-Cas9 screens identify point mutations in PARP1 causing PARP inhibitor resistance.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):1849 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Although PARP inhibitors (PARPi) target homologous recombination defective tumours, drug resistance frequently emerges, often via poorly understood mechanisms. Here, using genome-wide and high-density CRISPR-Cas9 "tag-mutate-enrich" mutagenesis screens, we identify close to full-length mutant forms of PARP1 that cause in vitro and in vivo PARPi resistance. Mutations both within and outside of the PARP1 DNA-binding zinc-finger domains cause PARPi resistance and alter PARP1 trapping, as does a PARP1 mutation found in a clinical case of PARPi resistance. This reinforces the importance of trapped PARP1 as a cytotoxic DNA lesion and suggests that PARP1 intramolecular interactions might influence PARPi-mediated cytotoxicity. PARP1 mutations are also tolerated in cells with a pathogenic BRCA1 mutation where they result in distinct sensitivities to chemotherapeutic drugs compared to other mechanisms of PARPi resistance (BRCA1 reversion, 53BP1, REV7 (MAD2L2) mutation), suggesting that the underlying mechanism of PARPi resistance that emerges could influence the success of subsequent therapies.

Miwa S, Hoffman RM
Imaging DNA Repair After UV Irradiation Damage of Cancer Cells in Gelfoam
Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1760:199-203 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA damage repair in response to UVC irradiation was imaged in cancer cells growing in Gelfoam

Jiaranuchart S, Kaida A, Onozato Y, et al.
DNA damage response following X-irradiation in oral cancer cell lines HSC3 and HSC4.
Arch Oral Biol. 2018; 90:1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize the DNA damage response in two human oral cancer cell lines following X-irradiation.
DESIGN: To visualize radiation-induced cell cycle alterations, two human oral cancer cell lines, HSC3 and HSC4, expressing fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) were established in this study. G2 arrest kinetics following irradiation were obtained from two-color flow cytometric analysis and pedigrees of Fucci fluorescence. DNA double strand break repair kinetics were obtained from immunofluorescence staining for phosphorylated histone H2AX, p53-binding protein 1, phosphorylated DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, and breast cancer susceptibility gene 1.
RESULTS: Both cell lines showed apparent G2 arrest after 10 Gy of irradiation, but it was more enhanced in the HSC3-Fucci cells. Radiosensitivity was higher in the HSC3-Fucci cells than in HSC4-Fucci cells. Pedigree analysis of Fucci fluorescence revealed that the HSC3-Fucci cells exhibited a significantly longer green phase (normally indicating S/G2/M phases, but here reflective of G2 arrest) when irradiated in the red phase (G1 phase) than HSC4-Fucci cells irradiated in either red or green phases. Non-homologous end joining was marginally suppressed during the G1 phase and markedly more likely to be impaired during the S/G2 phases in HSC3-Fucci cells. When G2 arrest was abrogated by checkpoint kinase 1 or Wee1 inhibitors, only HSC4-Fucci cells exhibited radiosensitization.
CONCLUSIONS: We characterized DNA damage response in HSC3-Fucci and HSC4-Fucci cells following irradiation and the former demonstrated inefficient non-homologous end joining, especially during the S/G2 phases, resulting in enhanced G2 arrest. These findings may have clinical implications for oral cancer.

Snezhkina AV, Lukyanova EN, Kalinin DV, et al.
Exome analysis of carotid body tumor.
BMC Med Genomics. 2018; 11(Suppl 1):17 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Carotid body tumor (CBT) is a form of head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) arising at the bifurcation of carotid arteries. Paragangliomas are commonly associated with germline and somatic mutations involving at least one of more than thirty causative genes. However, the specific functionality of a number of these genes involved in the formation of paragangliomas has not yet been fully investigated.
METHODS: Exome library preparation was carried out using Nextera® Rapid Capture Exome Kit (Illumina, USA). Sequencing was performed on NextSeq 500 System (Illumina).
RESULTS: Exome analysis of 52 CBTs revealed potential driver mutations (PDMs) in 21 genes: ARNT, BAP1, BRAF, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDKN2A, CSDE1, FGFR3, IDH1, KIF1B, KMT2D, MEN1, RET, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SETD2, TP53BP1, TP53BP2, and TP53I13. In many samples, more than one PDM was identified. There are also 41% of samples in which we did not identify any PDM; in these cases, the formation of CBT was probably caused by the cumulative effect of several not highly pathogenic mutations. Estimation of average mutation load demonstrated 6-8 mutations per megabase (Mb). Genes with the highest mutation rate were identified.
CONCLUSIONS: Exome analysis of 52 CBTs for the first time revealed the average mutation load for these tumors and also identified potential driver mutations as well as their frequencies and co-occurrence with the other PDMs.

Tiwari A, Addis Jones O, Chan KL
53BP1 can limit sister-chromatid rupture and rearrangements driven by a distinct ultrafine DNA bridging-breakage process.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):677 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Chromosome missegregation acts as one of the driving forces for chromosome instability and cancer development. Here, we find that in human cancer cells, HeLa and U2OS, depletion of 53BP1 (p53-binding protein 1) exacerbates chromosome non-disjunction resulting from a new type of sister-chromatid intertwinement, which is distinct from FANCD2-associated ultrafine DNA bridges (UFBs) induced by replication stress. Importantly, the sister DNA intertwinements trigger gross chromosomal rearrangements through a distinct process, named sister-chromatid rupture and bridging. In contrast to conventional anaphase bridge-breakage models, we demonstrate that chromatid axes of the intertwined sister-chromatids rupture prior to the breakage of the DNA bridges. Consequently, the ruptured sister arms remain tethered and cause signature chromosome rearrangements, including whole-arm (Robertsonian-like) translocation/deletion and isochromosome formation. Therefore, our study reveals a hitherto unreported chromatid damage phenomenon mediated by sister DNA intertwinements that may help to explain the development of complex karyotypes in tumour cells.

Huang A, Yao J, Liu T, et al.
53BP1 loss suppresses the radiosensitizing effect of icotinib hydrochloride in colorectal cancer cells.
Int J Radiat Biol. 2018; 94(4):327-334 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the influence of the expression of P53-binding protein 1 (53BP1), a key component in DNA damage repair pathways, on the radiosensitizing effect of icotinib hydrochloride in colorectal cancer and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this influence.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to verify the gene-knockout effect of 53BP1 small hairpin RNA (ShRNA), and colony formation assay was employed to investigate the influence of 53BP1 downregulation on the radiosensitizing effect of icotinib hydrochloride in HCT116 cells. Cell apoptosis, cell cycle distributions, and histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) fluorescence foci after 53BP1 knockdown were evaluated. Relative protein expression in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM)-checkpoint kinase-2 (CHK2)-P53 pathway was measured by Western blot analysis to unravel the molecular mechanisms linking the pathway to the above phenomena.
RESULTS: Icotinib hydrochloride increased the radiosensitivity of HCT116 cells; however, this effect was suppressed by the downregulation of 53BP1 expression, a change that inhibited cell apoptosis, increased the percentage of HCT116 cells arrested in S-phase and inhibited the protein expression of key molecules in the ATM-CHK2-P53 apoptotic pathway.
CONCLUSION: Our studies confirmed that the loss of 53BP1 serves as a negative regulator of the radiosensitizing effect of icotinib in part by suppressing the ATM-CHK2-P53 apoptotic pathway.

Wang YT, Yuan B, Chen HD, et al.
Acquired resistance of phosphatase and tensin homolog-deficient cells to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor and Ara-C mediated by 53BP1 loss and SAMHD1 overexpression.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(3):821-831 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
With increasing uses of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi) for cancer therapy, understanding their resistance is becoming urgent. However, acquired PARPi resistance in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deficient background is poorly understood. We generated 3 PARPi-resistant PTEN-deficient glioblastoma U251 variants separately with olaparib (U251/OP), talazoparib (U251/TP) and simmiparib (U251/SP). These variants displayed consistent resistance (2.46-71.78-fold) to all 5 PARPi, including niraparib and rucaparib, and showed higher degrees of resistance to the PARPi to which the parental cells were more sensitive. The resistance was characteristic of fast emergence and high stability. However, the resistance acquirement did not cause an increasingly aggressive phenotype. The resistance was not correlated to various factors, including PTEN mutations. The PARPi-treated variants produced less γH2AX and G2/M arrest. Consistently, loss of 53BP1 occurred in all variants and its compensation enhanced their sensitivity to PARPi by approximately 76%. The variants revealed slightly different cross-resistance profiles to 13 non-PARPi anticancer drugs. All were resistant to Ara-C (6-8-fold) but showed differential resistance to 5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine and paclitaxel. Almost no resistance was observed to the rest drugs, including cisplatin. SAMHD1 was overexpressed in all the variants and its knockout completely restored their sensitivity to Ara-C but did not affect their PARPi sensitivity. The present study demonstrates a consistent resistance profile to PARPi and a unique cross-resistance profile to non-PARPi drugs in different PARPi-resistant U251 cells and reveals 53BP1 loss and SAMHD1 overexpression as the primary mechanisms responsible for their resistance to PARPi and Ara-C, respectively. These effects probably result from heritable gene change(s) caused by persistent PARPi exposure.

Yang C, Zang W, Tang Z, et al.
A20/TNFAIP3 Regulates the DNA Damage Response and Mediates Tumor Cell Resistance to DNA-Damaging Therapy.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(4):1069-1082 [PubMed] Related Publications
A competent DNA damage response (DDR) helps prevent cancer, but once cancer has arisen, DDR can blunt the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy that cause lethal DNA breakage in cancer cells. Thus, blocking DDR may improve the efficacy of these modalities. Here, we report a new DDR mechanism that interfaces with inflammatory signaling and might be blocked to improve anticancer outcomes. Specifically, we report that the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20/TNFAIP3 binds and inhibits the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF168, which is responsible for regulating histone H2A turnover critical for proper DNA repair. A20 induced after DNA damage disrupted RNF168-H2A interaction in a manner independent of its enzymatic activity. Furthermore, it inhibited accumulation of RNF168 and downstream repair protein 53BP1 during DNA repair. A20 was also required for disassembly of RNF168 and 53BP1 from damage sites after repair. Conversely, A20 deletion increased the efficiency of error-prone nonhomologous DNA end-joining and decreased error-free DNA homologous recombination, destablizing the genome and increasing sensitivity to DNA damage. In clinical specimens of invasive breast carcinoma, A20 was widely overexpressed, consistent with its candidacy as a therapeutic target. Taken together, our findings suggest that A20 is critical for proper functioning of the DDR in cancer cells and it establishes a new link between this NFκB-regulated ubiquitin-editing enzyme and the DDR pathway.

Yang XX, Ma M, Sang MX, et al.
BMI-1 suppression increases the radiosensitivity of oesophageal carcinoma via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(2):667-678 [PubMed] Related Publications
B-cell‑specific Moloney murine leukaemia virus integration site-1 (BMI-1) contributes to the growth of tumour cells post-irradiation (IR). The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of BMI-1 on cell viability, radiosensitivity and its mechanisms of action in oesophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were employed to evaluate the protein expression of BMI-1 in ESCC cells and specimens, respectively. Additionally, the protein expression levels of BMI-1, H2AK119ub and γH2AX in ESCC cells were detected following different doses of IR and at different times after IR. The protein expression levels of MDC1 and 53BP1 were also measured. Flow cytometry and MTT assays were used to determine cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cell viability. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and the agonist IGF-1 were employed to suppress or induce the phosphorylation of Akt to determine whether BMI-1 induces radioresistance in ESCC cells via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. The expression of BMI-1 was higher in ESCC tissues and cells compared with that in normal oesophageal tissues and cells. In addition, BMI-1 was positively related to tumour size and lymph node metastases and negatively to the overall survival of ESCC patients. IR induced the expression of BMI-1, H2AK119ub and γH2AX in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BMI-1 knockdown lowered the expression of γH2AX, MDC1 and 53BP1, suppressed cell viability and increased radiosensitivity. G2/M phase arrest was eliminated; this was followed by an increased proportion of cells entering the G0/G1 phase after IR and BMI-1 knockdown via the upregulation of P16 and downregulation of cyclin D2 and cyclin-dependent kinase-4. Moreover, BMI-1 knockdown increased cell apoptosis, downregulated MCL-1 and p-Akt and upregulated Bax. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of the downregulation of p-Akt by LY294002 on tumour cell viability was identical to that of BMI-1 knockdown, while the kinase agonist IGF-1 reversed the effects of BMI-1 knockdown on cell viability and radiosensitivity. Taken together, BMI-1 knockdown induces radiosensitivity in ESCC and significantly inhibits cell viability, which may contribute to an increased proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase and cell apoptosis via suppression of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway.

Cheng Y, Hao Y, Zhang A, et al.
Persistent STAT5-mediated ROS production and involvement of aberrant p53 apoptotic signaling in the resistance of chronic myeloid leukemia to imatinib.
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 41(1):455-463 [PubMed] Related Publications
The persistent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) may principally be attributed to breakpoint cluster region (BCR)-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (ABL1), and have multi-faceted effects in the development of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The p53 protein network regulates important mechanisms in DNA damage repair, cell cycle regulation/checkpoints, and cell senescence and apoptosis, as demonstrated by its ability to positively regulate the expression of various pro-apoptotic genes, including B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). In the present study, it was observed that the mRNA levels of STAT5A and STAT5B were upregulated in patients with imatinib-resistant CML and in the imatinib-resistant K562/G CML cell line. In addition, increased expression of STAT5 was observed in the BCR-ABL1 mutation group, compared with that in the non-BCR-ABL1 mutation group, regardless of patient imatinib resistance state. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA double-strand breaks were identified in K562/G cells using flow cytometric and phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) foci immunofluorescence assays, respectively, compared with the imatinib-sensitive K562 cells. The levels of intracellular ROS and γ-H2AX were decreased by the ROS scavenger (N-acetylcysteine), and ROS levels were also markedly reduced by STAT5 inhibitor (SH-4-54). In addition, imatinib significantly inhibited the proliferation of K562 and K562/G cells, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.17±0.07 and 14.78±0.43 µM, respectively, and the levels of apoptosis were significantly different between K562 and K562/G cells following treatment with imatinib. The mRNA and protein levels of STAT5 and mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) were upregulated, whereas those of Bax were downregulated in K562/G cells, as determined using western blot analysis. Additionally, although the two cell lines exhibited relatively low protein expression levels of p53, lower levels of p53 and TPp53BP1 transcripts were detected in the K562/G cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that the resistance of CML to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib, may be associated with persistent STAT5-mediated ROS production, and the abnormality of the p53 pathway.

Droz-Rosario R, Lu H, Liu J, et al.
Roles of BCCIP deficiency in mammary tumorigenesis.
Breast Cancer Res. 2017; 19(1):115 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dysregulated DNA repair and cell proliferation controls are essential driving forces in mammary tumorigenesis. BCCIP was originally identified as a BRCA2 and CDKN1A interacting protein that has been implicated in maintenance of genomic stability, cell cycle regulation, and microtubule dynamics. The aims of this study were to determine whether BCCIP deficiency contributes to mammary tumorigenesis, especially for a subset of breast cancers with 53BP1 abnormality, and to reveal the mechanistic implications of BCCIP in breast cancer interventions.
METHODS: We analyzed the BCCIP protein level in 470 cases of human breast cancer to determine the associations between BCCIP and 53BP1, p53, and subtypes of breast cancer. We further constructed a unique BCCIP knockdown mouse model to determine whether a partial BCCIP deficiency leads to spontaneous breast cancer formation.
RESULTS: We found that the BCCIP protein level is downregulated in 49% of triple-negative breast cancer and 25% of nontriple-negative breast cancer. The downregulation of BCCIP is mutually exclusive with p53 mutations but concurrent with 53BP1 loss in triple-negative breast cancer. In a K14-Cre-mediated conditional BCCIP knockdown mouse model, we found that BCCIP downregulation causes a formation of benign modules in the mammary glands, resembling the epidermal inclusion cyst of the breast. However, the majority of these benign lesions remain indolent, and only ~ 10% of them evolve into malignant tumors after a long latency. This tumor progression is associated with a loss of 53BP1 and p16 expression. BCCIP knockdown did not alter the latency of mammary tumor formation induced by conditional Trp53 deletion.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a confounding role of BCCIP deficiency in modulating breast cancer development by enhancing tumor initiation but hindering progression. Furthermore, secondary genetic alternations may overcome the progression suppression imposed by BCCIP deficiency through a synthetic viability mechanism.

Hassan S, Esch A, Liby T, et al.
Pathway-Enriched Gene Signature Associated with 53BP1 Response to PARP Inhibition in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017; 16(12):2892-2901 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Effective treatment of patients with triple-negative (ER-negative, PR-negative, HER2-negative) breast cancer remains a challenge. Although PARP inhibitors are being evaluated in clinical trials, biomarkers are needed to identify patients who will most benefit from anti-PARP therapy. We determined the responses of three PARP inhibitors (veliparib, olaparib, and talazoparib) in a panel of eight triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Therapeutic responses and cellular phenotypes were elucidated using high-content imaging and quantitative immunofluorescence to assess markers of DNA damage (53BP1) and apoptosis (cleaved PARP). We determined the pharmacodynamic changes as percentage of cells positive for 53BP1, mean number of 53BP1 foci per cell, and percentage of cells positive for cleaved PARP. Inspired by traditional dose-response measures of cell viability, an EC

Cairney CJ, Godwin LS, Bilsland AE, et al.
A 'synthetic-sickness' screen for senescence re-engagement targets in mutant cancer backgrounds.
PLoS Genet. 2017; 13(8):e1006942 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Senescence is a universal barrier to immortalisation and tumorigenesis. As such, interest in the use of senescence-induction in a therapeutic context has been gaining momentum in the past few years; however, senescence and immortalisation remain underserved areas for drug discovery owing to a lack of robust senescence inducing agents and an incomplete understanding of the signalling events underlying this complex process. In order to address this issue we undertook a large-scale morphological siRNA screen for inducers of senescence phenotypes in the human melanoma cell line A375P. Following rescreen and validation in a second cancer cell line, HCT116 colorectal carcinoma, a panel of 16 of the most robust hits were selected for further validation based on significance and the potential to be targeted by drug-like molecules. Using secondary assays for detection of senescence biomarkers p21, 53BP1 and senescence associated beta-galactosidase (SAβGal) in a panel of HCT116 cell lines carrying cancer-relevant mutations, we show that partial senescence phenotypes can be induced to varying degrees in a context dependent manner, even in the absence of p21 or p53 expression. However, proliferation arrest varied among genetic backgrounds with predominantly toxic effects in p21 null cells, while cells lacking PI3K mutation failed to arrest. Furthermore, we show that the oncogene ECT2 induces partial senescence phenotypes in all mutant backgrounds tested, demonstrating a dependence on activating KRASG13D for growth suppression and a complete senescence response. These results suggest a potential mechanism to target mutant KRAS signalling through ECT2 in cancers that are reliant on activating KRAS mutations and remain refractory to current treatments.

Yeon SY, Jo YS, Choi EJ, et al.
Frameshift Mutations in Repeat Sequences of ANK3, HACD4, TCP10L, TP53BP1, MFN1, LCMT2, RNMT, TRMT6, METTL8 and METTL16 Genes in Colon Cancers.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2018; 24(3):617-622 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diminished ANK3 contributes to cell survival by inhibiting detachment-induced apoptosis. TP53BP1 that interacts with p53 and MFN1 that encodes a mitochondrial membrane protein are considered to have tumor suppressor gene (TSG) functions. HACD4 involving fatty acid synthesis and TCPL10 with transcription regulation functions are considered TSGs. Many genes involved in DNA methylations such as LCMT2, RNMT, TRMT6, METTL8 and METTL16 are often perturbed in cancer. The aim of our study was to find whether these genes were mutated in colorectal cancer (CRC). In a genome database, we observed that each of these genes harbored mononucleotide repeats in the coding sequences, which could be mutated in cancers with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H). For this, we studied 124 CRCs for the frameshift mutations of these genes and their intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH). ANK3, HACD4, TCP10L, TP53BP1, MFN1, LCMT2, RNMT, TRMT6, METTL8 and METTL16 harbored 11 (13.9%), 3 (3.8%), 0 (0%), 5 (6.3%), 1 (1.3%), 2 (2.5%), 4 (5.1%), 3 (3.8%), 2 (2.5%) and 2 (2.5%) of 79 CRCs with MSI-H, respectively. However, we found no such mutations in microsatellite stable (MSS) cancers in the nucleotide repeats. There were ITH of the frameshift mutations of ANK3, MFN1 and TP53BP1 in 1 (6.3%), 1 (6.3%) and 1 (6.3%) cases, respectively. Our data exhibit that cancer-related genes ANK3, HACD4, TP53BP1, MFN1, LCMT2, RNMT, TRMT6, METTL8 and METTL16 harbor mutational ITH as well as the frameshift mutations in CRC with MSI-H. Also, the results suggest that frameshift mutations of these genes might play a role in tumorigenesis through their inactivation in CRC.

Matlak D, Szczurek E
Epistasis in genomic and survival data of cancer patients.
PLoS Comput Biol. 2017; 13(7):e1005626 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Cancer aggressiveness and its effect on patient survival depends on mutations in the tumor genome. Epistatic interactions between the mutated genes may guide the choice of anticancer therapy and set predictive factors of its success. Inhibitors targeting synthetic lethal partners of genes mutated in tumors are already utilized for efficient and specific treatment in the clinic. The space of possible epistatic interactions, however, is overwhelming, and computational methods are needed to limit the experimental effort of validating the interactions for therapy and characterizing their biomarkers. Here, we introduce SurvLRT, a statistical likelihood ratio test for identifying epistatic gene pairs and triplets from cancer patient genomic and survival data. Compared to established approaches, SurvLRT performed favorable in predicting known, experimentally verified synthetic lethal partners of PARP1 from TCGA data. Our approach is the first to test for epistasis between triplets of genes to identify biomarkers of synthetic lethality-based therapy. SurvLRT proved successful in identifying the known gene TP53BP1 as the biomarker of success of the therapy targeting PARP in BRCA1 deficient tumors. Search for other biomarkers for the same interaction revealed a region whose deletion was a more significant biomarker than deletion of TP53BP1. With the ability to detect not only pairwise but twelve different types of triple epistasis, applicability of SurvLRT goes beyond cancer therapy, to the level of characterization of shapes of fitness landscapes.

Mikuła-Pietrasik J, Uruski P, Pakuła M, et al.
Oxidative stress contributes to hepatocyte growth factor-dependent pro-senescence activity of ovarian cancer cells.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2017; 110:270-279 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cancer-promoting activity of senescent peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) has already been well evidenced both in vitro and in vivo. Here we sought to determine if ovarian cancer cells may activate senescence in HPMCs. The study showed that conditioned medium (CM) from ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3, A2780) inhibited growth and promoted the development of senescence phenotype (increased SA-β-Gal, γ-H2A.X, 53BP1, and decreased Cx43) in HPMCs. An analysis of tumors isolated from the peritoneum of patients with ovarian cancer revealed an abundance of senescent HPMCs in proximity to cancerous tissue. The presence of senescent HPMCs was incidental when fragments of peritoneum free from cancer were evaluated. An analysis of the cells' secretome followed by intervention studies with exogenous proteins and neutralizing antibodies revealed hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as the mediator of the pro-senescence impact of the cancer cells. The activity of cancerous CM and HGF was associated with an induction of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Signaling pathways involved in the senescence of HPMCs elicited by the cancer-derived CM and HGF included p38 MAPK, AKT and NF-κB. HPMCs that senesced prematurely in response to the cancer-derived CM promoted adhesion of ovarian cancer cells, however this effect was effectively prevented by the cell protection against oxidative stress. Collectively, our findings indicate that ovarian cancer cells can elicit HGF-dependent senescence in HPMCs, which may contribute to the formation of a metastatic niche for these cells within the peritoneal cavity.

Huang X, Pan Y, Cao D, et al.
UVA-induced upregulation of progerin suppresses 53BP1‑mediated NHEJ DSB repair in human keratinocytes via progerin-lamin A complex formation.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(6):3617-3624 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the primary risk factor underlying photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Mounting research has focused on the role of DNA damage response pathways in UV-induced double-strand break (DSB) repair. In the present study, we hypothesized that UVA-induced aberrant progerin upregulation may adversely affect p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1)-mediated non-homologous end joining (NHE) DSB repair in human keratinocytes. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tumors and matching normal skin tissue were sampled (n=200) to investigate whether human keratinocytes display dysregulated progerin expression as a function of advancing age and BCC status. Newborn foreskin samples (n=9) were used as a source for primary keratinocyte cultures. We investigated the effects of UVA radiation on progerin and lamin A expression as well as the effects of the silencing of progerin on lamin A protein expression in UVA-irradiated keratinocytes. We investigated whether blocking progerin‑lamin A interaction was able to rescue UVA-induced lamin A protein downregulation, 53BP1 downregulation and 53BP1-mediated NHEJ DSB repair activity. Progerin upregulation in adult keratinocytes was associated with advancing age, not BCC status. In vitro, UVA exposure significantly upregulated progerin expression by favoring alternative LMNA gene transcript splicing. UVA exposure significantly downregulated free (unbound) lamin A protein levels via progerin-lamin A complex formation. UVA exposure significantly decreased 53BP1 protein levels via enhanced progerin-lamin A complex formation. UVA-induced progerin‑lamin A complex formation was largely responsible for suppressing 53BP1-mediated NHEJ DSB repair activity. The present study is the first to demonstrate that UVA-induced progerin upregulation adversely affects 53BP1-mediated NHEJ DSB repair in human keratinocytes via progerin‑lamin A complex formation.

De Gregoriis G, Ramos JA, Fernandes PV, et al.
DNA repair genes PAXIP1 and TP53BP1 expression is associated with breast cancer prognosis.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2017; 18(6):439-449 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Despite remarkable advances in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment, advanced or recurrent breast tumors have limited therapeutic approaches. Many treatment strategies try to explore the limitations of DNA damage response (DDR) in tumor cells to selectively eliminate them. BRCT (BRCA1 C-terminal) domains are present in a superfamily of proteins involved in cell cycle checkpoints and the DDR. Tandem BRCT domains (tBRCT) represent a distinct class of these domains. We investigated the expression profile of 7 tBRCT genes (BARD1, BRCA1, LIG4, ECT2, MDC1, PAXIP1/PTIP and TP53BP1) in breast cancer specimens and observed a high correlation between PAXIP1 and TP53BP1 gene expression in tumor samples. Tumors with worse prognosis (tumor grade 3 and triple negative) showed reduced expression of tBRCT genes, notably, PAXIP1 and TP53BP1. Survival analyses data indicated that tumor status of both genes may impact prognosis. PAXIP1 and 53BP1 protein levels followed gene expression results, i.e., are intrinsically correlated, and also reduced in more advanced tumors. Evaluation of both genes in triple negative breast tumor samples which were characterized for their BRCA1 status showed that PAXIP1 is overexpressed in BRCA1 mutant tumors. Taken together our findings indicate that PAXIP1 status correlates with breast cancer staging, in a manner similar to what has been characterized for TP53BP1.

Sagawa M, Ohguchi H, Harada T, et al.
Ribonucleotide Reductase Catalytic Subunit M1 (RRM1) as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Multiple Myeloma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(17):5225-5237 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications

Yang ZM, Liao XM, Chen Y, et al.
Combining 53BP1 with BRCA1 as a biomarker to predict the sensitivity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2017; 38(7):1038-1047 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Over half of patients with BRCA1-deficient cancers do not respond to treatment with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. In this study, we report that a combination of 53BP1 and BRCA1 may serve as a biomarker of PARP inhibitor sensitivity. Based on the mRNA levels of four homologous recombination repair (HR) genes and PARP inhibitor sensitivity, we selected BRCA1-deficient MDA-MB-436 cells to conduct RNA interference. Reducing expression of 53BP1, but not the other three HR genes, was found to lower simmiparib sensitivity. Additionally, we generated 53BP1

Hastak K, Bhutra S, Parry R, Ford JM
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, an effective radiosensitizer in lung and pancreatic cancers.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(16):26344-26355 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
The development of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has revolutionized radiation therapy for lung cancers and is an emerging treatment option for pancreatic cancers. However, there are many questions on how to optimize its use in chemoradiotherapy. The most relevant addition to radiotherapy regimens are inhibitors of DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways. One such class of agents are inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In this study we examined the effects of the PARP inhibitor LT626 in combination with ionizing radiation in lung and pancreatic cancers. Our study demonstrated that combination treatment with LT626 and radiation effectively inhibited growth in lung and pancreatic cancer cell lines, better than individual treatment alone. Combination treatment also increased expression of γH2AX and 53BP1 foci and upregulated expression of phosphorylated ATM, ATR and their respective kinases. Using in vivo lung cancer xenograft models we demonstrated that LT626 functioned as an effective radiosensitizer during fractionated radiation treatment, leading to significant decrease in tumor burden and doubling the median survival compared to control group. Overall our in vitro and in vivo studies showed that PARP inhibitor LT626 acted synergistically with radiation in lung and pancreatic cancers.

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