Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome)


Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (also known as Gorlin Syndrome) is an autosomal dominant condition characterised by the appearance of basal cell carcinomas, together with skeletal abnormalities, odontogenic keratocysts and increased risk of Medulloblastoma. Medulloblastoma develops in about 5 out of every 100 children with the syndrome.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • patched receptors
  • Base Sequence
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Exons
  • Infant
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Genetic Linkage
  • Spasms, Infantile
  • Chromosome 9
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome
  • Gene Deletion
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) - Skin
  • p53 Protein
  • Adolescents
  • SUFU
  • X-Ray Computed Tomography
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Heterozygote
  • Mutation
  • Alleles
  • Cancer DNA
  • Codon, Nonsense
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Frameshift Mutation
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Patched-1 Receptor
  • Visual Fields
  • Spina Bifida Occulta
  • Cerebellar Neoplasms
  • Transcription
  • Phenotype
  • Genes, Dominant
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression (4)

How to use this data tableClicking on the Gene or Topic will take you to a separate more detailed page. Sort this list by clicking on a column heading e.g. 'Gene' or 'Topic'.

PTCH1 9q22.32 PTC, BCNS, HPE7, PTC1, PTCH, NBCCS, PTCH11 Germline
-PTCH1 mutation in Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome
SMO 7q32.1 Gx, CRJS, SMOH, FZD11 -SMO and Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome
PTCH2 1p34.1 PTC2 Germline
-PTCH2 mutation in Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome
SUFU 10q24.32 SUFUH, SUFUXL, PRO1280 Germline
-SUFU mutation in Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome
-SUFU germline mutations in Medulloblastoma associated with Gorlin Syndrome

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications

Hill CR, Theos A
What's New in Genetic Skin Diseases.
Dermatol Clin. 2019; 37(2):229-239 [PubMed] Related Publications
The discoveries of new genes underlying genetic skin diseases have occurred at a rapid pace, supported by advances in DNA sequencing technologies. These discoveries have translated to an improved understanding of disease mechanisms at a molecular level and identified new therapeutic options based on molecular targets. This article highlights just a few of these recent discoveries for a diverse group of skin diseases, including tuberous sclerosis complex, ichthyoses, overgrowth syndromes, interferonopathies, and basal cell nevus syndrome, and how this has translated into novel targeted therapies and improved patient care.

Scalia AC, Farulla A, Fiocchi F, et al.
Imaging features of uterine and ovarian fibromatosis in Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome.
J Radiol Case Rep. 2018; 12(9):21-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome also known as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder. It is characterized by basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, skeletal abnormalities and in a minority of female patients bilateral calcified ovarian fibromas. It is challenging to radiologically assess ovarian fibromas as they have similar imaging patterns to some malignant ovarian lesions. However, it is vitally important to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions to determine patients' suitability for fertility-sparing surgery. This report describes a case of a 25 year-old patient with Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome and bilateral ovarian fibromas.

Basset-Seguin N
Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2018; 145 Suppl 5:VS36-VS41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Until recently, advanced BCC were only accessible to a highly morbid surgery not necessarily proving to be carcinologic, and leaving terrible dysmorphic sequelae hard to accept by the patient. Another possibility, the only one in case of metastatic BCC, was chemotherapy which efficacy has never been proven in a clinical trial. Radiotherapy is most often not accessible because of previous radiotherapy or because of the localization or the extension of the lesion. The discovery of the importance of the sonic hedgehog pathway in the physiopathology of BCC has opened a new strategy with the development of targeted anti SMO drugs inactivating the pathway. Two molecules have become available following Phase I and II studies: vismodegib (Erivedge®) the first in class indicated for locally advanced and metastatic BCC and sonidegib (Odomzo®) indicated only for locally advanced BCC. The pharmacokinetic profiles of sonidegib and vismodegib showed several differences. No head to head comparative studies are available between these two drugs. Their pivotal phase II studies had similar study designs and endpoints. The objective response rate (ORR) by central review for vismodegib was 47.6% (95% CI 35.5-60.6) at 21 months follow-up. The ORR for sonidegib according to central review at 18 months follow-up is 56.1% (95% CI 43.3-68.3). Although both treatments share a similar adverse event profile with possible numerically differences in incidence, most patients will discontinue hedgehog inhibitors treatment in the long term because of side effects. Some resistant cases to these drugs have been described but are rather rare. In case of resistance or bad tolerability to the drug future hopes rely on immunotherapy currently under investigation. © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Cet article fait partie du numéro supplément Prise en charge des carcinomes basocellulaires difficiles à traiter réalisé avec le soutien institutionnel de Sun Pharma.

Gianferante DM, Rotunno M, Dean M, et al.
Whole-exome sequencing of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome families and review of Human Gene Mutation Database PTCH1 mutation data.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2018; 6(6):1168-1180 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with variable expression and nearly complete penetrance. PTCH1 is the major susceptibility locus and has no known hot spots or genotype-phenotype relationships.
METHODS: We evaluated 18 NBCCS National Cancer Institute (NCI) families plus PTCH1 data on 333 NBCCS disease-causing mutations (DM) reported in the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). National Cancer Institute families underwent comprehensive genomic evaluation, and clinical data were extracted from NCI and HGMD cases. Genotype-phenotype relationships were analyzed using Fisher's exact tests focusing on mutation type and PTCH1 domains.
RESULTS: PTCH1 pathogenic mutations were identified in 16 of 18 NCI families, including three previously mutation-negative families. PTCH1 mutations were spread across the gene with no hot spot. After adjustment for multiple tests, a statistically significant genotype-phenotype association was observed for developmental delay and gross deletion-insertions (p = 9.0 × 10
CONCLUSION: Overall, 89% of our NCI families had a pathogenic PTCH1 mutation. The identification of PTCH1 mutations in previously mutation-negative families underscores the importance of repeated testing when new technologies become available. Additional clinical information linked to mutation databases would enhance follow-up and future studies of genotype-phenotype relationships.

Vulin A, Sedkaoui M, Moratille S, et al.
Severe PATCHED1 Deficiency in Cancer-Prone Gorlin Patient Cells Results in Intrinsic Radiosensitivity.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018; 102(2):417-425 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Gorlin syndrome (or basal-cell nevus syndrome) is a cancer-prone genetic disease in which hypersusceptibility to secondary cancer and tissue reaction after radiation therapy is debated, as is increased radiosensitivity at cellular level. Gorlin syndrome results from heterozygous mutations in the PTCH1 gene for 60% of patients, and we therefore aimed to highlight correlations between intrinsic radiosensitivity and PTCH1 gene expression in fibroblasts from adult patients with Gorlin syndrome.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: The radiosensitivity of fibroblasts from 6 patients with Gorlin syndrome was determined by cell-survival assay after high (0.5-3.5 Gy) and low (50-250 mGy) γ-ray doses. PTCH1 and DNA damage response gene expression was characterized by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. DNA damage and repair were investigated by γH2AX and 53BP1 foci assay. PTCH1 knockdown was performed in cells from healthy donors by using stable RNA interference. Gorlin cells were genotyped by 2 complementary sequencing methods.
RESULTS: Only cells from patients with Gorlin syndrome who presented severe deficiency in PATCHED1 protein exhibited a significant increase in cellular radiosensitivity, affecting cell responses to both high and low radiation doses. For 2 of the radiosensitive cell strains, heterozygous mutations in the 5' end of PTCH1 gene explain PATCHED1 protein deficiency. In all sensitive cells, DNA damage response pathways (ATM, CHK2, and P53 levels and activation by phosphorylation) were deregulated after irradiation, whereas DSB repair recognition was unimpaired. Furthermore, normal cells with RNA interference-mediated PTCH1 deficiency showed reduced survival after irradiation, directly linking this gene to high- and low-dose radiosensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we show an inverse correlation between PTCH1 expression level and cellular radiosensitivity, suggesting an explanation for the conflicting results previously reported for Gorlin syndrome and possibly providing a basis for prognostic screens for radiosensitive patients with Gorlin syndrome and PTCH1 mutations.

Gielen RCAM, Reinders MGHC, Koillinen HK, et al.
PTCH1 isoform 1b is the major transcript in the development of basal cell nevus syndrome.
J Hum Genet. 2018; 63(9):965-969 [PubMed] Related Publications
Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) is an autosomal dominant disorder most commonly caused by a germline mutation in the PTCH1 gene. PTCH1 is known to have different isoforms with different functional properties and expression patterns among tissues. We detected a novel, pathogenic de novo mutation in PTCH1 isoform 1b (c.114delG) in a BCNS patient. Furthermore, we elucidated the specific expression pattern of PTCH1 isoforms in normal skin, BCC and peripheral blood by studying expression of different PTCH1 isoforms. Human skin showed expression of isoforms 1b and 1d, while peripheral blood additionally showed 1a and 1e expression. BCCs showed expression of all isoforms. Here we report a patient with a novel, isoform 1b specific mutation in PTCH1 and thereby distinguish PTCH1 isoform 1b as the major transcript in the development of BCNS.

Reinders MG, van Hout AF, Cosgun B, et al.
New mutations and an updated database for the patched-1 (PTCH1) gene.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2018; 6(3):409-415 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), maxillary keratocysts, and cerebral calcifications. BCNS most commonly is caused by a germline mutation in the patched-1 (PTCH1) gene. PTCH1 mutations are also described in patients with holoprosencephaly.
METHODS: We have established a locus-specific database for the PTCH1 gene using the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD). We included 117 new PTCH1 variations, in addition to 331 previously published unique PTCH1 mutations. These new mutations were found in 141 patients who had a positive PTCH1 mutation analysis in either the VU University Medical Centre (VUMC) or Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC) between 1995 and 2015.
RESULTS: The database contains 331 previously published unique PTCH1 mutations and 117 new PTCH1 variations.
CONCLUSION: We have established a locus-specific database for the PTCH1 gene using the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD). The database provides an open collection for both clinicians and researchers and is accessible online at

Durmaz CD, Evans G, Smith MJ, et al.
A Novel PTCH1 Frameshift Mutation Leading to Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome.
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2018; 154(2):57-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a rare multisystemic autosomal dominant disorder typically presenting with cutaneous basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratocysts, and skeletal anomalies. NBCCS is caused by heterozygous mutations in the PTCH1 gene in chromosome 9q22, in the PTCH2 gene in 1p34, or the SUFU gene in 10q24.32. Here, we report on an 18-month-old boy presenting with medulloblastoma, frontal bossing, and multiple skeletal anomalies and his father who has basal cell carcinomas, palmar pits, macrocephaly, bifid ribs, calcification of falx cerebri, and a history of surgery for odontogenic keratocyst. These clinical findings were compatible with the diagnosis of NBCCS, and a novel mutation, c.1249delC; p.Gln417Lysfs*15, was found in PTCH1 causing a premature stop codon.

Musani V, Ozretić P, Trnski D, et al.
Potential hot spot for de novo mutations in PTCH1 gene in Gorlin syndrome patients: a case report of twins from Croatia.
Croat Med J. 2018; 59(1):20-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We describe a case of twins with sporadic Gorlin syndrome. Both twins had common Gorlin syndrome features including calcification of the falx cerebri, multiple jaw keratocysts, and multiple basal cell carcinomas, but with different expressivity. One brother also had benign testicular mesothelioma. We propose this tumor type as a possible new feature of Gorlin syndrome. Gorlin syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by both developmental abnormalities and cancer predisposition, with variable expression of various developmental abnormalities and different types of tumors. The syndrome is primarily caused by mutations in the Patched 1 (PTCH1) gene, although rare mutations of Patched 2 (PTCH2) or Suppressor of Fused (SUFU) genes have also been found. Neither founder mutations nor hot spot locations have been described for PTCH1 in Gorlin syndrome patients. Although de novo mutations of the PTCH1 gene occur in almost 50% of Gorlin syndrome cases, there are a few recurrent mutations. Our twin patients were carriers of a de novo mutation in the PTCH1 gene, c.3364_3365delAT (p.Met1122ValfsX22). This is, to our knowledge, the first Gorlin syndrome-causing mutation that has been reported four independent times in distant geographical locations. Therefore, we propose the location of the described mutation as a potential hot spot for mutations in PTCH1.

Sim YC, Kim GH, Choi SW, Ahn KM
Novel PTCH1 Gene Mutation in Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome.
J Craniofac Surg. 2018; 29(3):e252-e255 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to report clinical characteristics, surgical results, and new PTCH1 gene mutations in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). Five patients were referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery from local dental clinics between 2006 and 2016 to treat multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs). The cystic lesions were enucleated and peripheral ostectomy was performed to obtain safety margin. Recurrence and/or de novo development of KOT were assessed. Gene analysis using peripheral blood was performed in all patients to identify the mutation of PTCH1 gene. Three patients showed familial history of first-degree relatives. Of the major criteria, all patients presented KOT but only 1 patient had basal cell carcinoma. Of the minor criteria, 4 of the 5 patients presented macrocephaly and hypertelorism. During follow-up periods, all patients showed recurrence and/or de novo development of KOT in the jaw bone. Mutation analysis of PTCH1 gene showed 3 frameshifts (c.817_818ins(T), c.1226_1227ins(A), and c.2748del(C)), 1 splicing (c.1504-2A>T), and 1 missense (c.385T>C) mutation. Mutations were found in exon 1, 6, 9, 17, and intron 10. Regular follow-up is necessary because recurrence rate of KOT was very high. To help early diagnosis, it is essential to routinely perform genetic testing to detect PTCH1 gene mutations among patients with NBCCS.

Palacios-Álvarez I, González-Sarmiento R, Fernández-López E
Gorlin Syndrome.
Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2018; 109(3):207-217 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gorlin syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. Of particular importance is the PTCH1 gene. The disease is characterized by the development of multiple basal cell carcinomas at young ages. These tumors may present with other skin manifestations such as palmoplantar pits and with extracutaneous manifestations such as odontogenic keratocysts and medulloblastoma. Although the dermatologist may be key for recognizing clinical suspicion of the syndrome, a multidisciplinary team is usually necessary for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. Skin treatment may be complicated due to the large number of basal cell carcinomas and the extent of involvement. In recent years, new drugs that inhibit targets in the sonic hedgehog pathway have been developed. Although these agents appear promising options for patients with Gorlin syndrome, their efficacy is limited by adverse effects and the development of resistance.

Castro-Mujica MDC, Barletta-Carrillo C, Poterico JA, et al.
[Nevoid basal-cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome): report of two cases and review of the literature].
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2017 Oct-Dec; 34(4):744-750 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gorlin syndrome (GS) is a genetic disorder with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. GS is caused by germline mutations in the genes PTCH1 or SUFU, which are components of the Sonic hedgehog molecular pathway. GS is characterized by the presence of multiple nevoid basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic cysts, calcification of the brain sickle, and lesions in the palms and soles. This study is the first to report cases in Peru of patients with GS who underwent genetic evaluation and counseling. We present two GS cases that meet the clinical criteria for the syndrome and review the literature.

Pilkington S, McKinley LH, Miller RA
Pediatric nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
Cutis. 2017; 100(6):423-426 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a rare, autosomal-dominant, cancer-predisposing, multisystem disorder. The clinical manifestations of NBCCS include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts, palmar or plantar pits, and calcification of the falx cerebri. We present a case of an 11-year-old boy with Fitzpatrick skin type V who presented with multiple facial lesions and a history of maxillary keratocysts. Skin biopsy was consistent with pigmented BCC of the right nasolabial fold. Further clinical workup revealed multiple pigmented BCCs, palmoplantar pits, and calcification of the tentorium. Genetic testing revealed a heterozygous mutation in the patched 1 gene, PTCH

Huq AJ, Walsh M, Rajagopalan B, et al.
Mutations in SUFU and PTCH1 genes may cause different cutaneous cancer predisposition syndromes: similar, but not the same.
Fam Cancer. 2018; 17(4):601-606 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many cancer predisposition syndromes are preceded or accompanied by a range of typical skin signs. Gorlin syndrome is a rare multisystem inherited disorder which can predispose to basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), childhood medulloblastomas in addition to various developmental abnormalities; the majority of cases are due to mutations in the PTCH1 gene. Approximately 5% of cases have been attributed to a mutation in the SUFU gene. Certain phenotypic features have been identified as being more prevalent in individuals with a SUFU mutation such as childhood medulloblastoma, infundibulocystic BCCs and trichoepitheliomas. Recently hamartomatous skin lesions have also been noted in families with childhood medulloblastoma, a "Gorlin like" phenotype and a SUFU mutation. Here we describe a family previously diagnosed with Gorlin syndrome with a novel SUFU splice site deleterious genetic variant, who have several dermatological features including palmar sclerotic fibromas which has not been described in relation to a SUFU mutation before. We highlight the features more prominent in individuals with a SUFU mutation. It is important to note that emerging therapies for treatment of BCCs in patients with a PTCH1 mutation may not be effective in those with a SUFU mutation.

Ponti G, Manfredini M, Pastorino L, et al.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(1):471-476 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCC), odontogenic tumors and various skeletal anomalies. Basaloid follicular hamartomas (BFHs) constitute rare neoplasms that can be detected in sporadic and familial settings as in the Basaloid Follicular Hamartoma Syndrome (BFHS). Although BFHS shares clinical, histopathological and genetic overlapping with the NBCCS, they are still considered two distinctive entities. The aim of our single-institution study was the analysis of a cohort of PTCH1-mutated patients in order to define clinical and biomolecular relationship between NBCCS and BFHs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our study we evaluated PTCH1 gene-carrier probands affected by NBCCS to detect the incidence of BFHs and their correlation with this rare syndrome.
RESULTS: Among probands we recognized 4 patients with BFHs. We found 15 germline PTCH1 mutations, uniformly distributed across the PTCH1 gene. Six of them had familial history of NBCCS, two of them were novel and have not been described previously.
CONCLUSION: NBCCS and BFHS may be the same genetic entity and not two distinctive syndromes. The inclusion of BFH in the NBCCS cutaneous tumor spectrum might be useful for the recognition of misdiagnosed NBCCS cases that could benefit from tailored surveillance strategies.

França JA, de Sousa SF, Diniz MG, et al.
Absence of BRAFV600E mutation in odontogenic keratocysts.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2018; 47(2):186-191 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the patched 1 (PTCH1) gene are the main genetic alteration reported in sporadic and nevoid basal cell carcinoma-associated odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). Oncogenic mutations, including BRAFV600E, previously considered exclusive of malignant neoplasms have been reported in odontogenic tumors. Recently, a high frequency of BRAFV600E mutation has been reported in OKC. Because of the considerable recurrence rate of OKC, the identification of druggable genetic mutations can be relevant in the management of extensive lesions.
METHODS: A set of 28 OKCs was included in this work. Initially, 10 sporadic and eight OKC samples from four NBCCS patients (a pair of lesions from each syndromic patient) were submitted to targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 2800 different mutations in 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, including BRAF. Ten extra sporadic OKC samples were included to assess BRAFV600E mutation using TaqMan allele-specific qPCR.
RESULTS: The following missense mutations occurred in one case each: ATM p.Ser333Phe, SMO p.Gly416Glu, PIK3CA p.Ser326Phe, FBXW7 p.Ser438Phe, JAK2 p.Ser605Phe, PTEN p.Arg173His, ATM p.Cys353Arg, PTEN p.Ser294Arg, MET p.His1112Tyr. None of the 18 samples showed the BRAFV600E (or any other V600) mutation in the NGS. BRAFV600E mutation was detected by qPCR in one of the 10 OKC. Collectively, our results show BRAFV600E mutation in 1 of 28 OKC cases.
CONCLUSION: On the basis of our results, OKCs do not present recurrent hotspot mutations in these 50 genes commonly mutated in cancer. In addition, BRAFV600E does not play a central role in OKC pathogenesis.

Lee E, Mahani MG, Lu JC, et al.
Primary cardiac tumors associated with genetic syndromes: a comprehensive review.
Pediatr Radiol. 2018; 48(2):156-164 [PubMed] Related Publications
Various cardiac tumors occur in the setting of a genetic syndrome such as myxomas in Carney complex and rhabdomyomas in tuberous sclerosis. Tumor biology can be different in syndromic forms, and on imaging children sometimes demonstrate additional manifestations of the underlying syndrome. We discuss the imaging appearance of cardiac tumors occurring in the framework of a genetic syndrome, the findings that suggest an underlying syndrome, and the impact on management.

Chiang A, Jaju PD, Batra P, et al.
Genomic Stability in Syndromic Basal Cell Carcinoma.
J Invest Dermatol. 2018; 138(5):1044-1051 [PubMed] Related Publications
Basal cell cancers (BCCs) are characterized by upregulation of Hedgehog pathway through loss of PTCH1 or activation of SMO, and SMO inhibitors, such as vismodegib, are effective therapies for advanced BCCs. Although most BCCs are sporadic, rare individuals with basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) harbor germline defects in PTCH1 and develop up to hundreds of tumors that are histopathologically indistinguishable from sporadic BCCs. Interestingly, BCNS-BCCs are more responsive to SMO inhibitors than sporadic BCCs, with minimal development of resistance. Given differences in clinical course and therapy response, we sought to characterize BCCs in the setting of BCNS. We found that BCNS individuals with low tumor burden demonstrated significantly fewer UV signature somatic mutations and lower overall somatic mutational load compared to BCNS individuals with high burden, supporting a role of UV exposure in driving BCC development in BCNS individuals. However, compared with sporadic BCCs, BCNS-BCCs have a significantly lower mutational load, lower proportion of UV mutagenesis, increased genomic stability, and harbor fewer functionally resistant SMO mutations at baseline, explaining why BCNS-BCCs lack intrinsic resistance to SMO inhibitors. BCNS-BCCs appear to have reduced mutator phenotype compared with sporadic BCCs, which may contribute to their relatively more indolent clinical course and responsiveness to therapy.

Hasegawa D, Ochiai-Shino H, Onodera S, et al.
Gorlin syndrome-derived induced pluripotent stem cells are hypersensitive to hedgehog-mediated osteogenic induction.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(10):e0186879 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gorlin syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome that predisposes a patient to the formation of basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, and skeletal anomalies. Causative mutations in several genes associated with the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway, including PTCH1, have been identified in Gorlin syndrome patients. However, no definitive genotype-phenotype correlations are evident in these patients, and their clinical presentation varies greatly, often leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. We generated iPSCs from four unrelated Gorlin syndrome patients with loss-of-function mutations in PTCH1 using the Sendai virus vector (SeVdp(KOSM)302). The patient-derived iPSCs exhibited basic iPSC features, including stem cell marker expression, totipotency, and the ability to form teratomas. GLI1 expression levels were greater in fibroblasts and patient-derived iPSCs than in the corresponding control cells. Patient-derived iPSCs expressed lower basal levels than control iPSCs of the genes encoding the Hh ligands Indian Hedgehog (IHH) and SHH, the Hh acetyltransferase HHAT, Wnt proteins, BMP4, and BMP6. Most of these genes were upregulated in patient-derived iPSCs grown in osteoblast differentiation medium (OBM) and downregulated in control iPSCs cultured in OBM. The expression of GLI1 and GLI2 substantially decreased in both control and patient-derived iPSCs cultured in OBM, whereas GLI3, SHH, and IHH were upregulated in patient-derived iPSCs and downregulated in control iPSCs grown in OBM. Activation of Smoothened by SAG in cells grown in OBM significantly enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity in patient-derived iPSCs compared with control iPSC lines. In summary, patient-derived iPSCs expressed lower basal levels than the control iPSCs of the genes encoding Hh, Wnt, and bone morphogenetic proteins, but their expression of these genes strongly increased under osteogenic conditions. These findings indicate that patient-derived iPSCs are hypersensitive to osteogenic induction. We propose that Hh signaling is constituently active in iPSCs from Gorlin syndrome patients, enhancing their response to osteogenic induction and contributing to disease-associated abnormalities.

Lu N, Wang J, Zhu B, et al.
Whole-exome sequencing to identify novel mutations of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome in a Chinese population.
Cancer Biomark. 2017; 21(1):161-168 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a rare autosomal dominant disease with a complex genetic etiology. Although three causative genes (PTCH1, PTCH2, SUFU) have been identified through linkage analysis and Sanger sequencing, the genetic background of NBCCS hasn't been fully understood.
METHODS: We performed a whole-exome sequencing (WES) in a Han Chinese NBCCS family and two unaffected volunteers to search for its causative gene. Bioinformatic analysis was used to select candidate genes and analyze the functional networks of each candidate gene.
RESULTS: A total of 8 single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) were detected in PTCH1, PTCH2 and SUFU in all the 5 subjects, however none of them was considered the pathogenic genetic mutation in this NBCCS family. The following filtering process identified 17 novel candidate genes (GBP3, AMPD1, ASPM, UNC5C, RBM46, HSPA1L, PNPLA1, GPR126, AP5Z1, ZFHX4, KIF24, C10orf128, COX15, GPRC5A, UGGT2, RHBDF1, RPUSD1). Among them ZFHX4 had been already identified as a new basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and was considered the most likely pathogenic gene for this NBCCS family. The functional network analysis revealed that ZFHX4 may be involved in notch signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study reported the identification of 17 novel candidate genes in a Han Chinese family through WES. ZFHX4 may be a susceptibility gene for NBCCS in Chinese population.

Noguchi K, Wakai K, Kiyono T, et al.
Molecular analysis of keratocystic odontogenic tumor cell lines derived from sporadic and basal cell nevus syndrome patients.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(6):1731-1738 [PubMed] Related Publications
Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a benign tumor often associated with basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Mutations in Patched 1 (PTCH1), the Hedgehog (Hh) receptor, are responsible for BCNS. BCNS is distinguished by morphological anomalies and predisposition to benign and malignant tumors, including medulloblastoma, basal cell carcinoma, KCOT and ovarian fibromas. Among these tumors, KCOT is the least well studied because a suitable model system is not available for its investigation. To enable KCOT to be studied, we established two KCOT cell lines, one from a BCNS case (designated as iKCOT1) and one from a sporadic KCOT case (designated as sKCOT1). The BCNS‑derived KCOT cell line, iKCOT1, retained a germline-mutated PTCH1 allele and a wild-type PTCH1 allele. The sporadic KCOT-derived KCOT cell line, sKCOT1, had different loss-of-function PTCH1 mutations on both alleles. Both cell lines expressed stem cell markers (CD44, SOX2 and BMI1), mesenchymal cell markers (CDH2, VIM and SNAI2) and a neurogenic marker (NEFL). Culture of the cell lines in high calcium concentration media induced expression of epithelial cell and keratinocyte marker proteins (CDH1, CLDN1, KRT10 and IVL). Parakeratosis, which is characteristic for KCOTs, was observed in 2-D cultures. The similarities in protein expression patterns between the two cell lines suggested that common mechanisms underlie the development of both types of KCOT and a probable common origin of KCOT cells.

Tidman AS
Be vigilant for skin manifestations of inherited cancer syndromes.
Practitioner. 2017; 261(1800):23-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
More than 200 hereditary cancer susceptibility syndromes have been described, and it is thought that they account for 5-10% of all cancers. Many have dermatological manifestations (usually lesions, occasionally rashes) which frequently precede other systemic pathology. Dermatological signs are usually non-specific and often trivial in appearance, making their significance easy to overlook and a clinical diagnosis challenging. Histological examination is often required to differentiate lesions. They are usually benign and pathologically unrelated to the primary tumours, with the exception of the atypical moles of the dysplastic naevus syndrome, and may present simply as a cosmetic problem for the patient. However, a number of cancer syndromes exhibit an increased risk of developing malignant skin lesions. For instance, Gorlin syndrome (nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome) which typically results in the development of multiple basal cell carcinomas, within the first few decades of life. The majority of cancer syndromes with skin signs are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern demonstrating complete penetrance before the age of 70. Once a cancer syndrome has been diagnosed, the cornerstone of management is frequent surveillance for the early detection and treatment of malignancy. Genetic testing and counselling should be offered to family members.

Onodera S, Saito A, Hasegawa D, et al.
Multi-layered mutation in hedgehog-related genes in Gorlin syndrome may affect the phenotype.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(9):e0184702 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gorlin syndrome is a genetic disorder of autosomal dominant inheritance that predisposes the affected individual to a variety of disorders that are attributed largely to heterozygous germline patched1 (PTCH1) mutations. PTCH1 is a hedgehog (Hh) receptor as well as a repressor, mutation of which leads to constitutive activation of Hh pathway. Hh pathway encompasses a wide variety of cellular signaling cascades, which involve several molecules; however, no associated genotype-phenotype correlations have been reported. Recently, mutations in Suppressor of fused homolog (SUFU) or PTCH2 were reported in patients with Gorlin syndrome. These facts suggest that multi-layered mutations in Hh pathway may contribute to the development of Gorlin syndrome. We demonstrated multiple mutations of Hh-related genes in addition to PTCH1, which possibly act in an additive or multiplicative manner and lead to Gorlin syndrome. High-throughput sequencing was performed to analyze exome sequences in four unrelated Gorlin syndrome patient genomes. Mutations in PTCH1 gene were detected in all four patients. Specific nucleotide variations or frameshift variations of PTCH1 were identified along with the inferred amino acid changes in all patients. We further filtered 84 different genes which are closely related to Hh signaling. Fifty three of these had enough coverage of over ×30. The sequencing results were filtered and compared to reduce the number of sequence variants identified in each of the affected individuals. We discovered three genes, PTCH2, BOC, and WNT9b, with mutations with a predicted functional impact assessed by MutationTaster2 or PolyPhen-2 (Polymorphism Phenotyping v2) analysis. It is noticeable that PTCH2 and BOC are Hh receptor molecules. No significant mutations were observed in SUFU. Multi-layered mutations in Hh pathway may change the activation level of the Hh signals, which may explain the wide phenotypic variability of Gorlin syndrome.

Alonso N, Cañueto J, Ciria S, et al.
Novel clinical and molecular findings in Spanish patients with naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
Br J Dermatol. 2018; 178(1):198-206 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by developmental alterations and multiple basal cell carcinomas. Mutations in PTCH1, which encodes a membrane receptor for Sonic Hedgehog, are associated with the development of the disease. Most of them produce a truncated protein, which is unable to suppress Smoothened protein and continuously activates the downstream pathway.
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize 22 unrelated Spanish patients with NBCCS, the largest cohort with Gorlin syndrome reported to date in Spain.
METHODS: Genomic analysis of PTCH1 was performed in patients with NBCCS and controls, and mutations were analysed using bioinformatics tools.
RESULTS: We report for the first time two young patients, one each with uterus didelphys and ganglioneuroma, within the context of NBCCS. One patient showing a severe phenotype of the disease had developed basal cell carcinomas since childhood. Sanger sequencing of PTCH1 in this cohort identified 17 novel truncating mutations (11 frameshift, five nonsense and one mutation affecting an exon-intron splice site) and two novel missense mutations that were predicted to be pathogenic. The patients showed great clinical variability and inconsistent genotype-phenotype correlation, as seen in relatives carrying similar mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to increase the pool of clinical manifestations of NBCCS, as well as increasing the number of pathogenic mutations identified in PTCH1 predisposing to the condition. The inconsistencies found between phenotype and genotype suggest the involvement of other modifying factors, genetic, epigenetic or environmental.

Foulkes WD, Kamihara J, Evans DGR, et al.
Cancer Surveillance in Gorlin Syndrome and Rhabdoid Tumor Predisposition Syndrome.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(12):e62-e67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gorlin syndrome and rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome (RTPS) are autosomal dominant syndromes associated with an increased risk of childhood-onset brain tumors. Individuals with Gorlin syndrome can manifest a wide range of phenotypic abnormalities, with about 5% of family members developing medulloblastoma, usually occurring in the first 3 years of life. Gorlin syndrome is associated with germline mutations in components of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway, including Patched1 (

Evans DG, Oudit D, Smith MJ, et al.
First evidence of genotype-phenotype correlations in Gorlin syndrome.
J Med Genet. 2017; 54(8):530-536 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gorlin syndrome (GS) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and an increased risk of jaw cysts and early childhood medulloblastoma. Heterozygous germline variants in
METHODS: We assessed genetic and phenotypic data for 182 individuals meeting the diagnostic criteria for GS (median age: 47.1; IQR: 31.1-61.1). A total of 126 patients had a heterozygous pathogenic variant, 9 had
RESULTS: Patients with variants were more likely to be diagnosed earlier (p=0.02), have jaw cysts (p=0.002) and have bifid ribs (p=0.003) or any skeletal abnormality (p=0.003) than patients with no identified mutation. Patients with a missense variant in
CONCLUSION: We propose that the clinical heterogeneity of GS can in part be explained by the underlying or

Ikemoto Y, Takayama Y, Fujii K, et al.
Somatic mosaicism containing double mutations in
J Med Genet. 2017; 54(8):579-584 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by developmental defects and tumorigenesis, such as medulloblastomas and basal cell carcinomas, caused by mutations of the
METHODS AND RESULTS: A de novo germline mutation of
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case of mosaicism unequivocally demonstrated in NBCCS. Furthermore, the mosaicism is unique in that the patient carries one normal and two mutant alleles. Because these mutations are located in close proximity, reversion error is likely to be involved in this event rather than a spontaneous mutation. In addition, this study indicates that gene analysis of iPSC clones can contribute to the detection of mosaicism containing a minor population carrying a second mutation.

Matsudate Y, Naruto T, Hayashi Y, et al.
Targeted exome sequencing and chromosomal microarray for the molecular diagnosis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
J Dermatol Sci. 2017; 86(3):206-211 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder mainly caused by heterozygous mutations of PTCH1. In addition to characteristic clinical features, detection of a mutation in causative genes is reliable for the diagnosis of NBCCS; however, no mutations have been identified in some patients using conventional methods.
OBJECTIVE: To improve the method for the molecular diagnosis of NBCCS.
METHODS: We performed targeted exome sequencing (TES) analysis using a multi-gene panel, including PTCH1, PTCH2, SUFU, and other sonic hedgehog signaling pathway-related genes, based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology in 8 cases in whom possible causative mutations were not detected by previously performed conventional analysis and 2 recent cases of NBCCS. Subsequent analysis of gross deletion within or around PTCH1 detected by TES was performed using chromosomal microarray (CMA).
RESULTS: Through TES analysis, specific single nucleotide variants or small indels of PTCH1 causing inferred amino acid changes were identified in 2 novel cases and 2 undiagnosed cases, whereas gross deletions within or around PTCH1, which are validated by CMA, were found in 3 undiagnosed cases. However, no mutations were detected even by TES in 3 cases. Among 3 cases with gross deletions of PTCH1, deletions containing the entire PTCH1 and additional neighboring genes were detected in 2 cases, one of which exhibited atypical clinical features, such as severe mental retardation, likely associated with genes located within the 4.3Mb deleted region, especially.
CONCLUSION: TES-based simultaneous evaluation of sequences and copy number status in all targeted coding exons by NGS is likely to be more useful for the molecular diagnosis of NBCCS than conventional methods. CMA is recommended as a subsequent analysis for validation and detailed mapping of deleted regions, which may explain the atypical clinical features of NBCCS cases.

Shiohama T, Fujii K, Miyashita T, et al.
Brain morphology in children with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
Am J Med Genet A. 2017; 173(4):946-952 [PubMed] Related Publications
Brain morphology is tightly regulated by diverse signaling pathways. Hedgehog signaling is a candidate pathway considered responsible for regulating brain morphology. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), caused by a PTCH1 mutation in the hedgehog signaling pathway, occasionally exhibits macrocephaly and medulloblastoma. Although cerebellar enlargement occurs in ptch1 heterozygous-deficient mice, its impact on human brain development remains unknown. We investigated the brain morphological characteristics of children with NBCCS. We evaluated brain T1-weighted images from nine children with NBCCS and 15 age-matched normal control (NC) children (mean [standard deviation], 12.2 [2.8] vs. 11.6 [2.3] years old). The diameters of the cerebrum, corpus callosum, and brain stem and the cerebellar volume were compared using two-tailed t-tests with Welch's correction. The transverse diameters (150.4 [9.9] vs. 136.0 [5.5] mm, P = 0.002) and longitudinal diameters (165.4 [8.0] vs. 151.3 [8.7] mm, P = 0.0007) of the cerebrum, cross-sectional area of the cerebellar vermis (18.7 [2.6] vs. 11.8 [1.7] cm

Hubacek M, Kripnerova T, Nemcikova M, et al.
Odontogenic keratocysts in the Basal Cell Nevus (Gorlin-Goltz) Syndrome associated with paresthesia of the lower jaw: Case report, retrospective analysis of a representative Czech cohort and recommendations for the early diagnosis.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2016; 37(4):269-276 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Identification of early presenting signs of the Basal Cell Nevus (BCNS; synonyme Gorlin-Goltz) syndrome, which is associated with a principal triad of multiple basal cell nevi, jaw odontogenic keratocysts, and skeletal anomalies, in stomatological and neurological practices. Proposal of multidisciplinary diagnostic algorithm comprising other medical specialists, including pathology, imaging, laboratory and molecular analyses based on the study outcomes.
DESIGN: Case report of a male patient reporting paresthesia of their lower jaw, with right facial asymmetry (maxilla and mandible) and radiological detection of large osteolytic lesions in both jaws, including a retrospective analysis of a representative Czech cohort with BCNS from within the last decade.
SETTING: Clinical, imaging and laboratory analyses were carried out at a national tertiary centre.
RESULTS: A multidisciplinary clinical approach followed by surgical management lead to the identification of odontogenic cysts, which were substantiated by histological examination. DNA sequencing of the PTCH1 gene detected a c.2929dupT resulting in p. Tyr977Leufs*16 pathogenic variant. This finding confirmed the clinical and laboraoty diagnosis of BCNS. Parental DNA analysis showed that this causal genetic defect arose de novo. Surgical management and orthodontic therapy were successful.
CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the reported case and retrospective data analysis provided evidence that paresthesia of the lower jaw should be considered as one of the early presenting signs of this rare disorder in stomatological and neurological practice. Obtained results allowed us to formulate recommendations for diagnostic practice in stomatology and neurology.

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