Gene Summary

Gene:PTCH1; patched 1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the patched gene family. The encoded protein is the receptor for sonic hedgehog, a secreted molecule implicated in the formation of embryonic structures and in tumorigenesis, as well as the desert hedgehog and indian hedgehog proteins. This gene functions as a tumor suppressor. Mutations of this gene have been associated with basal cell nevus syndrome, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, trichoepitheliomas, transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder, as well as holoprosencephaly. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Additional splice variants have been described, but their full length sequences and biological validity cannot be determined currently. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein patched homolog 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Skin, Basal Cell CarcinomaPTCH1 and Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) - Skin View Publications132
Basal Cell Nevus SyndromePTCH1 mutation in Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome View Publications108
MedulloblastomaPTCH1 and Medulloblastoma
In an exome sequencing study (Pugh et al, 2012) reported PTCH1 as one of 12 genes mutated at significant levels: with PTCH1 mutations in 7/92 patients (8%). In an ICGC deep sequencing study of 125 medulloblastoma tumour-normal pairs, (Jones DTW et al, 2012) reported PTCH1 in 8 (6%) of cases.
View Publications39
-PTCH1 and Cerebellar Neoplasms View Publications23
Stomach CancerPTCH1 and Stomach Cancer View Publications11
Cervical CancerPTCH1 and Cervical Cancer View Publications2

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PTCH1 (cancer-related)

Hubacek M, Kripnerova T, Nemcikova M, et al.
Odontogenic keratocysts in the Basal Cell Nevus (Gorlin-Goltz) Syndrome associated with paresthesia of the lower jaw: Case report, retrospective analysis of a representative Czech cohort and recommendations for the early diagnosis.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2016; 37(4):269-276 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Identification of early presenting signs of the Basal Cell Nevus (BCNS; synonyme Gorlin-Goltz) syndrome, which is associated with a principal triad of multiple basal cell nevi, jaw odontogenic keratocysts, and skeletal anomalies, in stomatological and neurological practices. Proposal of multidisciplinary diagnostic algorithm comprising other medical specialists, including pathology, imaging, laboratory and molecular analyses based on the study outcomes.
DESIGN: Case report of a male patient reporting paresthesia of their lower jaw, with right facial asymmetry (maxilla and mandible) and radiological detection of large osteolytic lesions in both jaws, including a retrospective analysis of a representative Czech cohort with BCNS from within the last decade.
SETTING: Clinical, imaging and laboratory analyses were carried out at a national tertiary centre.
RESULTS: A multidisciplinary clinical approach followed by surgical management lead to the identification of odontogenic cysts, which were substantiated by histological examination. DNA sequencing of the PTCH1 gene detected a c.2929dupT resulting in p. Tyr977Leufs*16 pathogenic variant. This finding confirmed the clinical and laboraoty diagnosis of BCNS. Parental DNA analysis showed that this causal genetic defect arose de novo. Surgical management and orthodontic therapy were successful.
CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the reported case and retrospective data analysis provided evidence that paresthesia of the lower jaw should be considered as one of the early presenting signs of this rare disorder in stomatological and neurological practice. Obtained results allowed us to formulate recommendations for diagnostic practice in stomatology and neurology.

Ozcan G, Balta B, Sekerci AE, et al.
A novel PTCH1 gene mutation in a pediatric patient associated multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors of the jaws and Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2016 Jul-Sep; 59(3):335-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) is an uncommon autosomal dominant inherited disorder which comprises the triad of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts, and musculoskeletal malformations. Besides this triad, neurological, ophthalmic, endocrine, and genital manifestations are known to be variable. It is occasionally associated with aggressive BCC and internal malignancies. This report documents a case of GGS with a novel mutation in the PTCH1 gene in an 11-year-old child. The clinical, radiographic, histopathologic and molecular findings of this condition, and treatment are described, and a review of GGS was carried out.

Koterov AN, Ushenkova LN, Biryukov AP
[Dose-Response Dependences for Frequency of RET/PTC Gene Rearrangements in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma after Irradiation. Simple Pooling Analysis of Molecular Epidemiological Data].
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2016 Jan-Feb; 56(1):5-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
On the basis of all possible publications on the theme included in the previously formed base of sources on molecular epidemiology of RET/PTC rearrangements in thyroid papillary carcinoma a pooled analysis ("simple pooling data") on determination of the dose-effect dependences for RET/PTC frequency in radiogenic carcinomas of various irradiated groups was performed. (They are groups subjected to radiotherapeutic exposure, residents near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) and victims of nuclear bombing). The tendency to Pearson linear correlation (r = 0.746; p = 0.148) between the frequency of RET/PTC and the estimated dose on thyroid in the regions affected by the CNPP accident was revealed. But this tendency was recognized to be random owing to abnormally low values of the indicator for the most contaminated Gomel region. The method tentatively called "case-control" showed reliable differences in thyroid dose values for carcinomas with RET/PTC and without those. The versatility of changes was found: the lack of RET/PTC for radiotherapeutic impacts was associated with higher doses, whereas in case of the CNPP accident and for nuclear bombing victims it was the opposite. Probably, in the first case the "cellular cleaning" phenomenon after exposure to very high doses took place. Search of direct Pearson correlations between average/median thyroid doses on groups and RET/PTC frequency in carcinomas of these groups showed a high reliability for the dose-effect dependences- at the continuous dose scale (for RET/PTC in total and RET/PTC1 respectively: r = 0.830; p = 0.002 and r = 0.906; p = 0.0003); while there was no significant correlation received for RET/PTC3. When using the weighting least square regression analysis (proceeding from the number of carcinomas in samples), the specified regularities remained. Attempts to influence the strength of correlation by exception ofthe data of all the samples connected with the accident on the CNPP did not significantly reduce the strength of associations for RET/PTC in total. On the basis of ordinal scale doses (background, "low" (0.1 Gy), "middle" (0.1-1 Gy) and "large" (1-10 Gy) dose) also found was a significant correlation (Spearman) with the dose for the frequency RET/PTC in total (r = 0.736; p = 0.0098), but for certain types of rearrangements the results were reverse to the previous analysis (the effect was significant only for the RET/PTC3: r = 0.731; p = 0.024). The linear dose-response trends of the Cochrane-Armitage-test for the frequency of RET/PTC in total, RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 depending on the dose to the thyroid in the ordinal scale were registered (p, respectively: < 0.0001 < 0.0001 and 0.007). Thus; after more than 20 years of the molecular and epidemiological research of RET/PTC in thyroid radiogenic carcinomas the comprehensive evidence of the dose-effect dependence existence indicating a real relationship between the studied parameters and a radiation factor was obtained for the first time.

Pacholczyk M, Czernicki J, Ferenc T
[The effect of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on induction of skin cancers].
Med Pr. 2016; 67(2):255-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ultraviolet radiation is a physical mutagenic and cancerogenic factor. About 95% of ultraviolet A (UVA) (320-400 nm) and 5% of UVB (280-320 nm) reach the Earth's surface. Melanin is a natural skin protective factor against UV radiation. Skin cancers associated with long-term exposure to UV radiation are: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). The high risk of BCC development is related to acute and repeated exposure to UV causing sunburn. Molecular studies of BBC demonstrated disorders in sonic hedgehog (SHH) cell signaling regulation pathway, associated with the suppressor protein patched homolog 1 gene (PTCH1) mutations. The risk of the BCC development is related to the polymorphism of melanokortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R). Tumor P53 gene mutations observed in BCC cells has been classified as secondary genetic changes. In SCC cells UV-induced mutations were mostly related to P53 gene. Increased expression of cyclooxigenase- 2 gene (COX-2) plays a significant role in the development of SCC. Other pathogenetic factors include intensification of the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 α (IL-1α), IL-1β and IL-6). Currently, the role of UVB has been recognized in the pathogenesis of CMM. In CMM cells the following gene mutations were noted: cyclindependent kinase inhibitor 2A INK4A (p16INK4A), cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), Ras, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and proto-oncogene B-Raf (BRAF). The BRAF gene mutations were observed in ~50% of CMM cases. Mutations of P53 gene are not characteristic of CMM cells. Med Pr 2016;67(2):255-266.

Bongiovanni M, Uccella S, Giovanella L, et al.
Hürthle Cells Adenoma of the Thyroid with Post-surgical Implants in the Neck: Clinical, Morphological, and Molecular Analysis of Three Cases.
Endocr Pathol. 2016; 27(4):338-345 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thyroid implants in the soft tissue of the neck are very rare findings of traumatic, iatrogenic, or neoplastic origins. We describe the clinico-pathological and molecular analysis of three cases with an initial diagnosis of follicular adenoma, Hürthle cell variant (FA-HCT), which developed cervical thyroid implants at 60, 59, and 36 months after thyroid surgery, followed by further neck recurrences, and, eventually, by distant metastases. A systematic review of all histopathological samples of both the primary lesions and the neck implants was performed. Molecular study included the analysis of pan-RAS and BRAF mutations and RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, and PAX8/PPARγ rearrangements. The review of the original slides and of additional re-cuts of each block of the thyroid lesions did not show any sign of capsular and/or vascular invasion; thus, the original diagnoses of FA-HCT were confirmed. When sampling adequacy was considered, it turned out that the capsule was completely evaluable in case #3, whereas 85 % was evaluable for case #1 and less than 50 % for case #2. We cannot exclude that cases #1 and #2 were carcinomas that had not been completely sampled. The first occurring neck implants showed neither histological signs of malignancy nor the presence of lymphoid tissue. However, further neck recurrences had different histological aspects, with a clear infiltrative growth. Moreover, a mesenchymal reaction forming a sort of capsule was observed around oncocytic cells along with signs of vascular invasion. Molecular analysis revealed no alterations in the genes and rearrangements studied. Oncocytic thyroid implants in the neck soft tissue should be regarded as metastasis, even in the absence of clear-cut signs of malignancy and in the case of a bona fide diagnosis of Hürthle cells adenoma of the thyroid.

Ponti G, Manfredini M, Ruini C
Wall paintings facies and their possible genetic correlates in the ancient Pompeii: A bio-anthropologic message from the past?
Gene. 2016; 589(2):151-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The figurative arts and precisely the ancient Pompeian wall paintings portraits can provide an additional source of information in supplementing bio-anthropological studies. There are several genetic diseases with a wide spectrum of congenital bone stigmata in association to distinctive facial features. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also named nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by unusual skeletal changes, such as macrocephaly, facial asymmetry, hypertelorism, frontal and parietal bossing caused by germline mutations of the gene PTCH1. The Gorlin syndrome, clinically defined in 1963, existed during Dynastic Egyptian times, as revealed by a spectrum of skeletal findings compatible with the syndrome in mummies dating back to three thousand years ago and, most likely, in the ancient population of Pompeii. In the present research, we discuss the potential relationship between Pompeian wall paintings portrait and the cranio-metric bone changes revealed among the Pompeian skull collections assuming that the ancient portraits can constitute an important tool that should be strictly integrated with osteologic and biomolecular data in order to argue a syndromic diagnosis in ancient population.

Shanley S, McCormack C
Diagnosis and Management of Hereditary Basal Cell Skin Cancer.
Recent Results Cancer Res. 2016; 205:191-212 [PubMed] Related Publications
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in Caucasians worldwide and its incidence is rising. It is generally considered a sporadic tumour, most likely to affect fair-skinned individuals exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This chapter focusses on the approach to recognising the relatively few individuals in whom a high-risk hereditary susceptibility may be present. Gorlin syndrome is the main consideration and the gene most commonly mutated is PTCH1, a key regulator of the Hedgehog developmental pathway. Recently, loss of function of another gene in the same pathway, SUFU, has been found to explain a subset of families. Understanding the pathogenesis of familial BCCs has advanced the understanding of the biology of sporadic tumours and led to targeted therapy trials. The management of familial BCCs remains a challenge due to significant unmet needs for non-surgical treatments and a high burden of disease for the individual. Together with the prospect of advances in gene discovery and translation, these challenges highlight the need for ongoing review of at-risk and affected individuals by a multidisciplinary team.

Hu S, Divaris K, Parker J, et al.
Transcriptome Variability in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor Suggests Distinct Molecular Subtypes.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:24236 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor (KCOT) is a locally aggressive developmental cystic neoplasm thought to arise from the odontogenic epithelium. A high recurrence rate of up to 30% has been found following conservative treatment. Aggressive tumor resection can lead to the need for extensive reconstructive surgery, resulting in significant morbidity and impacting quality of life. Most research has focused on candidate-genes with a handful of studies employing whole transcriptome approaches. There is also the question of which reference tissue is most biologically-relevant. This study characterizes the transcriptome of KCOT using whole genome microarray and compare it with gene expression of different odontogenic tissues ("dentome"). Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate the neoplastic epithelial tissue in 20 cases. KCOT gene expression was compared with the "dentome" and relevant pathways were examined. Cluster analysis revealed 2 distinct molecular subtypes of KCOT. Several inflammatory pathways were activated in both subtypes. The AKT pathway was activated in one subtype while MAP kinase pathway was activated in the other. Additionally, PTCH1 expression was downregulated in both clusters suggesting involvement in KCOT tumorigenesis. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the transcriptome of KCOT and highlights pathways that could be of diagnostic and prognostic value.

Tamayo-Orrego L, Wu CL, Bouchard N, et al.
Evasion of Cell Senescence Leads to Medulloblastoma Progression.
Cell Rep. 2016; 14(12):2925-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
How brain tumors progress from precancerous lesions to advanced cancers is not well understood. Using Ptch1(+/-) mice to study medulloblastoma progression, we found that Ptch1 loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is an early event that is associated with high levels of cell senescence in preneoplasia. In contrast, advanced tumors have evaded senescence. Remarkably, we discovered that the majority of advanced medulloblastomas display either spontaneous, somatic p53 mutations or Cdkn2a locus inactivation. Consistent with senescence evasion, these p53 mutations are always subsequent to Ptch1 LOH. Introduction of a p53 mutation prevents senescence, accelerates tumor formation, and increases medulloblastoma incidence. Altogether, our results show that evasion of senescence associated with Ptch1 LOH allows progression to advanced tumors.

Titov SE, Ivanov MK, Karpinskaya EV, et al.
miRNA profiling, detection of BRAF V600E mutation and RET-PTC1 translocation in patients from Novosibirsk oblast (Russia) with different types of thyroid tumors.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:201 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The postoperative typing of thyroid lesions, which is instrumental in adequate patient treatment, is currently based on histologic examination. However, it depends on pathologist's qualification and can be difficult in some cases. Numerous studies have shown that molecular markers such as microRNAs and somatic mutations may be useful to assist in these cases, but no consensus exists on the set of markers that is optimal for that purpose. The aim of the study was to discriminate between different thyroid neoplasms by RT-PCR, using a limited set of microRNAs selected from literature.
METHODS: By RT-PCR we evaluated the relative levels of 15 microRNAs (miR-221, -222, -146b, -181b, -21, -187, -199b, -144, -192, -200a, -200b, -205, -141, -31, -375) and the presence of BRAF(V600E) mutation and RET-PTC1 translocation in surgically resected lesions from 208 patients from Novosibirsk oblast (Russia) with different types of thyroid neoplasms. Expression of each microRNA was normalized to adjacent non-tumor tissue. Three pieces of lesion tissue from each patient (39 goiters, 41 follicular adenomas, 16 follicular thyroid cancers, 108 papillary thyroid cancers, 4 medullary thyroid cancers) were analyzed independently to take into account method variation.
RESULTS: The diagnostic classifier based on profiling of 13 microRNAs was proposed, with total estimated accuracy varying from 82.7 to 99% for different nodule types. Relative expression of six microRNAs (miR-146b, -21, -221, -222, 375, -199b) appeared significantly different in BRAF(V600E)-positive samples (all classified as papillary thyroid carcinomas) compared to BRAF(V600E)-negative papillary carcinoma samples.
CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm practical feasibility of using molecular markers for typing of thyroid neoplasms and clarification of controversial cases.

Bonilla X, Parmentier L, King B, et al.
Genomic analysis identifies new drivers and progression pathways in skin basal cell carcinoma.
Nat Genet. 2016; 48(4):398-406 [PubMed] Related Publications
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common malignant neoplasm in humans. BCC is primarily driven by the Sonic Hedgehog (Hh) pathway. However, its phenotypic variation remains unexplained. Our genetic profiling of 293 BCCs found the highest mutation rate in cancer (65 mutations/Mb). Eighty-five percent of the BCCs harbored mutations in Hh pathway genes (PTCH1, 73% or SMO, 20% (P = 6.6 × 10(-8)) and SUFU, 8%) and in TP53 (61%). However, 85% of the BCCs also harbored additional driver mutations in other cancer-related genes. We observed recurrent mutations in MYCN (30%), PPP6C (15%), STK19 (10%), LATS1 (8%), ERBB2 (4%), PIK3CA (2%), and NRAS, KRAS or HRAS (2%), and loss-of-function and deleterious missense mutations were present in PTPN14 (23%), RB1 (8%) and FBXW7 (5%). Consistent with the mutational profiles, N-Myc and Hippo-YAP pathway target genes were upregulated. Functional analysis of the mutations in MYCN, PTPN14 and LATS1 suggested their potential relevance in BCC tumorigenesis.

Gertz RJ, Nikiforov Y, Rehrauer W, et al.
Mutation in BRAF and Other Members of the MAPK Pathway in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in the Pediatric Population.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2016; 140(2):134-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is an uncommon tumor in the pediatric population. A limited number of studies have examined genetic mutations affecting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the pediatric population.
OBJECTIVE: To examine mutations affecting this pathway in PTC in our pediatric population and compare the BRAF V600E mutation rates in pediatric and adult tumors.
DESIGN: Eighty-four patients, including 14 pediatric and 70 adult, with PTC were tested for the BRAF V600E mutation by using real-time polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Additionally, we examined the rate of RAS point mutations with real-time polymerase chain reaction and rearrangements of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 in the pediatric group with fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clinical and histologic data were compared as well.
RESULTS: Of 77 tumors that had an interpretable result, the BRAF V600E mutant was identified in 4 of 13 pediatric patients (31%) and 43 of 64 adult patients (67%), which was a significant difference (using Fisher exact test, P = .03). One pediatric and 6 adult cases did not reveal an interpretable result with melting curve analysis. One of these cases harbored a rare 3-base pair deletion mutation (c.1799_1801delTGA). Mutations in RAS genes were not seen in any pediatric tumors. One tumor with a RET/PTC1 rearrangement and another with RET/PTC3 were identified in the pediatric population (15%).
CONCLUSIONS: The rate of the BRAF V600E mutation in the pediatric population is significantly lower than that seen in the adult population. Mutations in RAS do not contribute significantly to pediatric PTC. This experience from our institution adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding tumor genetics in pediatric PTC.

Ponti G, Tomasi A, Manfredini M, Pellacani G
Oral mucosal stigmata in hereditary-cancer syndromes: From germline mutations to distinctive clinical phenotypes and tailored therapies.
Gene. 2016; 582(1):23-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Numerous familial tumor syndromes are associated with distinctive oral mucosal findings, which may make possible an early diagnosis as an efficacious marker for the risk of developing visceral malignancies. In detail, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), Gardner syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Cowden Syndrome, Gorlin Syndrome, Lynch/Muir-Torre Syndrome and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia show specific lesions of the oral mucosa and other distinct clinical and molecular features. The common genetic background of the above mentioned syndromes involve germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes, such as APC, PTEN, PTCH1, STK11, RET, clearly implied in both ectodermal and mesodermal differentiation, being the oral mucosal and dental stigmata frequently associated in the specific clinical phenotypes. The oral and maxillofacial manifestations of these syndromes may become visible several years before the intestinal lesions, constituting a clinical marker that is predictive for the development of intestinal polyps and/or other visceral malignancies. A multidisciplinary approach is therefore necessary for both clinical diagnosis and management of the gene-carriers probands and their family members who have to be referred for genetic testing or have to be investigated for the presence of visceral cancers.

Wang Y, Peng Q, Jia H, Du X
Prognostic value of hedgehog signaling pathway in digestive system cancers: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 16(1):71-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has recently been reported to be associated with the prognosis of digestive system cancers. However, the results are inconsistent.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between Hh pathway components and survival outcomes in patients with digestive system cancers.
METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive retrieval in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane library for relevant literatures until May 1st, 2015. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to clarify the prognostic value of Hh pathway components, including Shh, Gli1, Gli2, Smo and Ptch1.
RESULTS: A total of 16 eligible articles with 3222 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled HR suggested that over-expression of Shh and Gli1 were both associated with poor OS (HR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.14-3.07 and HR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.66-2.32, respectively) and DFS (HR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.19-4.72 and HR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.61-2.96, respectively). In addition, over-expression of Smo was associated with poor DFS (HR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.08-1.75).
CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that over-expressed Hh pathway components, including Shh, Gli1 and Smo, are associated with poor prognosis in digestive system cancer patients. Hh signaling pathway may become a potential therapeutic target in digestive system cancers.

Romitti M, Wajner SM, Ceolin L, et al.
MAPK and SHH pathways modulate type 3 deiodinase expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2016; 23(3):135-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Type 3 deiodinase (DIO3, D3) is reactivated in human neoplasias. Increased D3 levels in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) have been associated with tumor size and metastatic disease. The objective of this study is to investigate the signaling pathways involved in DIO3 upregulation in PTC. Experiments were performed in human PTC cell lines (K1 and TPC-1 cells) or tumor samples. DIO3 mRNA and activity were evaluated by real-time PCR and ion-exchange column chromatography respectively. Western blot analysis was used to determine the levels of D3 protein. DIO3 gene silencing was performed via siRNA transfection. DIO3 mRNA levels and activity were readily detected in K1 (BRAF(V6) (0) (0E)) and, at lower levels, in TPC-1 (RET/PTC1) cells (P<0.007 and P=0.02 respectively). Similarly, DIO3 mRNA levels were higher in PTC samples harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation as compared with those with RET/PTC1 rearrangement or negative for these mutations (P<0.001). Specific inhibition of BRAF oncogene (PLX4032, 3 μM), MEK (U0126, 10-20 μM) or p38 (SB203580, 10-20 μM) signaling was associated with decreases in DIO3 expression in K1 and TPC-1 cells. Additionally, the blockage of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway by cyclopamine (10  μM) resulted in markedly decreases in DIO3 mRNA levels. Interestingly, siRNA-mediated DIO3 silencing induced decreases on cyclin D1 expression and partial G1 phase cell cycle arrest, thereby downregulating cell proliferation. In conclusion, sustained activation of the MAPK and SHH pathways modulate the levels of DIO3 expression in PTC. Importantly, DIO3 silencing was associated with decreases in cell proliferation, thus suggesting a D3 role in tumor growth and aggressiveness.

Dowlati A, Lipka MB, McColl K, et al.
Clinical correlation of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer genomics.
Ann Oncol. 2016; 27(4):642-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genomic studies in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) lag far behind those carried out in nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To date, most SCLC studies have evaluated patients with surgically resectable disease. Here we sought to evaluate the genomic mutation spectrum of 'every-day' SCLC patient tumors with extensive stage disease (ES-SCLC) and to correlate mutations with the main clinical outcomes of response to chemotherapy, progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 50 SCLC patient tumors were examined in this study; targeted exome sequencing was obtained on 42 patients and whole-exome sequencing on 8 patients. Mutated genes were correlated with clinical outcomes using Kaplan-Meier methods (PFS, OS) and logistic regression (chemo-response). RB1 protein expression was detected by either western blotting of cultured cell lysates or immunohistochemistry of tumor specimens.
RESULTS: In all, 39 patients had ES-SCLC; 15 patients had either primary refractory/resistant disease and 21 patients had sensitive disease. The two most frequently mutated genes were TP53 (86%) and RB1 (58%); other frequently mutated genes (>10% patients) were involved in epigenetic regulation as well as the mTOR pathway. We identified a number of low-frequency, targetable mutations, including RICTOR, FGFR1, KIT, PTCH1 and RET. Using multivariate analysis, RB1 was the only significant factor (P = 0.038) in predicting response to first-line chemotherapy, with an odds ratio of 5.58 comparing mutant RB1 with wild-type. Patients with mutant RB1 had both better OS (11.7 versus 9.1 months P = 0.04) and PFS (11.2 versus 8.6 months, P = 0.06) compared with patients with wild-type RB1. Interestingly, ∼25% of SCLC cell lines and tumor specimens expressed RB1 protein, possibly representing the subgroup with wild-type RB1.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that SCLC tumors harboring no mutation in RB1 had a poor response to chemotherapy.

Ponti G, Pellacani G, Tomasi A, et al.
Skeletal stigmata as keys to access to the composite and ancient Gorlin-Goltz syndrome history: The Egypt, Pompeii and Herculaneum lessons.
Gene. 2016; 589(2):104-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
There are several genetic diseases with a wide spectrum of congenital bone stigmata in association to cutaneous and visceral benign and malignant neoplasms. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also named nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominant systemic disease with almost complete penetrance and high intra-familial phenotypic variability, caused by germline mutations of the gene PTCH1. The syndrome is characterized by unusual skeletal changes and high predisposition to the development of multiple basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts tumors and other visceral tumors. The Gorlin syndrome, clinically defined as distinct syndrome in 1963, existed during Dynastic Egyptian times, as revealed by a costellation of skeletal findings compatible with the syndrome in mummies dating back to 3000years ago and, most likely, in the ancient population of Pompeii. These paleogenetic and historical evidences, together with the clinical and biomolecular modern evidences, confirm the quite benign behavior of the syndrome and the critical value of the multiple and synchronous skeletal anomalies in the recognition of these rare and complex genetic disease.

Akizawa Y, Miyashita T, Sasaki R, et al.
Gorlin syndrome with an ovarian leiomyoma associated with a PTCH1 second hit.
Am J Med Genet A. 2016; 170A(4):1029-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe a Gorlin syndrome (GS) case with two different second hit mutations of PTCH1, one in a keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) and the other in an ovarian leiomyoma. GS is a rare genetic condition manifesting as multiple basal cell nevi associated with other features such as medulloblastomas, skeletal abnormalities, and ovarian fibromas. A 21-year-old Japanese woman with a history of two KCOTs was diagnosed with GS according to clinical criteria. A PTCH1 mutation, c.1427del T, was detected in peripheral blood. A novel PTCH1 mutation, c.264_265insAATA, had been found in the maxillary KCOT as a second hit mutation. More recently, the ovarian tumor was detected during a gynecological examination. Laparoscopic adnexectomy was performed, and the pathological diagnosis of the ovarian tumor was leiomyoma. Interestingly, another novel mutation, loss of heterozygosity spanning from 9q22.32 to 9q31.2, including PTCH1 and 89 other genes, was detected in this ovarian tumor, providing evidence of a second hit mutation. This is the first report describing a GS-associated ovarian tumor carrying a second hit in the PTCH1 region. We anticipate that accumulation of more cases will clarify the importance of second hit mutations in ovarian tumor formation in GS.

Constantin L, Constantin M, Wainwright BJ
MicroRNA Biogenesis and Hedgehog-Patched Signaling Cooperate to Regulate an Important Developmental Transition in Granule Cell Development.
Genetics. 2016; 202(3):1105-18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Dicer1, Dcr-1 homolog (Drosophila) gene encodes a type III ribonuclease required for the canonical maturation and functioning of microRNAs (miRNAs). Subsets of miRNAs are known to regulate normal cerebellar granule cell development, in addition to the growth and progression of medulloblastoma, a neoplasm that often originates from granule cell precursors. Multiple independent studies have also demonstrated that deregulation of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)-Patched (Ptch) signaling, through miRNAs, is causative of granule cell pathologies. In the present study, we investigated the genetic interplay between miRNA biogenesis and Shh-Ptch signaling in granule cells of the cerebellum by way of the Cre/lox recombination system in genetically engineered models of Mus musculus (mouse). We demonstrate that, although the miRNA biogenesis and Shh-Ptch-signaling pathways, respectively, regulate the opposing growth processes of cerebellar hypoplasia and hyperplasia leading to medulloblastoma, their concurrent deregulation was nonadditive and did not bring the growth phenotypes toward an expected equilibrium. Instead, mice developed either hypoplasia or medulloblastoma, but of a greater severity. Furthermore, some genotypes were bistable, whereby subsets of mice developed hypoplasia or medulloblastoma. This implies that miRNAs and Shh-Ptch signaling regulate an important developmental transition in granule cells of the cerebellum. We also conclusively show that the Dicer1 gene encodes a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene for Ptch1-induced medulloblastoma, with the monoallielic loss of Dicer1 more severe than biallelic loss. These findings exemplify how genetic interplay between pathways may produce nonadditive effects with a substantial and unpredictable impact on biology. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the functional dosage of Dicer1 may nonadditively influence a wide range of Shh-Ptch-dependent pathologies.

Lu Y, Starkey N, Lei W, et al.
Inhibition of Hedgehog-Signaling Driven Genes in Prostate Cancer Cells by Sutherlandia frutescens Extract.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0145507 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sutherlandia frutescens (L) R. Br. (Sutherlandia) is a South African botanical that is traditionally used to treat a variety of health conditions, infections and diseases, including cancer. We hypothesized Sutherlandia might act through Gli/ Hedgehog (Hh)-signaling in prostate cancer cells and used RNA-Seq transcription profiling to profile gene expression in TRAMPC2 murine prostate cancer cells with or without Sutherlandia extracts. We found 50% of Hh-responsive genes can be repressed by Sutherlandia ethanol extract, including the canonical Hh-responsive genes Gli1 and Ptch1 as well as newly distinguished Hh-responsive genes Hsd11b1 and Penk.

Šoukalová J, Vejmělková K, Cermanová T, et al.
[Identification of a Family with SUFU Germline Deletion Based on a Case of Desmoplastic Medulloblastoma in an Infant].
Klin Onkol. 2016; 29 Suppl 1:S83-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma, an embryonal neuroectodermal tumor of the cerebellum, is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. There are approximately 15 cases diagnosed in the Czech Republic each year. The recent World Health Organization classification recognizes several histopathological subtypes of medulloblastoma: classical, desmoplastic/ nodular with its extensive-nodularity variant, and anaplastic/ large-cell variant. Further molecular analysis identified four basic subgroups of medulloblastoma: WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. The subgroup of SHH meduloblastoma is associated with somatic mutations of SHH, PTCH1, SUFU, SMO and TP53, while the most common mutations found in infants up to three years of age were PTCH1 and SUFU. The majority of medulloblastomas are sporadic diseases, whereas only about 5- 10% of all cases occur in connection with hereditary genetic syndromes.
CASE: We present a case of a 21-months old girl diagnosed with a localized posterior fossa tumor. The histopathological examination revealed a desmoplastic/ nodular medulloblastoma. The treatment comprised a radical exstirpation of the tumor followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. With the use of array-CGH, a partial biallelic deletion of the SUFU gene (locus 10q24.32) was detected in the tumor DNA, whereas a monoallelic deletion was found in the peripheral lymphocyte DNA of the patient. These findings were confirmed by an independent qPCR method. Monoallelic germline deletion of SUFU was also identified in the patients mother, who was a healthy carrier. Pedigree of the family suggested a transition of the germline deletion of SUFU, since another brain tumors (including one case diagnosed before the age of three years) were identified in previous generations.
CONCLUSION: Germline mutations in SUFU gene are believed to predispose to infant desmoplastic/ nodular medulloblastomas, basal cell carcinomas and meningiomas. The susceptibility gene shows autosomal dominant inheritance with an incomplete penetrance. There is no evidence-based surveillance strategy suggested for the carriers of germline SUFU mutations/ deletions so far. Our recommendation is based both on a family history of our patient and similar cases described in the literature. Since the germinal mutations in SUFU are responsible for up to 50% of all desmoplastic medulloblastomas in children under three years of age, genetic testing of SUFU should be encouraged in this population of patients.

Chang YS, Huang HD, Yeh KT, Chang JG
Genetic alterations in endometrial cancer by targeted next-generation sequencing.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2016; 100(1):8-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many genetic factors play important roles in the development of endometrial cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic alterations in the Taiwanese population with endometrial cancer. DNA was extracted from 10 cases of fresh-frozen endometrial cancer tissue. The exomes of cancer-related genes were captured using the NimbleGen Comprehensive Cancer Panel (578 cancer-related genes) and sequenced using the Illumina Genomic Sequencing Platform. Our results revealed 120 variants in 99 genes, 21 of which were included in the Oncomine Cancer Research Panel used in the National Cancer Institute Match Trial. The 21 genes comprised 8 tumor suppressor candidates (ATM, MSH2, PIK3R1, PTCH1, PTEN, TET2, TP53, and TSC1) and 13 oncogene candidates (ALK, BCL9, CTNNB1, ERBB2, FGFR2, FLT3, HNF1A, KIT, MTOR, PDGFRA, PPP2R1A, PTPN11, and SF3B1). We identified a high frequency of mutations in PTEN (50%) and genes involved in the endometrial cancer-related molecular pathway, which involves the IL-7 signaling pathway (PIK3R1, n=1; AKT2, n=1; FOXO1, n=1). We report the mutational landscape of endometrial cancer in the Taiwanese population. We believe that this study will shed new light on fundamental aspects for understanding the molecular pathogenesis of endometrial cancer and may aid in the development of new targeted therapies.

Yavropoulou MP, Maladaki A, Topouridou K, et al.
Expression pattern of the Hedgehog signaling pathway in pituitary adenomas.
Neurosci Lett. 2016; 611:94-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several studies have demonstrated the role of Wnt and Notch signaling in the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas, but data are scarce regarding the role of Hedgehog signaling. In this study we investigated the differential expression of gene targets of the Hedgehog signaling pathway. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from adult patients who underwent transphenoidal resection and normal human pituitary tissues that were obtained from autopsies were used. Clinical information and data from pre-operative MRI scan (extracellular tumor extension, tumor size, displacement of the optic chiasm) were retrieved from the Hospital's database. We used a customized RT(2) Profiler PCR Array, to investigate the expression of genes related to Notch and Hedgehog signaling pathways (PTCH1, PTCH2, GLI1, GLI3, NOTCH3, JAG1, HES1, and HIP). A total of 52 pituitary adenomas (32 non-functioning adenomas, 15 somatotropinomas and 5 prolactinomas) were used in the final analysis. In non-functioning pituitary adenomas there was a significant decrease (approximately 75%) in expression of all Hedgehog related genes that were tested, while Notch3 and Jagged-1 expression was found significantly increased, compared with normal pituitary tissue controls. In contrast, somatotropinomas demonstrated a significant increase in expression of all Hedgehog related genes and a decrease in the expression of Notch3 and Jagged-1. There was no significant difference in the expression of Hedgehog and Notch related genes between prolactinomas and healthy pituitary tissues. Hedgehog signalling appears to be activated in somatotropinomas but not in non-functioning pituitary adenomas in contrast to the expression pattern of Notch signalling pathway.

Ushenkova LN, Koterov AN, Biryukov AP
[Pooled Analysis of RET/PTC Gene Rearrangement Rate in Sporadic and Radiogenic Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma].
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2015 Jul-Aug; 55(4):355-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
The database of publications on molecular epidemiology of RET/PTC rearrangements in sporadic and radiogenic thyroid papillary carcinoma has been formed (197 sources at the end of 2014; coverage of 100%). Based on this database a pooled analysis of data on the rates of RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3 and RET/PTC in total was conducted. Statistical approach involves a simple pooling, as well as calculations on the models of random and fixed effects. Since almost all the strata were characterized by heterogeneity, simple pooling and random effect models were adequate. Calculations using both models led to almost identical results. For rates of RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3 and RET/PTC in total with respect to formed carcinoma striations the following values (pooling, in %) were obtained: sporadic, total--13.2; 8.9; 21.2; sporadic, adults--13.3; 9.9; 21.1; sporadic, children--22.4; 17.5; 44.5; radiogenic, total--20.9; 20.3; 40.4; radiotherapy (exposure in childhood)--31.1; 11.8; 42.5; children affected after the Chernobyl accident--19.9; 23.6; 46.1; radiological incidents (exposure in adulthood)--19.9; 7.7; 18.4. Statistically proven is the reliability of differences of carcinoma indicators for children compared with adults (both sporadic and radiogenic tumors) and for radiogenic cancer compared with sporadic. The greatest increase in rate after irradiation was found for RET/PTC1, previously characterized in vitro as one of radiogenic types of RET/PTC.

Mitsutake N, Fukushima T, Matsuse M, et al.
BRAF(V600E) mutation is highly prevalent in thyroid carcinomas in the young population in Fukushima: a different oncogenic profile from Chernobyl.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:16976 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the thyroid ultrasound screening program for children aged 0-18 at the time of the accident was started from October 2011. The prevalence of thyroid carcinomas in that population has appeared to be very high (84 cases per 296,253). To clarify the pathogenesis, we investigated the presence of driver mutations in these tumours. 61 classic papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), two follicular variant PTCs, four cribriform-morular variant PTCs and one poorly-differentiated thyroid carcinoma were analysed. We detected BRAF(V600E) in 43 cases (63.2%), RET/PTC1 in six (8.8%), RET/PTC3 in one (1.5%) and ETV6/NTRK3 in four (5.9%). Among classic and follicular variant PTCs, BRAF(V600E) was significantly associated with the smaller size. The genetic pattern was completely different from post-Chernobyl PTCs, suggesting non-radiogenic etiology of these cancers. This is the first study demonstrating the oncogene profile in the thyroid cancers discovered by large mass screening, which probably reflects genetic status of all sporadic and latent tumours in the young Japanese population. It is assumed that BRAF(V600E) may not confer growth advantage on paediatric PTCs, and many of these cases grow slowly, suggesting that additional factors may be important for tumour progression in paediatric PTCs.

Aydin K, Aydin C, Dagdelen S, et al.
Genetic Alterations in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients with Acromegaly.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2016; 124(3):198-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Acromegaly is associated with increased thyroid cancer risk. We aimed to analyze the frequency of point mutations of BRAF and RAS genes, and RET/PTC, PAX8/PPARγ gene rearrangements in patients with acromegaly having differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) and their relation with clinical and histological features.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 14 acromegalic patients (8 male, 6 female) with DTC were included. BRAF V600E and NRAS codon 61 point mutations, RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, and PAX8/PPARγ gene rearrangements were analyzed in thyroidectomy specimens. We selected 14 non-acromegalic patients with DTC as a control group.
RESULTS: 2 patients (14.3%) were detected to have positive BRAF V600E and 3 patients (21.4%) were detected to have NRAS codon 61 mutation. NRAS codon 61 was the most frequent genetic alteration. Patients with positive mutation had aggressive histologic features more frequently than patients without mutations. Comparison of the acromegalic and non-acromegalic patients with DTC revealed that BRAF V600E mutation was more frequent in non-acromegalic patients with DTC (14.2% vs. 64.3%, p=0.02). RET/PTC 1/ 3, PAX8/PPARγ gene rearrangements were not detected in any patient. None of the patients including the patients with positive point mutations had recurrence, and local and/or distant metastasis.
CONCLUSION: NRAS codon 61 is the most frequent genetic alteration in this acromegaly series with DTC. Since acromegalic patients have lower prevalance of BRAF V600E mutation, BRAF V600E mutation may not be a causative factor in development of DTC in acromegaly. Despite the relation of BRAF V600E and NRAS codon 61 mutations with aggresive histopathologic features, their impact on tumor prognosis remains to be defined in acromegaly in further studies.

Zhang Q, Wang T, Wang D, et al.
Somatic copy number losses on chromosome 9q21.33q22.33 encompassing the PTCH1 loci associated with cardiac fibroma.
Cancer Genet. 2015; 208(12):615-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cardiac fibroma is an extremely rare benign tumor that remains poorly characterized genetically. Somatic copy number alterations are common in tumors and have been defined as a crucial factor leading to tumors. In this study, we present a child diagnosed with cardiac fibroma with somatic copy number losses of a total of three discontinuous segments from 9q21.33 to 9q22.33, including a mosaic deletion of PTCH1. PTCH1 has been associated with sporadic cardiac fibroma. Sequencing analysis of the PTCH1 gene has not revealed any causative mutation. Quantitative PCR analysis of PTCH1 further confirms somatic copy number losses. Our data narrow down the critical causative deletions for sporadic cardiac fibroma to a region more precise than any other previously reported one. Our results suggest important roles of somatic copy number losses on chromosome 9q21.33q22.33 in the development of sporadic cardiac fibroma; these findings may provide a better understanding of sporadic cardiac fibroma pathogenesis and contribute to the identification of novel diagnostic biomarkers of this neoplasm. .

Thalakoti S, Geller T
Basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin syndrome.
Handb Clin Neurol. 2015; 132:119-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) or Gorlin syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome sometimes known as the fifth phacomatosis, inherited in autosomal dominant fashion with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Gorlin syndrome is characterized by development of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, calcification of falx cerebri, various developmental skeletal abnormalities such as bifid rib, hemi- or bifid vertebra and predisposition to the development of various tumors. BCNS is caused by a mutation in the PTCH1 gene localized to 9q22.3. Its estimated prevalence varies between 1/55600 and 1/256000 with an equal male to female ratio. The medulloblastoma variant seen in Gorlin syndrome patients is of the desmoplastic type, characteristically presenting during the first 3 years of life. Therefore, children with desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be carefully screened for other features of BCNS. Radiation therapy for desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be avoided in BCNS patients as it may induce development of invasive BCCs and other tumors in the skin area exposed to radiation. This syndrome is a multisystem disorder so involvement of multiple specialists with a multimodal approach to detect and treat various manifestations at early stages will reduce the long-term sequelae and severity of the condition. Life expectancy is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications and cosmetic scarring can be substantial.

Morita K, Naruto T, Tanimoto K, et al.
Simultaneous Detection of Both Single Nucleotide Variations and Copy Number Alterations by Next-Generation Sequencing in Gorlin Syndrome.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0140480 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gorlin syndrome (GS) is an autosomal dominant disorder that predisposes affected individuals to developmental defects and tumorigenesis, and caused mainly by heterozygous germline PTCH1 mutations. Despite exhaustive analysis, PTCH1 mutations are often unidentifiable in some patients; the failure to detect mutations is presumably because of mutations occurred in other causative genes or outside of analyzed regions of PTCH1, or copy number alterations (CNAs). In this study, we subjected a cohort of GS-affected individuals from six unrelated families to next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis for the combined screening of causative alterations in Hedgehog signaling pathway-related genes. Specific single nucleotide variations (SNVs) of PTCH1 causing inferred amino acid changes were identified in four families (seven affected individuals), whereas CNAs within or around PTCH1 were found in two families in whom possible causative SNVs were not detected. Through a targeted resequencing of all coding exons, as well as simultaneous evaluation of copy number status using the alignment map files obtained via NGS, we found that GS phenotypes could be explained by PTCH1 mutations or deletions in all affected patients. Because it is advisable to evaluate CNAs of candidate causative genes in point mutation-negative cases, NGS methodology appears to be useful for improving molecular diagnosis through the simultaneous detection of both SNVs and CNAs in the targeted genes/regions.

Lee H, Wang K, Johnson A, et al.
Comprehensive genomic profiling of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma reveals a long tail of therapeutic targets.
J Clin Pathol. 2016; 69(5):403-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: We queried whether extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma featured clinically relevant genomic alterations that could lead to targeted therapy.
METHODS: Comprehensive genomic profiling by hybridisation capture of up to 315 genes was performed on 99 clinically advanced extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
RESULTS: There were 60 male and 39 female patients with a median age of 60.5 years. A total of 400 alterations were identified (mean 4.0; range 0-13) in 84 genes. Eighty-two (83%) of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients featured at least one clinically relevant genomic alterations including KRAS (43%); ERBB2 (9%), PTEN (7%); ATM and NF1 (6%) and CCND1, FBXW7, GNAS, MDM2 and NRAS (all at 5%). BRAF, BRCA2, CDK4, CDK6, FGFR1, FGFR3, PTCH1, RAF1 and STK11 were each altered in a single patient. No IDH1/2 mutations or FGFR2 gene fusions were identified.
CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive genomic profiling of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma differs significantly from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and reveals diverse opportunities for the use of targeted therapies.

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