POU5F1

Gene Summary

Gene:POU5F1; POU class 5 homeobox 1
Aliases: OCT3, OCT4, OTF3, OTF4, OTF-3, Oct-3, Oct-4
Location:6p21.33
Summary:This gene encodes a transcription factor containing a POU homeodomain that plays a key role in embryonic development and stem cell pluripotency. Aberrant expression of this gene in adult tissues is associated with tumorigenesis. This gene can participate in a translocation with the Ewing's sarcoma gene on chromosome 21, which also leads to tumor formation. Alternative splicing, as well as usage of alternative AUG and non-AUG translation initiation codons, results in multiple isoforms. One of the AUG start codons is polymorphic in human populations. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 1, 3, 8, 10, and 12. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (33)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Embryonic Stem Cells
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Peptides
  • AC133 Antigen
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Apoptosis
  • Gene Expression
  • RNA Interference
  • Chromosome 6
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • RTPCR
  • Octamer Transcription Factor-3
  • Lung Cancer
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Glycoproteins
  • MicroRNAs
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Germ Cell Tumours
  • Base Sequence
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • siRNA
  • Western Blotting
  • Nanog Homeobox Protein
  • POU5F1
  • Promoter Regions
  • CD Antigens
  • Taiwan
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Transduction
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Drug Resistance
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Down-Regulation
  • Eye Cancer
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: POU5F1 (cancer-related)

Pan Y, Li C, Chen J, et al.
The Emerging Roles of Long Noncoding RNA ROR (lincRNA-ROR) and its Possible Mechanisms in Human Cancers.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 40(1-2):219-229 [PubMed] Related Publications
To date, there is only up to 2% of protein-coding genes that are stably transcribed, whereas the vast majority are non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). These ncRNAs, also known as non-messenger RNAs (nmRNAs) or functional RNAs (fRNAs), include transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). With the advance of high-resolution microarrays and massively parallel sequencing technology, lncRNAs have gained extended attentions nowadays and are found to play important roles in tumorigenesis and progression of human cancers. Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA, regulator of reprogramming (linc-ROR), was first discovered in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), where it was controlled by the key pluripotency factors Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. Linc-ROR has been shown to be dysregulated in many types of cancers, including breast cancer (BC), pancreatic cancer (PC), hepatocellular cancer (HCC), endometrial cancer (EC), and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Also, linc-ROR functions as regulatory molecule in a large amount of biological processes. However, the underlying mechanisms of its contribution to carcinogenesis remain to be elucidated. In this review, we will emphasize on the characteristics of linc-ROR and their roles in different types of human cancers.

Soheili S, Asadi MH, Farsinejad A
Distinctive expression pattern of OCT4 variants in different types of breast cancer.
Cancer Biomark. 2017; 18(1):69-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: OCT4 is a key regulator of self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells which can potentially encode three spliced variants designated OCT4A, OCT4B and OCT4B1. Based on cancer stem cell concept, it is suggested that the stemness factors misexpressed in cancer cells and potentially is involved in tumorigenesis.
OBJECTIVE: Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the potential expression of OCT4 variants in breast cancer tissues.
METHODS: A total of 94 tumoral and peritumoral breast specimens were evaluated with respect to the expression of OCT4 variants using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis.
RESULTS: We detected the expression of OCT4 variants in breast tumor tissues with no or very low levels of expression in peritumoral samples of the same patients. While OCT4B was highly expressed in lobular type of breast cancer, OCT4A and OCTB1 variants are highly expressed in low grade (I and II) ductal tumors. Furthermore, the results of this study revealed a considerable association between the expression level of OCT4 variants and the expression of ER, PR, Her2 and P53 factors.
CONCLUSIONS: All data demonstrated a distinctive expression pattern of OCT4 spliced variants in different types of breast cancer and provide further evidence for the involvement of embryonic genes in carcinogenesis.

Özgül Özdemir RB, Özdemir AT, Oltulu F, et al.
A comparison of cancer stem cell markers and nonclassical major histocompatibility complex antigens in colorectal tumor and noncancerous tissues.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2016; 25:60-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most fatal types of cancer in both women and men, and, unfortunately, patients are often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are associated with poor prognosis, metastasis, and recurrence, as well as chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance. Therefore, different treatment alternatives are needed to facilitate the elimination of CSCs. One such approach is immunotherapy; however, tumor cells can evade immune cells by alteration of the expression patterns of human leukocyte antigens (HLA). In this study, we immunohistochemically investigated the expression patterns of CSC-specific markers CD44, CD133, Nanog, and Oct3/4, and immunosuppressive molecules HLA-G and -E in advanced CRC tumor tissues and noncancerous colon biopsies. We found significantly increased CD44, Nanog, Oct3/4, HLA-G, and HLA-E expression in the CRC tumor tissues compared with the noncancerous colon biopsies. These findings suggest that some tumor cells may be CSC-like and that the increased expression of HLA-G and HLA-E may be considered as an immune-evasive adaptation. Therefore, the nonclassical major histocompatibility complex class Ib antigens HLA-G and HLA-E may be potential targets in the elimination of CRC-CSCs. However, more detailed studies are required to support our findings.

Han MH, Park SW, Do HJ, et al.
Growth and Differentiation Factor 3 Is Transcriptionally Regulated by OCT4 in Human Embryonic Carcinoma Cells.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2016; 39(11):1802-1808 [PubMed] Related Publications
Growth and differentiation factor 3 (GDF3), a mammalian-specific transforming growth factor β ligand, and OCT4, one of key stem cell transcription factors, are expressed in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) as well as pluripotent stem cells. To understand the molecular mechanism by which OCT4 and GDF3 function in tumorigenesis as well as stemness, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of GDF3 mediated by OCT4 in human embryonic carcinoma (EC) NCCIT cells, which are pluripotent stem cells of TGCTs. GDF3 and OCT4 was highly expressed in undifferentiated NCCIT cells and then significantly decreased upon retinoic acid-induced differentiation in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, GDF3 expression was reduced by short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of OCT4 and increased by OCT4 overexpression, suggesting that GDF3 and OCT4 have a functional relationship in pluripotent stem cells. A promoter-reporter assay revealed that the GDF3 promoter (-1721-Luc) activity was significantly activated by OCT4 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the minimal promoter (-183-Luc) was sufficient for OCT4-mediated transcriptional activation and provided a potential binding site for the direct interaction with OCT4. Collectively, this study provides the evidence about the regulatory mechanism of GDF3 mediated by OCT4 in pluripotent EC cells.

Villodre ES, Kipper FC, Pereira MB, Lenz G
Roles of OCT4 in tumorigenesis, cancer therapy resistance and prognosis.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2016; 51:1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OCT4 (POU5F1) is a major regulator of cell pluripotency and plays an important role not only during embryogenesis but also in tumorigenesis. It has been studied in various types of cancers, since stemness is an important factor for cancer growth and therapy. Here we present basic information about the OCT4 gene, its isoforms and pseudogenes besides discussing the current literature in which OCT4 is linked to cancer, emphasizing its roles in tumorigenesis and therapy. The majority of studies indicated a negative correlation between the expression of OCT4 and prognosis, and only in testicular germ cell tumor this correlation was positive. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas database we showed that OCT4 expression correlated negatively with patient survival in pancreatic cancer. All those different impacts of OCT4 on cancer indicate the biological complexity of this transcription factor in biology and, therefore, also in cancer.

Koshkin S, Danilova A, Raskin G, et al.
Primary cultures of human colon cancer as a model to study cancer stem cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12833-12842 [PubMed] Related Publications
The principal cause of death in cancer involves tumor progression and metastasis. Since only a small proportion of the primary tumor cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are the most aggressive, have the capacity to metastasize and display properties of stem cells, it is imperative to characterize the gene expression of diagnostic markers and to evaluate the drug sensitivity in the CSCs themselves. Here, we have examined the key genes that are involved in the progression of colorectal cancer and are expressed in cancer stem cells. Primary cultures of colorectal cancer cells from a patient's tumors were studied using the flow cytometry and cytological methods. We have evaluated the clinical and stem cell marker expression in these cells, their resistance to 5-fluorouracil and irinotecan, and the ability of cells to form tumors in mice. The data shows the role of stem cell marker Oct4 in the resistance of primary colorectal cancer tumor cells to 5-fluorouracil.

Dirican E, Akkiprik M
Functional and clinical significance of SALL4 in breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):11701-11709 [PubMed] Related Publications
The gene encoding Sal-like 4 (Drosophila) (SALL4) is a zinc-finger transcriptional factor and a vertebrate orthologous of the Drosophila gene spalt (sal), which is upregulated in some cancers. SALL4 is expressed in the early developmental stages of Drosophila. Moreover, murine SALL4 plays a vital role in protecting the properties of embryonic stem (ES) cells and guiding the outcome of the primal inner cell mass by interacting with OCT4 and NANOG. SALL4 in ES cells and tumor cells is known as a regulator for controlling cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, the downstream goals of SALL4 remain largely uncharted. SALL4 expression has been detected in various cancers, including a subset (30 %) of solid tumors, such as breast cancer (BCa), ovarian cancer, gastric cancer, Wilms tumor, and germ cell tumors. A study has reported that SALL4 expression is commonly upregulated in human breast tumors (~86 %) and that overregulation of this gene is often linked to tumor progression. In this review, we provide an overview concerning the role of SALL4 in BCa development and progression. Furthermore, this review may identify some drugs/inhibitors for the development of BCa-specific therapies by targeting SALL4. In the future, SALL4 may be a new biomarker as a diagnostic/therapeutic target of BCa, which would be a new direction in targeted BCa therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first review of the role of SALL4 in BCa development and progression.

Zhang Y, Huang Y, Jin Z, et al.
A convenient and effective strategy for the enrichment of tumor-initiating cell properties in prostate cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):11973-11981 [PubMed] Related Publications
Stem-like prostate cancer (PrCa) cells, also called PrCa stem cells (PrCSCs) or PrCa tumor-initiating cells (PrTICs), are considered to be involved in the mediation of tumor metastasis and may be responsible for the poor prognosis of PrCa patients. Currently, the methods for PrTIC sorting are mainly based on cell surface marker or side population (SP). However, the rarity of these sorted cells limits the investigation of the molecular mechanisms and therapeutic strategies targeting PrTICs. For PrTIC enrichment, we induced cancer stem cell (CSC) properties in PrCa cells by transducing three defined factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, and KLF4), followed by culture with conventional serum-containing medium. The CSC properties in the transduced cells were evaluated by proliferation, cell cycle, SP assay, drug sensitivity technology, in vivo tumorigenicity, and molecular marker analysis of PrCSCs compared with parental cells and spheroids. After culture with serum-containing medium for 8 days, the PrCa cells transduced with the three factors showed significantly enhanced CSC properties in terms of marker gene expression, sphere formation, chemoresistance to docetaxel, and tumorigenicity. The percentage of CD133(+)/CD44(+) cells was ninefold higher in the transduced cell population than in the adherent PC3 cell population (2.25 ± 0.62 vs. 0.25 ± 0.12 %, respectively), and the SP increased to 1.22 ± 0.18 % in the transduced cell population, but was undetectable in the adherent population. This method can be used to obtain abundant PrTIC material and enables a complete understanding of PrTIC biology and development of novel therapeutic agents targeting PrTICs.

Roudi R, Madjd Z, Ebrahimi M, et al.
Evidence for embryonic stem-like signature and epithelial-mesenchymal transition features in the spheroid cells derived from lung adenocarcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):11843-11859 [PubMed] Related Publications
Identification of the cellular and molecular aspects of lung cancer stem cells (LCSCs) that are suggested to be the main culprit of tumor initiation, maintenance, drug resistance, and relapse is a prerequisite for targeted therapy of lung cancer. In the current study, LCSCs subpopulation of A549 cells was enriched, and after characterization of the spheroid cells, complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray analysis was applied to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the spheroid and parental cells. Microarray results were validated using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), flow cytometry, and western blotting. Our results showed that spheroid cells had higher clonogenic potential, up-regulation of stemness gene Sox2, loss of CD44 expression, and gain of CD24 expression compared to parental cells. Among a total of 160 genes that were differentially expressed between the spheroid cells and the parental cells, 104 genes were up-regulated and 56 genes were down-regulated. Analysis of cDNA microarray revealed an embryonic stem cell-like signature and over-expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated genes in the spheroid cells. cDNA microarray results were validated at the gene expression level using qRT-PCR, and further validation was performed at the protein level by flow cytometry and western blotting. The embryonic stem cell-like signature in the spheroid cells supports two important notions: maintenance of CSCs phenotype by dedifferentiating mechanisms activated through oncogenic pathways and the origination of CSCs from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). PI3/AKT3, as the most common up-regulated pathway, and other pathways related to aggressive tumor behavior and EMT process can confer to the spheroid cells' high potential for metastasis and distant seeding.

Pak PJ, Kang BH, Park SH, et al.
Antitumor effects of herbal mixture extract in the pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line PANC1.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2875-2883 [PubMed] Related Publications
A recent study showned that complementary medicine is gradually gaining wide acceptance. In the present study, the herbal mixture extract (H3) composed of 3 oriental herbal plants was investigated for anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. H3 inhibited PANC1 cell growth by promoting G0/G1 arrest (11% increase) and apoptotic cell death (9% increase). H3 also suppressed stem cell-like side population cells (4% decrease) and migration activity (24% decrease). In contrast, gemcitabine decreased side population cells and migration activity by 3 and 11%, respectively. These effects of H3 and gemcitabine were further studied by examining the expression of apoptosis-associated genes (CXCR4, JAK2 and XIAP) and stem cell-associated genes (ABCG2, POU5F1 and SOX2). We also found that H3 suppressed tumor growth by 46% in a PANC1‑xenograft model, while gemcitabine caused a 36% decrease. The antitumor effects of H3 were confirmed by western blot analysis for COX-2 and cytochrome c expression. Furthermore, necrotic cell death and erythrocyte-containing cavities were detected in tumor tissue by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Notably, the combinatorial therapy (H3 and gemcitabine) increased tumor growth compared to that in the control. In conclusion, the present study shows that H3 has promise as a therapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer and its cancer stem cells.

Yang Z, Cui Y, Ni W, et al.
Gli1, a potential regulator of esophageal cancer stem cell, is identified as an independent adverse prognostic factor in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(2):243-254 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The hedgehog (Hh) pathway is involved in cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance in various tumors. Glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (Gli1) is a key mediator of the Hh pathway; however, its expression and clinical significance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have not been reported. In this study, we aimed to reveal clinical significance of Gli1 expression in ESCC and further investigate the potential of Gli1 as a CSC regulator of ESCC by comparing its expression with expressions of other stemness genes in ESCC.
METHODS: We assessed the expressions of Gli1, Sox9, CD44, Sox2, LSD1, and Oct4 in 127 patients' tissue specimens of ESCC using immunohistochemistry and in ESCC cell lines using Western blotting. The relationship of Gli1 expression with clinic-pathologic parameters as well as cell-cycle-regulating genes was investigated. We also investigated the biological pathways that are activated in Gli1-high ESCC using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data.
RESULTS: Gli1 expression was observed in 28.3 % of ESCC, and its expression was correlated with the expression of stemness genes, Sox9 (P = 0.003) and CD44 (P = 0.012). And Gli1, CD44, and Sox9 were highly expressed in more poorly differentiated ESCC cell lines such as TE8 and TE1 cells. Notably, Gli1 expression was positively associated with distant metastasis (P = 0.011), increased microvessel density (MVD) (P = 0.002), and expression of cell cycle regulators such as p21, cyclin D1, cyclin E1, and NF-κB (P < 0.05). Sox9 and CD44 expressions in ESCC were also significantly associated with unfavorable clinic-pathologic parameters such as increased MVD, advanced tumor (pT) stage, and higher TNM stage. Moreover, all three potential CSC markers such as Gli1, Sox9, and CD44 were strongly linked to worse clinical outcome and independent poor prognostic factors in overall survival and disease-free survival in ESCC. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that the Gli1-high-expressing ESCC patients' group was strongly enriched for gene expression signature of Hh signaling pathway, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cancer stem cell.
CONCLUSIONS: Targeting Gli1, a potential diagnostic marker of ESCC stem cells, will have a profound therapeutic and prognostic value.

Tang H, Jin Y, Jin S, et al.
Arsenite inhibits the function of CD133(+) CD13(+) liver cancer stem cells by reducing PML and Oct4 protein expression.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):14103-14115 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) can form new tumors and contribute to post-operative recurrence and metastasis. We showed that CD133(+)CD13(+) hepatocytes isolated from HuH7 cells and primary HCC cells display biochemical and functional characteristics typical of CSCs, suggesting that CD133(+)CD13(+) hepatocytes in primary HCC tumors function as CSCs. We also found that arsenite treatment reduced the viability and stemness of CD133(+)CD13(+) hepatocytes, enhanced the sensitivity of HuH7 cells to pirarubicin, and reduced the tumorigenicity of CD133(+)CD13(+) hepatocytes xenografts in mice. The effects of sodium arsenite treatment in CD133(+)CD13(+) hepatocytes were mediated by the post-transcriptional suppression of PML expression and the inhibition of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 expression at the transcriptional level. Incomplete rescue of Oct4 expression in arsenic-treated cells ectopically expressing an siRNA-resistant PML transcript suggested that OCT4 regulation in liver CSCs involves other factors in addition to PML. Our findings provide evidence of a specific role for PML in regulating Oct4 levels in liver CSCs and highlight the clinical importance of arsenic for improving the efficacy of other chemotherapeutic agents and the prevention of post-operative HCC recurrence and metastasis.

Yang J, Fang Z, Wu J, et al.
Construction and application of a lung cancer stem cell model: antitumor drug screening and molecular mechanism of the inhibitory effects of sanguinarine.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13871-13883 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is a neoplasm with a 5-year survival rate of less than 15 % and a leading cause of death worldwide, despite recent progress in treatment and diagnostic methods. Lung cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are pivotal in lung cancer metastasis and drug resistance. This study aimed to develop lung CSCs that stably express stem cell properties through transfection to further screen traditional Chinese herbal compounds. Lung adenocarcinoma stem cells, which include various phenotypic subgroups, are normally characterized by high expression levels of pluripotent stem cell genes, particularly Nanog and OCT4. Plasmids containing Nanog and OCT4 were constructed and transfected into cells, and lung CSCs were identified not only in vitro using RT-PCR, Western blotting, plate cloning, sphere formation, drug resistance, and transwell migration but also in vivo using a nude mouse tumorigenicity assay. Subsequently, sanguinarine, which is derived from the whole leaves of the traditional Chinese medicine celandine, was identified through the high-throughput screening of a small-molecule compound library. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms of the effects of sanguinarine revealed that it significantly inhibited lung CSC proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis, possibly via downregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our results indicate that lung CSCs established by gene transfection may provide a stable and effective method of constructing CSCs to effectively screen potential antitumor drugs. Furthermore, these results suggest that sanguinarine may be a natural antitumor compound that targets lung CSCs, laying a foundation for further clinical study.

Tang X, Li X, Li Z, et al.
Downregulation of CXCR7 inhibits proliferative capacity and stem cell-like properties in breast cancer stem cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13425-13433 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer stem cells (bCSCs) are considered an obstacle in breast cancer therapy because they exhibit long-term proliferative potential, phenotypic plasticity and high resistance to the current therapeutics. CXC chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR7), which provides a growth advantage to breast cancer cells, has recently been demonstrated to play an important role in the maintenance of stem cell-like properties in the CSCs of glioblastoma and lung cancer, yet its role in bCSCs remains elusive. In this study, CD44(+)/CD24(low) bCSC-enriched cells (bCSCs for short) were isolated from MCF-7 cells, and CXCR7 was stably knocked down in bCSCs via lentivirus-mediated transduction with CXCR7 short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Knockdown of CXCR7 in bCSCs decreased the proportion of CD44(+)/CD24(low) cells, and markedly reduced the clonogenicity of the cells. Moreover, silencing of CXCR7 downregulated the expression of stem cell markers, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), Oct4, and Nanog. In addition, CXCR7 silencing in bCSCs suppressed cell proliferation and G1/S transition in vitro, and delayed tumor growth in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. In situ immunohistochemical analysis revealed a reduction in Ki-67 expression and enhanced apoptosis in the xenograft tumors as a result of CXCR7 silencing. Furthermore, combined treatment with CXCR7 silencing and epirubicin displayed an outstanding anti-tumor effect compared with either single treatment. Our study demonstrates that CXCR7 plays a critical role in the maintenance of stem cell-like properties and promotion of growth in bCSCs, and suggests that CXCR7 may be a candidate target for bCSCs in breast cancer therapy.

Zeng G, Xun W, Wei K, et al.
MicroRNA-27a-3p regulates epithelial to mesenchymal transition via targeting YAP1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(3):1475-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs frequently dysregulated in human malignancies. Here, we profiled isolated cells from freshly resected tumors from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients and OSCC cell lines using a SYBR Green-based qPCR miRNA array to identify the expression change of the miRNAs. Based on the microarray data and clincopathological factor analysis of 50 OSCC patients related to these miRNAs, miR-27a-3p was selected as a putative miRNA which might play important role in OSCC progression. By bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay, we found that YAP1 (Yes-associated protein-1) was a direct target gene of miR-27a-3p. Intriguingly, increased expression of miR-27a-3p could significantly decrease the expression level of YAP1 as well as several epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related molecules in OSCC cell lines, including Twist and Snail. Then, follow-up studies revealed that miR-27a-3p expression was able to downregulate the EMT-related molecules effectively, which might be involved in the regulation of Sox2 via the YAP1-OCT4-Sox2 signaling axis. In summary, this study found that miR-27a-3p could inhibit the YAP1 directly by post-transcriptionally silencing and potentially suppress EMT process, suggesting that miR‑27a-3p might play pivotal roles in effectively manipulating the invasion and metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells through the EMT inhibition.

Dumevska B, Chami O, Main H, et al.
Derivation of FSHD1 affected human embryonic stem cell line Genea050.
Stem Cell Res. 2016; 16(2):503-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Genea050 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying a deletion in 4q35 with only 5 D4Z4 repeats by PGD linkage analysis, indicative of FSHD1. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XY and STR analysis demonstrated a male Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 92% of cells expressed Nanog, 97% Oct4, 79% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 25.45, Novelty of 1.45 demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

Dumevska B, McKernan R, Goel D, et al.
Derivation of Huntington Disease affected Genea017 human embryonic stem cell line.
Stem Cell Res. 2016; 16(2):493-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Genea017 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying Htt gene CAG expansion of 40 repeats, indicative of Huntington Disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, genetic analysis confirmed a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 87% of cells expressed Nanog, 95% Oct4, 88% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4, gave a PluriTest pluripotency score of 34.74, novelty of 1.27, demonstrated alkaline phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

Dumevska B, Bosman A, McKernan R, et al.
Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea022.
Stem Cell Res. 2016; 16(2):472-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Genea022 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea022 was demonstrated with 84% of cells expressed Nanog, 98% Oct4, 55% Tra1-60 and 97% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 42.95, Novelty of 1.23, demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

Dumevska B, Chami O, McKernan R, et al.
Derivation of Huntington Disease affected Genea046 human embryonic stem cell line.
Stem Cell Res. 2016; 16(2):446-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Genea046 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying HTT gene CAG expansion of 45 repeats, indicative of Huntington Disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XX by CGH and STR analysis demonstrated a female Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 85% of cells expressed Nanog, 92% Oct4, 75% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4 and demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

Dumevska B, Peura T, McKernan R, et al.
Derivation of Huntington disease affected Genea020 human embryonic stem cell line.
Stem Cell Res. 2016; 16(2):430-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Genea020 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying Htt gene CAG expansion of 48 repeats, indicative of Huntington disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XX by CGH and STR analysis demonstrated a female allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 89% of cells expressed Nanog, 95% Oct4, 29% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest pluripotency score of 27.51, novelty of 1.43 and demonstrated alkaline phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

Dumevska B, Main H, McKernan R, et al.
Derivation of Huntington Disease affected Genea018 human embryonic stem cell line.
Stem Cell Res. 2016; 16(2):423-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Genea018 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying Htt gene CAG expansion of 46 repeats, indicative of Huntington Disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XX by CGH and STR analysis demonstrated a female Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 75% of cells expressed Nanog, 91% Oct4, 73% Tra1-60 and 96% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest pluripotency score of 31.12, Novelty of 1.45, demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

Dumevska B, Bosman A, McKernan R, et al.
Derivation of Trisomy 21 affected human embryonic stem cell line Genea021.
Stem Cell Res. 2016; 16(2):401-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Genea021 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying Trisomy 21, indicative of Down Syndrome. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, CGH and STR analyses demonstrated a 47, XY, +21 karyotype and male allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 71% of cells expressed Nanog, 84% Oct4, 23% Tra1-60 and 95% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 21.85, Novelty of 1.42, demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

Dumevska B, Peura T, McKernan R, et al.
Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea019.
Stem Cell Res. 2016; 16(2):397-400 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Genea019 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype, female Allele pattern and unaffected Htt CAG repeat length, compared to HD affected sibling Genea020. Pluripotency of Genea019 was demonstrated with 75% of cells expressing Nanog, 89% Oct4, 48% Tra1-60 and 85% SSEA4, a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 22.97, Novelty score of 1.42, tri-lineage teratoma formation and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

Dumevska B, Chami O, McKernan R, et al.
Derivation of Genea052 human embryonic stem cell line.
Stem Cell Res. 2016; 16(2):327-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Genea052 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea052 was demonstrated with 85% of cells expressing Nanog, 87% Oct4, 60% Tra1-60 and 97% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 27.21, Novelty score of 1.2 and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

Dumevska B, Chami O, McKernan R, et al.
Derivation of Genea047 human embryonic stem cell line.
Stem Cell Res. 2016; 16(2):322-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Genea047 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype and female allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea047 was demonstrated with 88% of cells expressing Nanog, 95% Oct4, 59% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 30.86, Novelty score of 1.23 and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

Neska J, Swoboda P, Przybyszewska M, et al.
The Effect of Analogues of 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D₂ on the Regrowth and Gene Expression of Human Colon Cancer Cells Refractory to 5-Fluorouracil.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of hypocalcemic analogues of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₂ (1,25D2) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (1,25D3) to inhibit regrowth and regulate the stemness-related gene expression in colon cancer cells undergoing renewal after exposure to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). All of the tested analogues of 1,25D2 equally potently decreased the clonogenicity and the proliferative activity of HT-29 cells which survived the exposure to 5-FU, but differently regulated gene expression of these cells during their renewal. 1,25D2 and analogues (PRI-1907 and PRI-1917), as well as 1,25D3 and analogue PRI-2191, decreased the relative expression level of several stemness-related genes, such as NANOG, OCT3/4, PROM1, SOX2, ALDHA1, CXCR4, in HT-29/5-FU cells during their renewal, in comparison to untreated HT-29/5-FU cells. The other 1,25D2 analogues (PRI-1906 and PRI-1916) were not capable of downregulating the expression of these stemness-related genes as the analogues PRI-1907 and PRI-1917 did. All of the tested vitamin D analogues upregulated CDH1, the gene encoding E-cadherin associated with epithelial phenotype. Out of the series of analogues studied, side-chain branched analogues of 1,25D2 (PRI-1907, PRI-1917) and the analogue of 1,25D3 (PRI-2191) might be used to target cancer cells with stem-like phenotypes that survive conventional chemotherapy.

Kaufhold S, Garbán H, Bonavida B
Yin Yang 1 is associated with cancer stem cell transcription factors (SOX2, OCT4, BMI1) and clinical implication.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is frequently overexpressed in cancerous tissues compared to normal tissues and has regulatory roles in cell proliferation, cell viability, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, metastasis and drug/immune resistance. YY1 shares many properties with cancer stem cells (CSCs) that drive tumorigenesis, metastasis and drug resistance and are regulated by overexpression of certain transcription factors, including SOX2, OCT4 (POU5F1), BMI1 and NANOG. Based on these similarities, it was expected that YY1 expression would be associated with SOX2, OCT4, BMI1, and NANOG's expressions and activities. Data mining from the proteomic tissue-based datasets from the Human Protein Atlas were used for protein expression patterns of YY1 and the four CSC markers in 17 types of cancer, including both solid and hematological malignancies. A close association was revealed between the frequency of expressions of YY1 and SOX2 as well as SOX2 and OCT4 in all cancers analyzed. Two types of dynamics were identified based on the nature of their association, namely, inverse or direct, between YY1 and SOX2. These two dynamics define distinctive patterns of BMI1 and OCT4 expressions. The relationship between YY1 and SOX2 expressions as well as the expressions of BMI1 and OCT4 resulted in the classification of four groups of cancers with distinct molecular signatures: (1) Prostate, lung, cervical, endometrial, ovarian and glioma cancers (YY1(lo)SOX2(hi)BMI1(hi)OCT4(hi)) (2) Skin, testis and breast cancers (YY1(hi)SOX2(lo)BMI1(hi)OCT4(hi)) (3) Liver, stomach, renal, pancreatic and urothelial cancers (YY1(lo)SOX2(lo)BMI1(hi)OCT4(hi)) and (4) Colorectal cancer, lymphoma and melanoma (YY1(hi)SOX2(hi)BMI1(lo)OCT4(hi)). A regulatory loop is proposed consisting of the cross-talk between the NF-kB/PI3K/AKT pathways and the downstream inter-regulation of target gene products YY1, OCT4, SOX2 and BMI1.

Zhou JJ, Meng Z, Zhou Y, et al.
Hepatitis C virus core protein regulates OCT4 expression and promotes cell cycle progression in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(1):582-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein plays an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. octamer-binding protein 4 (OCT4) is critically essential for the pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. Abnormal expression of OCT4 has been detected in several human solid tumors. However, the relationship between HCV core and OCT4 remains uncertain. In the present study, we found that HCV core is capable of upregulating OCT4 expression. The effect of HCV core-induced OCT4 overexpression was abolished by RNAi-mediated scilencing of HCV core. In addition, HCV core-induced OCT4 overexpression resulted in enhanced cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Inhibition of OCT4 reduced the CCND1 expression and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, OCT4 protein directly binds to CCND1 promoter and transactivates CCND1. These findings suggest that HCV core protein regulates OCT4 expression and promotes cell cycle progression in hepatocellular carcinoma providing new insight into the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis by HCV infection.

Qian X, Zhao FQ
Regulatory roles of Oct proteins in the mammary gland.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1859(6):812-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The expression of Oct-1 and -2 and their binding to the octamer motif in the mammary gland are developmentally and hormonally regulated, consistent with the expression of milk proteins. Both of these transcription factors constitutively bind to the proximal promoter of the milk protein gene β-casein and might be involved in the inhibition or activation of promoter activity via interactions with other transcription factors or cofactors at different developmental stages. In particular, the lactogenic hormone prolactin and glucocorticoids induce Oct-1 and Oct-2 binding and interaction with both the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and the glucocorticoid receptor on the β-casein promoter to activate β-casein expression. In addition, increasing evidence has shown the involvement of another Oct factor, Oct-3/4, in mammary tumorigenesis, making Oct-3/4 an emerging prognostic marker of breast cancer and a molecular target for the gene-directed therapeutic intervention, prevention and treatment of breast cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Oct Transcription Factor Family, edited by Dr. Dean Tantin.

Huang JS, Yao CJ, Chuang SE, et al.
Honokiol inhibits sphere formation and xenograft growth of oral cancer side population cells accompanied with JAK/STAT signaling pathway suppression and apoptosis induction.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:245 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Eliminating cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been suggested for prevention of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Honokiol, an active compound of Magnolia officinalis, had been proposed to be a potential candidate drug for cancer treatment. We explored its effects on the elimination of oral CSCs both in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: By using the Hoechst side population (SP) technique, CSCs-like SP cells were isolated from human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines, SAS and OECM-1. Effects of honokiol on the apoptosis and signaling pathways of SP-derived spheres were examined by Annexin V/Propidium iodide staining and Western blotting, respectively. The in vivo effectiveness was examined by xenograft mouse model and immunohistochemical tissue staining.
RESULTS: The SP cells possessed higher stemness marker expression (ABCG2, Ep-CAM, Oct-4 and Nestin), clonogenicity, sphere formation capacity as well as tumorigenicity when compared to the parental cells. Treatment of these SP-derived spheres with honokiol resulted in apoptosis induction via Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-3-dependent pathway. This apoptosis induction was associated with marked suppression of JAK2/STAT3, Akt and Erk signaling pathways in honokiol-treated SAS spheres. Consistent with its effect on JAK2/STAT3 suppression, honokiol also markedly inhibited IL-6-mediated migration of SAS cells. Accordingly, honokiol dose-dependently inhibited the growth of SAS SP xenograft and markedly reduced the immunohistochemical staining of PCNA and endothelial marker CD31 in the xenograft tumor.
CONCLUSIONS: Honokiol suppressed the sphere formation and xenograft growth of oral CSC-like cells in association with apoptosis induction and inhibition of survival/proliferation signaling pathways as well as angiogenesis. These results suggest its potential as an integrative medicine for combating oral cancer through targeting on CSCs.

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