SOX2; SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (3q26.3-q27)

Gene Summary

Gene:SOX2; SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2
Aliases: ANOP3, MCOPS3
Summary:This intronless gene encodes a member of the SRY-related HMG-box (SOX) family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of cell fate. The product of this gene is required for stem-cell maintenance in the central nervous system, and also regulates gene expression in the stomach. Mutations in this gene have been associated with optic nerve hypoplasia and with syndromic microphthalmia, a severe form of structural eye malformation. This gene lies within an intron of another gene called SOX2 overlapping transcript (SOX2OT). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor SOX-2
Updated:14 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (57)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Staging
  • Stem Cells
  • DNA Methylation
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Chromosome 3
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Pluripotent Stem Cells
  • Transcription Factors
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Western Blotting
  • MicroRNAs
  • Messenger RNA
  • Breast Cancer
  • SOX2
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • CD Antigens
  • Gene Expression
  • Down-Regulation
  • Gene Amplification
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Cell Movement
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Glioblastoma
  • Drug Resistance
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Glycoproteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Lung Cancer
  • Base Sequence
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • RT-PCR
  • Peptides
  • Promoter Regions
  • Brain Tumours
  • Octamer Transcription Factor-3
  • Embryonic Stem Cells
  • Brain Tumours
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (4)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Lung CancerSOX2 and Lung Cancer View Publications42
Brain Tumours, ChildhoodSOX2 and Brain Tumours View Publications35
Breast CancerSOX2 and Breast Cancer View Publications24
Esophageal CancerSOX2 and Esoghogeal Cancer View Publications9

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: SOX2 (cancer-related)

Nawata J, Kuramitsu Y, Wang Y, et al.
Active hexose-correlated compound down-regulates sex-determining region Y-box 2 of pancreatic cancer cells.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(9):4807-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Active hexose-correlated compound (AHCC) is an extract of basidiomycete mushroom. It has been used as health food due to its efficacy of enhancing antitumor effects and reducing adverse effects of chemotherapy. Our previous research showed that AHCC down-regulated heat-shock protein (HSP)-27 and exhibited cytotoxic effects against gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) is reported to be up-regulated in other kinds of cancer cells and involved in carcinogenesis and malignancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AHCC on protein expression of SOX2 in the gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell line KLM1-R.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: AHCC was applied to KLM1-R cells and expression of SOX2 was analyzed by western blotting.
RESULTS: AHCC down-regulated SOX2 in KLM1-R cells. Nanog and Oct4, co-workers of SOX2 in maintaining pluripotency, did not exhibit any significant change in protein expression.
CONCLUSION: We showed the potential of AHCC to be a candidate for combinatorial therapy in anticancer drug regimens. This result suggests that the target of AHCC in expressing therapeutic efficacy was not the pluripotent cells such as cancer stem cells (CSCs) but SOX2-specific.

Related: Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer

Li X, Chen S, Sun T, et al.
The transcriptional regulation of SOX2 on FOXA1 gene and its application in diagnosis of human breast and lung cancers.
Clin Lab. 2014; 60(6):909-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent study demonstrated the important contribution of SOX2 to tumorigenesis and metastasis properties of various types of cancers and strongly supported the concept that SOX2 can be used as an effective marker for diagnosis and predicting prognosis of cancer patients. However, our previous RNA-Seq results from human lung cancer cell line A549 showed that some oncogenes, including FOXA1 are negatively regulated by SOX2.
METHODS: To further verify the transcriptional regulation effect of SOX2 on FOXA1 and elucidate its application in the diagnosis of human lung and breast cancer, we performed real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting to test the regulation effect of SOX2 on the expression of FOXA1 gene. OncoPrint analysis was used to reveal the alteration of SOX2 and FOXA1 genes in breast invasive carcinoma cases and lung squamous cell carcinoma cases from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data portal. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed to test the expression of SOX2 and FOXA1 in human breast and lung carcinoma.
RESULTS: The results showed that there is an inhibitory effect of SOX2 on the expression of FOXA1 gene. In addition, these two genes are altered in 5.8% of 484 breast invasive carcinoma cases and 46.4% of 179 lung squamous cell carcinoma cases from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data portal, which showed an increased percentage of carcinoma cases when compared with single gene alteration. Immunohistochemistry staining of SOX2 and FOXA1 in human breast and lung carcinoma further revealed the mutual complementary effect of these two proteins in the diagnosis of carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed SOX2 as a negative upstream regulator for FOXA1 gene and demonstrated SOX2 and FOXA1 as effective dual markers in improving the diagnosis efficiency for human lung and breast tumor.

Related: Breast Cancer Lung Cancer

Stoczynska-Fidelus E, Och W, Rieske P, et al.
Spontaneous in vitro senescence of glioma cells confirmed by an antibody against IDH1R132H.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(6):2859-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have recently suggested that glioblastoma cells become spontaneously senescent in cell culture conditions. The antibody specific against IDH1(R132H) offers the perfect opportunity to verify this hypothesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the features of senescence in 8 glioma cell cultures showing the IDH1(R132H) mutation based on combination of immunocytochemistry, enzymo-cytochemistry, BrdU incorporation assay and real-time microscopic observation.
RESULTS: We report that glioma cells showing the IDH1(R132H) mutation become rapidly and spontaneously senescent in vitro. Senescence was observed in both classical and novel serum-free cell culture conditions. Importantly, the senescent IDH1(R132H)-positive cells showed the expression of stemness marker (SOX2).
CONCLUSION: In vitro senescence appeared to be the main reason of the difficulties in any kind culturing of glioma cells. 3D cell cultures prolonged the survival and in vitro proliferation of neoplastic IDH1(R132H)-positive cells, however, did not enhance the stabilization efficiency. Senescence of glioma cells is spontaneously triggered in vitro, which offers the opportunity of potential new therapeutic strategies based on this phenomenon.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies IDH1 gene

Kanehira M, Kikuchi T, Santoso A, et al.
Human marrow stromal cells downsize the stem cell fraction of lung cancers by fibroblast growth factor 10.
Mol Cell Biol. 2014; 34(15):2848-56 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
The functional interplay between cancer cells and marrow stromal cells (MSCs) has attracted a great deal of interest due to the MSC tropism for tumors but remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated human MSC-secreted paracrine factors that appear to have critical functions in cancer stem cell subpopulations. We show that MSC-conditioned medium reduced the cancer stem cell-enriched subpopulation, which was detected as a side population and quiescent (G0) cell cycle fraction in human lung cancer cells by virtue of fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10). This reduction of the stem cell-enriched fraction was also observed in lung cancer cells supplemented with recombinant human FGF10 protein. Moreover, supplementary FGF10 attenuated the expression of stemness genes encoding transcription factors, such as OCT3/4 and SOX2, and crippled the self-renewal capacity of lung cancer cells, as evidenced by the impaired formation of floating spheres in the suspension culture. We finally confirmed the therapeutic potential of the FGF10 treatment, which rendered lung cancer cells prone to a chemotherapeutic agent, probably due to the reduced cancer stem cell subpopulation. Collectively, these results add further clarification to the molecular mechanisms underlying MSC-mediated cancer cell kinetics, facilitating the development of future therapies.

Related: Lung Cancer

Mazibrada J, Longo L, Vatrano S, et al.
Differential expression of HER2, STAT3, SOX2, IFI16 and cell cycle markers during HPV-related head and neck carcinogenesis.
New Microbiol. 2014; 37(2):129-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to analyze protein and gene expression of HER2 in 224 head and neck precancerous and malignant lesions by immunohistochemistry and FISH analysis. In parallel, expression of pStat3, Sox2, IFI16 and p16, Ki67 was evaluated. Immunohistochemical analysis was assessed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens. A combined method for HPV detection consisting of p16 immunostaining and two PCR probes was applied. HER2 gene status was evaluated by FISH analysis. HPV DNA was detected in 24% of cases with predominant HPV16 genotype. HPV-positive lesions had higher HER2, pStat3 and within carcinoma group, and higher IFI16 expression compared to the HPV-negative group (Fig. 1A-B-C). A strong positive correlation between Sox2 and proliferative activity was observed, whereas IFI16 expression displayed a negative relationship with Sox2 and Ki67 activity. The most striking result was higher pStat3 expression in HPV-positive lesions and its strong positive correlation with IFI16 expression. The presence of HPV may induce upregulation of HER2/neu, pStat3 and IFI16. High levels and a strong positive correlation between pStat3 and IFI16 suggest their synergistic pro-apoptotic effects in HPV-positive lesions.

Related: Head and Neck Cancers Head and Neck Cancers - Molecular Biology

Xia Y, Wu Y, Liu B, et al.
Downregulation of miR-638 promotes invasion and proliferation by regulating SOX2 and induces EMT in NSCLC.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(14):2238-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant expression of microRNAs has been shown to regulate the biological processes of lung cancer cells. However, the role of miR-638 in the development of NSCLC is still unclear. In this study, low miR-638 and high SOX2 were shown to be associated with tumor size and metastasis of NSCLC patients. Downregulated miR-638 could promote cell invasion and proliferation, while high miR-638 expression reversed the effect. Furthermore, miR-638 could regulate SOX2 by directly binding to its 3'-UTR. Silencing of SOX2 by siRNA partially abolished the enhancement of cell invasion and proliferation induced by downregulated miR-638. Aberrant miR-638 expression could modulate the expression levels of markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Our results indicate that miR-638 may play a pivotal role in the development of NSCLC.

Related: Apoptosis Lung Cancer

Ma R, Minsky N, Morshed SA, Davies TF
Stemness in human thyroid cancers and derived cell lines: the role of asymmetrically dividing cancer stem cells resistant to chemotherapy.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(3):E400-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
CONTEXT: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the ability to self-renew through symmetric and asymmetric cell division. CSCs may arise from mutations within an embryonic stem cell/progenitor cell population or via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and recent advances in the study of thyroid stem cells have led to a growing recognition of the likely central importance of CSCs in thyroid tumorigenesis.
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to establish the presence of a stem cell population in human thyroid tumors and to identify, isolate, and characterize CSCs in thyroid cancer cell lines.
RESULTS: 1) Human thyroid cancers (n = 10) and thyroid cancer cell lines (n = 6) contained a stem cell population as evidenced by pluripotent stem cell gene expression. 2) Pulse-chase experiments with thyroid cancer cells identified a label-retaining cell population, a primary characteristic of CSCs, which at mitosis divided their DNA both symmetrically and asymmetrically and included a population of cells expressing the progenitor marker, stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA-1). 3) Cells positive for SSEA-1 expressed additional stem cell markers including Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog were confirmed as CSCs by their tumor-initiating properties in vivo, their resistance to chemotherapy, and their multipotent capability. 4) SSEA-1-positive cells showed enhanced vimentin expression and decreased E-cadherin expression, indicating their likely derivation via EMT.
CONCLUSIONS: Cellular diversity in thyroid cancer occurs through both symmetric and asymmetric cell division, and SSEA-1-positive cells are one form of CSCs that appear to have arisen via EMT and may be the source of malignant thyroid tumor formation. This would suggest that thyroid cancer CSCs were the result of thyroid cancer transformation rather than the source.

Related: Thyroid Cancer

Kryczek I, Lin Y, Nagarsheth N, et al.
IL-22(+)CD4(+) T cells promote colorectal cancer stemness via STAT3 transcription factor activation and induction of the methyltransferase DOT1L.
Immunity. 2014; 40(5):772-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/05/2015 Related Publications
Little is known about how the immune system impacts human colorectal cancer invasiveness and stemness. Here we detected interleukin-22 (IL-22) in patient colorectal cancer tissues that was produced predominantly by CD4(+) T cells. In a mouse model, migration of these cells into the colon cancer microenvironment required the chemokine receptor CCR6 and its ligand CCL20. IL-22 acted on cancer cells to promote activation of the transcription factor STAT3 and expression of the histone 3 lysine 79 (H3K79) methytransferase DOT1L. The DOT1L complex induced the core stem cell genes NANOG, SOX2, and Pou5F1, resulting in increased cancer stemness and tumorigenic potential. Furthermore, high DOT1L expression and H3K79me2 in colorectal cancer tissues was a predictor of poor patient survival. Thus, IL-22(+) cells promote colon cancer stemness via regulation of stemness genes that negatively affects patient outcome. Efforts to target this network might be a strategy in treating colorectal cancer patients.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Asadi MH, Derakhshani A, Mowla SJ
Concomitant upregulation of nucleostemin and downregulation of Sox2 and Klf4 in gastric adenocarcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):7177-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar protein involved in stem cell (SC) self-renewal by controlling cell cycle progression. In addition to SCs, NS is also expressed in some highly proliferating cells including several adult stem cells and cancer cell lines. NS knock-down in different cell lines demonstrated its cell type-dependent function in arresting cell cycle in either G1 or G2/M phases. Here, we have evaluated the expression of NS and iPS genes in 36 gastric cancer and their matched marginal nontumor tissues by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We have also examined a potential causative role of NS in gastric tumorigenesis by suppressing its expression in a gastric cancer cell line, AGS. Our data revealed that NS expression level is much higher in tumor tissues (p = 0.046), especially in high-grade ones (p < 0.001), whereas the expression of Klf4 and Sox2 is downregulated in tumor tissues compared to marginal nontumor samples (p < 0.001). Furthermore, NS suppression in the AGS cell line caused some morphological alterations, a cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, and an upregulation of iPS genes: Nanog, Sox2, and Klf4. Based on our results, NS overexpression seems to have a causative role in gastric tumorigenesis and/or progression, and it could be considered as a potential tumor marker for diagnosis, molecular classification, and molecular therapy of gastric adenocarcinoma.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Tian Y, Jia X, Wang S, et al.
SOX2 oncogenes amplified and operate to activate AKT signaling in gastric cancer and predict immunotherapy responsiveness.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(7):1117-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Whether the oncogene, amplified on chromosome 3q26, SOX2, a master transcriptional regulator of stemness, operate to drive strong growth phenotype in gastric cancer were unknown.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The gene expression changes of SOX2 in human gastric cancer tissues compared with non-cancerous tissues was detected using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) analysis and immunohistochemistry, which identified the gene overexpression of SOX2 in gastric cancer. Moreover, we discovered that SOX2 promoted cancer cell proliferation in vitro/vivo and SOX2 expression correlated with elevated AKT phosphorylation in gastric cancer, while the AKT phosphorylation was required for SOX2's oncogenic effects. Next, our data point to the usefulness of SOX2 overexpression, as a new predictive marker for responsiveness to trastuzumab.
CONCLUSION: SOX2 is a commonly activated tumor promoter that activate AKT signaling in gastric cancer and a new predictive marker for targeted therapy.

Related: Signal Transduction Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Wang R, Liu W, Helfer CM, et al.
Activation of SOX2 expression by BRD4-NUT oncogenic fusion drives neoplastic transformation in NUT midline carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(12):3332-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/06/2015 Related Publications
BRD4 is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of different cancers. It is also the target of translocation t(15;19) that accounts for the highly aggressive NUT midline carcinoma (NMC). We discovered that t(15;19) NMC cells display the ability to grow into stem cell-like spheres and express an exceptionally high level of the stem cell marker, SOX2. The BRD4-NUT fusion oncogene resulting from t(15;19) translocation is required for the abnormal activation of SOX2, which drives the stem cell-like proliferation and cellular transformation in NMC cells. SOX2 knockdown phenocopies the effects of BRD4-NUT inhibition, whereas ectopic SOX2 expression rescues the phenotype. The BRD4-NUT-induced abnormal SOX2 activation was observed in multiple NMC cell lines as well as in NMC primary tumors. We further demonstrate that BRD4-NUT oncoprotein recruits p300 to stimulate transcription activation and that inhibition of p300 represses SOX2 transcription in NMC cells. These studies identify this stem cell marker as a novel BRD4-NUT target that supports the highly aggressive transforming activity of t(15;19) carcinomas. Our study provides new mechanistic insights for understanding how alteration of BRD4 function by BRD4-NUT oncogene leads to the highly malignant NMC carcinoma. Because abnormal stem cell self-renewal is frequently observed during tumor formation and metastasis, the aberrant stem cell-like proliferation associated with BRD4 dysregulation observed in NMC carcinoma may have implications for studying the oncogenic mechanism of other BRD4-associated tumors.

Suvà ML, Rheinbay E, Gillespie SM, et al.
Reconstructing and reprogramming the tumor-propagating potential of glioblastoma stem-like cells.
Cell. 2014; 157(3):580-94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/04/2015 Related Publications
Developmental fate decisions are dictated by master transcription factors (TFs) that interact with cis-regulatory elements to direct transcriptional programs. Certain malignant tumors may also depend on cellular hierarchies reminiscent of normal development but superimposed on underlying genetic aberrations. In glioblastoma (GBM), a subset of stem-like tumor-propagating cells (TPCs) appears to drive tumor progression and underlie therapeutic resistance yet remain poorly understood. Here, we identify a core set of neurodevelopmental TFs (POU3F2, SOX2, SALL2, and OLIG2) essential for GBM propagation. These TFs coordinately bind and activate TPC-specific regulatory elements and are sufficient to fully reprogram differentiated GBM cells to "induced" TPCs, recapitulating the epigenetic landscape and phenotype of native TPCs. We reconstruct a network model that highlights critical interactions and identifies candidate therapeutic targets for eliminating TPCs. Our study establishes the epigenetic basis of a developmental hierarchy in GBM, provides detailed insight into underlying gene regulatory programs, and suggests attendant therapeutic strategies. PAPERCLIP:

Chong PS, Zhou J, Cheong LL, et al.
LEO1 is regulated by PRL-3 and mediates its oncogenic properties in acute myelogenous leukemia.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(11):3043-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
PRL-3, an oncogenic dual-specificity phosphatase, is overexpressed in 50% of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and associated with poor survival. We found that stable expression of PRL-3 confers cytokine independence and growth advantage of AML cells. However, how PRL-3 mediates these functions in AML is not known. To comprehensively screen for PRL3-regulated proteins in AML, we performed SILAC-based quantitative proteomics analysis and discovered 398 significantly perturbed proteins after PRL-3 overexpression. We show that Leo1, a component of RNA polymerase II-associated factor (PAF) complex, is a novel and important mediator of PRL-3 oncogenic activities in AML. We described a novel mechanism where elevated PRL-3 protein increases JMJD2C histone demethylase occupancy on Leo1 promoter, thereby reducing the H3K9me3 repressive signals and promoting Leo1 gene expression. Furthermore, PRL-3 and Leo1 levels were positively associated in AML patient samples (N=24; P<0.01). On the other hand, inhibition of Leo1 reverses PRL-3 oncogenic phenotypes in AML. Loss of Leo1 leads to destabilization of the PAF complex and downregulation of SOX2 and SOX4, potent oncogenes in myeloid transformation. In conclusion, we identify an important and novel mechanism by which PRL-3 mediates its oncogenic function in AML.

Related: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

Santini R, Pietrobono S, Pandolfi S, et al.
SOX2 regulates self-renewal and tumorigenicity of human melanoma-initiating cells.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(38):4697-708 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/04/2015 Related Publications
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive types of human cancer, characterized by enhanced heterogeneity and resistance to conventional therapy at advanced stages. We and others have previously shown that HEDGEHOG-GLI (HH-GLI) signaling is required for melanoma growth and for survival and expansion of melanoma-initiating cells (MICs). Recent reports indicate that HH-GLI signaling regulates a set of genes typically expressed in embryonic stem cells, including SOX2 (sex-determining region Y (SRY)-Box2). Here we address the function of SOX2 in human melanomas and MICs and its interaction with HH-GLI signaling. We find that SOX2 is highly expressed in melanoma stem cells. Knockdown of SOX2 sharply decreases self-renewal in melanoma spheres and in putative melanoma stem cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(high)). Conversely, ectopic expression of SOX2 in melanoma cells enhances their self-renewal in vitro. SOX2 silencing also inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in melanoma cells. In addition, depletion of SOX2 progressively abrogates tumor growth and leads to a significant decrease in tumor-initiating capability of ALDH(high) MICs upon xenotransplantation, suggesting that SOX2 is required for tumor initiation and for continuous tumor growth. We show that SOX2 is regulated by HH signaling and that the transcription factors GLI1 and GLI2, the downstream effectors of HH-GLI signaling, bind to the proximal promoter region of SOX2 in primary melanoma cells. In functional studies, we find that SOX2 function is required for HH-induced melanoma cell growth and MIC self-renewal in vitro. Thus SOX2 is a critical factor for self-renewal and tumorigenicity of MICs and an important mediator of HH-GLI signaling in melanoma. These findings could provide the basis for novel therapeutic strategies based on the inhibition of SOX2 for the treatment of a subset of human melanomas.

Related: Apoptosis Melanoma Signal Transduction Skin Cancer GLI

Yang Z, Pan X, Gao A, Zhu W
Expression of Sox2 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
J BUON. 2014 Jan-Mar; 19(1):203-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Sox2, one of the genes that maintains self-renewal of embryonic stem cells and relates to the differentiation potential of these cells, is abnormaly expressed in various human tumors. We investigated the expression Sox2 in normal cervix and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and we also assessed the prognostic significance of Sox2 expression in FIGO stage I-II cervical SCC.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to define the expression of Sox2 in 20 normal cervical tissue samples and 55 samples of cervical SCC. Correlations with clinicopathological characteristics were determined by chi-square test. The prognostic impact of Sox2 expression with regard to overall disease-free survival (DFS) was determined by the Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS: The positive expression rate in cervical SCC was 74.5% (41/55), while in normal cervix it was 20.0% (4/20; p=0.000. In addition, the expression of Sox2 did not correlate with clinical factors (p>0.05). The overall DFS rates with negative and positive expressions of Sox2 were 35.7 and 29.3%, respectively (p=0.360).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Sox2 was overexpressed in FIGO stage I-II cervical SCC, indicating that overexpressed Sox2 may play an important role in the carcinogenesis of cervical SCC. Besides, we found that the expression of Sox2 had no relation to clinical factors and prognosis.

Related: Cervical Cancer

Forghanifard MM, Ardalan Khales S, Javdani-Mallak A, et al.
Stemness state regulators SALL4 and SOX2 are involved in progression and invasiveness of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(4):922 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells, as a subgroup of tumor cells, resemble critical properties of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) such as self-renewal and maintenance of stemness state. SALL4 and SOX2 are two main transcription factors involving in maintenance of pluripotency, self-renewal and cell fate decision in ESCs. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the expression levels of these important transcription factors in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to reveal their probable roles in maintenance and progression of the disease. The expression level of SALL4 and SOX2 was analyzed in fresh tumoral tissues in comparison with distant tumor-free tissues of 50 ESCC patients by relative comparative real-time PCR. SALL4 and SOX2 were overexpressed in 64 and 32% of tumor samples, respectively, in significant correlation with each other (p = 0.028). There was a significantly inverse correlation between low level of SALL4 expression and metastasis of tumor cells into the lymph nodes (p = 0.035). Furthermore, co-overexpression of the genes was significantly correlated with the depth of tumor invasion (p = 0.045) and metastasis to the lymph nodes (p = 0.049). SALL4 and SOX2 are co-overexpressed in ESCC and have a significant correlation with invasion and metastasis of the disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of SALL4 clinical relevance in ESCC to date. The clinical consequences of SALL4-SOX2 association suggest a possible functional interaction between these factors in regulation of ESCC maintenance and aggressiveness and introduce these regulators of stemness state as potentially interesting therapeutic targets to bring new opportunities for onco-therapeutic modalities.

Related: Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer

Watanabe H, Ma Q, Peng S, et al.
SOX2 and p63 colocalize at genetic loci in squamous cell carcinomas.
J Clin Invest. 2014; 124(4):1636-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/04/2015 Related Publications
The transcription factor SOX2 is an essential regulator of pluripotent stem cells and promotes development and maintenance of squamous epithelia. We previously reported that SOX2 is an oncogene and subject to highly recurrent genomic amplification in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Here, we have further characterized the function of SOX2 in SCC. Using ChIP-seq analysis, we compared SOX2-regulated gene profiles in multiple SCC cell lines to ES cell profiles and determined that SOX2 binds to distinct genomic loci in SCCs. In SCCs, SOX2 preferentially interacts with the transcription factor p63, as opposed to the transcription factor OCT4, which is the preferred SOX2 binding partner in ES cells. SOX2 and p63 exhibited overlapping genomic occupancy at a large number of loci in SCCs; however, coordinate binding of SOX2 and p63 was absent in ES cells. We further demonstrated that SOX2 and p63 jointly regulate gene expression, including the oncogene ETV4, which was essential for SOX2-amplified SCC cell survival. Together, these findings demonstrate that the action of SOX2 in SCC differs substantially from its role in pluripotency. The identification of the SCC-associated interaction between SOX2 and p63 will enable deeper characterization the downstream targets of this interaction in SCC and normal squamous epithelial physiology.

Related: ETV4 gene

Lai KP, Chen J, He M, et al.
Overexpression of ZFX confers self-renewal and chemoresistance properties in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(8):1790-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Zinc finger protein X-linked (ZFX) is a zinc finger protein of Zfy family, which is highly conserved in vertebrates. This transcriptional regulator is not only highly expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESC) and hematopoietic stem cells, but is also upregulated in a number of human cancers where it is functional related to cell proliferation and survival. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly aggressive cancer that commonly resistant to most chemotherapies and displays stemness characteristics. In this study, we examined the expression of ZFX in HCC and its possible functional implications in liver tumorigenesis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed common overexpressions of ZFX in 51.8% HCC tumors when compared with their adjacent nonmalignant liver (n = 43/83; p = 0.004). Inline with the pluripotency role of ZFX, we found silencing of ZFX readily inhibited self-renewal capability (p = 0.0022), colony formation ability (p < 0.0001) and cell proliferation (p < 0.0001) through G0/G1 cell cycle arrest of HCC cells (p = 0.0038). In addition, suppression of ZFX sensitized HCC cells to chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin (p < 0.0001). Further investigations suggested that ZFX bind on the promoter of two important mediators, namely Nanog and SOX-2, activating their expressions in HCC (p < 0.0001). Moreover, in vivo xenograft study demonstrated that overexpression of ZFX would promote the tumor growth (p = 0.031). Taken together, our results show, for the first time, commonly overexpressions of ZFX in HCC, where it likely contributes to the stemness and pluripotent behavior of this highly malignant cancer.

Related: Cisplatin Liver Cancer

Liu Y, Nenutil R, Appleyard MV, et al.
Lack of correlation of stem cell markers in breast cancer stem cells.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(8):2063-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Various markers are used to identify the unique sub-population of breast cancer cells with stem cell properties. Whether these markers are expressed in all breast cancers, identify the same population of cells, or equate to therapeutic response is controversial.
METHODS: We investigated the expression of multiple cancer stem cell markers in human breast cancer samples and cell lines in vitro and in vivo, comparing across and within samples and relating expression with growth and therapeutic response to doxorubicin, docetaxol and radiotherapy.
RESULTS: CD24, CD44, ALDH and SOX2 expression, the ability to form mammospheres and side-population cells are variably present in human cancers and cell lines. Each marker identifies a unique rather than common population of cancer cells. In vivo, cells expressing these markers are not specifically localized to the presumptive stem cell niche at the tumour/stroma interface. Repeated therapy does not consistently enrich cells expressing these markers, although ER-negative cells accumulate.
CONCLUSIONS: Commonly employed methods identify different cancer cell sub-populations with no consistent therapeutic implications, rather than a single population of cells. The relationships of breast cancer stem cells to clinical parameters will require identification of specific markers or panels for the individual cancer.

Related: Breast Cancer

Wu CP, Du HD, Gong HL, et al.
Hypoxia promotes stem-like properties of laryngeal cancer cell lines by increasing the CD133+ stem cell fraction.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(5):1652-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Evidence indicates that a hypoxic micro-environment plays an essential role in the regulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, whether hypoxia is able to regulate the stem-like biological properties of laryngeal cancer cells remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the influence of hypoxia on the stemness of two laryngeal cancer cell lines, Hep-2 and AMC-HN-8. We cultured the two cell lines under hypoxia and normoxia and examined the influence of hypoxia on the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and the cancer stem-like properties of these cells, including cell cycle distribution, expression of stem cell genes (OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG) and laryngeal CSC surface marker (CD133), proliferation, invasion, colony formation and sphere formation capacity. We determined that both of these cell lines, when maintained under hypoxic conditions, showed expanded cells in the G0/G1 phase, exhibited preferential expression of stem cell genes and CD133, and manifested upregulation of HIFs. When treated with hypoxia followed by normoxia exposure, the two cell lines exhibited enhanced capacities for proliferation, invasion, and sphere and colony formation compared with cells maintained consistently under normoxia. Our findings indicate that a hypoxic microenvironment may upgrade the stem-like biological properties of laryngeal cancer cell lines by the expansion of the CD133(+) stem cell fraction.

Related: Cancer of the Larynx Laryngeal Cancer - Molecular Biology

Justilien V, Walsh MP, Ali SA, et al.
The PRKCI and SOX2 oncogenes are coamplified and cooperate to activate Hedgehog signaling in lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 25(2):139-51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/02/2015 Related Publications
We report that two oncogenes coamplified on chromosome 3q26, PRKCI and SOX2, cooperate to drive a stem-like phenotype in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Protein kinase Cι (PKCι) phosphorylates SOX2, a master transcriptional regulator of stemness, and recruits it to the promoter of Hedgehog (Hh) acyltransferase (HHAT) that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in Hh ligand production. PKCι-mediated SOX2 phosphorylation is required for HHAT promoter occupancy, HHAT expression, and maintenance of a stem-like phenotype. Primary LSCC tumors coordinately overexpress PKCι, SOX2, and HHAT and require PKCι-SOX2-HHAT signaling to maintain a stem-like phenotype. Thus, PKCι and SOX2 are genetically, biochemically, and functionally linked in LSCC, and together they drive tumorigenesis by establishing a cell-autonomous Hh signaling axis.

Related: Apoptosis Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Signal Transduction

Jagtap JC, Dawood P, Shah RD, et al.
Expression and regulation of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) in human glioma stem cells in drug-induced apoptosis.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e88505 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/02/2015 Related Publications
Gliomas are the most common and aggressive of brain tumors in adults. Cancer stem cells (CSC) contribute to chemoresistance in many solid tumors including gliomas. The function of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) as a pro-apoptotic protein is well documented in many cancers; however, its role in CSC remains obscure. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of Par-4 in drug-induced cytotoxicity using human glioma stem cell line--HNGC-2 and primary culture (G1) derived from high grade glioma. We show that among the panel of drugs- lomustine, carmustine, UCN-01, oxaliplatin, temozolomide and tamoxifen (TAM) screened, only TAM induced cell death and up-regulated Par-4 levels significantly. TAM-induced apoptosis was confirmed by PARP cleavage, Annexin V and propidium iodide staining and caspase-3 activity. Knock down of Par-4 by siRNA inhibited cell death by TAM, suggesting the role of Par-4 in induction of apoptosis. We also demonstrate that the mechanism involves break down of mitochondrial membrane potential, down regulation of Bcl-2 and reduced activation of Akt and ERK 42/44. Secretory Par-4 and GRP-78 were significantly expressed in HNGC-2 cells on exposure to TAM and specific antibodies to these molecules inhibited cell death suggesting that extrinsic Par-4 is important in TAM-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, TAM decreased the expression of neural stem cell markers--Nestin, Bmi1, Vimentin, Sox2, and Musashi in HNGC-2 cell line and G1 cells implicating its potential as a stemness inhibiting drug. Based on these data and our findings that enhanced levels of Par-4 sensitize the resistant glioma stem cells to drug-induced apoptosis, we propose that Par-4 may be explored for evaluating anti-tumor agents in CSC.

Related: Apoptosis CASP3 PAWR (PAR-4)

Yamaguchi S, Marumoto T, Nii T, et al.
Characterization of common marmoset dysgerminoma-like tumor induced by the lentiviral expression of reprogramming factors.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(4):402-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPSCs) has made a significant impact on the field of human regenerative medicine. Prior to the clinical application of iPSCs, testing of their safety and usefulness must be carried out using reliable animal models of various diseases. In order to generate iPSCs from common marmoset (CM; Callithrix jacchus), one of the most useful experimental animals, we have lentivirally transduced reprogramming factors, including POU5F1 (also known as OCT3/4), SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC into CM fibroblasts. The cells formed round colonies expressing embryonic stem cell markers, however, they showed an abnormal karyotype denoted as 46, X, del(4q), +mar, and formed human dysgerminoma-like tumors in SCID mice, indicating that the transduction of reprogramming factors caused unexpected tumorigenesis of CM cells. Moreover, CM dysgerminoma-like tumors were highly sensitive to DNA-damaging agents, irradiation, and fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor, and their growth was dependent on c-MYC expression. These results indicate that DNA-damaging agents, irradiation, fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor, and c-MYC-targeted therapies might represent effective treatment strategies for unexpected tumors in patients receiving iPSC-based therapy.

Wang Z, Qiao Q, Chen M, et al.
miR-625 down-regulation promotes proliferation and invasion in esophageal cancer by targeting Sox2.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(6):915-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
miR-625 has been reported to exhibit abnormal expression in esophageal cancer (EC), but the mechanism and functions of miR-625 in esophageal cancer remain unclear. miR-625 down-regulation and Sox2 up-regulation were validated by qRT-PCR in 158 EC samples. Low expression of miR-625 promotes cell proliferation and invasion, while high expression of miR-625 has the opposite effect. Sox2, a target gene of miR-625, was examined by luciferase assay and western blot. Our data suggest that miR-625 may regulate the biological processes of EC via controlling Sox2 expression.

Related: Apoptosis Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer

Yamasaki S, Taguchi Y, Shimamoto A, et al.
Generation of human induced pluripotent stem (Ips) cells in serum- and feeder-free defined culture and TGF-Β1 regulation of pluripotency.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e87151 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/02/2015 Related Publications
Human Embryonic Stem cells (hESCs) and human induced Pluripotent Stem cells (hiPSCs) are commonly maintained on inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblast as feeder cells in medium supplemented with FBS or proprietary replacements. Use of culture medium containing undefined or unknown components has limited the development of applications for pluripotent cells because of the relative lack of knowledge regarding cell responses to differentiating growth factors. In addition, there is no consensus as to the optimal formulation, or the nature of the cytokine requirements of the cells to promote their self-renewal and inhibit their differentiation. In this study, we successfully generated hiPSCs from human dental pulp cells (DPCs) using Yamanaka's factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) with retroviral vectors in serum- and feeder-free defined culture conditions. These hiPSCs retained the property of self-renewal as evaluated by the expression of self-renewal marker genes and proteins, morphology, cell growth rates, and pluripotency evaluated by differentiation into derivatives of all three primary germ layers in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found that TGF-β1 increased the expression levels of pluripotency markers in a dose-dependent manner. However, increasing doses of TGF-β1 suppressed the growth rate of hiPSCs cultured under the defined conditions. Furthermore, over short time periods the hiPSCs cultured in hESF9 or hESF9T exhibited similar morphology, but hiPSCs maintained in hESF9 could not survive beyond 30 passages. This result clearly confirmed that hiPSCs cultured in hESF9 medium absolutely required TGF-β1 to maintain pluripotency. This simple serum-free adherent monoculture system will allow us to elucidate the cell responses to growth factors under defined conditions and can eliminate the risk might be brought by undefined pathogens.

Related: TGFB1

Looijenga LH, Stoop H, Biermann K
Testicular cancer: biology and biomarkers.
Virchows Arch. 2014; 464(3):301-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
The term "human germ cell tumors" (GCTs) refers to a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, all with a defined histological appearance. They have specific epidemiological characteristics, clinical behavior, and pathogenesis. Histologically, GCTs contain various tissue elements, which are homologs of normal embryogenesis. We have proposed a subclassification of GCTs in five subtypes, three of which preferentially occur in the testis. These include teratomas and yolk sac tumors of neonates and infants (type I), seminomas and nonseminomas of (predominantly) adolescents and adults (type II), and spermatocytic seminomas of the elderly (type III). Both spontaneous and induced animal models have been reported, of which the relevance for human GCTs is still to be clarified. Multidisciplinary studies have recently shed new light on the (earliest steps in the) pathogenesis of GCTs, mainly in regard of malignant type II GCTs (germ cell cancer (GCC)). This review discusses novel understanding of the pathogenesis of (mainly) GCC, focusing on identification of informative diagnostic markers suitable for application in a clinical setting. These include OCT3/4, SOX9/FOXL2, SOX17/SOX2, as well as embryonic microRNAs. These markers have been identified through studies on normal embryogenesis, specifically related to the gonads, including the germ cell lineage. Their strengths and limitations are discussed as well as the expected future approach to identify the group of individuals at highest risk for development of a GCC. The latter would allow screening of defined populations, early diagnosis, optimal follow-up, and potentially early treatment, preventing long-term side effects of systemic treatment.

Related: Germ Cell Tumors Testicular Cancer

Basma H, Gunji Y, Iwasawa S, et al.
Reprogramming of COPD lung fibroblasts through formation of induced pluripotent stem cells.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014; 306(6):L552-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2015 Related Publications
Reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) eliminates many epigenetic modifications that characterize differentiated cells. In this study, we tested whether functional differences between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and non-COPD fibroblasts could be reduced utilizing this approach. Primary fibroblasts from non-COPD and COPD patients were reprogrammed to iPSCs. Reprogrammed iPSCs were positive for oct3/4, nanog, and sox2, formed embryoid bodies in vitro, and induced teratomas in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. Reprogrammed iPSCs were then differentiated into fibroblasts (non-COPD-i and COPD-i) and were assessed either functionally by chemotaxis and gel contraction or for gene expression by microarrays and compared with their corresponding primary fibroblasts. Primary COPD fibroblasts contracted three-dimensional collagen gels and migrated toward fibronectin less robustly than non-COPD fibroblasts. In contrast, redifferentiated fibroblasts from iPSCs derived from the non-COPD and COPD fibroblasts were similar in response in both functional assays. Microarray analysis identified 1,881 genes that were differentially expressed between primary COPD and non-COPD fibroblasts, with 605 genes differing by more than twofold. After redifferentiation, 112 genes were differentially expressed between COPD-i and non-COPD-i with only three genes by more than twofold. Similar findings were observed with microRNA (miRNA) expression: 56 miRNAs were differentially expressed between non-COPD and COPD primary cells; after redifferentiation, only 3 miRNAs were differentially expressed between non-COPD-i and COPD-i fibroblasts. Interestingly, of the 605 genes that were differentially expressed between COPD and non-COPD fibroblasts, 293 genes were changed toward control after redifferentiation. In conclusion, functional and epigenetic alterations of COPD fibroblasts can be reprogrammed through formation of iPSCs.

Chu GC, Zhau HE, Wang R, et al.
RANK- and c-Met-mediated signal network promotes prostate cancer metastatic colonization.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014; 21(2):311-26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2015 Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) metastasis to bone is lethal and there is no adequate animal model for studying the mechanisms underlying the metastatic process. Here, we report that receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expressed by PCa cells consistently induced colonization or metastasis to bone in animal models. RANK-mediated signaling established a premetastatic niche through a feed-forward loop, involving the induction of RANKL and c-Met, but repression of androgen receptor (AR) expression and AR signaling pathways. Site-directed mutagenesis and transcription factor (TF) deletion/interference assays identified common TF complexes, c-Myc/Max, and AP4 as critical regulatory nodes. RANKL-RANK signaling activated a number of master regulator TFs that control the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (Twist1, Slug, Zeb1, and Zeb2), stem cell properties (Sox2, Myc, Oct3/4, and Nanog), neuroendocrine differentiation (Sox9, HIF1α, and FoxA2), and osteomimicry (c-Myc/Max, Sox2, Sox9, HIF1α, and Runx2). Abrogating RANK or its downstream c-Myc/Max or c-Met signaling network minimized or abolished skeletal metastasis in mice. RANKL-expressing LNCaP cells recruited and induced neighboring non metastatic LNCaP cells to express RANKL, c-Met/activated c-Met, while downregulating AR expression. These initially non-metastatic cells, once retrieved from the tumors, acquired the potential to colonize and grow in bone. These findings identify a novel mechanism of tumor growth in bone that involves tumor cell reprogramming via RANK-RANKL signaling, as well as a form of signal amplification that mediates recruitment and stable transformation of non-metastatic bystander dormant cells.

Related: Prostate Cancer MET gene Signal Transduction

Fang WT, Fan CC, Li SM, et al.
Downregulation of a putative tumor suppressor BMP4 by SOX2 promotes growth of lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(4):809-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
SOX2 is a transcription factor essential for self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. Recently, SOX2 was found overexpressed in the majority of the lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQC), in which it acts as a lineage-survival oncogene. However, downstream targets/pathways of SOX2 in lung SQC cells remain to be identified. Here, we show that BMP4 is a downstream target of SOX2 in lung SQC. We found that SOX2-silencing-mediated inhibition of cell growth was accompanied by upregulation of BMP4 mRNA and its protein expression. Meta-analysis with 293 samples and qRT-PCR validation with 73 clinical samples revealed an inversely correlated relationship between levels of SOX2 and BMP4 mRNA, and significantly lower mRNA levels in tumor than in adjacent normal tissues. This was corroborated by immunohistochemistry analysis of 35 lung SQC samples showing lower BMP4 protein expression in tumor tissues. Cell-based experiments including siRNA transfection, growth assay and flow cytometry assay, further combined with a xenograft tumor model in mice, revealed that reactivation of BMP4 signaling could partially account for growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest in lung SQC cells upon silencing SOX2. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and luciferase reporter assay revealed that SOX2 could negatively regulate BMP4 promoter activity, possibly through binding to the promoter located in the first intron region of BMP4. Collectively, our findings suggest that BMP4 could act as a tumor suppressor and its downregulation by elevated SOX2 resulting in enhanced growth of lung SQC cells.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Signal Transduction

Shinmura K, Kato H, Matsuura S, et al.
A novel somatic FGFR3 mutation in primary lung cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(3):1219-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
The recent discovery of mutations and fusions of oncokinase genes in a subset of lung cancers (LCs) is of considerable clinical interest, since LCs containing such mutations or fusion transcripts are reportedly sensitive to kinase inhibitors. To better understand the role of the recently identified fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations and fusions in pulmonary carcinogenesis, we examined 214 LCs for mutations in the mutation cluster region of the FGFR3 gene using sequencing analysis. We also examined 190 LCs for the FGFR3-TACC3 and FGFR3-BAIAP2L1 fusion transcripts using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Although the expression of FGFR3-TACC3 and FGFR3-BAIAP2L1 fusion transcripts was not detected in any of the carcinomas, somatic FGFR3 mutations were detected in two (0.9%) LCs. The two mutations were the same, i.e., p.R248H. That was a novel mutation occurring in the same codon as p.R248C, for which an oncogenic potential has previously been shown. Increased FGFR3 expression was shown in the two LCs containing the FGFR3 p.R248H mutation using qPCR. Histologically, both carcinomas were squamous cell carcinomas, therefore the incidence of the FGFR3 mutation among the squamous cell carcinoma cases was calculated as 3.2% (2/63). When we examined other co-occurring genetic abnormalities, one case exhibited a p53 p.R273C mutation, while the other case exhibited PIK3CA and SOX2 amplifications. The above results suggest that an FGFR3 p.R248H mutation is involved in the carcinogenesis of a subset of LCs and may contribute to the elucidation of the characteristics of FGFR3 mutation-positive LCs in the future.

Related: Lung Cancer


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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. SOX2 gene, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/SOX2.htm Accessed: date

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