TP53BP1

Gene Summary

Gene:TP53BP1; tumor protein p53 binding protein 1
Aliases: TP53, p202, 53BP1, TDRD30, p53BP1
Location:15q15.3
Summary:-
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TP53BP1 (cancer-related)

Deben C, Van den Bossche J, Van Der Steen N, et al.
Deep sequencing of the TP53 gene reveals a potential risk allele for non-small cell lung cancer and supports the negative prognostic value of TP53 variants.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317694327 [PubMed] Related Publications
The TP53 gene remains the most frequently altered gene in human cancer, of which variants are associated with cancer risk, therapy resistance, and poor prognosis in several tumor types. To determine the true prognostic value of TP53 variants in non-small cell lung cancer, this study conducted further research, particularly focusing on subtype and tumor stage. Therefore, we determined the TP53 status of 97 non-small cell lung cancer adenocarcinoma patients using next generation deep sequencing technology and defined the prognostic value of frequently occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms and mutations in the TP53 gene. Inactivating TP53 mutations acted as a predictor for both worse overall and progression-free survival in stage II-IV patients and patients treated with DNA-damaging (neo)adjuvant therapy. In stage I tumors, the Pro-allele of the TP53 R72P polymorphism acted as a predictor for worse overall survival. In addition, we detected the rare R213R (rs1800372, minor allele frequency: 0.0054) polymorphism in 7.2% of the patients and are the first to show the significant association with TP53 mutations in non-small cell lung cancer adenocarcinoma patients (p = 0.003). In conclusion, Our findings show an important role for TP53 variants as negative predictors for the outcome of non-small cell lung cancer adenocarcinoma patients, especially for TP53 inactivating mutations in advanced stage tumors treated with DNA-damaging agents, and provide the first evidence of the R213R G-allele as possible risk factor for non-small cell lung cancer.

Jauhri M, Bhatnagar A, Gupta S, et al.
Prevalence and coexistence of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, NRAS, TP53, and APC mutations in Indian colorectal cancer patients: Next-generation sequencing-based cohort study.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317692265 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer incidences are on a rise in India. In this study, we have analyzed the mutation frequencies of six potential biomarkers, their coexistence, association with clinicopathological characteristics, and tumor location in Indian colorectal cancer patients. Next-generation sequencing was performed to identify mutations in the six potential biomarker genes using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 112 colorectal cancer patients. The mutation frequency observed in KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, NRAS, TP53, and APC was 35.7%, 7.1%, 16.1%, 6.3%, 39.3%, and 29.5%, respectively. The significant associations of mutations were KRAS with age less than 60 years (p = 0.041), PIK3CA with males (p = 0.032), tumor stage I-II (p = 0.013), lack of metastasis in lymph nodes (p = 0.040), NRAS with rectum (p = 0.002), and APC with T2 stage of tumor growth (p = 0.013). No single patient harbored mutations in these six genes or any five genes simultaneously. Significance was noted in coexistence of KRAS with APC (p = 0.024) and mutual exclusion of KRAS with BRAF (p = 0.029). PIK3CA exon 9 was observed to be more frequently associated with KRAS mutations than PIK3CA exon 20 (p = 0.072). NRAS mutations were mutually exclusive with BRAF and PIK3CA mutations. As per our knowledge, this is the first next-generation sequencing-based biomarker study in Indian colorectal cancer patients. Frequent coexistence of gene mutations in pairs and triplets suggests that synergistic effect of overlapping mutations might further trigger the disease. In addition, infrequent coexistence of multiple gene mutations hints toward different signaling pathways for colorectal cancer tumorigenesis.

Zhang M, Zhuang G, Sun X, et al.
TP53 mutation-mediated genomic instability induces the evolution of chemoresistance and recurrence in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Diagn Pathol. 2017; 12(1):16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genomic instability caused by mutation of the checkpoint molecule TP53 may endow cancer cells with the ability to undergo genomic evolution to survive stress and treatment. We attempted to gain insight into the potential contribution of ovarian cancer genomic instability resulted from TP53 mutation to the aberrant expression of multidrug resistance gene MDR1.
METHODS: TP53 mutation status was assessed by performing nucleotide sequencing and immunohistochemistry. Ovarian cancer cell DNA ploidy was determined using Feulgen-stained smears or flow cytometry. DNA copy number was analyzed by performing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).
RESULTS: In addition to performing nucleotide sequencing for 5 cases of ovarian cancer, TP53 mutations were analyzed via immunohistochemical staining for P53. Both intensive P53 immunohistochemical staining and complete absence of signal were associated with the occurrence of TP53 mutations. HE staining and the quantification of DNA content indicated a significantly higher proportion of polyploidy and aneuploidy cells in the TP53 mutant group than in the wild-type group (p < 0.05). Moreover, in 161 epithelial ovarian cancer patients, multivariate logistic analysis identified late FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage, serous histotype, G3 grade and TP53 mutation as independent risk factors for ovarian cancer recurrence. In relapse patients, the proportion of chemoresistant cases in the TP53 wild-type group was significantly lower than in the mutant group (63.6% vs. 91.8%, p < 0.05). FISH results revealed a higher percentage of cells with >6 MDR1 copies and chromosome 7 amplication in the TP53 mutant group than in the wild-type group [11.7 ± 2.3% vs. 3.0 ± 0.7% and 2.1 ± 0.7% vs. 0.3 ± 0.05%, (p < 0.05), respectively]. And we observed a specific increase of MDR1 and chromosome 7 copy numbers in the TP53 mutant group upon disease regression (p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: TP53 mutation-associated genomic instability may promote chromosome 7 accumulation and MDR1 amplification during ovarian cancer chemoresistance and recurrence. Our findings lay the foundation for the development of promising chemotherapeutic approaches to treat aggressive and recurrent ovarian cancer.

Hecht SS
Oral Cell DNA Adducts as Potential Biomarkers for Lung Cancer Susceptibility in Cigarette Smokers.
Chem Res Toxicol. 2017; 30(1):367-375 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This perspective considers the use of oral cell DNA adducts, together with exposure and genetic information, to potentially identify those cigarette smokers at highest risk for lung cancer, so that appropriate preventive measures could be initiated at a relatively young age before too much damage has been done. There are now well established and validated analytical methods for the quantitation of urinary and serum metabolites of tobacco smoke toxicants and carcinogens. These metabolites provide a profile of exposure and in some cases lung cancer risk, but they do not yield information on the critical DNA damage parameter that leads to mutations in cancer growth control genes such as KRAS and TP53. Studies demonstrate a correlation between changes in the oral cavity and lung in cigarette smokers, due to the field effect of tobacco smoke. Oral cell DNA is readily obtained in contrast to DNA samples from the lung. Studies in which oral cell DNA and salivary DNA have been analyzed for specific DNA adducts are reviewed; some of the adducts identified have also been previously reported in lung DNA from smokers. The multiple challenges of developing a panel of oral cell DNA adducts that could be routinely quantified by mass spectrometry are discussed.

Subash-Babu P, Alshammari GM, Ignacimuthu S, Alshatwi AA
Epoxy clerodane diterpene inhibits MCF-7 human breast cancer cell growth by regulating the expression of the functional apoptotic genes Cdkn2A, Rb1, mdm2 and p53.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 87:388-396 [PubMed] Related Publications
Systematic analyses of plants that are used in traditional medicine may lead to the discovery of novel cytotoxic secondary metabolites. Diterpene possesses multiple bioactivities; here, epoxy clerodane diterpene (ECD) was isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) stem and shown potential antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The antiproliferative effect of ECD on MCF-7 cells was systematically analyzed by cell and nuclear morphology, alterations in oxidative stress, and the expression of tumor suppressor and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis-related genes. We found that the IC50 value of ECD was 3.2μM at 24h and 2.4μM at 48h. We observed that the cytotoxicity of ECD was specific to MCF-7 cells, whereas ECD was nontoxic to normal Vero and V79 cells. ECD significantly triggered intracellular ROS generation even from the lower doses of 0.6 and 1.2μM; and it is relative to higher dose of 2.4μM. Further, we used 0.6μM, 1.2μM and 2.4μM as experimental doses to analyze the relative dose-dependent effects. Nuclear staining revealed that cells treated with the 2.4μM dose exhibited characteristic apoptotic morphological changes and that 46% of the cells were apoptotic and 4% were necrotic after 48h. ECD significantly increased the expression of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway-related genes after 48h; we observed significantly (p≤0.05) increased expression of CYP1A, GPX, GSK3β and TNF-α and downregulated expression of NF-κB. ECD also increased the expression of tumor suppressor genes such as Cdkn2A, Rb1 and p53. In addition, we observed that ECD treatment significantly (p≤0.001) upregulated the expression of apoptotic genes such as Bax, cas-3, cas-8, cas-9 and p21 and downregulated the expression of BCL-2, mdm2 and PCNA. In conclusion, ECD regulates the expression of Cdkn2A, p53 and mdm2 and induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

Oliveira C, Lourenço GJ, Rinck-Junior JA, et al.
Polymorphisms in apoptosis-related genes in cutaneous melanoma prognosis: sex disparity.
Med Oncol. 2017; 34(2):19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cutaneous melanoma (CM) cells are resistant to apoptosis, and steroid hormones are involved in this process through regulation of TP53, MDM2, BAX, and BCL2 expression. We analyzed herein sex differences in outcomes of CM patients associated with TP53 c.215G>C, MDM2 c.309T>G, BAX c.-248G>A, and BCL2 c.-717C>A polymorphisms. DNA from 121 men and 116 women patients was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic digestion assays. At 60 months of follow-up, shorter progression-free survival (PFS) was seen in males with MDM2 GG + BCL2 AA (20.0 vs. 62.6%, P = 0.0008) genotype. Men carriers of the genotype had poor PFS (HR 3.78, 95% CI 1.30-11.0) than others. For women, shorter PFS was associated with TP53 GC or CC (61.4 vs. 80.8%, P = 0.01) and TP53 GC or CC + MDM2 TG or GG (59.1 vs. 85.4%, P = 0.01) genotypes at the same time. Women carriers of the genotypes had poor PFS (HR 2.46, 95% CI 1.19-5.09; HR 9.49, 95% CI 1.14-78.50) than others, respectively. Our data present, for the first time, preliminary evidence that inherited abnormalities on TP53, MDM2 and BCL2 genes, enrolled in apoptosis pathways, have a pivotal role in differences of outcomes in women and men with CM.

Merten L, Agaimy A, Moskalev EA, et al.
Inactivating Mutations of RB1 and TP53 Correlate With Sarcomatous Histomorphology and Metastasis/Recurrence in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2016; 146(6):718-726 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Loss-of-function mutations in TP53 and CDKN2A have been found at varying frequencies in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), while no mutations of RB1 have been reported to date. The aim of the current study was to determine the mutation frequency of TP53, RB1, and CDKN2A in GISTs.
METHODS: A cohort of 83 primary untreated GISTs was analyzed for mutations in TP53, RB1, and CDKN2A by massive parallel sequencing. Tumors with mutations in TP53 and RB1 were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization for the corresponding gene loci.
RESULTS: Two GISTs harbored inactivating mutations in RB1, and two other GISTs displayed inactivating mutations in TP53 All four tumors were KIT mutant high-risk tumors with highly cellular sarcomatous histomorphology and variable combinations of plump spindle cells to epithelioid highly atypical cells and high mitotic activity. Three of these patients developed recurrent or metastatic disease, while the fourth patient showed tumor rupture intraoperatively. The combined overall frequency of TP53 and RB1 mutations was 13% considering high-risk or malignant GISTs.
CONCLUSIONS: TP53 and RB1 mutations seem to be restricted to high-risk/malignant GISTs and occur at an equal although relatively low frequency.

Banerjee K, Das S, Majumder S, et al.
Modulation of cell death in human colorectal and breast cancer cells through a manganese chelate by involving GSH with intracellular p53 status.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2017; 427(1-2):35-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemotherapy is central to current treatment modality especially for advanced and metastatic colorectal and breast cancers. Targeting the key molecular events of the neoplastic cells may open a possibility to treat cancer. Although some improvements in understanding of colorectal and breast cancer treatment have been recorded, the involvement of glutathione (GSH) and dependency of p53 status on the modulation of GSH-mediated treatment efficacy have been largely overlooked. Herein, we tried to decipher the underlying mechanism of the action of Mn-N-(2-hydroxyacetophenone) glycinate (MnNG) against differential p53 status bearing Hct116, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-468 cells on the backdrop of intracellular GSH level and reveal the role of p53 status in modulating GSH-dependant abrogation of MnNG-induced apoptosis in these cancer cells. Present study discloses that MnNG targets specifically wild-type-p53 expressing Hct116 and MCF-7 cells by significantly depleting both cytosolic, mitochondrial GSH, and modulating nuclear GSH through Glutathione reductase and Glutamate-cysteine ligase depletion that may in turn induce p53-mediated intrinsic apoptosis in them. Thus GSH addition abrogates p53-mediated apoptosis in wild-type-p53 expressing cells. GSH addition also overrides MnNG-induced modulation of phase II detoxifying parameters in them. However, GSH addition partially replenishes the down-regulated or modulated GSH pool in cytosol, mitochondria, and nucleus, and relatively abrogates MnNG-induced intrinsic apoptosis in p53-mutated MDA-MB-468 cells. On the contrary, although MnNG induces significant cell death in p53-null Hct116 cells, GSH addition fails to negate MnNG-induced cell death. Thus p53 status with intracellular GSH is critical for the modulation of MnNG-induced apoptosis.

Rodriguez-Salas N, Dominguez G, Barderas R, et al.
Clinical relevance of colorectal cancer molecular subtypes.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2017; 109:9-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is characterized by alteration of critical pathways such TP53 inactivation, BRAF, PI3CA mutations, APC inactivation, KRAS, TGF-β, CTNNB mutations, disregulation of Epithelial to mesnechymal transition (EMT) genes, WNT signaling activation, MYC amplification, and others. Differences in these molecular events results in differences in phenotypic characteristics of CRC, that have been studied and classified by different models of molecular subtypes. It could have potential applications to prognosis, but also to therapeutical approaches of the CRC patients. We review and summarized the different molecular classifications and try to clarify their clinical and therapeutical relevance.

Welch JS, Petti AA, Miller CA, et al.
TP53 and Decitabine in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(21):2023-2036 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background The molecular determinants of clinical responses to decitabine therapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are unclear. Methods We enrolled 84 adult patients with AML or MDS in a single-institution trial of decitabine to identify somatic mutations and their relationships to clinical responses. Decitabine was administered at a dose of 20 mg per square meter of body-surface area per day for 10 consecutive days in monthly cycles. We performed enhanced exome or gene-panel sequencing in 67 of these patients and serial sequencing at multiple time points to evaluate patterns of mutation clearance in 54 patients. An extension cohort included 32 additional patients who received decitabine in different protocols. Results Of the 116 patients, 53 (46%) had bone marrow blast clearance (<5% blasts). Response rates were higher among patients with an unfavorable-risk cytogenetic profile than among patients with an intermediate-risk or favorable-risk cytogenetic profile (29 of 43 patients [67%] vs. 24 of 71 patients [34%], P<0.001) and among patients with TP53 mutations than among patients with wild-type TP53 (21 of 21 [100%] vs. 32 of 78 [41%], P<0.001). Previous studies have consistently shown that patients with an unfavorable-risk cytogenetic profile and TP53 mutations who receive conventional chemotherapy have poor outcomes. However, in this study of 10-day courses of decitabine, neither of these risk factors was associated with a lower rate of overall survival than the rate of survival among study patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetic profiles. Conclusions Patients with AML and MDS who had cytogenetic abnormalities associated with unfavorable risk, TP53 mutations, or both had favorable clinical responses and robust (but incomplete) mutation clearance after receiving serial 10-day courses of decitabine. Although these responses were not durable, they resulted in rates of overall survival that were similar to those among patients with AML who had an intermediate-risk cytogenetic profile and who also received serial 10-day courses of decitabine. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01687400 .).

Singh B, Kulawiec M, Owens KM, et al.
Sustained Early Disruption of Mitochondrial Function Contributes to Arsenic-Induced Prostate Tumorigenesis.
Biochemistry (Mosc). 2016; 81(10):1089-1100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen that affects millions of people worldwide, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis are unclear. Several epidemiological studies have suggested increased prostate cancer incidence and mortality due to exposure to arsenic. Due to lack of an animal model of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis, we used a prostate epithelial cell culture model to identify a role for mitochondria in arsenic-induced prostate cancer. Mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential was impacted within a few hours of arsenic exposure of non-neoplastic prostate epithelial cells. Chronic arsenic treatment induced mutations in mitochondrial genes and altered mitochondrial functions. Human non-neoplastic prostate epithelial cells continuously cultured for seven months in the presence of 5 µM arsenite showed tumorigenic properties in vitro and induced tumors in SCID mice, which indicated transformation of these cells. Protein and mRNA expression of subunits of mtOXPHOS complex I were decreased in arsenic-transformed cells. Alterations in complex I, a main site for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as well as increased expression of ROS-producing NOX4 in arsenic-transformed cells suggested a role of oxidative stress in tumorigenic transformation of prostate epithelial cells. Whole genome cGH array analyses of arsenic-transformed prostate cells identified extensive genomic instability. Our study revealed mitochondrial dysfunction induced oxidative stress and decreased expression of p53 in arsenic-transformed cells as an underlying mechanism of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomic instability. These studies suggest that early changes in mitochondrial functions are sustained during prolong arsenic exposure. Overall, our study provides evidence that arsenic disruption of mitochondrial function is an early and key step in tumorigenic transformation of prostate epithelial cells.

Tatarian T, Winter JM
Genetics of Pancreatic Cancer and Its Implications on Therapy.
Surg Clin North Am. 2016; 96(6):1207-1221 [PubMed] Related Publications
Over the past decade, emerging technologies have provided new insights into the genomic landscape of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). In addition to the commonly recognized genetic drivers of pancreatic carcinogenesis (KRAS, CDKN2A, TP53, SMAD4), new genes and pathways have been implicated. However, these efforts have not identified any new high-frequency actionable mutations, limiting the success of mutation-targeted therapy in PDA. This article provides a report on the current landscape of pancreas cancer genetics and targeted therapeutics.

Hsu CC, Chang WC, Hsu TI, et al.
Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid represses glioma stem-like cells.
J Biomed Sci. 2016; 23(1):81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are proposed to be responsible for high resistance in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treatment. In order to find new strategies aimed at reducing GSC stemness and improving GBM patient survival, we investigated the effects and mechanism of a histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), since HDAC activity has been linked to cancer stem-like cell (CSC) abundance and properties.
METHODS: Human GBM cell lines were plated in serum-free suspension cultures allowed for sphere forming and CSC enrichment. Subsequently, upon SAHA treatment, the stemness markers, cell proliferation, and viability of GSCs as well as cellular apoptosis and senescence were examined in order to clarify whether inhibition of GSCs occurs.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that SAHA attenuated cell proliferation and diminished the expression stemness-related markers (CD133 and Bmi1) in GSCs. Furthermore, at high concentrations (more than 5 μM), SAHA triggered apoptosis of GSCs accompanied by increases in both activation of caspase 8- and caspase 9-mediated pathways. Interestingly, we found that a lower dose of SAHA (1 μM and 2.5 μM) inhibited GSCs via cell cycle arrest and induced premature senescence through p53 up-regulation and p38 activation.
CONCLUSION: SAHA induces apoptosis and functions as a potent modulator of senescence via the p38-p53 pathway in GSCs. Our results provide a perspective on targeting GSCs via SAHA treatment, and suggest that SAHA could be used as a potent agent to overcome drug resistance in GBM patients.

Yao J, Huang A, Zheng X, et al.
53BP1 loss induces chemoresistance of colorectal cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil by inhibiting the ATM-CHK2-P53 pathway.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(3):419-431 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Loss of P53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) is considered a poor prognostic factor for colorectal cancer. However, its effect on chemosensitivity of colorectal cancer to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the association of 53BP1 expression with chemosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to 5-FU.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on 30 metastatic colorectal cancer samples to assess the associations of 53BP1 levels with clinical therapeutic effects. In vitro, IC50 values for 5-FU and 53BP1 levels were determined by MTT assay and Western blot in 5 colorectal cancer cell lines. Then, 53BP1 was silenced in HCT116 and HT29 cells, and cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were evaluated. Relative protein levels of ATM-CHK2-P53 pathway effectors and Bcl-2 family members were measured by Western blot. Finally, the effects of 53BP1 knockdown on tumor growth and 5-FU chemoresistance were investigated in vivo.
RESULTS: 53BP1 expression was closely related to time to progression (TTP) after first-line chemotherapy. Namely, 53BP1 downregulation resulted in reduced TTP. In addition, 53BP1 silencing increased proliferation, inhibited apoptosis and induced S phase arrest in HCT116 and HT29 cells after 5-FU treatment. Moreover, 53BP1 knockdown also reduced the protein levels of ATM-CHK2-P53 apoptotic pathway effectors, caspase9 and caspase3, while increasing Bcl-2 expression. In vivo, 53BP1 silencing accelerated tumor proliferation in nude mice and enhanced resistance to 5-FU.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirmed that 53BP1 loss might be a negative factor for chemotherapy efficacy, promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis by suppressing ATM-CHK2-P53 signaling, and finally inducing 5-FU resistance.

Gorjala P, Cairncross JG, Gary RK
p53-dependent up-regulation of CDKN1A and down-regulation of CCNE2 in response to beryllium.
Cell Prolif. 2016; 49(6):698-709 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Beryllium salts (here, beryllium sulphate) can produce a cytostatic effect in some cell types. The basis for this effect may include increased expression of proliferation inhibitors, reduced expression of proliferation promoters, or both. This study sought to determine the role of p53, the tumour-suppressing transcription factor, in mediating beryllium-induced cytostasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human A172 glioma cells express wild-type TP53 gene. Activity of p53 was experimentally manipulated using siRNA and related approaches. Key elements of the beryllium-response were compared in normal and p53-knockdown A172 cells using RT-PCR and Western blotting.
RESULTS: In A172 cells, 10 μm BeSO4 caused 300% increase in CDKN1A (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21) mRNA and 90% reduction of CCNE2 (cyclin E2) mRNA. The increased p21 mRNA and reduced cyclin E2 mRNA were each dependent on presence of functional p53. For p21, increased mRNA led to commensurately increased protein levels. In contrast, reduction in cyclin E2 mRNA levels did not lead to corresponding reductions in cyclin E2 protein. The proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 caused p53 protein to increase, but it had no effect on cyclin E2 protein levels. Cycloheximide time course studies indicated that the cyclin E2 protein half-life was more than 12 hours in these cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Beryllium elicited p53-dependent changes in mRNA levels of key determinants of cell proliferation such as p21 and cyclin E2. However, cyclin E2 protein appeared to be aberrantly regulated in this cell type, as its turnover was unexpectedly slow.

Watarai H, Okada M, Kuramoto K, et al.
Impact of H3K27 Demethylase Inhibitor GSKJ4 on NSCLC Cells Alone and in Combination with Metformin.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(11):6083-6092 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: GSKJ4, an H3K27 demethylase inhibitor, reportedly exhibits antitumor activity against specific cancers harboring genetic alterations in genes encoding chromatin modulators. However, its potential as an anticancer agent against human cancers not associated with such genetic alterations, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), remains unknown.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of GSKJ4 on the growth of three NSCLC cell lines and normal lung fibroblasts was investigated using the WST-8, dye exclusion, and colony formation assays.
RESULTS: GSKJ4, alone and in combination with an anti-diabetic drug metformin, induced cell death and inhibited the growth of NSCLC cell lines efficiently at concentrations non-toxic to normal cells, irrespective of their genetic backgrounds (mutations in the KRAS, TP53 and EGFR genes) and also of their resistance to cisplatin and paclitaxel.
CONCLUSION: GSKJ4, being a promising anticancer agent for NSCLC, may be effective against a wider spectrum of cancers than previously thought.

Pietsch T, Haberler C
Update on the integrated histopathological and genetic classification of medulloblastoma - a practical diagnostic guideline.
Clin Neuropathol. 2016 Nov/Dec; 35(6):344-352 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
The revised WHO classification of tumors of the CNS 2016 has introduced the concept of the integrated diagnosis. The definition of medulloblastoma entities now requires a combination of the traditional histological information with additional molecular/genetic features. For definition of the histopathological component of the medulloblastoma diagnosis, the tumors should be assigned to one of the four entities classic, desmoplastic/nodular (DNMB), extensive nodular (MBEN), or large cell/anaplastic (LC/A) medulloblastoma. The genetically defined component comprises the four entities WNT-activated, SHH-activated and TP53 wildtype, SHH-activated and TP53 mutant, or non-WNT/non-SHH medulloblastoma. Robust and validated methods are available to allow a precise diagnosis of these medulloblastoma entities according to the updated WHO classification, and for differential diagnostic purposes. A combination of immunohistochemical markers including β-catenin, Yap1, p75-NGFR, Otx2, and p53, in combination with targeted sequencing and copy number assessment such as FISH analysis for MYC genes allows a precise assignment of patients for risk-adapted stratification. It also allows comparison to results of study cohorts in the past and provides a robust basis for further treatment refinement.
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Chen L, Luo L, Chen W, et al.
MicroRNA-24 increases hepatocellular carcinoma cell metastasis and invasion by targeting p53: miR-24 targeted p53.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1113-1118 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-24 (miR-24), a member of the miRNA family, functions as an oncogene in various types of human cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms of miR-24 involvement in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain poorly understood. The present study revealed that miRNA-24 down-regulates p53 through binding to the 3'-UTR of p53 mRNA based on a luciferase reporter assay, and that the expression level of miR-24 could affect the invasion of HCC lines via p53. Down-regulation of p53 significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of miR-24 knockdown on the invasion of HCC cells, suggesting that miR-24 could be a potential target for HCC treatment. Moreover, our results revealed that miR-24 expression was significantly increased in HCC metastatic tumor tissues compared with matched non-metastatic tumor tissues, and that the up-regulation of miR-24 was significantly associated with down-regulation of p53 in the HCC tissues. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that miR-24 functions as an oncogene in HCC, at least partly by promoting cell invasion through down-regulation of p53. Therefore, miR-24 may be a potential therapeutic target for treatment of HCC.

Yan F, Wang X, Zhu M, Hu X
RNAi-mediated downregulation of cyclin Y to attenuate human breast cancer cell growth.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2793-2799 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclin Y (CCNY) is a newly identified PFTK1 interacting protein and has been found to be associated with the proliferation and tumorigenesis of human non-small cell lung cancer. In the present study, we analyzed the expression levels of CCNY in 65 cases of breast cancer (BC) tissues and in four BC cell lines, BT-474, MDA-MB-231, T-47D and MCF-7. Lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was employed to knock down CCNY expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The effects of CCNY depletion on cell growth were examined by MTT, colony formation and flow cytometry assays. The results showed that immunohistochemical expression of CCNY in tumor tissues is stronger than that in normal tissues. CCNY was also expressed in all four BC cells. The knockdown of CCNY resulted in a significant reduction in cell proliferation and colony formation ability. Cell cycle analysis showed that CCNY knockdown arrested MDA-MB‑231 cells in the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, depletion of CCNY inhibited BC cell growth via the activation of Bad and GSK3β, as well as cleavages of PARP and caspase-3 in a p53-dependent manner. Therefore, we believe that CCNY has biological effect in BC development, and its inhibition via an RNA interference lentiviral system may provide a therapeutic option for BC.

Dadhania V, Zhang M, Zhang L, et al.
Meta-Analysis of the Luminal and Basal Subtypes of Bladder Cancer and the Identification of Signature Immunohistochemical Markers for Clinical Use.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 12:105-117 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that bladder cancer can be divided into two molecular subtypes referred to as luminal and basal with distinct clinical behaviors and sensitivities to chemotherapy. We aimed to validate these subtypes in several clinical cohorts and identify signature immunohistochemical markers that would permit simple and cost-effective classification of the disease in primary care centers.
METHODS: We analyzed genomic expression profiles of bladder cancer in three cohorts of fresh frozen tumor samples: MD Anderson (n=132), Lund (n=308), and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) (n=408) to validate the expression signatures of luminal and basal subtypes and relate them to clinical follow-up data. We also used an MD Anderson cohort of archival bladder tumor samples (n=89) and a parallel tissue microarray to identify immunohistochemical markers that permitted the molecular classification of bladder cancer.
FINDINGS: Bladder cancers could be assigned to two candidate intrinsic molecular subtypes referred to here as luminal and basal in all of the datasets analyzed. Luminal tumors were characterized by the expression signature similar to the intermediate/superficial layers of normal urothelium. They showed the upregulation of PPARγ target genes and the enrichment for FGFR3, ELF3, CDKN1A, and TSC1 mutations. In addition, luminal tumors were characterized by the overexpression of E-Cadherin, HER2/3, Rab-25, and Src. Basal tumors showed the expression signature similar to the basal layer of normal urothelium. They showed the upregulation of p63 target genes, the enrichment for TP53 and RB1 mutations, and overexpression of CD49, Cyclin B1, and EGFR. Survival analyses showed that the muscle-invasive basal bladder cancers were more aggressive when compared to luminal cancers. The immunohistochemical expressions of only two markers, luminal (GATA3) and basal (KRT5/6), were sufficient to identify the molecular subtypes of bladder cancer with over 90% accuracy.
INTERPRETATION: The molecular subtypes of bladder cancer have distinct clinical behaviors and sensitivities to chemotherapy, and a simple two-marker immunohistochemical classifier can be used for prognostic and therapeutic stratification.
FUNDING: U.S. National Cancer Institute and National Institute of Health.

Swiatkowska A, Zydowicz P, Sroka J, Ciesiołka J
The role of the 5' terminal region of p53 mRNA in the p53 gene expression.
Acta Biochim Pol. 2016; 63(4):645-651 [PubMed] Related Publications
The p53 tumour suppressor protein is one of the major factors responsible for cell cycle regulation and protection against cancer development. This is why it is often referred to as "the guardian of the genome". On the other hand, mutations in the p53 gene are connected with more than 50% of tumours of various types. The thirty-six years of extensive research on the p53 gene and its protein products have shown how sophisticated the p53-based cell system control is. An additional level of complexity of the p53 research is connected with at least twelve p53 isoforms which have been identified in the cell. Importantly, disturbance of the p53 isoforms' expression seems to play a key role in tumorigenesis, cell differentiation and cell response to pathogenic bacteria, and RNA and DNA viruses. Expression of various p53 isoforms results from the usage of different transcription promoters, alternative splicing events and translation initiation from alternative AUG codons. The importance of the 5'-terminal regions of different p53 mRNA transcripts in the multi-level regulation of the p53 gene has recently been documented. In this review we focus on the structural features of these regions and their specific role in the p53 translation initiation process.

Notta F, Chan-Seng-Yue M, Lemire M, et al.
A renewed model of pancreatic cancer evolution based on genomic rearrangement patterns.
Nature. 2016; 538(7625):378-382 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer, a highly aggressive tumour type with uniformly poor prognosis, exemplifies the classically held view of stepwise cancer development. The current model of tumorigenesis, based on analyses of precursor lesions, termed pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PanINs) lesions, makes two predictions: first, that pancreatic cancer develops through a particular sequence of genetic alterations (KRAS, followed by CDKN2A, then TP53 and SMAD4); and second, that the evolutionary trajectory of pancreatic cancer progression is gradual because each alteration is acquired independently. A shortcoming of this model is that clonally expanded precursor lesions do not always belong to the tumour lineage, indicating that the evolutionary trajectory of the tumour lineage and precursor lesions can be divergent. This prevailing model of tumorigenesis has contributed to the clinical notion that pancreatic cancer evolves slowly and presents at a late stage. However, the propensity for this disease to rapidly metastasize and the inability to improve patient outcomes, despite efforts aimed at early detection, suggest that pancreatic cancer progression is not gradual. Here, using newly developed informatics tools, we tracked changes in DNA copy number and their associated rearrangements in tumour-enriched genomes and found that pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis is neither gradual nor follows the accepted mutation order. Two-thirds of tumours harbour complex rearrangement patterns associated with mitotic errors, consistent with punctuated equilibrium as the principal evolutionary trajectory. In a subset of cases, the consequence of such errors is the simultaneous, rather than sequential, knockout of canonical preneoplastic genetic drivers that are likely to set-off invasive cancer growth. These findings challenge the current progression model of pancreatic cancer and provide insights into the mutational processes that give rise to these aggressive tumours.

Nishida N, Kudo M
Clinical Significance of Epigenetic Alterations in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Its Association with Genetic Mutations.
Dig Dis. 2016; 34(6):708-713 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations is a hallmark of cancer genomes, including those in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Particularly, in human HCC, epigenetic changes are more frequently observed than genetic changes in a variety of cancer-related genes, suggesting a potential role for epigenetic alterations during hepatocarcinogenesis. Several environmental factors, such as inflammation, obesity, and steatosis, are reported to affect the epigenetic status in hepatocytes, which could play a role in HCC development. In addition, genetic mutations in histone modulators and chromatin regulators would be critical for the acceleration of epigenetic alteration. It is also possible that major genetic mutations of HCC, such as TP53 and CNTTB1 mutations, are associated with the disturbance of epigenetic integrity. For example, specific TP53 mutations frequently induced by aflatoxin B1 exposure might affect histone modifiers and nucleosome remodelers. Generally, epigenetic alteration is reversible, because of which dysregulation of transcription takes place, without affecting protein structure. Therefore, differentiation therapy is one of the potential approaches for HCC with advanced epigenetic alterations. On the other hand, a tumor carrying an accumulation of genetic mutations would result in many abnormal proteins that could be recognized as non-self and could be targets for immune reactions; thus, immune-checkpoint blockers should be effective for HCCs with genetic hypermutation. Although the emergence of genetic and epigenetic alterations could be linked to each other and there could be some crossover or convergence between these cancer pathways, characterization of the mutation spectrum of genetic and epigenetic alterations could influence future HCC treatment.

Asou N
Prognostic stratification in the treatment of AML.
Rinsho Ketsueki. 2016; 57(10):1918-1927 [PubMed] Related Publications
Current treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) still relies on intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). AML is a heterogeneous neoplasm characterized by distinct chromosomal and genetic abnormalities. Recent comprehensive gene analyses have highlighted distinct genetic subgroups that are associated with different responses to chemotherapy. Therefore, the molecular landscape of AML is fundamental to the development of novel therapeutic approaches and provides opportunities for individualization of therapy. In addition, the age-related incidence of clonal hematopoiesis is high, affecting nearly 10% of healthy people more than 65 years of age. Clonal hematopoiesis is confirmed by the presence of mutations related to AML including genes involved in DNA methylation, chromatin modification and RNA splicing. In the analysis of gene mutation profiles in secondary AML (s-AML) from myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms, secondary-type gene mutations were identified with >95% specificity in s-AML as compared with de novo AML, including RNA splicing, chromatin modification and cohesion complex genes, and were highly associated with poor responses to chemotherapy as well as TP53 mutation. It is important to identify genetic subgroups at relatively high-risk of relapses who should receive allogeneic HSCT during the first remission. In this review, prognostic stratification for individualized treatment of AML is discussed.

Minervini CF, Cumbo C, Orsini P, et al.
TP53 gene mutation analysis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by nanopore MinION sequencing.
Diagn Pathol. 2016; 11(1):96 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The assessment of TP53 mutational status is becoming a routine clinical practice for chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients (CLL). A broad spectrum of molecular techniques has been employed so far, including both direct Sanger sequencing and next generation sequencing. Oxford Nanopore Technologies recently released the MinION an USB-interfaced sequencer. In this paper we report our experience, with the MinION technology for the detection of the TP53 gene mutation in CLL patients. Twelve CLL patients at diagnosis were included in this study. All except one patient showed the TP53 gene deletion in Fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments. Patients were investigated for TP53 mutation by Sanger and by MinION sequencing. Analysis by Sanger was performed according with the IARC protocol. Analysis by MinION was performed adopting a strategy based on long template PCR, read error correction, and post variant calling filtering.
RESULTS: Due to the high error rate of nanopore technology, sequence data were both used directly and before correction with two different in silico methods: ALEC and nanocorrect. A mean error rate of 15 % was detected before correction that was reduced to 4-5 % after correction. Analysis by Sanger sequencing was able to detect four patients mutated for TP53. MinION analysis detected one more mutated patient previously not detected from Sanger.
CONCLUSION: In our hands, the Nanopore technology shows correlation with Sanger sequencing but more sensitive, manageable and less expensive, and therefore has proven to be a useful tool for TP53 gene mutation detection.

Apsalikov B, Manambaeva Z, Ospanov E, et al.
BRCA1 and TP53 Gene-Mutations: Family Predisposition and Radioecological Risk of Developing Breast Cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(8):4059-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Frequencies of polymorphisms of genes BRCA1 and TP53 in breast cancer (BC) patients with a BC family history and radiation history were assessed and compared in the Semey region of Kazakhstan. The study included 60 women directly irradiated by the activities of the Semipalatinsk test site with a calculated effective equivalent dose of 500 mSv and their first generation descendants (group BC+Her+Exp); 65 women with family BC and absence of radiological history - the effective equivalent dose due to anthropogenic sources not exceeding 50 mSv (group BC+Her-Exp). The comparison group consisted of 65 women patients with breast cancer without family and radiological history (BC-Her-Exp). The control group comprised 60 women without breast cancer and without family and radiological history (nonBC). We carried out the genotyping of the polymorphisms c.2311T>C, c.4308T>C and 5382insC of the BRCA1 gene and rs1042522 of the TP53 gene. The frequency of the polymorphism c.2311T>C was significantly higher in patients of the group BC+Her+Exp than in healthy women, and of the polymorphism 5382insC in BC+Her+Exp compared to all other groups. The frequency of the rs1042522 polymorphism of TP53 was significantly higher in all groups of patients with breast cancer compared with the control group. Differences between groups of women with breast cancer were significant only in BC+Her+Exp vs. BC+Her-Exp. Combinations of polymorphisms of the genes BRCA1 and TP53 predominated in women with a family and radiological history.

Shin K, Kim KH, Yoon MS, et al.
Expression of Interactive Genes Associated with Apoptosis and Their Prognostic Value for Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma.
Adv Clin Exp Med. 2016 May-Jun; 25(3):513-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant ovarian tumor is one of the leading causes of worldwide cancer death. It is usually characterized by insidious onset and late diagnosis because of the absence of symptoms, allowing ovarian cancer cases to progress rapidly and become unresectable. The tumor suppressor, p53, plays an important role in regulating cell cycles and apoptosis. p53 is regulated by several molecules, and it interacts with other apoptotic proteins.
OBJECTIVES: To compare the prognosis of ovarian serous carcinoma and evaluate the expression of DNA-PKcs, Akt3, GSK-3β, and p53 in cancerous cells.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: DNA-PKcs, Akt3, GSK-3β, and p53 expression levels were scored using immunohistochemistry staining of tissue samples from 132 women with ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. Expression was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Analyses were stratified by age, tumor grades, cancer stages and serum CA 125 levels.
RESULTS: Significant differences in DNA-PKcs, Akt3, and p53 expression were observed between participants with different stages and tumor grades of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. DNA-PKcs and p53 expression increased along with increasing tumor grade. Meanwhile, DNA-PKcs, Akt3, and p53 expression increased along with increasing cancer stage, and with a decrease in 5-year overall survival rate.
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that elevated expression of DNA-PKcs, Akt3, and p53 in ovarian serous adenocarcinoma tissues are an indication of more advanced disease and worse prognosis.

Arora H, Qureshi R, Rizvi MA, et al.
Study of apoptosis-related interactions in colorectal cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14415-14425 [PubMed] Related Publications
Abnormalities in apoptotic functions contribute to the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. In this study, molecular interactions behind the apoptotic regulation have been explored. For this purpose, enrichment analysis was performed considering microRNAs (miRNAs) that putatively target TP53 and altered during colon cancer. This revealed gene associated with both TP53 and miRNAs. Further analysis showed that a significant molecular interaction between the shortlisted candidates (TP53, miR-143, KRAS, BCL2, and PLK1) exists. Mutation study was conducted to confirm the clinical relevance of candidates. It showed that the mutation extent does not significantly alter survival in patients thus making these candidates suitable as drug targets. Overall, we showed the importance of interactions between TP53, miR-143, KRAS, BCL2, and PLK1 with respect to colorectal cancer using bioinformatics approach.

Nguyen-Khac F, Borie C, Callet-Bauchu E, et al.
Cytogenetics in the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an update by the Groupe francophone de cytogénétique hématologique (GFCH).
Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2016; 74(5):561-567 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acquired recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities are frequent in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). They can be associated with good or poor prognostic factors, and also with gene mutations. Chromosomal abnormalities could be clonal or sub-clonal. Assessing the TP53 status (deletion/mutation) is currently mandatory before treating patients. The search for 11q deletion (ATM gene) is also recommended. Finally, the prognostic value of other chromosomal abnormalities including complex karyotype is still debated.

Endo A, Tomizawa D, Aoki Y, et al.
EWSR1/ELF5 induces acute myeloid leukemia by inhibiting p53/p21 pathway.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(12):1745-1754 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
The Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) gene is known to fuse with various partner genes to promote the development of the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors and other sarcomas. In contrast, the association of EWSR1 chimeric fusion genes with leukemia has rarely been reported. We identified a novel EWSR1-associated chimeric fusion gene in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia harboring 46, XY, t (11; 22) (p13; q12) karyotype abnormality. The patient was refractory to intensified chemotherapy including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Total RNA paired-end sequencing identified a novel chimeric fusion gene as EWSR1/ELF5, a member of the E26 transformation-specific transcription factor family. Transduction of EWSR1/ELF5 to NIH3T3 cells induced transformation by attenuating with the p53/p21-dependent pathway. The injection of EWSR1/ELF5-transduced NIH3T3 cells into NSG-SCID mice systematically induced the development of tumors in vivo. These results revealed the oncogenic potency of EWSR1/ELF5.

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