Research IndicatorsGraph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (2)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: RBBP8 (cancer-related)
BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites is an important step for its function in the DNA damage response and in DNA repair. BRCA1-BRCT domains bind to proteins containing the phosphorylated serine-proline-x-phenylalanine (pSPxF) motif including Abraxas, Bach1/FancJ, and CtIP. In this study, we demonstrate that ionizing radiation (IR)-induces ATM-dependent phosphorylation of serine 404 (S404) next to the pSPxF motif. Crystal structures of BRCT/Abraxas show that phosphorylation of S404 is important for extensive interactions through the N-terminal sequence outside the pSPxF motif and leads to formation of a stable dimer. Mutation of S404 leads to deficiency in BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites and cellular sensitivity to IR. In addition, two germline mutations of BRCA1 are found to disrupt the dimer interface and dimer formation. Thus, we demonstrate a mechanism involving IR-induced phosphorylation and dimerization of the BRCT/Abraxas complex for regulating Abraxas-mediated recruitment of BRCA1 in response to IR.
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and therefore, new and improved approaches for the treatment of breast cancer are desperately needed. CtIP (RBBP8) is a multifunctional protein that is involved in various cellular functions, including transcription, DNA replication, DNA repair and the G1 and G2 cell cycle checkpoints. CtIP plays an important role in homologous recombination repair by interacting with tumor suppressor protein BRCA1. Here, we analyzed the expression profile of CtIP by data mining using published microarray data sets. We found that CtIP expression is frequently decreased in breast cancer patients, and the patient group with low-expressing CtIP mRNA is associated with a significantly lower survival rate. The knockdown of CtIP in breast cancer MCF7 cells reduced Rad51 foci numbers and enhanced f H2AX foci formation after f-irradiation, suggesting that deficiency of CtIP decreases homologous recombination repair and delays DNA double strand break repair. To explore the effect of CtIP on PARP inhibitor therapy for breast cancer, CtIP-depleted MCF7 cells were treated with PARP inhibitor olaparib (AZD2281) or veliparib (ABT-888). As in BRCA mutated cells, PARP inhibitors showed cytotoxicity to CtIP-depleted cells by preventing cells from repairing DNA damage, leading to decreased cell viability. Further, a xenograft tumor model in mice with MCF7 cells demonstrated significantly increased sensitivity towards PARP inhibition under CtIP deficiency. In summary, this study shows that low level of CtIP expression is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer, and provides a rationale for establishing CtIP expression as a biomarker of PARP inhibitor response, and consequently offers novel therapeutic options for a significant subset of patients.
BACKGROUND: SUMO-activating enzyme subunit 2 (SAE2) is the sole E1-activating enzyme required for numerous important protein SUMOylation, abnormal of which is associated with carcinogenesis. SAE2 inactivation was recently reported to be a therapeutic strategy in cancers with Myc overexpression. However, the roles of SAE2 in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are largely unknown.
METHODS: Stably SAE2 knockdown in H446 cells were established with a lentiviral system. Cell viability, cell cycle, and apoptosis were analyzed using MTT assay and flow cytometric assay. Expression of SAE2 mRNA and protein were detected by qPCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining. Cell invasion and migration assay were determined by transwell chamber assay. H446 cells with or without SAE2 knockdown, nude mice models were established to observe tumorigenesis.
RESULTS: SAE2 was highly expressed in SCLC and significantly correlated with tumorigenesis in vivo. Cancer cells with RNAi-mediated reduction of SAE2 expression exhibited growth retardation and apoptosis increasing. Furthermore, down-regulation of SAE2 expression inhibited migration and invasion, simultaneously increased the sensitivity of H446 to etoposide and cisplatin.
CONCLUSIONS: SAE2 plays an important role in tumor growth, metastasis, and chemotherapy sensitivity of H446 and is a potential clinical biomarker and therapeutic target in SCLC with high c-Myc expression.
The therapeutic efficacy of nucleoside analogues, e.g. gemcitabine, against cancer cells can be augmented by inhibitors of checkpoint kinases, including Wee1, ATR, and Chk1. We have compared the chemosensitizing effect of these inhibitors in cells derived from pancreatic cancer, a tumor entity where gemcitabine is part of the first-line therapeutic regimens, and in osteosarcoma-derived cells. As expected, all three inhibitors rendered cancer cells more sensitive to gemcitabine, but Wee1 inhibition proved to be particularly efficient in this context. Investigating the reasons for this potent sensitizing effect, we found that Wee1 inhibition or knockdown not only blocked Wee1 activity, but also reduced the activation of ATR/Chk1 in gemcitabine-treated cells. Combination of several inhibitors revealed that Wee1 inhibition requires Cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2 (Cdk1/2) and Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) to reduce ATR/Chk1 activity. Through activation of Cdks and Plk1, Wee1 inhibition reduces Claspin and CtIP levels, explaining the impairment in ATR/Chk1 activity. Taken together, these results confer a consistent signaling pathway reaching from Wee1 inhibition to impaired Chk1 activity, mechanistically dissecting how Wee1 inhibitors not only dysregulate cell cycle progression, but also enhance replicative stress and chemosensitivity towards nucleoside analogues.
SUMOylation is a post-translational ubiquitin-like protein modification pathway that regulates important cellular processes including chromosome structure, kinetochore function, chromosome segregation, nuclear and sub-nuclear organization, transcription and DNA damage repair. There is increasing evidence that the SUMO pathway is dysregulated in cancer, raising the possibility that modulation of this pathway may have therapeutic potential. To investigate the importance of the SUMO pathway in the context of cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth, we applied lentivirus-based short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) to knockdown SUMO pathway genes in human cancer cells. shRNAs for SAE2 and UBC9 reduced SUMO conjugation activity and inhibited proliferation of human cancer cells. To expand upon these observations, we generated doxycycline inducible conditional shRNA cell lines for SAE2 to achieve acute and reversible SAE2 knockdown. Conditional SAE2 knockdown in U2OS and HCT116 cells slowed cell growth in vitro, and SAE2 knockdown induced multiple terminal outcomes including apoptosis, endoreduplication and senescence. Multinucleated cells became senescent and stained positive for the senescence marker, SA-β Gal, and displayed elevated levels of p53 and p21. In an attempt to explain these phenotypes, we confirmed that loss of SUMO pathway activity leads to a loss of SUMOylated Topoisomerase IIα and the appearance of chromatin bridges which can impair proper cytokinesis and lead to multinucleation. Furthermore, knockdown of SAE2 induces disruption of PML nuclear bodies which may further promote apoptosis or senescence. In an in vivo HCT116 xenograft tumor model, conditional SAE2 knockdown strongly impaired tumor growth. These data demonstrate that the SUMO pathway is required for cancer cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, implicating the SUMO pathway as a potential cancer therapeutic target.
Pelosi G, Barbareschi M, Cavazza A, et al.Large cell carcinoma of the lung: a tumor in search of an author. A clinically oriented critical reappraisal.
Lung Cancer. 2015; 87(3):226-31 [PubMed
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Large cell carcinoma (LCC) is a merely descriptive term indicating a subtype of lung cancer with no specific features of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), adenocarcinoma (ADC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SQC). This diagnosis is allowed on surgical specimens only, whereas its counterpart in biopsy/cytology samples is non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), not otherwise specified (NOS). Although these two terms do not fulfill the same concept, they can be interchangeable synonyms at the clinical level, reflecting, in different ways, the inability to define a specific subtype. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis and, historically, electron microscopy have been unveiling diverse cell differentiation lineages in LCC, resulting in LCC-favor ADC, LCC-favor SQC and LCC-favor large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), the latter hopefully to be included into the neuroendocrine tumor (NET) group in the future. Paradoxically, however, the interpretation issues of LCC/NSCLC-NOS are not diminishing, but even increasing albeight an accurate diagnosis is oncologically required and crucial. Also, rare LCC/NSCLC-NOS cases exhibiting null/unclear phenotype, are difficult to classify, and this terminology could be maintained for the sake of classification (basically these tumors are serendipitous ADC, as also confirmed by the lack of p40). In this review article, seven relevant issues to LCC have been addressed by using a question-answer methodology, with final key points discussing major interpretation issues. In conclusion, most LCC/NSCLC-NOS may be eventually re-classified and addressed by exploiting IHC and/or molecular testing to satisfy the criteria of precision medicine (the right drug, to the right patient, at the right time).
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for antibody diversification, namely somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). The deficiency of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1) in CH12F3-2A B cells reduces CSR to ∼20% of wild-type cells, whereas the effect of APE1 loss on SHM has not been examined. Here we show that, although APE1's endonuclease activity is important for CSR, it is dispensable for SHM as well as IgH/c-myc translocation. Importantly, APE1 deficiency did not show any defect in AID-induced S-region break formation, but blocked both the recruitment of repair protein Ku80 to the S region and the synapse formation between Sμ and Sα. Knockdown of end-processing factors such as meiotic recombination 11 homolog (MRE11) and carboxy-terminal binding protein (CtBP)-interacting protein (CtIP) further reduced the remaining CSR in Ape1-null CH12F3-2A cells. Together, our results show that APE1 is dispensable for SHM and AID-induced DNA breaks and may function as a DNA end-processing enzyme to facilitate the joining of broken ends during CSR.
UNLABELLED: Bile acids (BA) are endogenous agents capable of causing cancer throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. To uncover the mechanism by which BAs exert carcinogenic effects, both human liver and colon cancer cells as well as mouse primary hepatocytes were treated with BAs and assayed for viability, genotoxic stress, and transcriptional response. BAs induced both Nur77 (NR4A1) and proinflammatory gene expression. The intracellular location of BA-induced Nur77 was time dependent; short-term (1-3 hours) exposure induced nuclear Nur77, whereas longer (1-2 days) exposure also increased cytosolic Nur77 expression and apoptosis. Inhibiting Nur77 nuclear export with leptomycin B decreased lithocholic acid (LCA)-induced apoptosis. Extended (7 days) treatment with BA generated resistance to BA with increased nuclear Nur77, viability, and mobility. While, knockdown of Nur77 in BA-resistant cells increased cellular susceptibility to LCA-induced apoptosis. Moreover, in vivo mouse xenograft experiments demonstrated that BA-resistant cells form larger tumors with elevated Nur77 expression compared with parental controls. DNA-binding and gene expression assays identified multiple survival genes (CDK4, CCND2, MAP4K5, STAT5A, and RBBP8) and a proapoptosis gene (BID) as Nur77 targets. Consistently, BA-induced upregulation of the aforementioned genes was abrogated by a lack of Nur77. Importantly, Nur77 was overexpressed in high percentage of human colon and liver cancer specimens, and the intracellular location of Nur77 correlated with elevated serum total BA levels in patients with colon cancer. These data show for the first time that BAs via Nur77 have a dual role in modulating cell survival and death.
IMPLICATIONS: These findings establish a direct link between Nur77 and the carcinogenic effect of BAs.
Homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB)s is restricted to the post-replicative phases of the cell cycle. Initiation of HR in the G1 phase blocks non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) impairing DSB repair. Completion of HR in G1 cells can lead to the loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH), which is potentially carcinogenic. We conducted a gain-of-function screen to identify miRNAs that regulate HR-mediated DSB repair, and of these miRNAs, miR-1255b, miR-148b*, and miR-193b* specifically suppress the HR-pathway in the G1 phase. These miRNAs target the transcripts of HR factors, BRCA1, BRCA2, and RAD51, and inhibiting miR-1255b, miR-148b*, and miR-193b* increases expression of BRCA1/BRCA2/RAD51 specifically in the G1-phase leading to impaired DSB repair. Depletion of CtIP, a BRCA1-associated DNA end resection protein, rescues this phenotype. Furthermore, deletion of miR-1255b, miR-148b*, and miR-193b* in independent cohorts of ovarian tumors correlates with significant increase in LOH events/chromosomal aberrations and BRCA1 expression.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02445.001.
Watanabe Y, Maeda I, Oikawa R, et al.Aberrant DNA methylation status of DNA repair genes in breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Genes Cells. 2013; 18(12):1120-30 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Dysregulation of homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair has been implicated in breast carcinogenesis and chemosensitivity. Here, we investigated the methylation status of sixteen HR genes and analyzed their association with tumor subtypes and responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Core specimens were obtained before neoadjuvant chemotherapy from sixty cases of primary breast cancer of the following four subgroups: luminal breast cancer (LBC) with pathological complete response (pCR), LBC with stable disease, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with pCR and TNBC with poor response. The aberrant DNA methylation status of the following HR related-genes was analyzed using bisulfite-pyrosequencing: BRCA1, BRCA2, BARD1, MDC1, RNF8, RNF168, UBC13, ABRA1, PALB2, RAD50, RAD51, RAD51C, MRE11, NBS1, CtIP and ATM. Among the genes analyzed, only the incidence of BRCA1 and RNF8 methylation was significantly higher in TNBC than that in LBC. Whereas the incidence of BRCA1 methylation was tended to be higher in pCR cases than in poor-response cases in TNBC, that of RNF8 was significantly lower in pCR cases than in poor-response cases. Our results indicate that the methylation status of HR genes was not generally associated with TNBC subtype or chemosensitivity although hypermethylation of BRCA1 is associated with TNBC subtype and may impact chemosensitivity.
Lin ZP, Ratner ES, Whicker ME, et al.Triapine disrupts CtIP-mediated homologous recombination repair and sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to PARP and topoisomerase inhibitors.
Mol Cancer Res. 2014; 12(3):381-93 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: PARP inhibitors exploit synthetic lethality to target epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with hereditary BRCA mutations and defects in homologous recombination repair (HRR). However, such an approach is limited to a small subset of EOC patients and compromised by restored HRR due to secondary mutations in BRCA genes. Here, it was demonstrated that triapine, a small-molecule inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, enhances the sensitivity of BRCA wild-type EOC cells to the PARP inhibitor olaparib and the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide. Triapine abolishes olaparib-induced BRCA1 and Rad51 foci, and disrupts the BRCA1 interaction with the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex in BRCA1 wild-type EOC cells. It has been shown that phosphorylation of CtIP (RBBP8) is required for the interaction with BRCA1 and with MRN to promote DNA double-strand break (DSB) resection during S and G(2) phases of the cell cycle. Mechanistic studies within reveal that triapine inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity and blocks olaparib-induced CtIP phosphorylation through Chk1 activation. Furthermore, triapine abrogates etoposide-induced CtIP phosphorylation and DSB resection as evidenced by marked attenuation of RPA32 phosphorylation. Concurrently, triapine obliterates etoposide-induced BRCA1 foci and sensitizes BRCA1 wild-type EOC cells to etoposide. Using a GFP-based HRR assay, it was determined that triapine suppresses HRR activity induced by an I-SceI-generated DSB. These results suggest that triapine augments the sensitivity of BRCA wild-type EOC cells to drug-induced DSBs by disrupting CtIP-mediated HRR.
IMPLICATIONS: These findings provide a strong rationale for combining triapine with PARP or topoisomerase inhibitors to target HRR-proficient EOC cells.
CtIP/RBBP8 is a multifunctional protein involved in transcription, DNA replication, DNA repair by homologous recombination and the G1 and G2 checkpoints. Its multiple roles are controlled by its interaction with several specific factors, including the tumor suppressor proteins BRCA1 and retinoblastoma. Both its functions and interactors point to a putative oncogenic potential of CtIP/RBBP8 loss. However, CtIP/RBBP8 relevance in breast tumor appearance, development, and prognosis has yet to be established. We performed a retrospective analysis of CtIP/RBBP8 and RB1 levels by immunohistochemistry using 384 paraffin-embedded breast cancer biopsies obtained during tumor removal surgery. We have observed that low or no expression of CtIP/RBBP8 correlates with high-grade breast cancer and with nodal metastasis. Reduction on CtIP/RBBP8 is most common in hormone receptor (HR)-negative, HER2-positive, and basal-like tumors. We observed lower levels of RB1 on those tumors with reduced CtIP/RBBP8 levels. On luminal tumors, decreased but not absence of CtIP/RBBP8 levels correlate with increased disease-free survival when treated with a combination of hormone, radio, and chemo therapies.
Breast Cancer Type 1 Susceptibility Protein (BRCA1)-deficient cells have compromised DNA repair and are sensitive to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Despite initial responses, the development of resistance limits clinical efficacy. Mutations in the BRCA C-terminal (BRCT) domain of BRCA1 frequently create protein products unable to fold that are subject to protease-mediated degradation. Here, we show HSP90-mediated stabilization of a BRCT domain mutant BRCA1 protein under PARP inhibitor selection pressure. The stabilized mutant BRCA1 protein interacted with PALB2-BRCA2-RAD51, was essential for RAD51 focus formation, and conferred PARP inhibitor as well as cisplatin resistance. Treatment of resistant cells with the HSP90 inhibitor 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin reduced mutant BRCA1 protein levels and restored their sensitivity to PARP inhibition. Resistant cells also acquired a TP53BP1 mutation that facilitated DNA end resection in the absence of a BRCA1 protein capable of binding CtIP. Finally, concomitant increased mutant BRCA1 and decreased 53BP1 protein expression occur in clinical samples of BRCA1-mutated recurrent ovarian carcinomas that have developed resistance to platinum. These results provide evidence for a two-event mechanism by which BRCA1-mutant tumors acquire anticancer therapy resistance.
Rajendran P, Kidane AI, Yu TW, et al.HDAC turnover, CtIP acetylation and dysregulated DNA damage signaling in colon cancer cells treated with sulforaphane and related dietary isothiocyanates.
Epigenetics. 2013; 8(6):612-23 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) and acetyltransferases have important roles in the regulation of protein acetylation, chromatin dynamics and the DNA damage response. Here, we show in human colon cancer cells that dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs) inhibit HDAC activity and increase HDAC protein turnover with the potency proportional to alkyl chain length, i.e., AITC < sulforaphane (SFN) < 6-SFN < 9-SFN. Molecular docking studies provided insights into the interactions of ITC metabolites with HDAC3, implicating the allosteric site between HDAC3 and its co-repressor. ITCs induced DNA double-strand breaks and enhanced the phosphorylation of histone H2AX, ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) and checkpoint kinase-2 (CHK2). Depending on the ITC and treatment conditions, phenotypic outcomes included cell growth arrest, autophagy and apoptosis. Coincident with the loss of HDAC3 and HDAC6, as well as SIRT6, ITCs enhanced the acetylation and subsequent degradation of critical repair proteins, such as CtIP, and this was recapitulated in HDAC knockdown experiments. Importantly, colon cancer cells were far more susceptible than non-cancer cells to ITC-induced DNA damage, which persisted in the former case but was scarcely detectable in non-cancer colonic epithelial cells under the same conditions. Future studies will address the mechanistic basis for dietary ITCs preferentially exploiting HDAC turnover mechanisms and faulty DNA repair pathways in colon cancer cells vs. normal cells.
Riabinska A, Daheim M, Herter-Sprie GS, et al.Therapeutic targeting of a robust non-oncogene addiction to PRKDC in ATM-defective tumors.
Sci Transl Med. 2013; 5(189):189ra78 [PubMed
] Related Publications
When the integrity of the genome is threatened, cells activate a complex, kinase-based signaling network to arrest the cell cycle, initiate DNA repair, or, if the extent of damage is beyond repair capacity, induce apoptotic cell death. The ATM protein lies at the heart of this signaling network, which is collectively referred to as the DNA damage response (DDR). ATM is involved in numerous DDR-regulated cellular responses-cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis. Disabling mutations in the gene encoding ATM occur frequently in various human tumors, including lung cancer and hematological malignancies. We report that ATM deficiency prevents apoptosis in human and murine cancer cells exposed to genotoxic chemotherapy. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that ATM-defective cells display strong non-oncogene addiction to DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit). Further, this dependence of ATM-defective cells on DNA-PKcs offers a window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention: We show that pharmacological or genetic abrogation of DNA-PKcs in ATM-defective cells leads to the accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks and the subsequent CtBP-interacting protein (CtIP)-dependent generation of large single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) repair intermediates. These ssDNA structures trigger proapoptotic signaling through the RPA/ATRIP/ATR/Chk1/p53/Puma axis, ultimately leading to the apoptotic demise of ATM-defective cells exposed to DNA-PKcs inhibitors. Finally, we demonstrate that DNA-PKcs inhibitors are effective as single agents against ATM-defective lymphomas in vivo. Together, our data implicate DNA-PKcs as a drug target for the treatment of ATM-defective malignancies.
The CtIP protein facilitates homology-directed repair (HDR) of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) by initiating DNA resection, a process in which DSB ends are converted into 3'-ssDNA overhangs. The BRCA1 tumor suppressor, which interacts with CtIP in a phospho-dependent manner, has also been implicated in DSB repair through the HDR pathway. It was recently reported that the BRCA1-CtIP interaction is essential for HDR in chicken DT40 cells. To examine the role of this interaction in mammalian cells, we generated cells and mice that express Ctip polypeptides (Ctip-S326A) that fail to bind BRCA1. Surprisingly, isogenic lines of Ctip-S326A mutant and wild-type cells displayed comparable levels of HDR function and chromosomal stability. Although Ctip-S326A mutant cells were modestly sensitive to topoisomerase inhibitors, mice expressing Ctip-S326A polypeptides developed normally and did not exhibit a predisposition to cancer. Thus, in mammals, the phospho-dependent BRCA1-CtIP interaction is not essential for HDR-mediated DSB repair or for tumor suppression.
Dai Y, Chen S, Kmieciak M, et al.The novel Chk1 inhibitor MK-8776 sensitizes human leukemia cells to HDAC inhibitors by targeting the intra-S checkpoint and DNA replication and repair.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2013; 12(6):878-89 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interactions between the novel Chk1 inhibitor MK-8776 and the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor (HDACI) vorinostat were examined in human leukemia cells harboring wild-type (wt) or deficient p53. MK-8776 synergistically potentiated vorinostat-mediated apoptosis in various p53-wt or -deficient leukemia cell lines, whereas p53 knockdown by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) sensitized p53-wt cells to lethality of this regimen. Leukemia cell lines carrying FLT3-ITD were also sensitive to the MK-8776/vorinostat regimen. Synergistic interactions were associated with inhibition of Chk1 activity, interference with the intra-S-phase checkpoint, disruption of DNA replication, and downregulation of proteins involved in DNA replication (e.g., Cdt1) and repair (e.g., CtIP and BRCA1), resulting in sharp increases in DNA damage, reflected by enhanced γ-H2A.X formation, and apoptosis. Moreover, leukemia cells expressing kinase-dead Chk1 (D130A) or Chk1 shRNA were significantly more sensitive to HDACIs compared with their wt counterparts and displayed downregulation of CtIP and BRCA1 phosphorylation following HDACI exposure. Finally, the MK-8776/vorinostat regimen was active in primary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) blasts, particularly against the CD34(+)/CD38(-)/CD123(+) population enriched for leukemia-initiating cells. In contrast, identical regimens were relatively sparing toward normal cord blood CD34(+) cells. Together, these findings indicate that the novel Chk1 inhibitor MK-8776 markedly potentiates HDACI lethality in leukemia cells displaying various genetic backgrounds through mechanisms involving disruption of the intra-S checkpoint, DNA replication, and DNA repair. They also argue that leukemic cells, including those bearing oncogenic mutations associated with poor prognosis, for example, p53 deletion/mutation or FLT3-ITD, may also be susceptible to this strategy.
Proteomics provides direct biological information on proteins but is still a limited platform. Borrowing from genomics, its cancer-specific applications can be broadly categorized as (1) pure diagnostics, (2) biomarkers, (3) identification of root causes and (4) identification of cancer-specific network rewirings. Biological networks capture complex relationships between proteins and provide an appropriate means of contextualization. While playing significantly larger roles, especially in 1 and 3, progress in proteomics-specific network-based methods is lagging as compared to genomics. Rapid hardware advances and improvements in proteomic identification and quantification have given rise to much better quality data alongside advent of new network-based analysis methods. However, a tighter integration between analytics and hardware is still essential for network analysis to play more significant roles in proteomics analysis.
Du P, Ye L, Yang Y, Jiang WGCandidate of metastasis 1 regulates in vitro growth and invasion of bladder cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 42(4):1249-56 [PubMed
] Related Publications
COM1 (candidate of metastasis 1) has been recently shown to influence the metastatic ability of cancer cells and disease progression of certain solid tumours. The role of COM1 in bladder cancer remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the expression of the COM1 protein in human bladder tissues, and also its effect on growth, adhesion, migration and invasion of human bladder cancer cells, in vitro. The expression of COM1 in human bladder tissues and bladder cancer cell lines was assessed at both the mRNA and protein levels using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. COM1 staining was compared with tumour staging. Mammalian COM1 expression construct and anti-COM1 ribozyme transgenes were used to generate sublines of human bladder cancer cells with differential expression of COM1. The effect of COM1 on cellular functions was examined in bladder cancer cells with which COM1 was overexpressed or knocked down using a variety of in vitro assays. In normal bladder tissues, stronger staining of COM1 was seen in the cytoplasm of normal urothelial cells. In contrast, the staining was notably weak or absent in cancer cells of tumour tissues and invasive tumours had significantly low levels of staining compared with non-invasive tumours (p=0.012). Knockdown of COM1 in bladder cancer cell lines resulted in an increase in cellular growth and invasion, while overexpression of COM1 suppressed invasiveness and growth of these cells. Further investigation revealed an increased apoptosis and upregulated p21 in bladder cancer cells when COM1 was overexpressed. COM1 is expressed at low levels in human bladder cancer and in particular in invasive bladder tumours. COM1 levels are inversely correlated with the invasiveness and growth of bladder cancer cells in vitro. Induced apoptosis and upregulation of p21 are indicated in the mechanism of COM1 inhibiting bladder cancer cell growth. It suggests that COM1 is a potential tumour suppressor in human bladder cancer.
Karachaliou N, Costa C, Gimenez-Capitan A, et al.BRCA1, LMO4, and CtIP mRNA expression in erlotinib-treated non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations.
J Thorac Oncol. 2013; 8(3):295-300 [PubMed
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INTRODUCTION: Lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring EGFR activating mutations attain improved progression-free survival (PFS) with treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, patients ultimately relapse, indicating that other genetic factors could influence outcome in such patients. We hypothesized that PFS could be influenced by the expression of genes in DNA repair pathways.
METHODS: We examined the mRNA expression of C terminus-binding protein-interacting protein and Lin11, Isl-1, and Mec-3 domain only 4 (LMO4) in pretreatment tumor samples from 91 erlotinib-treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations in whom breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) expression and the concomitant presence of the EGFR T790M mutation had previously been assessed. Gene expression was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, using β-actin as endogenous gene. Results were correlated with PFS and overall survival.
RESULTS: In patients with low LMO4 levels, PFS was 13 months, whereas it was not reached for those with high LMO4 levels (p = 0.03). In patients with low levels of both BRCA1 and LMO4, PFS was 19 months whereas it was not reached in those with low BRCA1 and high LMO4 mRNA levels (p = 0.04). In patients with high BRCA1 and low LMO4 levels, PFS was 8 months, whereas it was 18 months in those with high levels of both genes (p = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: Low BRCA1 and high LMO4 levels were associated with longer PFS to erlotinib. Baseline assessment of BRCA1 and LMO4 mRNA expression can help predict outcome to erlotinib.
Stokes PH, Liew CW, Kwan AH, et al.Structural basis of the interaction of the breast cancer oncogene LMO4 with the tumour suppressor CtIP/RBBP8.
J Mol Biol. 2013; 425(7):1101-10 [PubMed
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LIM-only protein 4 (LMO4) is strongly linked to the progression of breast cancer. Although the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood, a role is emerging for LMO4 in regulation of the cell cycle. We determined the solution structure of LMO4 in complex with CtIP (C-terminal binding protein interacting protein)/RBBP8, a tumour suppressor protein that is involved in cell cycle progression, DNA repair and transcriptional regulation. Our data reveal that CtIP and the essential LMO cofactor LDB1 (LIM-domain binding protein 1) bind to the same face on LMO4 and cannot simultaneously bind to LMO4. We hypothesise that overexpression of LMO4 may disrupt some of the normal tumour suppressor activities of CtIP, thereby contributing to breast cancer progression.
Gaymes TJ, Mohamedali AM, Patterson M, et al.Microsatellite instability induced mutations in DNA repair genes CtIP and MRE11 confer hypersensitivity to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors in myeloid malignancies.
Haematologica. 2013; 98(9):1397-406 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inactivation of the DNA mismatch repair pathway manifests as microsatellite instability, an accumulation of mutations that drives carcinogenesis. Here, we determined whether microsatellite instability in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome correlated with chromosomal instability and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor sensitivity through disruption of DNA repair function. Acute myeloid leukemia cell lines (n=12) and primary cell samples (n=18), and bone marrow mononuclear cells from high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients (n=63) were profiled for microsatellite instability using fluorescent fragment polymerase chain reaction. PARP inhibitor sensitivity was performed using cell survival, annexin V staining and cell cycle analysis. Homologous recombination was studied using immunocytochemical analysis. SNP karyotyping was used to study chromosomal instability. RNA silencing, Western blotting and gene expression analysis was used to study the functional consequences of mutations. Acute myeloid leukemia cell lines (4 of 12, 33%) and primary samples (2 of 18, 11%) exhibited microsatellite instability with mono-allelic mutations in CtIP and MRE11. These changes were associated with reduced expression of mismatch repair pathway components, MSH2, MSH6 and MLH1. Both microsatellite instability positive primary acute myeloid leukemia samples and cell lines demonstrated a downregulation of homologous recombination DNA repair conferring marked sensitivity to PARP inhibitors. Similarly, bone marrow mononuclear cells from 11 of 56 (20%) patients with de novo high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome exhibited microsatellite instability. Significantly, all 11 patients with microsatellite instability had cytogenetic abnormalities with 4 of them (36%) possessing a mono-allelic microsatellite mutation in CtIP. Furthermore, 50% reduction in CtIP expression by RNA silencing also down-regulated homologous recombination DNA repair responses conferring PARP inhibitor sensitivity, whilst CtIP differentially regulated the expression of homologous recombination modulating RecQ helicases, WRN and BLM. In conclusion, microsatellite instability dependent mutations in DNA repair genes, CtIP and MRE11 are detected in myeloid malignancies conferring hypersensitivity to PARP inhibitors. Microsatellite instability is significantly correlated with chromosomal instability in myeloid malignancies.
Muñoz MC, Laulier C, Gunn A, et al.RING finger nuclear factor RNF168 is important for defects in homologous recombination caused by loss of the breast cancer susceptibility factor BRCA1.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(48):40618-28 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: RNF168 promotes chromosomal break localization of 53BP1 and BRCA1; 53BP1 loss rescues homologous recombination (HR) in BRCA1-deficient cells.
RESULTS: RNF168 depletion suppresses HR defects caused by BRCA1 silencing; RNF168 influences HR similarly to 53BP1.
CONCLUSION: RNF168 is important for HR defects caused by BRCA1 loss.
SIGNIFICANCE: Although RNF168 promotes BRCA1 and 53BP1 localization to chromosomal breaks, RNF168 affects HR similarly to 53BP1. The RING finger nuclear factor RNF168 is required for recruitment of several DNA damage response factors to double strand breaks (DSBs), including 53BP1 and BRCA1. Because 53BP1 and BRCA1 function antagonistically during the DSB repair pathway homologous recombination (HR), the influence of RNF168 on HR has been unclear. We report that RNF168 depletion causes an elevated frequency of two distinct HR pathways (homology-directed repair and single strand annealing), suppresses defects in HR caused by BRCA1 silencing, but does not suppress HR defects caused by disruption of CtIP, RAD50, BRCA2, or RAD51. Furthermore, RNF168-depleted cells can form ionizing radiation-induced foci of the recombinase RAD51 without forming BRCA1 ionizing radiation-induced foci, indicating that this loss of BRCA1 recruitment to DSBs does not reflect a loss of function during HR. Additionally, we find that RNF168 and 53BP1 have a similar influence on HR. We suggest that RNF168 is important for HR defects caused by BRCA1 loss.
Pommier RM, Gout J, Vincent DF, et al.The human NUPR1/P8 gene is transcriptionally activated by transforming growth factor β via the SMAD signalling pathway.
Biochem J. 2012; 445(2):285-93 [PubMed
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NUPR1 (nuclear protein 1), also called P8 (molecular mass 8 kDa) or COM1 (candidate of metastasis 1), is involved in the stress response and in cancer progression. In the present study, we investigated whether human NUPR1 expression was regulated by TGFβ (transforming growth factor β), a secreted polypeptide largely involved in tumorigenesis. We demonstrate that the expression of NUPR1 was activated by TGFβ at the transcriptional level. We show that this activation is mediated by the SMAD proteins, which are transcription factors specifically involved in the signalling of TGFβ superfamily members. NUPR1 promoter analysis reveals the presence of a functional TGFβ-response element binding the SMAD proteins located in the genomic DNA region corresponding to the 5'-UTR (5'-untranslated region). Altogether, the molecular results of the present study, which demonstrate the existence of a TGFβ/SMAD/NUPR1 activation cascade, open the way to consider and investigate further a new mechanism enabling TGFβ to promote tumorigenesis by inducing stress resistance.
Cortesi L, De Nicolo A, Medici V, et al.Collective evidence supports neutrality of BRCA1 V1687I, a novel sequence variant in the conserved THV motif of the first BRCT repeat.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 134(1):435-41 [PubMed
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Unambiguous classification of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants of uncertain significance (VUS) is a challenging task that vexes health care providers and has profound implications for patients and their family members. Numerous VUS have been described to date, which await assessment of their functional, hence clinical, impact. As a result of a routine BRCA1/BRCA2 mutational screening, we identified a previously unreported BRCA1 sequence alteration [c.5178G>A (V1687I)] in a patient diagnosed with early onset triple negative breast cancer. The sequence alteration falls in the invariant THV motif of the BRCT domain. To investigate its significance, we applied an integrated approach that, in addition to genetic and histopathological data, included in silico analyses, comparative structural modeling and verification of BRCT-mediated interactions. In line with web-based algorithms that predicted the benign nature of BRCA1 V1687I, the three-dimensional model of the BRCA1 V1687I BRCT domain did not reveal any major structural changes relative to its wild-type counterpart, thus suggesting that BRCA1 V1687I has a negligible impact on both the local architecture and the overall stability of the protein. Consistently, the BRCA1 V1687I protein was properly expressed and localized to the nucleus, and it was still capable of binding three BRCT-interacting, DNA damage response, and repair partner proteins, namely BRIP1/FANCJ, CtIP, and Abraxas. Our collected evidence suggests that, although occurring in a highly conserved region, the BRCA1 V1687I variant is likely a benign sequence alteration.
Botrugno OA, Robert T, Vanoli F, et al.Molecular pathways: old drugs define new pathways: non-histone acetylation at the crossroads of the DNA damage response and autophagy.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(9):2436-42 [PubMed
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Histone deacetylases (HDAC) modulate acetylation and the function of histone and non-histone proteins. HDAC inhibitors have been developed to block the aberrant action of HDACs in cancer, and several are in clinical use (vorinostat, romidepsin, and valproic acid). Detailed understanding of their action is lacking, however, and their clinical activity is limited in most cases. Recently, HDACs have been involved in the control of the DNA damage response (DDR) at several levels and in directly regulating the acetylation of a number of DDR proteins (including CtIP and Exo1). Mechanistically, acetylation leads to the degradation of double-strand break repair enzymes through autophagy, providing a novel, direct link between DDR and autophagy. These observations, obtained in yeast cells, should now be translated to mammalian model systems and cancer cells to reveal whether this acetylation link is maintained in mammals, and if and how it is deregulated in cancer. In addition to HDACs, DDR and autophagy have been addressed pharmacologically, suggesting that the acetylation link, if involved in cancer, can be exploited for the design of new anticancer treatments.
Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1) repairs topoisomerase I cleavage complexes (Top1cc) by hydrolyzing their 3'-phosphotyrosyl DNA bonds and repairs bleomycin-induced DNA damage by hydrolyzing 3'-phosphoglycolates. Yeast Tdp1 has also been implicated in the repair of topoisomerase II-DNA cleavage complexes (Top2cc). To determine whether vertebrate Tdp1 is involved in the repair of various DNA end-blocking lesions, we generated Tdp1 knock-out cells in chicken DT40 cells (Tdp1-/-) and Tdp1-complemented DT40 cells with human TDP1. We found that Tdp1-/- cells were not only hypersensitive to camptothecin and bleomycin but also to etoposide, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), H(2)O(2), and ionizing radiation. We also show they were deficient in mitochondrial Tdp1 activity. In biochemical assays, recombinant human TDP1 was found to process 5'-phosphotyrosyl DNA ends when they mimic the 5'-overhangs of Top2cc. Tdp1 also processes 3'-deoxyribose phosphates generated from hydrolysis of abasic sites, which is consistent with the hypersensitivity of Tdp1-/- cells to MMS and H(2)O(2). Because recent studies established that CtIP together with BRCA1 also repairs topoisomerase-mediated DNA damage, we generated dual Tdp1-CtIP-deficient DT40 cells. Our results show that Tdp1 and CtIP act in parallel pathways for the repair of Top1cc and MMS-induced lesions but are epistatic for Top2cc. Together, our findings reveal a broad involvement of Tdp1 in DNA repair and clarify the role of human TDP1 in the repair of Top2-induced DNA damage.
Myc is an oncogenic transcription factor frequently dysregulated in human cancer. To identify pathways supporting the Myc oncogenic program, we used a genome-wide RNA interference screen to search for Myc-synthetic lethal genes and uncovered a role for the SUMO-activating enzyme (SAE1/2). Loss of SAE1/2 enzymatic activity drives synthetic lethality with Myc. Inactivation of SAE2 leads to mitotic catastrophe and cell death upon Myc hyperactivation. Mechanistically, SAE2 inhibition switches a transcriptional subprogram of Myc from activated to repressed. A subset of these SUMOylation-dependent Myc switchers (SMS genes) is required for mitotic spindle function and to support the Myc oncogenic program. SAE2 is required for growth of Myc-dependent tumors in mice, and gene expression analyses of Myc-high human breast cancers suggest that low SAE1 and SAE2 abundance in the tumors correlates with longer metastasis-free survival of the patients. Thus, inhibition of SUMOylation may merit investigation as a possible therapy for Myc-driven human cancers.
Liu Q, Wang MY, He XX, et al.[The effect of hepatitis B virus X protein on the expression of CtIP in HepG2 Cells].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2011; 19(8):577-81 [PubMed
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To investigate the effect of hepatitis B virus X protein(HBx) on CtBP-interacting protein(CtIP) which is an important repair factor of DNA double strand break damage in HepG2 cells induced by bleomycin. A HBx stably expressing HepG2 cell line and a control HepG2 cell line with empty vector transfected were established. After the double strand break (DSB) damage occurred, the mRNA and protein levels of CtIP were detected by Real-time PCR and Western blot assay respectively, cell cycle profiles and apoptotic cell death were determined by a flow cytometry, and the position of CtIP in cells was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. It showed that HepG2 cells transfected with hepatitis B virus X gene could stably express HBx protein. After being induced by bleomycin, the percentage of apoptotic cell was 16.90%+/-0.89% in HBx stably expressing HepG2 cell line and 15.30%+/-0.86% in control cell line, respectively (q = 2.074, P is more than to 0.05). While the percentage of death cell was 8.71%+/-0.74% in HBx stably expressing HepG2 cell line and 4.90%+/-0.46% in control cell line, respectively (q = 7.126, P is less than to 0.01). The two cell lines manifested the increase of G2/M arrest and significant difference existed between the two cell lines. HBx down regulated the expression levels of CtIP and its mRNA. The CtIP level was 0.66+/-0.04 in HepG2-HBx cell and 0.73+/-0.05 in HepG2-vec cell, respectively (t = 2.314, P is less than to 0.05). The relative mRNA level was 1.00+/-0.06 in HepG2-HBx cell and 1.23+/-0.08 in HepG2-vec cell, respectively (t = 2. 732, P is less than to 0.05). We also found that CtIP was concentrated in the cell nucleus. The research suggests that HBx may affect DNA-repair pathways by disrupting the expression of CtIP.
Alkhas A, Hood BL, Oliver K, et al.Standardization of a sample preparation and analytical workflow for proteomics of archival endometrial cancer tissue.
J Proteome Res. 2011; 10(11):5264-71 [PubMed
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The goal of the present study was to establish a standard operating procedure for mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis of laser microdissected (LMD) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) uterine tissue. High resolution bioimage analysis of a large endometrial cancer tissue microarray immunostained for the breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein enabled precise counting of cells to establish that there is an average of 600 cells/nL of endometrial cancer tissue. We sought to characterize the peptide recovery from various volumes of tissue gathered by LMD and processed/digested using the present methodology. We observed a nearly linear increase in peptide recovery amount with increasing tissue volume dissected. There was little discernible difference in the peptide recovery from stromal versus malignant epithelium, and there was no apparent difference in the day-to-day recovery. This methodology reproducibly results in 100 ng of digested peptides per nL of endometrial tissue, or ∼25 pg peptides/endometrial cancer cell. Results from liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS experiments to assess the impact of total peptide load on column on the total number of peptides and proteins identified from FFPE tissue digests prepared with the present methodology indicate a demonstrable increase in the total number of peptides identified up to 1000 ng, beyond which diminishing returns were observed. Furthermore, we observed no impact on the peptide identification rates from analyses of equivalent peptide amounts derived from lower volume LMD samples. These results show that this single-tube collection-to-injection proteomics (CTIP) workflow represents a straightforward, scalable, and highly reliable methodology for sample preparation to enable high throughput LMD-MS analysis of tissues derived from biopsy or surgery.